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CPE 453

ZAKARIA

STUDENT NO. : 2010229424

GROUP : EH2213B

EXPERIMENT : FLOW OVER WEIRS

DATE PERFORMED : 27 OCTOBER 2011

SEMESTER : SEMESTER 3

PROGRAMME / CODE : CPE 453

SUBMIT TO : PUAN SUHAIZA HANIM HANIPAH

Allocated Marks

No. Title Marks

(%)

1 Abstract/Summary 5

2 Introduction 5

3 Aims 5

4 Theory 5

5 Apparatus 5

6 Methodology/Procedure 10

7 Results 10

8 Calculations 10

9 Discussion 20

10 Conclusion 10

11 Recommendations 5

12 Reference 5

13 Appendix 5

TOTAL MARKS 100

Remarks:

Checked by :

---------------------------

Date :

Contents

1. Abstract.......................................................................................................3

2. Introduction.................................................................................................3

3. Objectives of the Experiment......................................................................3

4. Theory..........................................................................................................4

1. Rectangular Notch...................................................................................4

2. Triangular ( vee ) Notch...........................................................................5

5. Apparatus and Material................................................................................6

6. Methodology...............................................................................................6

7. Results and Calculations..............................................................................7

7.1 Calculation for Rectangular Notch..........................................................7

7.2 Calculation for Triangular Notch.............................................................8

7.3 Graph for Rectangular Notch..................................................................8

7.4 Graph for Triangular Notch.....................................................................9

8. Discussion..................................................................................................11

9. Conclusion.................................................................................................11

10. Experimental Precaution..........................................................................11

11. References...............................................................................................12

12. Appendix..................................................................................................12

2

1. Abstract

This report will discuss about the flow characteristics over a

rectangular notch and a triangular(V) notch. The discharge coefficient of the

fluid flow are also have been defined through this experiment. In order to

achieve the objective, every depth of water with different height and two

different notches was recorded in conducting experiment. The amount of

volume is set constant for easier calculation.

Graphs have been plotted from the data obtained for analyzing the

flow characteristics. For the rectangular graphs, the discharge coefficient

decrease slowly, then it reaches almost constant value for the rest. Very

differ from triangular notch which is, the discharge decrease smoothly but

the values are way higher than rectangular notch.

From the result, it can be shown that the triangular notch have more

discharge coefficient rather than the rectangular notch.

2. Introduction

Fluids mechanics has develop as an analytical discipline from the

application of the classical laws of statistics, dynamics and thermodynamics,

to situations in which fluids can be treated as continuous media. The

particular laws involved are those of the conservation of mass, energy and

momentum and, in each application, these laws can be simplified in an

attempt to describe quantitatively the behaviour of the fluid.

liquid coming out the weir is known as a nappe, sheet, or vein. There is no

difference between a notch and weir except that the former is a small

structure and has sharp edges. A weir is generally an overflow structure, with

a broad crest, built across an open channel. The terms air and weirs are used

synonymously in general. The top of weir wall over which the liquid flows is

known as the sill or crest. The head under which the weir is discharging is

measured from the crest to the free surface. A weir or notch is generally

used for measuring the flow of liquids.

In this experiment, the rectangular weirs and triangular weirs are been

used. Rectangular weirs and triangular or v-notch weirs are often used in

water supply, wastewater and sewage systems. They consist of a sharp

edged plate with a rectangular, triangular or v-notch profile for the water

flow. Broad-crested weirs can be observed in dam spillways where the broad

edge is beneath the water surface across the entire stream. Flow

measurement installations with broad-crested weirs will meet accuracy

requirements only if they are calibrated.

3

3. Objectives of the Experiment

To observe the flow characteristics over a rectangular notch and a vee

(V) notch.

To determine the discharge coefficients of the fluid flow.

4. Theory

With different type of notch, the method of calculating the discharge

coefficients of the fluid flow is also different. These are some theories that

discuss about the reasoning of two different notches, which are:

1. Rectangular Notch

A rectangular notch in a thin square edged weir plate installed in a weir

channel as shown in figure 2.

Assuming that the flow is everywhere normal to the plane of the weir and

that the free surface remains horizontal up to the plane of the weir.

