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Piping Inspectors Handbook

Revision 0 May 2007

Hydrostatic Testing of Buried Pipework CONTENTS


This primarily applies to large bore fresh cooling water SectionTitlePage1.List of Project Specifications22.Storage and Preservation of
supply & return pipework. Piping Materials33.Colour Coding of Pipe Materials44.Colour Coding of Gasket
Materials55.Colour Coding of Bolting Materials56.Cold Bending67.High Frequency
During construction & installation special care is to be Induction Bending88.Piping Fabrication, Erection, Inspection &
taken with the cleanliness of this pipework. Further Testing11Intersecting Weld Seams11Welding Consumables11Welding Procedure
special requirements apply at the pre-commissioning Qualification12Welder Qualification13Welding Control16Post Weld & Post Bending
stage. Heat Treatment189.Positive Material Identification2010.Hardness
Testing2311.Radiography2412.Notes on Other NDT
Gauges for hydrostatic testing shall have a range of Methods2613.Tolerances2814.Bolting of Flanges3015.Threaded
between 1.5 and 2.2 times the test pressure; they shall Joints3216.Hydrostatic Testing (above ground piping)3317.Pneumatic
have been calibrated within the previous 1 month Testing3518.Hydrostatic Testing of Buried Pipework36
period. A pressure / temperature recorder is

Test pressure shall be held for 24 hours. Steps shall be

taken so as to avoid over pressurisation due to
temperature changes.

36 1
For Your Notes

This pocket reference guide has been

designed to provide a quick on-site
reference to the various project
specifications which relate to piping.
This document does not in anyway
replace the project specifications.
Where doubt exists always refer to a
controlled copy of the relevant
specification. This document has been
designed for use by Piping Inspectors
and by Piping Supervisors.


List of Project Specifications Pneumatic Testing

(QCS/50/00/MP/PC/NA/001 & QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/001)
Design Fabrication & Inspection For Cold Bending Pipe
(QCS/50/00/MP/DB/NA/004). During construction (after any PWHT) reinforcing pads
Design Fabrication & Inspection For High Frequency Induction shall be tested pneumatically using a test pressure of
Bending of Pipe (QCS/50/00/MP/DB/NA/003). between 60 & 100 psig. Test openings in reinforcing
Piping Colour Coding For Material Identification pads shall not be plugged after test.
Bolting For Flange Joints (QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/008). Pneumatic testing of piping systems shall be subject to
Technical Specification For Cement Mortar Lined Piping Components Company approval with the following exceptions: (1)
(QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/140). instrument air piping (2) lines to air motor operated
valves. For these two exceptions test pressure shall
Piping Fabrication, Erection, Inspection & Testing
(QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/001). not exceed
100 psig.
Welding Requirement At Site (QCS/50/00/QA/SW/NA/016).
Pressure Containing Equipment Welding & Weld Inspection Where pneumatic testing of other systems is approved
(QCS/50/00/QA/SW/NA/010). by Company the test pressure shall be 1.1 times the
Positive Material Identification (QCS/50/00/QA/SW/NA/012). design pressure.
Control of Nonconforming Product At Site
(QCS/50/00/QA/SW/NA/018). Strict safety rules apply please refer to
Pneumatic Testing Procedure For Piping Systems QCS/50/00/MP/PC/NA/001 for details.
A minimum of 2 pressure gauges shall be used. These
Protection & Preservation Of Equipment & Material At Site
(QCS/50/00/PE/TS/NA/002). gauges shall have been calibrated within the previous
14 day period & shall have a range of between 1.5 &
Hydro Testing Procedure 2.2 times the test pressure.
Procedure for cleaning, testing and inspection of FCW underground Method: (1) raise the pressure to 1.7 barg & hold for a
piping (QCS/50/00/CS/PC/NA/801
minimum of 10 minutes, (2) perform an initial leak test
using Snoop or similar product, (3) the pressure shall
then be raised in steps, holding for 10 minutes at each
(see QCS/50/00/MP/PC/NA/001 for details), (4) once the
maximum test pressure is reached hold for 10 minutes
then reduce to the design pressure, (5) perform leak
test using snoop or similar product.

