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CKB 30103 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


CKB 30103
CHAPTER 1 PART 1

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CHAPTER 1 subtopic 1.1 -1.3

THE TOPIC OUTCOMES


AT THE END OF THIS TOPIC, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO;
1. UNDERSTAND ALL THE WORKING DEFINITION SUCH HAZARD, ACCIDENT,
CONSEQUENCES, RISK & ETC.
2. IDENTIFY THE HAZARD(S) AND ITS TYPE (SPECIFIC & TYPE / CLASS).
3. DIFFERENTIATE INCIDENT NAMES USE IN OSHA & NADOPOD,2004.
4. CALCULATE THE ACCIDENT STATISTIC USING OSHA & NADOPOD, 2004 THE
DETERMINE SAFETY PERFORMANCE.

CKB 30103 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND HEALTH 2


Hazard :
Any sources, situations or acts with a
potential for harm in terms of human
injury or ill health, damage to property,
damage to the workplace, environment, or
combination of these

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What is a adverse health effects?

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What is a adverse health effects?

Adverse health effects include:


bodily injury,
disease,
change in the way the body functions, grows, or develops,
effects on children, grandchildren, etc. (inheritable
genetic effects)
decrease in life span,
change in mental condition resulting from stress,
traumatic experiences, exposure to solvents, and so on, and
effects on the ability to accommodate additional stress.

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Accident :

Unplanned event or sequence of


events that has undesirable
consequences that could lead to
health effects, economical losses and
public relation losses.

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WHAT IS THE RISK
Risk is the chance or probability
that a person will be harmed or
experience an adverse health
effect if exposed to a hazard.
It may also apply to situations
with property or equipment loss.

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WHAT IS A RISK FACTORS?
Factors that influence the degree of risk include:
how much a person is exposed to a
hazardous thing or condition,
how the person is exposed (e.g.,
breathing in a vapour, skin contact),
how severe are the effects under the
conditions of exposure.

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LETS TRY
CONSEQUENCE

THINK

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LIST INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS
FOR
LESSON TO BE LEARNT

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CASE 1
FLIXBOROUGH (NYPRO UK) EXPLOSION 1ST JUNE 1974
NYPRO LIMITED
CYCLOHEXANE AS RAW MATERIAL, PLANT CAPACITY 70,000
TON/YEAR CYPROLACTAM*, 6 REACTORS

EFFECT TO HUMAN BEING


28 DEATH
36 INJURED
DAMAGE 1821 HOUSES AND 167 SHOP LOTS
55 PUBLIC WERE INJURED.

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FLIXBOROUGH EXPLOSION ACCIDENT SUMMARY

ON 27 MARCH 1974, IT WAS DISCOVERED THAT A


VERTICAL CRACK IN REACTOR NO.5 WAS LEAKING
CYCLOHEXANE.

THE PLANT WAS SHUTDOWN AND INVESTIGATION


IDENTIFIED A SERIOUS PROBLEM WITH THE REACTOR NO.5

THE DECISION WAS TAKEN TO REMOVE IT AND


INSTALL A BYPASS ASSEMBLY TO CONNECT REACTORS
NO.4 AND NO.6 SO THAT THE PLANT COULD CONTINUE
PRODUCTION.
FLIXBOROUGH EXPLOSION ACCIDENT SUMMARY

LATE AFTERNOON, 1 JUNE 1974, A 20 INCH BYPASS SYSTEM


RUPTURED, WHICH MAY HAVE BEEN CAUSED BY A FIRE ON A NEARBY
8 INCH PIPE.
THIS RESULTED IN THE ESCAPE OF A LARGE QUANTITY OF
CYCLOHEXANE.
THE CYCLOHEXANE FORMED A FLAMMABLE MIXTURE AND
SUBSEQUENTLY FOUND A SOURCE OF IGNITION.
AT ABOUT 16:53 HOURS THERE WAS A MASSIVE VAPOUR CLOUD
EXPLOSION WHICH CAUSED EXTENSIVE DAMAGE AND STARTED
NUMEROUS FIRES ON THE SITE.
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FLIXBOROUGH EXPLOSION FAILINGS IN
TECHNICAL MEASURES

