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A TERM PAPER IN BIOLOGY 1

Coconut Tree (Cocos nucifera )

SUBMITTED By:

Tingcang, Jayson G.

Submitted to:

Mrs. Ruby Gonzales

Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. Body
A. Different parts of coconut and their uses.
B. Health benefits of coconut water/juice.

III. Conclusion and Recommendation


IV. Impression
V. References
I. Introduction
Coconut tree is a plant that belongs to the family Arecaceae. There are over 150
species of coconuts that can be found in 80 different countries throughout the world.
Coconut tree grows only in the tropical climate. This plant live on the sandy soil,
requires a lot of sunlight and regular rainfalls. Coconut tree does not tolerate low
temperatures and low percent of humidity. Cultivated plants are prone to insect attacks
which can decrease production of fruit worth of hundreds of million dollars. Coconut is
important part of human diet because it contains valuable vitamins and minerals. Other
than that, coconuts are used in the production of various wooden items, in the
construction industry, in the manufacture of beauty products and as a fuel.
The botanical name for the coconut is cocos nucifera, with cocos believed to come from
Spanish, meaning "monkey-faced" or "eerie-faced" and nucifera from Latin meaning
nut-bearing plant (from fero = I bear and nux-nucis = nut). It's nut, perhaps bearing three
germinating pores, resembles a monkey face. The coconut palm, has been eulogized
as Kalpavriksha (Vriksha means Tree in Malayalam), the all giving tree in the classics
of India. Its fruit is called Lakshmi Phal which is used in most of the social and
religious functions in India from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, irrespective of whether the
palm is grown locally or not. The use of coconut throughout India makes it a symbol of
national unity and perhaps in the olden times the people of our country or our ancestors
might have migrated from a coconut growing area. It is also possible that coconut had
been cultivated in many parts of India and the climatic and geographical changes in due
course might have caused the confinement of coconut to coastal tracts in the country.

The coconut palm is a long-lived plant; its bark is smooth and gray, marked by ringed
scars left by fallen leaf bases. The tree can live as long as 100 years producing an
annual yield of 50 to 100 coconuts. Coconut palms are found throughout the tropics,
and can be successfully grown in areas that receive only mild frosts.

II. Body
A. Different parts and their uses
Coconut trees are very useful because they have various parts which can be utilized for
various purposes. This research provides useful information about the parts of the
coconut tree and its uses. In fact, its fruits alone has many uses in the field of medicine
and cosmetics. There have been numerous studies which proved that is it truly a tree
of life. There are many products which can be utilized using this tree. These products
can be used for various purposes like commercial, domestic, and industrial. Coconut
tree belongs to the palm family called family Arecaceae. There are actually two types of
this tree of life, these are the tall and dwarf. This is usually found on tropical areas or
countries around the wolrd like Philippines, India, Hawaii and others. All parts of coconut
tree are all useful.
Coconut roots can be used beverage, dye stuff, and medicine purposes. Coconut trunk
uses for building parts. Out of the Coconut trunk, handy and durable wood is obtained to
make various pieces of furniture and novelty items. Paper pulp can also be extracted
from the trunk. The Coconut shell, a part of Coconut fruit produce items such as
handicraft items, charcoal for cooking, and many more. Coconut husk is also used to
obtain Coir. An elastic fiber used for rope, matting, and coarse clot. Coconut leaves for
thatch and Puso.
Coconut leaves produce good quality of paper pulp, midrib brooms, hats and mats, fruit
trays, fans, midrib decors, lamp shades, bag, and utility roof materials. In a provincial
City of Cebu, Coconut Leaves are used to wrap white rice called Puso. Coconut Spathe
and Guinit can produce helmets, caps, bakya straps, and handbags. Coconut
Inflorescence is also used to produce Coconut Juice, Coconut Toddy or Tuba. The
fermented juice is the common alcoholic drink in the coconut region. Other products out
of the Coconut Trees inflorescence are gin and vinegar. An important part of the
Coconut Tree is the Coconut Fruit which is considered as a functional food. Coconut
Fruit deserves its own page due to the broad uses it serves us but below are a
summary of its benefits.
Coconut meat is a good source of protein and an effective natural laxative. It is also a
source of other products such as coco flour, desiccated coconut, coco milk, coco chips,
candies, latik, copra, and animal feeds. Also used as a main ingredient for salad and
other sweet delicacies. Coconut Water are used mostly for re-hydration and kidney
cleansing. Researchers are even still doing ongoing study on different products that can
be produce on Coconut Water to aid us. Nowadays, Coconut Oil is more popularly used
for its benefits for the skin, hair, and face. Its extracted from copra and notable for its
anti-microbial properties.

B. Health Benefits of Coconut water/juice


Coconut water is, in fact, the juice present inside the interior cavity or endosperm of
young, tender coconut. Its water is one of natures most refreshing drinks, consumed
worldwide for its nutritious and health benefiting properties.
The water collected after opening a tender, green, healthy, and undamaged coconut.
Inside, the clear liquid is sweet, and sterile and composed of unique chemicals such as
sugars, vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, enzymes, amino acids, cytokine, and phyto-
hormones. In general, young and slightly immature coconuts gathered from the coconut
tree after they reach about 5-7 months of age for the purpose of reaping its drink.
Each coconut may contain about 200 to 1000 ml of water depending upon cultivar type
and size. Any nuts younger than five months of age tend to be bitter in taste and devoid
of nutrients. In contrast, mature coconuts contain less water, and their endosperm
thickens quickly into white edible meat (kernel). Coconut milk obtained from the meat,
therefore, should not be confused with coconut water.

