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# Microwave Engineering

## 1. What are microwaves?

2. What hampered the early development of microwave devices?
3. Explain the evolution of microwaves from World War II to the present days
4. Name different electromagnetic frequency spectrum region and microwave band
designations for CCIR/IEEE/US military bands
5. Enumerate the basic advantages of microwave.
6. Briefly list the typical application of microwaves.
7. What are electromagnetic waves? Obtain an expression for the total energy carried by
such wave.
8. Define polarization of an EM wave. Briefly explain vertical, horizontal, left hand and
right hand circular polarizations
9. Define velocity, frequency and wavelengths of an EM wave.
10. State Maxwells equations in integral and differential forms
11. Starting from Maxwells equations derive the wave equations. Show that these wave
propagating in free space with velocity of light.
12. Define TEM, TE, TM, HE waves. Write down the wave equations for a TE and a TM
wave.
13. Derive the general solutions for TEM, TE and TM waves.
14. Derive the wave equation for a TEM, TM, TE modes and obtain all the field
components in Parallel Plate waveguide.
15. Derive the wave equation for a TEM, TM, TE modes and obtain all the field
components in rectangular waveguide.
16. What are TEM, TE, TM and HE modes? Sketch the field patterns for dominant modes
in rectangular waveguides.
17. What do you understand by the terms cutoff wavelength, dominant mode, guide
wavelength, phase velocity and wave impedance. Obtain the mathematical relations for
each one of these and their inter relationships.
18. Give the physical interpretation for phase and group velocity in relation to speed of
light.
19. Derive the wave equation for TEM modes in coaxial line.
20. Show that TEM wave cannot propagate in a waveguide by making use of Maxwells
equation.
21. What are cavity resonators? Derive the equations for resonant frequencies for
rectangular and circular cavity resonators.
22. Derive the field expressions for a rectangular cavity resonator. Plot the field patterns for
the dominant mode of propogation in such a resonator for TE and TM modes.
23. Derive the field expressions for a rectangular cavity resonator. Plot the field patterns for
TE and TM modes assuming dominant modes.
24. What do you mean by Quality factor of a cavity resonator? Discuss the term unloaded
Q, loaded Q, critical Q, under coupled Q and over coupled Q with reference to a cavity
resonator.
25. Define a reentrant cavity and give at least two examples. Where are these used.
26. Describe the various ways of coupling energy to a resonator.
27. Write a note on reentrant cavities and show that it supports infinite modes.