1. A PLANT MODIFICATION OCCURRED WITHOUT A FULL


ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES. ONLY
LIMITED CALCULATIONS WERE UNDERTAKEN ON THE
INTEGRITY OF THE BYPASS LINE. NO CALCULATIONS WERE
UNDERTAKEN FOR THE DOG-LEGGED SHAPED LINE OR FOR
THE BELLOWS. NO DRAWING OF THE PROPOSED
MODIFICATION WAS PRODUCED.
PLANT MODIFICATION / CHANGE PROCEDURES: HAZOP*
DESIGN CODES - PIPEWORK: USE OF FLEXIBLE PIPES

*Hazard Operability Study


FLIXBOROUGH EXPLOSION FAILINGS IN
TECHNICAL MEASURES

2. NO PRESSURE TESTING WAS CARRIED OUT ON THE


INSTALLED PIPEWORK MODIFICATION.
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES: RECOMMISSIONING
3. THOSE CONCERNED WITH THE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION
AND LAYOUT OF THE PLANT DID NOT CONSIDER THE
POTENTIAL FOR A MAJOR DISASTER HAPPENING
INSTANTANEOUSLY.
PLANT LAYOUT: POSITIONING OF OCCUPIED BUILDINGS
CONTROL ROOM DESIGN: STRUCTURAL DESIGN TO
WITHSTAND MAJOR HAZARDS EVENTS
FLIXBOROUGH EXPLOSION FAILINGS IN
TECHNICAL MEASURES

4. THE INCIDENT HAPPENED DURING START UP


WHEN CRITICAL DECISIONS WERE MADE UNDER
OPERATIONAL STRESS. IN PARTICULAR THE
SHORTAGE OF NITROGEN FOR INERTING WOULD
TEND TO INHIBIT THE VENTING OF OFF-GAS AS A
METHOD OF PRESSURE CONTROL/REDUCTION.
OPERATING PROCEDURES: NUMBER OF CRITICAL DECISIONS TO BE MADE
INERTING: RELIABILITY/BACK-UP/PROOF TESTING
CASE 2
UNION CARBIDE INDIA LTD, BHOPAL, INDIA.
3RD DECEMBER 1984

UNION CARBIDE PLANT, MADHYA PRADESH


PESTICIDE PLANT.
METHYL ISOCYANATE(MIC) IMMEDIATE PRODUCT
LEAKAGE AT MIC STORAGE TANK
EFFECT TO HUMAN BEING
10,000 DEATH AND 20,000 INJURED WITHIN 3 DAYS
ADDITIONAL 25,000 DEATH BY 1994
BHOPAL LEAKAGE ACCIDENT SUMMARY

AT 23.00 HRS ON 2 DECEMBER 1984, AN OPERATOR


NOTICED THE PRESSURE INSIDE THE STORAGE TANK
TO BE HIGHER THAN NORMAL BUT NOT OUTSIDE THE
WORKING PRESSURE OF THE TANK.
AT THE SAME TIME A MIC LEAK WAS REPORTED NEAR
THE VENT GAS SCRUBBER (VGS).
AT 00.15HRS A MIC RELEASE IN THE PROCESS AREA
WAS REPORTED.
BHOPAL LEAKAGE ACCIDENT SUMMARY

THE PRESSURE INSIDE THE STORAGE TANK WAS RISING


RAPIDLY SO THE OPERATOR WENT OUTSIDE TO THE TANK.
RUMBLING SOUNDS WERE HEARD FROM THE TANK AND A
SCREECHING NOISE FROM THE SAFETY VALVE.
RADIATED HEAT COULD ALSO BE FELT FROM THE TANK.
ATTEMPTS WERE MADE TO SWITCH ON THE VENT GAS
SCRUBBER BUT THIS WAS NOT IN OPERATIONAL MODE.
BHOPAL LEAKAGE ACCIDENT SUMMARY