2 35
Test blinds shall be in accordance with sheet 41A of Storage & Preservation Of Piping Materials
drawing number QCS/50/00/MP/DR/TD/003. (QCS/50/00/PE/TS/NA/002)
Pressure gauges and chart recorders shall have been
Flange faces and threaded fittings must be protected at all
calibrated within the previous 30 period.
times by use of a suitable corrosion preventative oil.
Pressure gauges shall have a range of between 1.5 Flange faces shall further be protected by means of a
times and 4 times the test pressure. suitable flange face cover to prevent mechanical damage.
Flange faces must be inspected for corrosion & damage at
In general a minimum of 2 gauges shall be used. One
intervals not exceeding 3 months.
gauge shall be positioned at the high point and one at
Where uncoated stainless steel pipe spools stored for an
the low point of the system.
extended period they should be inspected periodically for
NOTE: EXCEPT AS SPECIFICALLY AGREED CHART pitting corrosion. Where uncoated carbon & low alloy steel
RECORDERS SHALL NOT BE USED pipe spools stored for an extended period they should be
inspected periodically for severe general or localised
The system shall be pressurised via a test manifold
incorporating a relief valve set at 110% of test
All pipe spools shall be stored on wooden skids to prevent
soil contamination. This is particularly important in the
The ambient temperature of the pipework under test case of uncoated stainless steel spools.
and the test pressure shall be recorded at 5 minute The open ends of all pipe spools shall be suitably sealed
intervals throughout the duration of the test. during storage using suitable end covers. Where such
covers are found to be missing or damaged the affected
Prior to testing all pipework shall be thoroughly
spool shall be inspected & cleaned internally.
cleaned internally, by flushing, internal brushing or air
Spools should be stored in such a way that any water or
blowing as appropriate.
other liquid entering will quickly drain away.
Method: (1) raise pressure to 1 barg, hold for 10 Valve stems shall be coated with a suitable grease. Valves
minutes & check for leaks at flange joints, (2) raise stored in outdoor conditions shall be inspected at intervals
pressure at a controlled rate not exceeding 5 barg per not exceeding 3 months.
minute until the test pressure is achieved (on the high
point gauge), (3) wait for the test pressure to stabilise,
(4) once the pressure is stable the test starts, (5) the
minimum holding time shall be 30 minutes (longer
than this depending how long it takes to inspect all
welds for leaks), (6) if leaks are detected the system
must be depressurised, the leak fixed & the full test

34 3

Threaded Joints Colour Coding Of Gasket Materials

(QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/001 & ASME B31.3) (QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/003)
TypeColourDescriptionSpiral WoundYellow316 Hoop
At least 1.5 threads should still be visible when a taper GRH / OR = CSBlue316 Hoop GRH / IOR = CSGreen316 Hoop
threaded joint has been fully tightened. GRH / IR = 316, OR = CSPurple316 Hoop GRH / OR =
316Orange316 Hoop GRH / IOR = 316Pink316 Hoop PTFE / IR =
Seal welding of threaded joints is subject to Company 316, OR = CSWhite316 Hoop GRH / Mica Fill / OR = 316, High Temp
approval. If welding is permitted then the use of a ServiceBlack316 Hoop GRH / Mica Fill / IOR = 316, High Temp ServiceOxide
thread lubricant is prohibited. RedIncoloy 825 Hoop / IR = Incoloy 825, OR = CSYellow GrayInconel 625
Hoop / IOR = Inconel 625Ring JointSky Blue316 Stainless
Where no seal welding is to take place a lubricant SteelNoneSoft IronResinRedGlass Reinforced PTFENonePTFE
should be used. Recommended lubricants are listed in Soft DeformableNote: This table is a simplified version of
the table below: QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/003 Table 3
Colour Coding Of Bolting Materials
Threaded Joints - Recommended Lubricant By (QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/003)
ServiceServiceRecommended LubricantService air,
water, steam & hydrocarbon lines with design ColourMaterialColourMaterialNoneA193-B7 / A194-
temperature up to 205CTeflon tape, Bostik Never-Seez 2HGreenA320-B8M CL2 /
A194-8MA / A194-8M /
with Teflon, Jet Lube TFW with ReflexHydrocarbon and
A193-B8M2 CL2 YellowA193-B7M / A194-2HMBlackA193-B16 / A194-4RedSA193-
steam lines with design temperature above
B7 / SA194-2HOrangeSA193-B16 / SA194-4WhiteA320-L7 / A194-4PurpleA320-
205CGrafoil GTS paste, Bostik Never-Seez (regular),
L7M / A194-7M
GTF thread sealant tape.Instrument air, lube oil, seal oil
& control oil pipingTeflon paste: Bostik Never-Seez with
Teflon, Jet Lube TFW with TeflonOxygenTeflon tape
(flammable materials not permitted)

