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1.0 Reporting Practical Work
1.1 Raw Data 1
1.2 Full Report 1
1.3 Abstract/Summary 2
1.4 Equipment Description And Experimental Techniques 2
1.5 Calculated Results 2
1.6 Sample Calculations 3
1.7 Error Calculations 3
1.8 Results And Discussion 3
1.9 Conclusions 4
1.10 Recommendations 4
1.11 References 4
1.12 Appendices 4
2.0 Front Cover 5
3.0 Safety Procedures in Laboratory 6
4.0 Laboratory Manual (Selected Open Ended Lab)
4.1 Tray Dryer
4.2 Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger
4.3 Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
4.4 Cooling Tower
4.5 Double Effect Evaporator
4.6 Distillation Column
4.7 Liquid-Liquid Extraction
4.8 Membrane Separation
4.9 Gas Absorption

1.1 Raw Data

Students must submit their raw data, graph or drawing to the instructor at the end of each
experiment. The raw data should be presented in tabular form and all measurements
performed according to the instructions in this lab manual should b included on a sheet of
A4 paper. The following particulars should also be included:

Name of experiment

Name of the students in the group

Date experiment performed

A short comment is expected on whether the results substantiated the theory and
factors which contribute to discrepancies. A full report must be submitted within
two weeks after the completion of the experiment.

1.2 Full Report

The general order of the various sections of a full report is as below:

Front cover

Table of contents





Experimental procedure


Sample calculations

Sample error calculations






1.3 Abstract/Summary

The summary is important because it provides information to persons not wanting to read
the whole report. The summary should also contain the general conclusions of any
experimental work under the test conditions and recommendations (if any). It should not
discuss the reasoning or detailed evidence that is contained in the body of the report.
Most importantly, the summary must be brief (1 paragraph).

1.4 Equipment Description and Experimental Techniques

Enough should be said of the equipment and techniques so that the reader could operate
the equipment if necessary.

1.5 Calculated Results

A summary of the calculated results should be clearly tabulated. Related variables should
be represented graphically where dependence needs to be shown.
1.6 Sample Calculations

A sample calculation from a set of raw data obtained must be presented in the report
showing all appropriate formulae used to obtain the final calculated result.

1.7 Error Calculations

It is important to show the calculation of errors as the reader will know how efficient the
experiment has been carried out. The experimental error calculation can be carried out by
comparing it with the expected theoretical values.

1.8 Results and Discussion

In this section, the results of the experiments are presented as a fulfillment of the aim. A
coordinated analysis of what the data and calculated results mean is presented. The
overall impression of the meaning of the experiment and its significance in the light of
published work or established theory should be apparent from the analysis.

The material should be presented logically. Even the most complicated explanation or
theory can be conveyed easily to the reader if broken down and presented in a logical
sequence. If the discussion is long, its organization should be facilitated by the use of
subdivisions and headings.

The discussion is more detailed than the abstract/summary in that it will include the
opinion/reasoning of the author about various aspects of the experiment. The limitations
of the experiment must be discussed and the accuracy of the result noted.

This section must also show that the significance of the experimental findings has been
appreciated. Recommended journals, textbooks or lecture notes will provide an aid to
such an understanding.
1.9 Conclusions

The analysis must be objective, keeping in mind experimental problems or deviations

from conditions reported in published work and making a conclusion, if possible, in the
light of this.

1.10 Recommendations

The recommendations should indicate how experimental techniques or apparatus could

be improved in light of the conclusions arrived at and the consistency of the experimental
results in relation to the theory. It is also wise to include the observations which might
have caused errors during the course of the experiment.

1.11 References

References provide the reader with the sources of information that were used during the
writing of the experimental report. Reporting the names of the books and journals
referenced must follow a standard format that includes the author, journal, title, volume,
date and publisher.

1.12 Appendices

Appendices contain material that is not an integral part of the report or cannot be
included conveniently in the body of the report.

It could include material such as supporting information, mathematical derivations or any

material that would overload the body of the report without contributing significantly to
the immediate line of thought.


No. Title Allocated Marks (%) Marks

1 Abstract/Summary 5
2 Introduction 5
3 Aims 5
4 Theory 5
5 Apparatus 5
6 Methodology/Procedure 10
7 Results 10
8 Calculations 10
9 Discussion 20
10 Conclusion 10
11 Recommendations 5
12 Reference 5
13 Appendix 5

Checked by : Rechecked by:

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Date : Date :

Laboratory safety is the top priority and this requires all people in the lab to be observing
safe practices at all times! Following are some safety and procedural rules to help guide
you in protecting yourself and others from injury in the laboratory.