IN THE EARLY HOURS OF 3 DECEMBER 1984 A RELIEF VALVE ON A


STORAGE TANK CONTAINING HIGHLY TOXIC MIC LIFTED.
A CLOUD OF MIC GAS WAS RELEASED WHICH DRIFTED ONTO NEARBY
HOUSING.
APPROXIMATELY 2,000 PEOPLE DIED WITHIN A SHORT PERIOD AND TENS
OF THOUSANDS WERE INJURED, OVERWHELMING THE EMERGENCY
SERVICES.
THIS WAS FURTHER COMPOUNDED BY THE FACT THAT THE HOSPITALS
WERE UNAWARE AS TO WHICH GAS WAS INVOLVED OR WHAT ITS EFFECTS
WERE.
THE EXACT NUMBERS OF DEAD AND INJURED ARE UNCERTAIN, AS PEOPLE
HAVE CONTINUED TO DIE OF THE EFFECTS OVER A PERIOD OF YEARS.
BHOPAL LEAKAGE FAILINGS IN TECHNICAL
MEASURES

1. THE FLARE SYSTEM WAS A CRITICAL ELEMENT WITHIN THE


PLANTS PROTECTION SYSTEM. HOWEVER, THIS FACT WAS NOT
RECOGNISED AS IT WAS OUT OF COMMISSION FOR SOME
THREE MONTHS PRIOR TO THE ACCIDENT.
PLANT MODIFICATION / CHANGE PROCEDURES: HAZOP, IDENTIFICATION OF SAFETY
CRITICAL ELEMENTS

2. HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH RUNAWAY REACTIONS IN A


CHEMICAL REACTOR ARE GENERALLY UNDERSTOOD. HOWEVER,
SUCH AN OCCURRENCE WITHIN A STORAGE TANK HAD
RECEIVED LITTLE RESEARCH.
REACTION / PRODUCT TESTING: LABORATORY TESTING

*Hazard Operability Study


BHOPAL LEAKAGE FAILINGS IN TECHNICAL
MEASURES

3. THE INGRESS OF WATER CAUSED AN


EXOTHERMIC REACTION WITH THE PROCESS
FLUID. THE EXACT POINT OF INGRESS IS
UNCERTAIN THOUGH POOR MODIFICATION
/MAINTENANCE PRACTICES MAY HAVE
CONTRIBUTED.
DESIGN CODES - PLANT: INGRESS OF UNWANTED MATERIAL
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES: TRAINING AND COMPETENCE LEVELS
PLANT MODIFICATION / CHANGE PROCEDURES: HAZOP

*Hazard Operability Study


BHOPAL LEAKAGE FAILINGS IN TECHNICAL
MEASURES

4. THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE


REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WAS ONE PLANT
MODIFICATION THAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE
ACCIDENT. WITHOUT THIS SYSTEM THE
TEMPERATURE WITHIN THE TANK WAS
HIGHER THAN THE DESIGN TEMPERATURE OF
0C.
PLANT MODIFICATION / CHANGE PROCEDURES: HAZOP,
DECOMMISSIONING PROCEDURES

*Hazard Operability Study


BHOPAL LEAKAGE FAILINGS IN TECHNICAL
MEASURES

4. THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE FROM THE COMPANY TO


THE INCIDENT AND FROM THE LOCAL AUTHORITY
SUGGESTS THAT THE EMERGENCY PLAN WAS
INEFFECTIVE. DURING THE EMERGENCY OPERATORS
HESITATED WHEN TO USE THE SIREN SYSTEM. NO
INFORMATION WAS AVAILABLE REGARDING THE
HAZARDOUS NATURE OF MIC AND WHAT MEDICAL
ACTIONS SHOULD BE TAKEN.
EMERGENCY RESPONSE / SPILL CONTROL: SITE EMERGENCY PLAN,
EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES/TRAINING
BHOPAL LEAKAGE FAILINGS IN TECHNICAL
MEASURES
CASE 3
SKIKDA, ALGERIA EXPLOSION
19TH JANUARY 2004
EXPLOSION AT LNG PLANT (6 TRAINS)
DAMAGE ALMOST THE WHOLE PLANT FACILITIES

EFFECT TO HUMAN BEING


27 DEATH
72 INJURED
7 MISSING
EFFECT TO SURROUNDING AREA
DAMAGED OF POWER STATION
REFINERY ON FIRE AND NEED TO BE CLOSE.
Before After

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CASE 4

PORT KEMBLA, NSW, AUSTRALIA

28TH JANUARY 2004


ETHANOL STORAGE TANK ON
FIRE (7 MILLION LITRE)
EFFECT TO HUMAN BEING
1 INJURED
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CASE 5

CIANJHEN AND LINGYA DISTRICTS


OF KAOHSIUNG, TAIWAN
31ST JULY 2014, 8.46 PM
GAS PIPELINE EXPLODED

EFFECT TO HUMAN BEING


31 DEATH
309 INJURED
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Taiwan Kaohsiung Gas Pipeline Explosions 36

31st July 2014


CASE 6
DUST EXPLOSION AT IMPERIAL SUGAR
IN PORT WENTWORTH GEORGIA, UNITED
STATES.