32 5
Colour Coding Of Pipe Materials Hydrostatic Testing (above ground piping)
(QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/003) (QCS/50/00/QA/PC/NA/754 & QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/001)
SPECIFICATIONSNoneCarbon SteelA106 Grade B, A105, Pressure testing shall be generally in accordance with
A234 WPB, A216 WPBYellowNACE Carbon SteelA106 Grade the requirements of ASME B31.3.
B, A105, A234 WPB, A216 WPBWhiteLow Temperature
Carbon SteelA333 Grade 6, A350 LF2, A420 WPL6, A352 Vents & open drains with a design pressure of 15 psig
LCCPurpleNACE or less are exempted from hydrostatic testing.
Low Temperature Carbon SteelA333 Grade 6, A350 LF2,
A420 WPL6, A352 LCCPink304L Stainless SteelA312 Relief or blowdown systems shall be tested in
TP304L, A358 304L, A182 F304L, A403 WP304L, A240 accordance with ASME B31.3. Relief valves & rupture
TP304LBrown304L Stainless Steel (valves only)A182 F304L, disks must be removed for testing. In no case shall the
A351 CF8MSky Blue316L Stainless SteelA312 TP316L, A358 test pressure be less than
316L, A182 F316L, A403 WP316LGreen1 Cr Mo Low 15 psig.
Alloy SteelA335 P11, A182 F11, A234 WP11Light
GreenNickel AlloysB622 N10276, The chloride content of water used for austenitic
B574 N08825Oxide RedIncoloyB705 N08825, stainless steel systems shall not exceed 50 ppm. After
B564 N08825Yellow GreyInconelB705 N06625, testing such systems shall be drained immediately
B564 N06625Note: This table is a simplified version of followed by air blowing to remove any remaining water.
QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/003 Table 2
Exemption from hydrostatic testing owing to reasons of
impracticality shall be subject to specific approval by
the Company.

Before any hydrostatic testing takes place the test pack

must have been approved by all parties.

Items which should not be included in a hydrostatic

test include: pressure safety valves, rupture disks,
flame arrestors, steam traps, all equipment (pressure
vessels, pumps etc), filters, instruments such as
pressure gauges and some types of valve (e.g. control
valves, soft seated ball valves).

With the exception of socket welds, seal welds & single

pass fillets all welds may be painted prior to
hydrostatic testing.
4 33

Cold Bending Gaskets shall be handled with care and shall be

(QCS/50/00/MP/DB/NA/004) centred without the use of grease gasket compound or
adhesive tape.
Cold bending is permitted for small bore (NPS to
NPS1) pipes: Prior to fitting bolts are to be inspected for signs of
corrosion, mechanical damage or dirt. Damaged or
A106 Grade B (but not aluminised or galvanised) corroded bolts shall be discarded. Dirty bolts shall be
wall thickness SCH80 up to XXS cleaned prior to the application of thread lubricant.

A312 TP304L (or TP 316L) SCH 40S Thread lubricants must not contain lead. Thread
lubricants for use on stainless steel piping systems
Cold bending may be applicable if the line class is shall not contain chlorides, zinc, sulphur or low
1A1A, 1W3AX, 1W3AY, 1P1A, 1P1AR, 1S1A, 3P1A, melting point alloy constituents.
3S1A, 3S1AU, 1C0JL, 1Y0JL, 1C0KL, 3C0JL, 3C0KL,
6C0JL, 6C0KL or 9C0JL. Acceptable lubricants for various design temperatures
are listed in the table below:
Unless a larger bending radius is specified the bending
radius shall be 5 times the outside diameter of the Thread LubricantsLubricantBolting MaterialDesign
pipe. The maximum bending angle shall be 90. TemperatureGraphite and oilCarbon or low alloy steel-46C to
Compound bends shall be separated by a minimum 400CMolybdenum disulphide and graphite base Carbon or low alloy steel-
straight run of 150mm. At the end of the bent pipe the 46C to 400CCopper and graphite baseCarbon or low alloy steel-46C to
minimum length of straight run is 300mm. The 540CCopper baseStainless steel-196C to 870CNickel baseStainless
maximum allowable thinning ratio is 10%. The steel-196C to 870C
maximum allowable flattening ratio is 8% for internally
Torqued / tensioned flanges are to be marked by the
pressurised pipe & 3% for externally pressurised pipe.
attachment of a metal tag following torquing. This tag
shall be removed if the flange leaks during hydrostatic
Flattening ratio is defined as:
testing & the joint shall be re-torqued or re-tensioned
as appropriate.

Crews involved in torquing or tensioning shall be

Where: D1 = the maximum OD, D2 = the minimum OD
properly trained & shall be approved (practical
& D = the nominal OD demonstration required) by CTJV.

