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Sleep presentation

By : 10/3
Sleep in a dynamic
Boss, Jern
Sleep is a dynamic process
Sleep is a dynamic process
Sleep is not a passive event, but rather an active process involving characteristic
physiological changes in the organs of the body.
Electromyograms (EMGs) = measure the electrical activity associated
with active muscles
Electroculogram (EOG) = uses electromyograms on the skin near the
Troencephalograms (EEGs) = EEG are called brain waves.

What is NREM and REM?

-NREM is nonrapid eye movement
-REM is rapid eye movement
Biological clock (Lookbat,Sern)
Biological clock is a system in living organisms that controls the
timing of all physiological activities and natural habits of body.This
cycle process displays about 24-hour period it is called a circadian
Biological clock (Lookbat,Sern)
Biological clock is located in the hypothalamus of the brain,in a
very small area called the supraciasmastic nucleus
Biological clock (Lookbat,Sern)

Biological rhythms have 2 general types

1.Exogenous -rhythm that control by external.For
example respond to environmental stimuli.
2.Endogenus-rhythm that control by internal
Biological clock (Lookbat,Sern)

Dreams are successions of images, sensation and ideas that occur in mind
during sleep. Dream occur in the REM (Rapid-eye Movement) stage of
sleeping. REM sleep revealed by continously movement of eyes during sleep.
Length of sleep can be various. It may be last for 20-30 seconds or last up to
30 minutes.After the REM stage finishes the sleeping stage repeats it self
again through the process.
Misconceptions about sleep (Fer,Bale)
1. You need less sleep when you get older.
Its not true because it depends on insomnia or other sleep disorders .
When you get older you will have more stress.

2. There are sleep debts.

It can accumulate by only a few hours.
3. Sleep is for resting
Its not true because when you are sleeping your Memory consolidation and
regeneration of body tissue are working.

4. Sleep late an extra hour wont make a difference

Its not true because it makes a difference. For example, John sleeps late 20
minutes so, he will get more sleepy
5.Sleeping pills are dangerous and should be avoided.
Modern sleeping pills are not nearly as dangerous as the barbiturates from the mid 20th
Century, although all drugs should be treated with caution.

6.Snoring is funny and irritating but not a serious problem

Snoring is funny and irritating but not a serious problem
7. Insomnia is when I cant get to sleep or when I wake
up in the middle of the night. I need to take
intervention when I have insomnia
You should take steps to combat insomnia, but you have to be careful to establish that you
have insomnia. Some people can get by fine with less sleep. If you dont feel sleepy or tired
during the day, you probably dont have insomnia.
Many physiological variables are controlled during wakefulness .Our temperature, blood pressure,
and levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and glucose in the blood remain quite constant during
wakefulness. During sleep physiological demands are reduced and temperature and blood
pressure drop. Many of our physiological functions such as brain wave activity, breathing, and
heart rate are quite variable when we are awake or during REM sleep, but are extremely regular
when we are in non-REM sleep.
In period of NON-REM
Characterize by DECREASE muscle tone,heart rate,breathing,blood
pressure and metabolic rate.


Body movemeent reduce compared with wakefulness
Common to change sleep position
In period of REM sleep
Characterized be increase of blood pressure,heart rate ,
metabolism,rapid rolling eyes movement,paralysis of large muscle and
twitching fingers and toes

During Rem
Penile erection also occurs

Decrease from wakefulness Brain acitvity Increase in motor and sensory area

Slows from wakefulness Heart rates Increase and varies compared with NREM

Decrease from wakefulness Blood pressure Increase and varies compared with NREM

Does not change in wakefulness Blood flow to brain Increase by 5o-200 percent from NREM

Decrease from wakefulness Respiration Increase and varies compared with NREM

Regulated at lower set piont than wakefulness Body temperature Not regularly
Maymay &
Homeostasis and Sleep Poopreaw

This is topic is relate to circadian clock that

important to our sleep! And it also has a behavioral
states that are changing for our more suitable every
time whether we dont feel it.
There also has the base that use for control the
progess including the sleep programming.
Homeostasis and Sleep

The cause of feeling sleepy is the remains awake cause the desire to
sleep and this pressure use to define the Homeostatic component of sleep
But then, the precise that make us need to sleep is still mystery but
what we know is the actions of neurotransmitters [nerve-signaling
molecules, live in brainstem] and neurons [nerve cells, live in brains base]
determine us every time!
Homeostasis is important because it help the circadian cycle to be
more stronger!
Homeostasis and Sleep
It has something that can bother our sleeping too!
Everyone always know that, that is caffeine. It disrupt
us by prevent the adesoline from delivering its signals.
Adesoline is important for our sleeping because it help
keep track of losting sleep.
We usually sleep one
time per day because
pressure of esire of
sleeping is hard to
Homeostasis and Sleep
Source :
Sleep and the Brain (Gam,Mint)

