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Announcements:

1 Take your 1st quiz back


1.
2. 2nd Quiz will be on Friday
3. This
h week k H
HW will
ll b
be due
d
on coming Wed. instead of
Mon.
Mon
Power
The rate at which work is done by a force is power.
power
Average power is work W done in time t
W
Pave =
t
The instantaneous rate of doing work (instantaneous power)

dW
P=
dt
Units: Watt [W]
1 W = 1J/s
1 horsepower = 1 hp = 746 W
1 kW-hour
kW h = 3.6
3 6 MJ

Power from the time-independent


time independent force and velocity:

P= =
(
dW d F x
=F
)
d ( x)
= F v Instantaneous power !
d
dt dt
d dt
d
Crate of Cheese
VERY S
V SIMILAR
TO HW # 6

An initially stationary crate of cheese (mass m) is pulled via a cable a


distance d up a frictionless ramp of angle where it stops.
(a) How much work WN is done on the crate by the Normal during the
lift?
(b) How much work Wg is done on the crate by the gravitational force
during the lift?
(c) How much work WT is done on the crate by the Tension during the
lift?
((d)) If the speed
p of the moving
g crate were increased,, how would the above
answers change? What about the power?
Chapter 7: What happens to the KE of when work is done on it.
[ KE: energy of motion W: energy transfer via force ]
Chapter 8: Potential energy ??

Conservative vs non
non-
-conservative forces
Can you get back what you put in? Win = -Wout
What happens when you reverse time?
Net work done by a conservative force on a object moving around every
closed path is zero.
b
Wab = F (x) dx
a

Wab,1 = Wab,2 & Wab,1 = Wba,2

Conservative forces Non-conservative forces


- gravitational
it ti l force
f - kinetic frictional force
- spring force (noise, heat,)
Potential energy: Energy U which describes the configuration (or spatial arrangement)
of a system of objects that exert conservative forces on each other. Its the stored
energy in system.

U = W You can always


zero (reference value)
the

Gravitational Potential energy: [~associated with the state of separation]


yf

U grav = (mg)dy = mg(y f yi ) = mgy


yi
Uggrav if going up
( = 0) 0
If U grav (y th
then ( ) = mgy
U grav (y)
Ugrav if going down
Elastic Potential energy: [~associated with the state of compression/tension
of elastic object]
U spring = 2 kx f 2 kx i
1 2 1 2

If ( = 0) 0
U spring (x then ( ) = 12 kx
U spring (x) k 2
Uspring if x goes
or (any displacement)
Dont forget
Work done by force (general): W = F ( x ) dx = F d

Work by Gravitational force: Wg = Fg d

Work by Spring force: Wspring = 12 kx


k i2 12 kx
k 2f

Work-Kinetic Energy theorem: Wnet = KE = KE f KEi

Potential energy (if conservative force): W = U


U
U grav = mgy If U grav (y = 0) 0 then U grav (y) = mgy

U spring
i = 1
2
kx 2
f 1
2
kx 2
i If U spring (x = 0) 0 then U spring (x) = 12 kx 2
Mechanical energy:
E mech = KE + U
Only conservative forces (gravity & spring) cause energy transfer (work)
Wnet = KE Sec. 7- 3
W = U Sec. 8-1
Isolated system: Assuming only internal forces (no external forces yet - Sec. 8.6)
No
N external
t l force
f from
f outside
t id causes energy change
h inside
i id

E mech = 0 = (KE + U )
KE = U
U
How to solved these problems

My preference is to always use Mechanical Energy


E mec ( ffinal)) = Emec ((initial))
K f + U f = K i + Ui

When Friction is present, it always removes energy,


so E(final) is less the E(init
E(initioa
ioal)
E mec ( final ) = Emec (initial ) Energy removed by work of friction
K f + U f = K i + U i Ff d

Always
y think about the pproblem and the signs!!
g
Gravitational Potential Energy
Conservative Force Problems
Example of Conservation of Mechanical Energy

Consider a 100 kg bobsled starting with vo = 0 on a frictionless track. Compute the


KE, PE, and total E at the labeled points. Zero of potential at the bottom.
1 2
PE = mgh KE = mv Emech = KE + PE
2
Emech=KE+PE KE PE Height
g h

600 m
588,000 J 0J 588,000 J

588,000
, J 196,000
, J 392,000
, J 400 m

588 000 J
588,000 392 000 J
392,000 196 000 J
196,000 200 m

588 000 J
588,000 588 000 J
588,000 0J
0m
Example of Conservation of Mechanical Energy

Consider a 100 kg bobsled starting with vo = 0 on a frictionless track. Compute the


KE, PE, and total E at the labeled points. Zero at the top!

1 2
PE = mgh KE = mv Emech = KE + PE
2
Emech=KE+PE KE PE Height
g h

0m
0J 0J O
0 JJ

-200 m
0J 196 000 J
196,000 -196 000 J
-196,000

00 JJ 392
392,000
392000
392,000
000J 392 000 J -400
-392,000 400 m

0J 588,000 J -588,000 J -600 m


Question

Three identical projectiles are fired at different launch angles


and with different initial velocities. Which projectile has the
greatest potential energy when its at the peak in its
t j t ?
trajectory?

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. All are equal
Can you tell me anything about the kinetic energies?
Question

A block initiall
initially at rest slides down
do n a frictionless ramp and attains a
speed of v at the bottom. To achieve a speed of 2v, how many times
as high
g must a new ramp p be?

KE f = KEi + PEi PE f = 0 + mgh


1
2 mv2f = mgh
v f = 2gh

1. 1
2
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4
5. 5
6. 6
Question

A young girl wishes to select one of the frictionless playground


slides below to give her the greatest possible speed when she
reaches the bottom of the slide. Which one should she choose?

A B C D

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. Any of them