07TH FEBRUARY 2008


THE EXPLOSION WAS FUELLED BY
MASSIVE ACCUMULATIONS OF
COMBUSTIBLE SUGAR DUST
THROUGHOUT THE PACKAGING
BUILDING
EFFECT TO HUMAN BEING
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CASE 7

EXPLOSION AT WEST FERTILIZER


COMPANY IN WEST TEXAS

17TH APRIL 2013


AN AMMONIUM NITRATE EXPLOSION

EFFECT TO HUMAN BEING


14 DEATH
160 INJURED
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CASE 8

CHEMICAL TANKER ABLAZE & EXPLODES


OFF IN LABUAN, MALAYSIA

26TH JULY 2012


A LIGHTING STROKED CAUSED FIRE &
EXPLOSION
EFFECT TO HUMAN BEING
1 DEATH
4 MISSING
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WORK ACCIDENT PHOTOS

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HAZARD TYPES
THREE ARE FEW DIFFERENT TYPES OF HAZARDS :
PHYSICAL HAZARD.
Environmental
CHEMICAL HAZARD.
BIOLOGICAL HAZARD.

Ergonomic
Mechanical

Electrical
Psychosocial 48
Example of Hazards and Their Effects
Example of Harm
Workplace Hazard Example of Hazard
Caused
Thing Knife Cut
Substance Benzene Leukemia
Material Asbestos Mesothelioma
Source of Energy Electricity Shock electrocution
Condition Wet floor Slips, falls
Process Welding Metal fume fever
Practice Hard rock mining Silicosis

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FAILURE TO IDENTIFY HAZARDS

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WORKING AT HEIGHTS

Worker could fall and sustain injury.


HOISTING EQUIPMENT

Load could shift or fall.


FRAYED CONNECTIONS
Corrosion.
PHYSICAL HAZARD

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PHYSICAL HAZARDS
SLIPPERY FLOOR
PROTRUDING OBJECT
FALLING OBJECT
MOVING EQUIPMENT
POOR HOUSEKEEPING
SHARP OBJECT

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CHEMICAL HAZARD

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CHEMICAL HAZARDS
Toxic
Chemicals that Chemicals that
show violent hazardous to health
reactions and may cause death
Hydrochloric acid
Effects are either
Hydrofluoric acid Include explosive, chronic or acute
Potassium water-reactivity Enter biological by
hydroxide chemical, air- digestion, inhalation
sensitive chemical & skin absorption
Sodium hydroxide Eliminated from
and unstable
organism; excretion,
mixture detoxification and
Acid/Bases
Reactive storage

Flammable
Explosive 58
BIOLOGICAL HAZARD

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BIOLOGICAL
HAZARD
BACTERIA
VIRUS
FUNGI
POISONOUS
ANIMAL

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MECHANICAL HAZARD

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MECHANICAL HAZARDS

Pressing

Crushing

Pulling

Entanglement

Cutting 62
ENVIRONMENTAL &
RADIOACTIVE HAZARDS

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ENVIRONMENTAL & RADIOACTIVE
HAZARDS

Radioactive:
UV A,UV B, Gamma Ray & etc.