The minimum wall thickness shall equal or exceed the

required wall thickness (TR) but in no case shall it be
less than 79% of the nominal wall thickness.
6 31
Bolting of Flanges The required wall thickness (TR) is defined as:
(QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/001 & 008)
TR = TC + CA or TR = TRT + CA which ever is the greater
Prior to final tightening all flanged joints must be
brought up flush such that the entire flange face bears
TC = calculated thickness
gently on the gasket.
(per ASME B31.3 paragraphs 304.1.2 & 304.2.1)
In all cases bolts shall be tightened in a progressive CA = corrosion allowance
manner. TRT = retirement thickness
(per QCS/50/00/MP/DB/NA/001 paragraph 4.2.4)
Bolt torquing using properly calibrated (i.e.: calibrated
daily) torque wrenches is required as detailed in the After bending the hardness of carbon steel bends shall
table below: be checked. The maximum hardness is 225HB or
200HB for NACE / sour service.
Bolt torquing requirements for spiral wound /
expanded graphite / PTFE deformable gasketsService Cold bending is not allowed if the design temperature
/ ClassBolt Size (inches)Low temperature service1 to is below -29C.
1 Cryogenic service1 to 1*900 class piping1 to 1
Severe cyclic service1 to 1HHP Steam service1**All Prior to commencement of production bending trial
other services & classes1 to 1Notes: *except for NPS bending shall take place per paragraph 6 of
18-24 for 150 class piping; QCS/50/00/MP/DB/NA/004.
**line size NPS 4 & 6
Required tightening torque can be found in attachment A small amount of mechanical damage to the
2 of QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/008 completed bend is permitted provided that the
For hand tightened & torqued stud bolts the bolt shall minimum wall thickness remains within tolerance.
extend complete through the nut with a maximum of With this proviso mechanical damage up to 0.2mm
three threads showing at each end. The amount of deep is acceptable as is; mechanical damage up to
thread showing shall be equal at each end of the bolt. 0.8mm deep may be blended by grinding. Mechanical
damage more than 0.8mm deep is not permitted & the
For larger bolt sizes bolt tensioning is required. The affected item shall be rejected. Repair by welding is
required bolt tensioning force can be found in not permitted.
attachment 4 of QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/008.

30 7

Tolerances In all cases the maximum bending angle is 90. The

(QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/001 & PFI ES-3) minimum bending radius is generally 3 times the
outside diameter (DO); but for A106 Grade B the
minimum bending radius is 2 times DO for NPS2 & 1.5
times the nominal pipe diameter (DN) for NPS3 to
NPS12. In specific cases other minimum bending radii
may apply.

The thinning ratio which shall not exceed 12.5% is

defined as:

(TM/T0) x100

Where TM = the minimum thickness after bending

and T0 = the original thickness before bending.

However, in no case shall TM be less than 79% of the

nominal wall thickness or the required wall thickness
(TR) whichever is greater.

TR = TC + CA or TR = TRT + CA which ever is the greater

TC = calculated thickness
(per ASME B31.3 paragraphs 304.1.2 & 304.2.1)
CA = corrosion allowance
TRT = retirement thickness
(per QCS/50/00/MP/DB/NA/001 paragraph 4.2.4)

After HF induction bending the hardness of ferritic

steel pipes shall be checked. Hardness testing
requirements are 100% for carbon steel & low
temperature carbon steel intended for sour service
(NACE) & 100% for heat treated bends. For other
services the requirements are 100% for the first 5
28 bends of each size & wall9 thickness and 10%
thereafter. Hardness requirements are given in the
post bending heat treatment section below.
High Frequency Induction Bending In the figure above the tolerance on dimension A is
(QCS/50/00/MP/DB/NA/003) as tabulated below:

High frequency induction bending is applicable to the Tolerance on dimension APipe DiameterTolerance (mm)10 &
materials and line classes list in the table below. In under312 to 245over 24 to 36648860107212
general high frequency induction bending is applicable In certain cases tighter tolerances apply:
to pipes in the nominal diameter range 2 to 12 but
the specific applicable diameter range varies For steam turbines and compressors other than those
dependent on line class. of the reciprocating type the tolerances applying to
flange alignment are 0.4 mm for vertical / horizontal
Materials & Line Classes For HF Induction BendingMaterialWall bolt offset, rotational offset, flange face parallelism
ThicknessNPSLine ClassesA106 and flange face separation
Grade BStandard
to Equipment nozzle and mating flange alignment
XXS2 121A1A, 1P1A, 1S1A, 3S1A4, 1C3AS, 1C3ASR, 1C4AS, 1C6AS, 1P3A, 1W3AX,
1W3AY, 3C3AS, 3C4AS, 3C6AS, 3P1A, 3P3A, 3S1A, 3S1AU, 6C3AS, 6C4AS, 6C6AS, 6P1A, tolerances for centrifugal pumps, reciprocating
6P3A, 6S1A, 6S1AU, 9C3AS, 9C4AS, 9S1A, 9S1AUA333 compressors and other rotating machinery are as
Grade 6SCH30 tabulated below.
SCH1602 121R1B, 1R11BR, 1R3BS, 1R3BSR, 3R1B1, 3R1B3, 3R3BS, 6R1B, 6R3BS, Alignment CategoryMax. Permissible Misalignment
9R3BSA335 P11XS (mm)NPS 1214NPS22NPS 24Vertical bolt hole offset31.50.4Horizontal
SCH1602 121P3Y, 9S1Y, 9S1YUA312 TP304LSch20S
bolt hole offset31.50.4Rotational Offset31.50.4Flange face parallelism
To (across diameter) face separation
SCH80S2 61C0JL, 1Y0JL, 1C1JL, 1R0JL, 1R0JLR, 1R0JL5, 3C0JL, 3C1JL, 3R0JL, (+ space required for gasket)31.50.4
3R0JLT, 6COJL, 6C0JL6, 6R0JL, 9C0JLA358 304LSch20S
SCH80S8 10A312 TP316LSch20S
SCH80S2 61C0KL, 1Y0KL, 1C1KL, 3C0KL, 6C0KL A358 316LSch20S
SCH80S8 10

