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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


CPE 453

NAME : MOHAMMAD AKMALHAKIM BIN


ZAKARIA
STUDENT NO. : 2010229424
GROUP : EH2213B
EXPERIMENT : FLOW OVER WEIRS
DATE PERFORMED : 27 OCTOBER 2011
SEMESTER : SEMESTER 3
PROGRAMME / CODE : CPE 453
SUBMIT TO : PUAN SUHAIZA HANIM HANIPAH

Allocated Marks
No. Title Marks
(%)
1 Abstract/Summary 5
2 Introduction 5
3 Aims 5
4 Theory 5
5 Apparatus 5
6 Methodology/Procedure 10
7 Results 10
8 Calculations 10
9 Discussion 20
10 Conclusion 10
11 Recommendations 5
12 Reference 5
13 Appendix 5
TOTAL MARKS 100

Remarks:

Checked by :

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Date :

Contents
1. Abstract.......................................................................................................3
2. Introduction.................................................................................................3
3. Objectives of the Experiment......................................................................3
4. Theory..........................................................................................................4
1. Rectangular Notch...................................................................................4
2. Triangular ( vee ) Notch...........................................................................5
5. Apparatus and Material................................................................................6
6. Methodology...............................................................................................6
7. Results and Calculations..............................................................................7
7.1 Calculation for Rectangular Notch..........................................................7
7.2 Calculation for Triangular Notch.............................................................8
7.3 Graph for Rectangular Notch..................................................................8
7.4 Graph for Triangular Notch.....................................................................9
8. Discussion..................................................................................................11
9. Conclusion.................................................................................................11
10. Experimental Precaution..........................................................................11
11. References...............................................................................................12
12. Appendix..................................................................................................12

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1. Abstract
This report will discuss about the flow characteristics over a
rectangular notch and a triangular(V) notch. The discharge coefficient of the
fluid flow are also have been defined through this experiment. In order to
achieve the objective, every depth of water with different height and two
different notches was recorded in conducting experiment. The amount of
volume is set constant for easier calculation.
Graphs have been plotted from the data obtained for analyzing the
flow characteristics. For the rectangular graphs, the discharge coefficient
decrease slowly, then it reaches almost constant value for the rest. Very
differ from triangular notch which is, the discharge decrease smoothly but
the values are way higher than rectangular notch.
From the result, it can be shown that the triangular notch have more
discharge coefficient rather than the rectangular notch.

2. Introduction
Fluids mechanics has develop as an analytical discipline from the
application of the classical laws of statistics, dynamics and thermodynamics,
to situations in which fluids can be treated as continuous media. The
particular laws involved are those of the conservation of mass, energy and
momentum and, in each application, these laws can be simplified in an
attempt to describe quantitatively the behaviour of the fluid.

A weir is an opening in the sidewall of a tank at top. The stream of


liquid coming out the weir is known as a nappe, sheet, or vein. There is no
difference between a notch and weir except that the former is a small
structure and has sharp edges. A weir is generally an overflow structure, with
a broad crest, built across an open channel. The terms air and weirs are used
synonymously in general. The top of weir wall over which the liquid flows is
known as the sill or crest. The head under which the weir is discharging is
measured from the crest to the free surface. A weir or notch is generally
used for measuring the flow of liquids.
In this experiment, the rectangular weirs and triangular weirs are been
used. Rectangular weirs and triangular or v-notch weirs are often used in
water supply, wastewater and sewage systems. They consist of a sharp
edged plate with a rectangular, triangular or v-notch profile for the water
flow. Broad-crested weirs can be observed in dam spillways where the broad
edge is beneath the water surface across the entire stream. Flow
measurement installations with broad-crested weirs will meet accuracy
requirements only if they are calibrated.

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3. Objectives of the Experiment
To observe the flow characteristics over a rectangular notch and a vee
(V) notch.
To determine the discharge coefficients of the fluid flow.

4. Theory
With different type of notch, the method of calculating the discharge
coefficients of the fluid flow is also different. These are some theories that
discuss about the reasoning of two different notches, which are:

1. Rectangular Notch
A rectangular notch in a thin square edged weir plate installed in a weir
channel as shown in figure 2.

Figure 2: Rectangular Notch

Consider the flow in an element of height H at a depth h below the surface.


Assuming that the flow is everywhere normal to the plane of the weir and
that the free surface remains horizontal up to the plane of the weir.