Environmental:
Heat, cold, contaminated air
etc. 64
PSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARD

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PSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARDS

Sexual Harrassment

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Stress
ERGONOMIC HAZARDS

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ERGONOMIC HAZARDS
ERGONOMIC HAZARDS REFER TO WORKPLACE
CONDITIONS THAT POSE THE RISK OF INJURY
TO THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM OF THE
WORKER.
EXAMPLES OF MUSCULOSKELETAL INJURIES
INCLUDE TENNIS ELBOW (AN INFLAMMATION OF
A TENDON IN THE ELBOW) AND CARPAL TUNNEL
SYNDROME (A CONDITION AFFECTING THE HAND
AND WRIST).
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ERGONOMIC HAZARDS
ERGONOMIC HAZARDS INCLUDE
REPETITIVE AND FORCEFUL MOVEMENTS,
VIBRATION,
TEMPERATURE EXTREMES, GLARE (LIGHT
ILLUMINATION) AND
AWKWARD POSTURES THAT ARISE FROM
IMPROPER WORK METHODS AND IMPROPERLY
DESIGNED WORKSTATIONS, TOOLS, AND
EQUIPMENT.

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ERGONOMIC HAZARDS

Glare
Awkward
Posture

Manual
Handling
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AWKWARD POSTURE (UNCOMFORTABLE POSITION)
BAD SITTING POSTURE GOOD SITTING POSTURE

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ERGONOMIC HAZARDS

Glare
Awkward
Posture

Manual
Handling
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INCIDENT NAMES

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The harm that results FIRST AID
from an uncontrolled
hazard
is called

CONSEQUENCES ACCIDENTS Fatality


/OUTCOME/ (MAJOR Major accident
INCIDENT/ /MINOR)
Minor Accident
CASES

NEARMISSES

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Example of Hazards and Their Effects
Example of Harm
Workplace Hazard Example of Hazard
Caused
Thing Knife Cut
Substance Benzene Leukemia
Material Asbestos Mesothelioma
Source of Energy Electricity Shock electrocution
Condition Wet floor Slips, falls
Process Welding Metal fume fever
Practice Hard rock mining Silicosis

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OSHA INCIDENT NAMES

Occupational Injury First Aid

Occupation illness Fatality cases

Nonfatal Cases Without Lost Workdays

CKB 30103 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

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FIRST AID

ANY ONE-TIME TREATMENT AND ANY


FOLLOW-UP VISIT FOR THE PURPOSE
OF OBSERVATION OF MINOR
SCRATCHES, CUTS, BURNS, SPLINTERS
DO NOT REQUIRE MEDICAL CARE.
CONSIDER NON RECORDABLE CASE.

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OCCUPATIONAL INJURY

ANY INJURY (INCLUDING FATALITY)


RESULTS FROM A WORK ACCIDENT/SINGLE
EXPOSURE INVOLVING A SINGLE ACCIDENT
IN THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT
RECORDABLE CASE.

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OCCUPATIONAL INJURY
EXAMPLES ARE:
THERMAL AND CHEMICAL BURNS
CUTS, ABRASIONS AND PUNCTURES
FRACTURES OR CRUSHING INJURIES
RESPIRATORY IRRITATIONS
INSTANTANEOUS HEARING LOSS
AMPUTATIONS
SPRAINS OR STRAINS
BROKEN BONES
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OCCUPATION ILLNESS

ANY ABNORMAL CONDITION OR DISORDER


(OTHER THAN AN INJURY) THAT RESULTED FROM
A WORK-RELATED EXPOSURE TO A BIOLOGICAL,
CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL AGENT.
THESE INCLUDE BOTH ACUTE AND CHRONIC
ILLNESSES OR DISEASES THAT MAY BE CAUSED BY
INHALATION, ABSORPTION, INGESTION OR
DIRECT CONTACT.
RECORDABLE CASE

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OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS
CATEGORIES EXAMPLES
Lung diseases Silicosis, asbestosis, pneumoconiosis, or
other similar disorder
Physical Heatstroke, sunstroke, heat exhaustion,
disorders freezing, frostbite and other environmental
effects; radiation exposure; and effects
form non-ionizing radiation sources such as
welding flashes, UV rays, microwaves and
sunburn
Other Anthrax, infectious hepatitis, tumors, food
poisoning, and gradual hearing loss
Skin diseases Dermatitis, eczema or rash that is caused
by plants, oil, acne, chromic ulcers, chemical 81

contact, or inflammation.
OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS
CATEGORIES EXAMPLES
Poisoning Exposure to lead, mercury,
cadmium, arsenic or other heavy
metals; inhalation of carbon
monoxide, hydrogen sulfide or
other gases; exposure to benzene
compounds, carbon tetrachloride,
or other organic solvents; exposure
to toxic levels of insecticide
sprays; and exposure to other
chemicals such as formaldehyde,
82 plastics or other resins.
FATALITY CASES