8 29

Both surface inspection methods are heavily

Post bending heat treatment is required: dependent on lighting conditions. A minimum of 1000
lux of white light is required. By far the best source of
when the hardness of carbon steel bends intended for H2S light is the sun; subdued daylight is best. Working at
sour service (NACE) exceeds 200 HB. night should be avoided if possible.
for all carbon steel bends intended for amine or caustic
service. (the maximum hardness after heat treatment shall Volume Inspection Methods
be 200 HB).
for all other carbon steel bends when the hardness after Radiography (RT) provides good sensitivity for
bending exceeds 225 HB. volumetric defects such as slag or porosity. RT has
for all low alloy steel bends (the maximum hardness after poor sensitivity for planar defects such as cracks or
heat treatment shall be 225 HB). lack of fusion. It is a good method for proving good
workmanship, but a poor one for proving fitness for
The requirements for post bending heat treatment are purpose.
otherwise identical to those for post weld heat
Inspectors should be aware of the dangers of x-ray
treatment for which see below.
and gamma ray radiation & should stay well away
from areas where radiography is taking place,
Flattening ratio requirements are as for cold bent pipe,
respecting all warning signs & barriers.
for which see above. Other dimensional requirements
and tolerances apply, for these please refer to the Where a weld is being checked for fitness for purpose,
project specification referenced at the head of this rather than good workmanship ultrasonic testing (UT)
section. is the best method owing to its high sensitivity for
planar imperfections. UT is also an excellent method
for providing back-up inspection where there is doubt
concerning a radiographic image. Where RT becomes
difficult owing to safety concerns UT will often be a
good substitute. UT, however, has its limitations. It
should not generally be used if the parent material is
less than 10mm thick, since on thin material weld cap
geometry causes access restrictions. The root
condition of single sided girth welds in pipe is often
difficult to assess by UT. Even a small amount of
internal mismatch will give rise to UT indications which
are difficult to interpret.
The UT & RT methods are complementary; a weld
acceptable to the UT method will often be rejected by
the RT method and vice versa.
10 27
Notes On Other NDT Methods Piping Fabrication, Erection, Inspection & Testing
Surface Inspection
Intersecting Weld Seams
Of the two surface inspection methods in use on this
project the magnetic particle method (MT) is by far the
Longitudinal seams of welded pipe shall be staggered, by a
most sensitive provided that the material is
minimum of 25mm.
ferromagnetic. Penetrant testing (PT) requires a very
Longitudinal seams of welded pipe shall be rotated so as to
high degree of surface cleanliness if it is to be fully
avoid intersection with branch connections except that the
effective. MT can produce good results on surfaces
intersection of the longitudinal seam with reinforcing pad
which might have a thin layer of paint or which may be
attachment welds is permitted.
slightly rusty, it is much less adversely affected by poor
Similarly, although it should be avoided where possible
surface cleanliness than is PT. MT is overall a much
intersection of longitudinal seams with attachment welds is
quicker method & it is much more temperature tolerant
than PT. For these reasons MT should be used in
preference to PT whenever the material is
Welding Consumables
Wet MT using paraffin based magnetic ink can tolerate Low Temperature Carbon Steel (LTCS)
surface temperatures of up to 60C or so. In summer
conditions, however, it is always best to perform wet Welding consumables for LTCS shall be pre-qualified by
MT in the early morning when the surface temperature the consumable supplier. For each heat number
is not overly high. charpy impact testing shall be performed on an as-
welded all weld metal sample at -46C. The minimum
Dry powder MT can be used without contrast lacquer
average for 3 samples shall be 27J with no single
on hot surfaces up to 316C. Dry powder must NEVER
sample recording a value of less than 20J.
be used in conjunction with a permanent magnet.
AC yokes are far superior in terms of sensitivity to Carbon Steel in Sour Service (NACE)
surface breaking defects. Permanent magnets should
only be used when there are valid reasons why a yoke The nickel content of the deposited weld metal shall
cannot be used. Under the ASME code their use is not not exceed 1% for carbon steel in sour service (NACE).
recommended on parent material which is thicker than
Penetrant testing should not be performed if the
surface temperature exceeds 50C. In summer
conditions PT should always be performed in the early
morning. If penetrant dries out during the dwell time
the test must be repeated starting with thorough
26 11
surface cleaning.