2) MUST wear proper ATTIRE and LAB COAT when you are in lab.
3) Long hair MUST be tied back and dangling jewelry and loose or baggy clothing
must be secured.
4) Shoes MUST completely cover the foot. No sandals are allowed.
5) MUST reports any accidents, injury, fire or emergency happen to the
6) MUST take CAUTION when handle with glass apparatus.
7) MUST know the location and understand the operation of:
8) MUST strictly follow laboratory safety principles.
9) Perform only those experiments authorized by the instructor. Never do anything in
the laboratory that is not called for in the laboratory procedures or by your
10) Observe good housekeeping practices. Work areas should be kept clean and tidy
at all times.
11) Dispose of all chemical waste properly. Never mix chemicals in sink drains.
12) Wash your hands with soap and water after performing all experiments.
1) Strictly NOT allowed to use combustible solution near to the open fire.
2) Strictly NOT allowed to heat combustible solution on the hot plate.
3) Strictly NOT allowed to EAT, DRINK and SMOKE in the lab.
4) Never return unused chemicals to their original containers.
4.1 Tray Dryer (L1)

You are hired as a junior chemical engineer in a food-based company utilizing local
agricultural products. Among the products are dried tropical fruit and health supplements
extracted from Malaysian herbs. You have currently been assigned to a group researching
production techniques for two new products: Mixed Dried Tropical Fruit and
Lemongrass Lotion. Both products require a drying step - to remove the water content in
the chosen tropical fruit and to dry the lemongrass in order to reduce its weight prior to
its extraction process. After conducting some basic research you find out that tray drying
is the most primitive and labor intensive of the various drying technologies that you could
use in this case. Your research team has decided to conduct the drying process using a
simple batch tray drier.
You are also required to produce a report which consists of among others, the mass loss
of the fruit and lemongrass during drying and the moisture content of both samples after
drying process. In addition, you also need to do a comparison with other type of drying
Note :
Equipment and Supplies
Available equipment includes a small pilot-scale experimental tray drying unit,
probes for velocity, temperature and air humidity measurements. Available
supplies include tap water, distilled water, methanol, typical laboratory glassware,
a balance accurate to 0.0001 g and a small oven. You may also use any other
equipment or supplies available in the unit operations laboratory if you need it.

A thorough understanding of the main characteristics of a drying process and the
influence of key parameters.
Use of equations describing the drying operation (including their limitations).
Careful planning of experiments to efficiently obtain both results and a
quantitative measure of their accuracy.
4.2 Cooling Tower (L4)

Cooling towers are commonly used in industry to reduce the temperature of utility
cooling water to allow its reuse in heat exchangers. Inside a cooling tower, a liquid warm
water stream is exposed to unsaturated air. The temperature of the water is decreased by
the simultaneous transfer of mass and heat at the gas-liquid interface.

Run the experiment by using Water Cooling Tower HE152. Choose the suitable
filling/packing tower on your own. Determine the correlation of water to air mass flow
ratio with increasing water flow rate. Determine also the cooling load effect, effect of
different air flow rates and also the effect of different flow rates on the wet bulb
approach. Also estimate the evaporation rate of water (water loss) for the tower.
4.3 Distillation Column (L6)

Distillation is one of common methods for purification and identification of organic liquids.
It is a physical process used to separate chemicals from a mixture by the difference in how
easily they vaporize. Their operation is based on the difference in boiling temperatures of
the liquid mixture components, and on recycling counter-current gas-liquid flow.

You are provided with the distillation column that contains 10 litres of a mixture of 50
mol percent methycyclohexane and 50 mol percent toluene. You have to conduct the
experiment that required you to determine the pressure drop of the distillation column for
various boil-up rates, in batch distillation.

Set up the boil-up rate in 250 Watt increment up to maximum 1.5 kW by adjusting the
boiler heater power controller. You are required to observe the degree of foaming on trays
for each power increment. Take similar reading of the boil-up rate and pressure drop after
letting at least 10 minutes for the column stabilize. Plot the curve relating pressure drop
and boil-up rate. From the observation, you have to relate it with the curve.

You also required to determine the refractive index for the unknown concentration of
methycyclohexane/toluene from the distillation column for each power increment.
4.4 Liquid-Liquid Extraction (L7)

Extraction is a process that separates components based upon chemical differences rather
than differences in physical properties. The basic principle behind extraction involves the
contacting of a solution with another solvent that is immiscible with the original. The
solvent is also soluble with a specific solute contained in the solution. Two phases are
formed after the addition of the solvent, due to the differences in densities.

The simple example of liquid-liquid extraction is when we mixed together solvent (water)
and solution (organic solvent / propionic acid) and then allowed them to separate into the
extract phase and the raffinate phase. The extract phase will be water and propionic acid
and the raffinate, organic solvent with a trace of propionic acid.

From this information, you have to conduct the simple experiments regarding liquid-
liquid extraction. You are required to determine the suitable methodology for this
experiment. Then discuss this method with your lecturer one week before the experiment.

Determine the distribution coefficient for the system organic solvent-propionic acid-water
and show its dependence on concentration.