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Physics lecture notes

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You are on page 1of 16

1.

2. 2nd Quiz will be on Friday

3. This

h week k H

HW will

ll b

be due

d

on coming Wed. instead of

Mon.

Mon

Power

The rate at which work is done by a force is power.

power

Average power is work W done in time t

W

Pave =

t

The instantaneous rate of doing work (instantaneous power)

dW

P=

dt

Units: Watt [W]

1 W = 1J/s

1 horsepower = 1 hp = 746 W

1 kW-hour

kW h = 3.6

3 6 MJ

time independent force and velocity:

P= =

(

dW d F x

=F

)

d ( x)

= F v Instantaneous power !

d

dt dt

d dt

d

Crate of Cheese

VERY S

V SIMILAR

TO HW # 6

distance d up a frictionless ramp of angle where it stops.

(a) How much work WN is done on the crate by the Normal during the

lift?

(b) How much work Wg is done on the crate by the gravitational force

during the lift?

(c) How much work WT is done on the crate by the Tension during the

lift?

((d)) If the speed

p of the moving

g crate were increased,, how would the above

answers change? What about the power?

Chapter 7: What happens to the KE of when work is done on it.

[ KE: energy of motion W: energy transfer via force ]

Chapter 8: Potential energy ??

Conservative vs non

non-

-conservative forces

Can you get back what you put in? Win = -Wout

What happens when you reverse time?

Net work done by a conservative force on a object moving around every

closed path is zero.

b

Wab = F (x) dx

a

- gravitational

it ti l force

f - kinetic frictional force

- spring force (noise, heat,)

Potential energy: Energy U which describes the configuration (or spatial arrangement)

of a system of objects that exert conservative forces on each other. Its the stored

energy in system.

zero (reference value)

the

yf

yi

Uggrav if going up

( = 0) 0

If U grav (y th

then ( ) = mgy

U grav (y)

Ugrav if going down

Elastic Potential energy: [~associated with the state of compression/tension

of elastic object]

U spring = 2 kx f 2 kx i

1 2 1 2

If ( = 0) 0

U spring (x then ( ) = 12 kx

U spring (x) k 2

Uspring if x goes

or (any displacement)

Dont forget

Work done by force (general): W = F ( x ) dx = F d

k i2 12 kx

k 2f

U

U grav = mgy If U grav (y = 0) 0 then U grav (y) = mgy

U spring

i = 1

2

kx 2

f 1

2

kx 2

i If U spring (x = 0) 0 then U spring (x) = 12 kx 2

Mechanical energy:

E mech = KE + U

Only conservative forces (gravity & spring) cause energy transfer (work)

Wnet = KE Sec. 7- 3

W = U Sec. 8-1

Isolated system: Assuming only internal forces (no external forces yet - Sec. 8.6)

No

N external

t l force

f from

f outside

t id causes energy change

h inside

i id

E mech = 0 = (KE + U )

KE = U

U

How to solved these problems

E mec ( ffinal)) = Emec ((initial))

K f + U f = K i + Ui

so E(final) is less the E(init

E(initioa

ioal)

E mec ( final ) = Emec (initial ) Energy removed by work of friction

K f + U f = K i + U i Ff d

Always

y think about the pproblem and the signs!!

g

Gravitational Potential Energy

Conservative Force Problems

Example of Conservation of Mechanical Energy

KE, PE, and total E at the labeled points. Zero of potential at the bottom.

1 2

PE = mgh KE = mv Emech = KE + PE

2

Emech=KE+PE KE PE Height

g h

600 m

588,000 J 0J 588,000 J

588,000

, J 196,000

, J 392,000

, J 400 m

588 000 J

588,000 392 000 J

392,000 196 000 J

196,000 200 m

588 000 J

588,000 588 000 J

588,000 0J

0m

Example of Conservation of Mechanical Energy

KE, PE, and total E at the labeled points. Zero at the top!

1 2

PE = mgh KE = mv Emech = KE + PE

2

Emech=KE+PE KE PE Height

g h

0m

0J 0J O

0 JJ

-200 m

0J 196 000 J

196,000 -196 000 J

-196,000

00 JJ 392

392,000

392000

392,000

000J 392 000 J -400

-392,000 400 m

Question

and with different initial velocities. Which projectile has the

greatest potential energy when its at the peak in its

t j t ?

trajectory?

1. A

2. B

3. C

4. All are equal

Can you tell me anything about the kinetic energies?

Question

A block initiall

initially at rest slides down

do n a frictionless ramp and attains a

speed of v at the bottom. To achieve a speed of 2v, how many times

as high

g must a new ramp p be?

1

2 mv2f = mgh

v f = 2gh

1. 1

2

2. 2

3. 3

4. 4

5. 5

6. 6

Question

slides below to give her the greatest possible speed when she

reaches the bottom of the slide. Which one should she choose?

A B C D

1. A

2. B

3. C

4. D

5. Any of them

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