While we sleep our brain doesnt rest, it still

active. In our brain there is hypothalamus that
controls NREM sleep. The pons part send the signal
to the spinal cord, Thalamus and cerebral cortex that
the picture below show. These lead to temporary
paralysis in REM.
Sleep and the brain
In a day people need to sleep about 8 hours for
rest. Our brain controls the awake and sleepiness in
a day. The neurons that promote wakefulness and
sleepiness support each other in a day to balance in
our body. So all of these could make you will awake
and very active or sleeply all day.
Sleep and the brain

In our brain, hypothalamus controls wakefulness

by sending arousal signals to the cerebral cortex.
That signal we called Neurotransmitters .It is a
chemical signal that brain sent. When neurons are
active the brain will send a signal to cortex to make
you feel awakeness.
Sleep and the brain
Tuberomammillary nucleus is an area that use to
control the signal. The neurons will realease a
hormone to the neurotransmitters that called
histamine. Interestingly, there is also
"anti-histamine" that cause sleepiness. Some other
neurons secrete the different hormones.
What is sleeping disorder?
Sleeping disorder is when we have the
problem during a sleep.
Sleep disorder could make you feel exhausted
and also make you dont want to concentrate
doing anything during day time.
Example of sleeping disorder include:

Insomnia( the most common sleeping disorder) is

when you have a hard time to fall asleep or when
you are waking up during night and having a hard
time going back to sleep.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurologic
movement disorder that is often associated with a
sleep complaint.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is when a breathing
Factors that lead to sleeping disorder:

1. Medical issues example Asthma, heart disease,

peptic ulcer disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, and rheumatic disorders
2. Psychiatric disorders such as depression and
anxiety disorders
3. Other factors, such as ventilation, humidity, noise
and etc.
4. Drugs and alcohol uses.
How to treat the sleeping disorder:
1. Try to decreasing stress and anxiety by relaxing.
2. Limiting caffeine intake include cola, tea, and
3. Decreasing drugs and alcohol use.
Sleep Loss & Wakefulness

We all know sleeping is important

30-44% of adults dont get enough sleep!

Loss of sleeping could cause you problems!

Sleep Loss & Wakefulness

NOW over
bodyWhy Dont
begins to get HOMEWORK
People Get late.
used to sleeping
Enough Sleep?
The time is
MANAGEMENT schedulized...
Why is sleep lose bad?
Creates an overwhelming and uncontrollable need to sleep and affects daily basis activity.

Sleep loss causes problems with memory, the way you act, and preformances in school and job.

May also change thermoregulation and increase the risk for various physical and mental disorders.

Can also cause accidents.

Functions of Sleep (Nam , Tukta)
SLEEP is essential for human survival.
Paranoia and hallucinations are causes by
extreme sleep deprivation. It has 6 hypothesis
that can explain about the function of sleep.
1.Restoration of body system = when we sleep the body is repair and refill the
body system.
2. Energy conservation =The body conserve energy because the metabolic rate
is decrease during sleep. It also maintain body temperature. While we are
sleeping , the cytokine regulate the immune system.
3. Memory consolidation =during we sleep our brain classify the important
experiences to store. We can improve the brain during the REM sleep by
4. Protect from predation During sleep there are no activity, so the predator
hard to find them.
5. Brain development = REM sleep is very important for infant to develop of the
6. Discharge of emotions = During sleep it is not stop only the motion or
movement, the emotion and stress also stop too.
Evolution of Sleep (Pon) slide 1-5
1. Every mammal, bird, reptiles need sleeping but each of it
sleep pattern, habbits, sleep posture, and places are in various
2. Sleeping take most part of the day and in sleeping the body
restore it energy and the brain rest.
3. Sleep Pattern: Mammal have NREM and REM sleep cycle
which it cycle again and again during the night.
4. Each animal does not have same sleep hours and depend on
the environment and it survival.
5. Sleep habbits: Some mammal sleep during day such as rats,
although most mammal sleep during night time.
6. Some small animal have it own sleeping pattern in which it
could reduce it sleeping time and reduce it danger or attacked
in the environment.
7. Dolphin have unihemispheric sleep it mean half of the
dolphin brain is sleeping and another half is awake.
8. Sleep posture: Mammal have different sleep posture such as
dog and many animal curl when sleeping, horses, birds are
standing, human lying down and bats hanging upside down.
9. Sleep places: Place when animal sleep are also alot like most
animal will sleep in burrows, caves, trees, water and even in
structure of the building.