INJURIES OR ILLNESSES THAT


RESULTS IN DEATH, REGARDLESS OF
THE TIME BETWEEN THE INJURY AND
DEATH OR THE LENGTH OF THE
ILLNESS.
RECORDABLE CASE
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NONFATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST
WORKDAYS
CASES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURY / ILLNESS
WHICH DID NOT INVOLVE FATALITIES/LOST
WORKDAYS BUT DID RESULTS;

TRANSFER TO ANOTHER JOB/TERMINATION


MEDICAL TREATMENT OTHER THAN FIRST AID
DIAGNOSIS OF OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS
LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
RESTRICTION OF WORK OR MOTION
RECORDABLE CASE
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LOST WORKDAYS

DAYS WHICH THE EMPLOYEE WOULD


HAVE WORKED BUT COULD NOT
BECAUSE OF OCCUPATIONAL
INJURY/ILLNESS
NOT INCLUDE THE DAY OF INJURY
OR ONSET OF ILLNESS
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RECORDABLE CASES
OCCUPATIONAL INJURY / ILLNESS,
INCLUDING DEATHS (FATALITY CASES)
NOT RECORDABLE ARE FIRST AID CASES
WHICH INVOLVE ONE TIME TREATMENT
& SUBSEQUENT OBSERVATION OF
MINOR SCRATCHED, CUTS, BURNS

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WORK RELATED ACCIDENT- DEFINITION

WORK RELATED ACCIDENT WORK


RELATIONSHIP IS ESTABLISHED WITH THE
INJURY OR ILLNESS RESULTS FROM AN EVENT
OR EXPOSURE IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT.

THE WORK ENVIRONMENT IS NORMALLY


CONSIDERED THE COMPANY PREMISES, OR
ANOTHER LOCATION WHERE THE EMPLOYEE IS
PRESENT AS A CONDITION OF EMPLOYMENT (I.E.
A CONSTRUCTION SITE, OR CUSTOMER
LOCATION).
WORK RELATED ACCIDENT- DEFINITION

DRIVING TO OR FROM WORK IS NOT


NORMALLY CONSIDERED WORK-
RELATED, UNLESS THE COMPANY
REQUIRES THE EMPLOYEE TO DRIVE
OR BE TRANSPORTED TO A SPECIFIC
LOCATION FOR A SPECIFIC BUSINESS
PURPOSE.
WORK RELATED ACCIDENT- DEFINITION
WORK RELATED ACCIDENT WORK
RELATIONSHIP IS ESTABLISHED WITH THE
INJURY OR ILLNESS RESULTS FROM AN EVENT
OR EXPOSURE IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT.

THE WORK ENVIRONMENT IS NORMALLY


CONSIDERED THE COMPANY PREMISES, OR
ANOTHER LOCATION WHERE THE EMPLOYEE IS
PRESENT AS A CONDITION OF EMPLOYMENT
(I.E. A CONSTRUCTION SITE, OR CUSTOMER
LOCATION).
MORE TERMS AND DEFINITION
IN TABLE 1-2
PAGE 6
CROWL AND LOUVAR
CHEMICAL PROCESS SAFETY
(FUNDAMENTALS WITH APPLICATION)
INCIDENT NAMES ACCORDING TO NADOPOD,2004

READ THE REGULATION IN ACT 514


NADOPOD,2004
(NOTIFICATION OF DANGEROUS OCCURENCES,
OCCUPATIONAL POISONING, OCCUPATIONAL
DISEASES,2004)

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FORMULAS
OSHA INCIDENT RATE

OSHA* = NUMBER OF INJURIES & ILLNESS X 200,000


TOTAL HOURS WORKED BY ALL EMPLOYEES
DURING PERIOD COVERED

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FORMULAS
FATAL ACCIDENT RATE

FAR = (Number of fatalities x 108)


Total hours worked by all employees
during period covered

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FORMULAS
FATALITY RATE

Fatality rate = (Number of fatalities per year)


Total number of people (per year)
in applicable population

********Num ber of f at alit ies expect ed per person per year

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