Radiography Where the welding process is SAW the brand name

(QCS/50/00/MP/TS/NA/001) and grade of flux becomes an essential variable
The use of gas shielded FCAW is subject to Company
Acceptance Criteria
approval. Self-shielded FCAW is not permitted.
The table below represents an interpretation of ASME All new welding procedure qualification tests shall be
B31.3Table 341.3.2 subject to witness by the Company.
A Hardness survey shall form a part of all welding
DefectRemarksCracksNot permittedLack of Fusion (LOF)Not permitted
procedure qualification records. Where the base
(note that aligned porosity generally indicates lack of fusion)Incomplete
Penetration material is ASME P1 the maximum hardness (Vickers
(ICP)Permitted if the film density measured through defect is less than that of HV10) shall be 238 for the weld, heat affected zone &
adjacent parent material & the length is 38mm or less in any 150mm of weld. base material.
In practice, however, ICP will generally rejected owing to associated
LOF. PorosityAcceptance criteria for porosity are contained in ASME VIII division When producing a welding procedure qualification
1 Appendix 4. Note that for weld thickness above 6mm the permitted level of record or a welding procedure specification the brand
porosity is 1.5 times that permitted by the referenced document. The porosity
charts given by the referenced document are for guidance only; they must be name of the welding consumable used or to be used
used in conjunction with the document text.Slag Inclusion, Linear Indication (not must be specified.
LOF) or Tungsten InclusionPermitted if all of the following criteria are satisfied:
(a) the length of an individual inclusion is 2TW (b) the width is 3mm and Welder Qualification
TW/3 (c) the accumulated length is less than 4 TW in any 12 TW weld
length.Undercut*Permitted without limit on length provided that the depth is All piping welders engaged at the construction site
1mm or less. In general undercut judged to be very sharp should be shall be qualified by visual inspection and radiography
rejected.Surface porosity or exposed slag inclusionNot PermittedRoot on a test coupon.
ConcavityPermitted if the film density measured through defect is less than that
of adjacent parent material.Excessive Reinforcement or excessive The ASME P Number is an essential variable for
penetrationPermitted if the height is 3mm and TW/2. In practice should be welder qualification.
judged not acceptable if a sharp change of section is involved.TW is the effective
weld thickness
The surface of the welders test coupon shall be left in
*internal undercut is not permitted for double welded joints
the as-welded condition. Grinding of the surface to
remove undercut etc is not permitted.
Welder qualification tests shall be witnessed by
Each welder shall be awarded a unique identification
number & identification card. Each welder shall carry
his identification card at all times.

24 13
Austenitic Stainless Steel (Cryogenic Service) Radiographic Sensitivity

A test by the supplier for each lot of consumables is Source side IQIs are preferred. Where IQIs are placed
required as follows: film side they must be identified with the lead letters
The ferrite content of the deposited weld metal shall be in
the range 2-5% (ferrite number 2-5) for SMAW electrodes & ASME V Article 2 requirements apply.
3-10% (ferrite number 3-11) for GTAW filler wire.
For SMAW electrodes charpy impact testing shall be The table below gives wire diameters for ASTM type
performed at -196C. The minimum lateral expansion value IQIs:
shall be 0.38mm. This requirement does not apply to GTAW
filler wire. ASTM E747 Wire Type IQIs
wire diameter (mm) Set
Welding Procedure Qualification A0.
B0.250.330.40.50.630.81Set C0.811.
All welding procedure specifications shall be reviewed The table below gives essential wire diameter for
and approved by the Company. Work start is not single wall thickness up to 64mm:
permitted if the WPS is not approved.
ASME V Article 2 Sensitivity RequirementsThickness
When impact testing or hardness testing is required Range (mm)Source Side IQIFilm Side IQI 60.20.16< 6
(e.g. the process is wet H2S, amine, caustic etc) the 90.250.2< 9 130.330.25< 13 190.40.33< 19
brand name of the welding consumable becomes an 250.50.4< 25 380.630.5< 38 510.810.63< 51
essential variable. The WPQR must be performed 641.00.81Thickness is the nominal single wall thickness
using welding consumables which are identical in plus reinforcement in all cases.
terms of trade name with those to be used at the
construction site

For austenitic stainless steel, if the design

temperature is below -100C the WPQR must include
Charpy impact testing at -196C. The minimum
requirement for this test is 0.38mm lateral expansion

Where automatic welding processes are used welding

position becomes an essential variable.