In practice the flow through the notch will not be parallel and therefore will

not be normal to the plane of the weir. The free surface is not horizontal and

viscosity and surface tension will have an effect. There will be a considerable

change in the shape of the nappe as it passes through the notch with

curvature of the stream lines in both vertical and horizontal planes as

indicated in Figure 3, in particular the width of the nappe is reduced by the

contractions at each end.

4

Figure 3: Shape of a Nappe

3

2

Q t =Cd b (2 g)H 2

3

Where;

Qt = volume flow rate ( m/s )

H = height above notch base (m)

b = width of rectangular notch ( 0.03 m)

Cd = the discharge coefficient, which has to be determined by

experiment

The discharge from a rectangular notch will be considerably less,

approximately 60%, of the theoretical analysis due to these curvature

effects. A coefficient of discharge Cd is therefore introduced so that

3 Qt

C d= 3

2

b (2 g)H 2

However, Cd is not a true constant tending towards a constant only for large

heads and a low velocity of approach in the weir channel.

5

2. Triangular ( vee ) Notch

5

8

Q t =Cd

15

tan

2 () (2 g) H 2

Where;

Qt = volume flow rate

H = height above notch base

B = width of rectangular notch

= angle of the Vee in the triangular notch

Cd = the discharge coefficient, which has to be determined by

experiment

Thus,

15 Qt

C d= 5

8

( ) ( 2 g ) H

tan

2

2

depth raised to power 1.5 and for the triangular notch to a power of 2.5. A

triangular notch will therefore handle a wider range of flowrates. It can be

shown that the notch must have curved walls giving a large width to the

bottom of the notch and a comparatively small width towards the top. The

weir is frequently installed for controlling the flow within the unit itself, for

instance in a distillation column or reactor.

6

SOLTEQ Flow Over Weirs (Model: FM 26) - Appendix

Water

6. Methodology

1. The hydraulic bench is placed in a way that its surface is horizontal.

This is important as the flow over notch is driven by gravitational force.

2. Initial reading on the wall of the water tank was noted and recorded.

3. The stopwatch is set to zero before the experiment started.

4. The rectangular notch is mounted into the flow channel and the stilling

baffle as shown in diagram 1.

5. The main valve is opened.

6. The pump is opened until the level of the water is just above of the

weir crest by locking the coarse adjustment screw.

7. To take an accurate height reading, the fine adjustment is used to

lower the gauge until it almost touched the surface.

8. The general features of the flow of water over the weir is being

observed and recorded.

9. The volume flow rate is being determined by measuring the time with

the aid of stopwatch for the water to flow into the container or

volumetric tank in a known volume.

10. The ball valve is used to close the tank outflow and the volume

collected will be recorded.

11. The valve is then opened again, this time the bench valve is

opened further to produce an increase in depth of approximately 10

mm.

12. This will shows an increase in the reading of the flow rates and

hence being recorded. This continued until the level reached the top of

the notch.

13. The procedure is repeated by replacing the rectangular notch

plate with the triangular (Vee) notch plate.

Type of Volume(L) Water Time (s) Q (m3/s) Cd

notch height (flowate)

(cm)

Rectangle 3 1 23 1.304310 1.4731

7

-4

3 2 13 2.507710 0.9215

-4

-4

-4

-4

-3

-3

3 2 18.30 1.63910-4 1.2265

3 3 7.97 3.76410-4 1.0222

3 4 3.41 8.79710-4 1.1638

b = 0.03 m

g = 9.81 m/s2

H = 1 x 10-2 m

Volume ( m3 )

Volume flow rate, Qt =

Time(s)

= 3 x 10-3 m3 / 23 s

= 1.304310-4 m3/s

3 Qt

Discharge coefficient, C d= 3

2

b (2 g)H 2

3

( 2)

( 1.3043 10 4

)

3

0.03 2 ( 9.8 ) (0.01) 2

= 1.4731

= 90o

g = 9.81 m/s2

H = 1 x 10-2 m

8

Volume ( m3 )

Volume flow rate, Qt =

Time(s)

= 3 x 10-3 m3 / 68.18 s

= 4.410-5 m3/s

15 Qt

C d= 5

Discharge coefficient, 8

( ) ( 2 g ) H

tan

2

2

15

( 8)