Coconut palm flourishes well under the coastal tropical environments. A coconut tree
may yield several hundreds of tender nuts each season. Different species of coconut
palms are grown all over the tropics. Naturally, their taste and flavor of water show
variations according to saline content in the soil, distance from the seashore, and
climate.

Coconut water is a very refreshing drink to beat the torching tropical summer thirst. Its liquid
is packed with simple sugars, electrolytes, and minerals to replenish dehydration conditions
inside the human body.

Research studies suggest that cytokinins (e.g., kinetin and trans-zeatin) in coconut water
found to have significant anti-ageing, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-thrombotic (anti-clot
formation) effects.

Coconut water is offered to patients with diarrhea in many tropic regions to replace the fluid
loss from the gastrointestinal tract and to reduce the need for hospitalisation. The osmolarity
of tender coconut water is slightly greater than that of WHO recommended ORS (Oral
Rehydration Therapy) solution. The presence of other biological constituents like amino
acids, enzymes, minerals, and fatty acids may account for this higher osmolarity.
Nonetheless, unlike WHO-ORS, its water is very low in sodium and chlorides, but rich in
sugars and amino acids. This well-balanced fluid composition, along with much-needed
calories, would be an ideal drink instead of any other kind of soft drink beverages available in
the markets to correct dehydration conditions.

Coconut water is composed of many naturally occurring bioactive enzymes such as acid
phosphatase, catalase, dehydrogenase, diastase, peroxidase, RNA-polymerases, etc. In
effect, these enzymes help in the digestion and metabolism.
Despite being very light in consistency, its water proportionately has better composition of
minerals like calcium, iron, manganese, magnesium, and zinc than some of the fruit juices
like oranges. (Compare the mineral composition of oranges).

Its liquid is also a an excellent source of the B-complex vitamins such as riboflavin, niacin,
thiamin, pyridoxine, and folates. These vitamins are essential in the sense that the human
body requires them from external sources to replenish.

Coconut water carries a good amount of electrolyte potassium. 100 ml of water has 250 mg
of potassium and 105 mg of sodium. Together, these electrolytes help replenish electrolyte
deficiency in the body due to diarrhea (loose stools).

Further, fresh coconut water has a small amount of vitamin-C (Ascorbic acid); It provides
about 2.4 mg or 4% of RDA. Vitamin-C is a water-soluble antoxidant.

III. Conclusion and Recommendation


In the intervening period, we have shown the potential for substantial increases in yield,
the development of new technologies for pest and disease control, and the
improvement in processing of coconut products. The management of the coconut lands
to ensure their long- term productivity is also of increasing concern. Investment in
research in these priority areas would benefit directly smallholder producers and
coconut consumers in many countries especially here in the Philippines.

IV. Impression
My impression towards my organism is that we should preserve this tree because it will
help us prevent flash flood in the future and it helps us lessen the carbon in our
environment. Although coconut trees is the tree of life, and we can get anything from it
like source of income, used for building shelter, dishes, utensils and many more. But it is
not a good idea to cut down a lot of them because we dont know what will happened if
coconuts get extinct in the future generation.

V. References
Van der Vossen, H.A.M. and Umali, B.E. (Editors). (2001). Plant Resources of South-East Asia
No 14. Vegetable oils and fats. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands. 229 pp.
Hardon, J.J., Rajanaidu, N. and van der Vossen, H.A.M. (2001). Oil Palm (Elaesis guineensis,
Jacq.). In: van der Vossen, H.A.M. and Umali, B.E. (Editors): PROSEA No 14. Vegetable
oils and fats. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands. pp. 85 93.
Ohler, J.G. and Magat, S.S. (2001). Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.). In: van der Vossen,
H.A.M. and Umali, B.E. (Editors): PROSEA No 14. Vegetable oils and fats. Backhuys
Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands. pp 76 84.
Magat, S.S. (2003). Achieving coconut supply reliability through research-based crop nutrition
management of coconut farms in the Philippines. Coconut R & D J./APCC-Jakarta, I
Indonesia. 24 (1): 3- 44.
Magat, S.S. (2008). Good Agricultural Practices in Coconut Production. Second ed. Manila: EU-
Trade Related Technical Assistance. 79 pp. Magat, S.S. (2008). Coconut-Based
Farming Systems (CBFS): Concepts, Principles and Economic Valuation for Social,
Ecological and Economic Benefits. PJCS 33 (2): 1-23
Foale, M. (2003). The Coconut Odyssey - The Bounteous Possibilities of the Tree of Life.
ACIAR: Canberra. Available as a pdf file from www.aciar.gov.au/publications/MN101
[This popular account describes ways in which the full potential of coconut and its
benefits may be realized for better health, food and the environment].