12 25

Maintenance of Welder Qualifications Hardness Testing

The performance of production welders shall be
monitored by radiography. In principle the percentage Hardness testing is a requirement for ASME P1, P3, P4,
of butt welds tested by radiography for each welder P5 & P6 materials following PWHT.
shall not be less than 5% (excluding penalty shots). If
for any period of 6 consecutive months a welder has One test location for each 300mm weld length is
no recorded production welds tested by radiography required.
his qualification shall be automatically revoked.
At each test location 3 measurements are required: 1
Initial Evaluation on the weld cap & 1 on the heat affected zone both
sides of the weld.
The first three actual production butt welds welded by
each newly qualified welder shall be examined by For carbon steel (typically A106 Grade B) and low
radiography. All three welds must be acceptable to temperature carbon steel piping (typically A333 Grade
specification. If this is not the case then the affected 6) in sour service (NACE) the maximum hardness
welder shall not be permitted to continue with further permitted is 200 HB.
production welding except as detailed below.
The line specifications included within NACE scope are:
If only one out of the first three production welds is 1C3AS, 1C3ASR, 1C3ASV, 1C4AS, 1C6AS, 1R3BS,
defective the welder shall be required to weld two 1R3BSR, 1T6ASJ, 3C3AS, 3C4AS, 6C4AS, 6C6AS, 6R3BS,
further joints, both of which shall be radiographed. If 9C3AP, 9C3AQ, 9C3AS, 9C4AS & 9R3BS.
either of these two joints fails to meet the
specification the affected welder shall have his In all other cases a maximum hardness of 225 HB is
qualification revoked. specified.

Periodic Evaluation (method-1)

The welders performance shall be monitored by

radiography. His repair rate calculated on a per film
basis shall not exceed 10 %.

14 23
Acceptable limits for PMI analysis are given in the Periodic Evaluation (method-2):
table below:
This method works on a 3 strikes & youre out basis.
MaxELEMENTS (%)CrNiFeMoTiVCoCuMn 0304L Parent MaterialMin16.27.2xShould be The welders performance shall be monitored by
effectively zeroxx0Max2214.3xxx2.2308L random radiography. Where a weld is found not to
Weld Metal meet the specification 2 further similar welds welded
SMAWMin15.87.9x0.66xxx0.660.44Max23.612.4x0.85xxx0.852.8308L by the same welder shall be tested by radiography. If
Weld Metal both of these joints are acceptable the welders
GTAWMin17.17.9x0.66xxx0.660.88Max24.812.4x0.85xxx0.852.8316L Parent
performance shall be deemed acceptable; if either or
both of these joints is / are rejected further penalty
Weld Metal
shots shall be taken on a 2 for 1 basis. If any of these
Weld Metal joints fails to meet the required standard the welders
GTAWMin15.89.6x1.8xxx0.660.88Max22.515.8x3.4xxx0.852.8Incoloy qualification shall be revoked; if all of these joints are
B423 N08825Min17.634.* B622 acceptable the welders performance shall be deemed
N10276Min13.1x3.613.5x00x0Max18.2x7.718.7x0.392.8x1.11 Cr acceptable.
A335 P11Min0.9xx0.40xxxx0.27Max1.65xx0.72xxxx0.66
Note that in a case where the welders qualification is
*Note: For Hasteloy Tungsten (W) shall be 2.7% min, 5.0% revoked radiographic examination shall be performed
max. on all joints welded by that welder in the previous two
week period.

22 15

Positive Material Identification Down-hand welding is not permitted.

Adjacent welds shall be separated by a minimum
The intent of PMI is to identify the nominal composition distance of three times the pipe wall thickness. Where
of alloy materials. It is not the intent of PMI to there is a thickness change the thicker of the two
establish conformance of a material to a given thicknesses shall apply in this calculation.
specification. PMI is not to be taken as a substitute
for a mill test report. Socket welds shall not be bottomed out; prior to
welding a gap of between 1.5 and 3mm shall exist
Alloy steel is defined as steel containing measurable between the end of the pipe and the internal shoulder
quantities of alloying elements other than carbon, of the fitting.
manganese, silicon, niobium and vanadium. e.g.: a
steel containing 0.5% Cr is an alloy steel, a steel Where tack welds are incorporated into a completed
containing 1.1% Mn would in general not be classed as weld (i.e. not removed during welding) they must be
an alloy steel. made in accordance with the specified approved WPS.

The following services are identified as critical: All tack welds, including bridge tacks shall be made by
qualified pipe welders.
Wet H2S (per NACE MR0175)
Hydrofluoric acid Bridge tacking outside the weld groove is not
Amine / ammonia permitted other than as specifically approved by the
Caustic Company. Material used for bridge tacks either inside
Hydrogen partial pressure over 100 psi or outside the groove shall have the same basic
Sulphuric acid chemical composition as the parent material.
Cryogenic service below -46C (except liquid nitrogen)
Welded type valves shall be positioned half open
Where PMI is required for shop and field welds in during welding and PWHT.
general the test shall include one sampling of the weld
cap & one sampling of the parent material each side Remote control of welding current is mandatory for
of the weld. field welding.