5

( 4.4 10 )

5

90

tan ( ) 2 ( 9.8 ) (0.01) 2

2

= 1.8678

Q2/3 H Cd

0.002572 1.473

0.01 1

0.003762 0.921

0.02 5

0.005262 0.829

0.03 6

0.007057 0.04 0.837

0.008572 0.801

0.05 7

0.01086 0.06 0.861

0.01215 0.816

0.07 7

9

Q2/3 and H

0.01

0.01

0.01

Q and H

0.01 Logarithmic (Q and H)

0.01

0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

Cd and H

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

Cd and H

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08

Q2/5 H Cd

0.01 1.867

0.01809 8

0.01 1.226

0.03061 5

10

0.03 1.022

0.04268 2

0.04 1.163

0.05994 8

Q2/5 and H

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04 Q and H

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05

Cd and H

2

1.5

Cd and H

1

0.5

0

0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05

11

12

8. Discussion

In this experiment, the objectives are to observe the flow

characteristics over a rectangular notch and a triangular(V) notch, and to

determine the discharge coefficients of the fluid flow. The objectives of this

experiment were achieved since the analysis of the flow characteristics can

be done by plotting graphs related to the experiment. The data of discharge

coefficient also was determined by calculation using the formula.

volume flowrate with the Ideal volume flowrate. Then, the final formula of C d

is obtained as shown in the theory section. In this experiment, the formula

was used for calculation and tabulation. The Cd formulas are also derived

depending on the type of notch. In this experiment, only two types of notch

were used. Thus, only two different formula of Cd is used for calculation.

From the rectangular notch, the graph shows that the depth of water, H

increases as volume flowrate, Qt increase. The discharge coefficient, C d

decrease slowly, then it reaches almost constant value for the rest of the

depth. This could due to the water surface tension that disturbs the flow of

the water toward the notch. When Q has reached high value that can

overcome the tension, the Cd becomes almost contant value in the flow. The

space for the water to flow, B is also enhancing the degeneration of Cd.

As for the triangular notch, the graph shows the same, the depth of

water, H increases as volume flowrate, Qt increase. But the only differ is, the

discharge, Cd decrease smoothly and the value of discharge are way higher

that the rectangular notch. The water surface tensions also exist in this

situation but the high magnitude of Cd occurs due to the angle of the

triangular notch. More higher the depth, the larger space for the water to

flow(value of B). It causes the value of C d different from the rectangular

notch.

9. Conclusion

From this experiment, it can be concluded that the discharge

coefficient, Cd for the triangular notch are higher compare to the rectangular

notch. It is due to the value of B, which is the space for the water to flow

through the notch. For rectangular notch, it is constant for every depth. But,

for triangular notch the value of B will increase as the depth, H increase

related to the angle of notch.

13

10. Experimental Precaution

Experiment must be carried at steady place to prevent existence of

large waves on the water.

Ensure that the scale of the needle is in zero positioning before setting

the initial depth of water.

Ensure that the surface of the water touches the tip of the needle

before recording the volume of the water flow.

In installing the notch, make sure that the screws are tight before start

the experiment to prevent leakage of water below the notch.

This experiment involves large volume of liquid. Thus, ensure that the

water flows accordingly in the container/apparatus to prevent flood

occur in the laboratory.

In collecting volume, make sure that the water is fully secure before

collecting data.

11. References

Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer Volume 1, Sixth Edition,

Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering by J M Coulson & J F

Richardson with J R Backhurst and J H Harker.

Operating and Experiment Manual for SOLTEQ Flow Over Weirs

(Model: FM 26).

Laboratory Experiment Manual of CPE453 Provided by Puan Suhaiza

Hanim Hanipah.

Trebal R. E., Mass Transfer Operation, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New

York, 1990.

CHE 493 Lecturer Notes Puan Sunita Jobli, Semester 2 (EH2212B).

http://www.cussons.co.uk/SOFTWARE/Part5/PART5.HTM

http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/fluids/orifice.htm#Expt

12. Appendix

SOLTEQ Flow Over Weirs (Model: FM 26)

14

Figure 1: Flow Over Weirs Apparatus

15

Figure 3: Trangular notch

16

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