In practice the flow through the notch will not be parallel and therefore will
not be normal to the plane of the weir. The free surface is not horizontal and
viscosity and surface tension will have an effect. There will be a considerable
change in the shape of the nappe as it passes through the notch with
curvature of the stream lines in both vertical and horizontal planes as
indicated in Figure 3, in particular the width of the nappe is reduced by the
contractions at each end.

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Figure 3: Shape of a Nappe

3
2
Q t =Cd b (2 g)H 2
3
Where;
Qt = volume flow rate ( m/s )
H = height above notch base (m)
b = width of rectangular notch ( 0.03 m)
Cd = the discharge coefficient, which has to be determined by
experiment
The discharge from a rectangular notch will be considerably less,
approximately 60%, of the theoretical analysis due to these curvature
effects. A coefficient of discharge Cd is therefore introduced so that

3 Qt
C d= 3
2
b (2 g)H 2

However, Cd is not a true constant tending towards a constant only for large
heads and a low velocity of approach in the weir channel.

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2. Triangular ( vee ) Notch

Figure 4: Triangular or V Notch

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8
Q t =Cd
15
tan
2 () (2 g) H 2
Where;
Qt = volume flow rate
H = height above notch base
B = width of rectangular notch
= angle of the Vee in the triangular notch
Cd = the discharge coefficient, which has to be determined by
experiment
Thus,
15 Qt
C d= 5
8
( ) ( 2 g ) H
tan
2
2

For a rectangular notch the rate of discharged is proportional to the liquid


depth raised to power 1.5 and for the triangular notch to a power of 2.5. A
triangular notch will therefore handle a wider range of flowrates. It can be
shown that the notch must have curved walls giving a large width to the
bottom of the notch and a comparatively small width towards the top. The
weir is frequently installed for controlling the flow within the unit itself, for
instance in a distillation column or reactor.

5. Apparatus and Material

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SOLTEQ Flow Over Weirs (Model: FM 26) - Appendix
Water

6. Methodology
1. The hydraulic bench is placed in a way that its surface is horizontal.
This is important as the flow over notch is driven by gravitational force.
2. Initial reading on the wall of the water tank was noted and recorded.
3. The stopwatch is set to zero before the experiment started.
4. The rectangular notch is mounted into the flow channel and the stilling
baffle as shown in diagram 1.
5. The main valve is opened.
6. The pump is opened until the level of the water is just above of the
weir crest by locking the coarse adjustment screw.
7. To take an accurate height reading, the fine adjustment is used to
lower the gauge until it almost touched the surface.
8. The general features of the flow of water over the weir is being
observed and recorded.
9. The volume flow rate is being determined by measuring the time with
the aid of stopwatch for the water to flow into the container or
volumetric tank in a known volume.
10. The ball valve is used to close the tank outflow and the volume
collected will be recorded.
11. The valve is then opened again, this time the bench valve is
opened further to produce an increase in depth of approximately 10
mm.
12. This will shows an increase in the reading of the flow rates and
hence being recorded. This continued until the level reached the top of
the notch.
13. The procedure is repeated by replacing the rectangular notch
plate with the triangular (Vee) notch plate.

7. Results and Calculations


Type of Volume(L) Water Time (s) Q (m3/s) Cd
notch height (flowate)
(cm)
Rectangle 3 1 23 1.304310 1.4731

7
-4

3 2 13 2.507710 0.9215
-4

3 3 7.86 3.816810 0.8296


-4

3 4 5.06 5.928910 0.8370


-4

3 5 3.78 7.936510 0.8017


-4

3 6 2.65 1.132110 0.8610


-3

3 7 2.24 1.339310 0.8167


-3

Triangular 3 1 68.18 4.410-5 1.8678


3 2 18.30 1.63910-4 1.2265
3 3 7.97 3.76410-4 1.0222
3 4 3.41 8.79710-4 1.1638

7.1 Calculation for Rectangular Notch

b = 0.03 m
g = 9.81 m/s2
H = 1 x 10-2 m

Volume ( m3 )
Volume flow rate, Qt =
Time(s)
= 3 x 10-3 m3 / 23 s
= 1.304310-4 m3/s

3 Qt
Discharge coefficient, C d= 3
2
b (2 g)H 2

3

( 2)
( 1.3043 10 4
)
3
0.03 2 ( 9.8 ) (0.01) 2
= 1.4731

7.2 Calculation for Triangular Notch

= 90o
g = 9.81 m/s2
H = 1 x 10-2 m

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Volume ( m3 )
Volume flow rate, Qt =
Time(s)
= 3 x 10-3 m3 / 68.18 s
= 4.410-5 m3/s