For piping systems only pressure containing welds are GTAW welding equipment shall be provided with a high
included within the scope of PMI. frequency start facility so as to reduce the occurrence
of tungsten inclusions.

20 17
Welding Control
The extent of PMI is a minimum of 10% for all alloy
Joint preparation, welding technique, root spacing and steel piping systems and 100% for those systems
alignment shall be in accordance with the approved identified as being in the critical service category (see
WPS. above). The table below specifies the extent of PMI for
various line classes.
Welding parameters such as travel speed and welding
current shall be in accordance with the approved WPS.
Preheating and maximum interpass temperature shall
be in accordance with the WPS, but, for austenitic
stainless steel, in no case shall the interpass MaterialLine ClassesPMI
temperature exceed 175C, similarly for carbon steel Extent304L1C0JL, 1C1JL, 1R0JL, 1R0JLR, 1R0JL5, 3C0JL,
and low alloy steel in no case shall it exceed 300C. 3C1JL, 3R0JL, 3R0JLT, 6C0JL, 6R0JL, 9C0JL100%1Y0JLNot
Reqd*316L1C0KL, 1C1KL, 3C0KL, 6C0KL100%1Y0KL, 3Y0KL,
For all full penetration welds, including branch welds
6Y0KL, 9Y0KL, XY0KLNot Reqd*Incoloy B423
the root pass shall be accomplished using GTAW. For
N088251C0N100%Hasteloy B622 N102761J0M100%1 Cr
small diameter pipe (2" and below) girth butt welds
A335 P111P3Y, 3S1Y, 9S1Y, 9S1YU10%316L Clad C.
and for all welds in Copper-Nickel (Cu-Ni) pipe only the
Steel6R0CM, 9C0CK, 9R0CM100%
GTAW process is permitted.
(on cladding)
The use of an inert gas back purge is required when *PMI is not required for lube oil, seal oil, seal gas, air
the GTAW process is used for girth butt or branch or water service
welds and the base material is stainless steel, copper-
nickel alloy, aluminium alloy or alloy steel (except as
described below).
An inert gas back purge is not required if the base
material is carbon steel or low alloy steel with a
chromium content not exceeding 1% by weight.
For socket welded pipe, carbon steel (1" NPS &
smaller) and stainless steel / non-ferrous alloys (all
pipe sizes) GTAW shall be used with a minimum of two
Where preheat is required only specifically designed
heating torches, gas rings or electric heaters shall be
used. Oxyacetylene welding and cutting torches shall
not be used.

16 21

Strict segregation of power tools (grinding machines

etc) and hand tools (wire brushes etc) shall be applied. The rate of heating or cooling above 400C shall not
Tools used for carbon steel shall not be used for be more than (5000/t)C per hour where t is the parent
stainless steel. Tools used for stainless steel shall not material or weld throat thickness (as detailed below)
be used for other alloys such as hastalloy or copper- or 200C per hour whichever is least*.
nickel. Similarly tools used for copper nickel or
hastalloy shall not be used for stainless steel. For butt welds t is the thickness in millimetres of the
thicker of the 2 components joined. For branch welds
Care shall be taken to ensure that galvanised t is the maximum weld throat thickness or the
materials, including scaffold tubes etc, do not come thickness of the main pipe whichever is greater. For
into contact with stainless steels. attachment welds t is the thickness of the pipe.
Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) For ASME P1 material the holding time is 1 hour or
[also post bending heat treatment] (t/25) hours whichever is greater (t as defined
above). Where materials other than those listed in the
When post bending heat treatment is required the abbreviated table below are subject to PWHT please
heating rate / cooling rate, holding time and consult ASME B31.3 table 331.1.1 and table 4 of
temperature shall be as detailed for PWHT below. QCS/50/00/QA/SW/NA/010.
PWHT shall be performed as required by ASME B31.3 *Note: For ASME P11 material the cooling rate to
table 331.1.1 except as stated in (a), (b) & (c) below: 316C
shall exceed 167C per hour.
PWHT is mandatory for all welds in ASME P3, P4, P5, P10A
and P11 materials regardless of thickness or tensile
P-numberMaterialNotesThickness Range (mm)SoakingTemp.
For ASME P1 (other than as detailed below), P3, P4, P5 and
(C)Time (min/mm)Minimum Time (hr)P1Carbon SteelNot
P6 materials PWHT is required if the hardness of the weld
NACE19N/AN/AN/A>19610-6652.41P1C. SteelNACEall610-6652.41P41 Cr Steelall705-7452.42P9Ni
metal exceeds 225 HB.
Steelall595-6352.41P115-9Ni SteelSee note aboveall550-5852.41
PWHT is required for carbon steel piping in sour service (we
H2S / NACE), ammonia service, amine service and (in some
cases) caustic service. This PWHT requirement applies to
all welds not just those which are pressure retaining.

18 19