15 Qt
C d= 5
Discharge coefficient, 8
( ) ( 2 g ) H
tan
2
2

15

( 8)
5
( 4.4 10 )
5
90
tan ( ) 2 ( 9.8 ) (0.01) 2
2
= 1.8678

7.3 Graph for Rectangular Notch


Q2/3 H Cd
0.002572 1.473
0.01 1
0.003762 0.921
0.02 5
0.005262 0.829
0.03 6
0.007057 0.04 0.837
0.008572 0.801
0.05 7
0.01086 0.06 0.861
0.01215 0.816
0.07 7

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Q2/3 and H
0.01

0.01

0.01
Q and H
0.01 Logarithmic (Q and H)
0.01

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

Cd and H
1.6

1.4

1.2

1
Cd and H
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08

7.4 Graph for Triangular Notch


Q2/5 H Cd
0.01 1.867
0.01809 8
0.01 1.226
0.03061 5

10
0.03 1.022
0.04268 2
0.04 1.163
0.05994 8

Q2/5 and H
0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04 Q and H

0.03
0.02

0.01

0
0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05

Cd and H
2

1.5

Cd and H
1

0.5

0
0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05

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8. Discussion
In this experiment, the objectives are to observe the flow
characteristics over a rectangular notch and a triangular(V) notch, and to
determine the discharge coefficients of the fluid flow. The objectives of this
experiment were achieved since the analysis of the flow characteristics can
be done by plotting graphs related to the experiment. The data of discharge
coefficient also was determined by calculation using the formula.

The discharge coefficient, Cd originally derived by dividing the actual


volume flowrate with the Ideal volume flowrate. Then, the final formula of C d
is obtained as shown in the theory section. In this experiment, the formula
was used for calculation and tabulation. The Cd formulas are also derived
depending on the type of notch. In this experiment, only two types of notch
were used. Thus, only two different formula of Cd is used for calculation.

From the rectangular notch, the graph shows that the depth of water, H
increases as volume flowrate, Qt increase. The discharge coefficient, C d
decrease slowly, then it reaches almost constant value for the rest of the
depth. This could due to the water surface tension that disturbs the flow of
the water toward the notch. When Q has reached high value that can
overcome the tension, the Cd becomes almost contant value in the flow. The
space for the water to flow, B is also enhancing the degeneration of Cd.

As for the triangular notch, the graph shows the same, the depth of
water, H increases as volume flowrate, Qt increase. But the only differ is, the
discharge, Cd decrease smoothly and the value of discharge are way higher
that the rectangular notch. The water surface tensions also exist in this
situation but the high magnitude of Cd occurs due to the angle of the
triangular notch. More higher the depth, the larger space for the water to
flow(value of B). It causes the value of C d different from the rectangular
notch.

9. Conclusion
From this experiment, it can be concluded that the discharge
coefficient, Cd for the triangular notch are higher compare to the rectangular
notch. It is due to the value of B, which is the space for the water to flow
through the notch. For rectangular notch, it is constant for every depth. But,
for triangular notch the value of B will increase as the depth, H increase
related to the angle of notch.

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10. Experimental Precaution
Experiment must be carried at steady place to prevent existence of
large waves on the water.
Ensure that the scale of the needle is in zero positioning before setting
the initial depth of water.
Ensure that the surface of the water touches the tip of the needle
before recording the volume of the water flow.
In installing the notch, make sure that the screws are tight before start
the experiment to prevent leakage of water below the notch.
This experiment involves large volume of liquid. Thus, ensure that the
water flows accordingly in the container/apparatus to prevent flood
occur in the laboratory.
In collecting volume, make sure that the water is fully secure before
collecting data.

11. References
Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer Volume 1, Sixth Edition,
Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering by J M Coulson & J F
Richardson with J R Backhurst and J H Harker.
Operating and Experiment Manual for SOLTEQ Flow Over Weirs
(Model: FM 26).
Laboratory Experiment Manual of CPE453 Provided by Puan Suhaiza
Hanim Hanipah.
Trebal R. E., Mass Transfer Operation, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New
York, 1990.
CHE 493 Lecturer Notes Puan Sunita Jobli, Semester 2 (EH2212B).
http://www.cussons.co.uk/SOFTWARE/Part5/PART5.HTM
http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/fluids/orifice.htm#Expt

12. Appendix
SOLTEQ Flow Over Weirs (Model: FM 26)

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Figure 1: Flow Over Weirs Apparatus

Figure 2: Rectangular notch

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Figure 3: Trangular notch

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