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21 Ansichten22 SeitenDesign of Bolts in Connections

Mar 31, 2017

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Design of Bolts in Connections

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21 Ansichten22 SeitenDesign of Bolts in Connections

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Bearing bolts are bolts that are tightened by hand using an ordinary steel erectors

spanner (i.e. they are not pretensioned) and act in shear and bearing. They are the

cheapest and most widely used form of fastener and are normally used in holes with a

diameter 2 mm larger than the diameter of the bolt shank. Because of this clearance it is

likely that a joint made with such bolts will slip into bearing at a fairly low load when

subjected to shear loading. In most structural situations such slippage is quite acceptable.

If a connection will be subjected to dynamic leading of any kind, Clause 13.12.1.3 of SANS

10162-1 stipulates that pretensioned (or preloaded) bolts must be used. Such bolts are

designed just like bearing bolts. If the designer wants to prevent slip in the joint a high

strength friction grip connection can be used, as described in 3.4 below.

The two grades of bearing bolts most widely used in structural applications in South Africa

are Class 4.8 and the Class 8.8 bolts, described in Chapter 2 above. Class 10.9 bolts are

typically used in pretensioned and friction grip situations.

The general behaviour of a connection with a single Class 4.8 bolt in shear is shown in

Figure 3.1. Because of the clearance between the holes and the bolt, the connection will

slip into bearing at a low load. Once in bearing, the mode of behaviour and failure will

depend on the proportions of the connection, as discussed below. The behaviour of

connections with Class 8.8 or 10.9 bolts will be similar to that of Class 4.8 bolts, though with

higher strengths and some decrease in the deformation at failure.

Experiments show that the shear strength of a bolt is typically about 62% of its tensile

strength. This leads quite logically to a formula for the shear resistance Vr:

Vr = 0,60b Ab f ub (3.1)

where b = 0,8

d 2

Ab =

4

d =diameter of bolt shank

f ub = tensile strength of bolt steel

1

However, unless specific steps are taken to ensure that the shear plane (the faying surface

between the plates held together by the bolt) does not go through the threaded portion

of the bolt, and noting that the effective area As in the threaded portion is a bit more

than 70% of that of the shank, it would be safer to say:

Vr = 0,7 x0,60b Ab f ub

(3.2)

If the bolt passes through several shear planes, the shear resistance must be multiplied by

the number of planes.

See Table 3.2 near the end of this chapter for values of Vrfor different bolts.

Up to now, we have only looked at the shear failure of the bolt as such in a shear

connection. If the thickness of the plates being held together becomes thinner or their

tensile strength is reduced, the plates may fail rather than the bolt. The failure mode will

tend to be by deformation and bunching up of the steel in front of the bolt. If the bolt is

shifted closer to the end of the plate, failure can take the shape of tearing out at the end,

as shown in Figure 3.2. The strength of such a connection is a factor of the distance a of

the bolt hole from the end of the plate, as demonstrated in Figure 3.3. Such failure tends

to be very ductile, with deformations in the order of 10 mm.

2

Figure 3.3 Sensitivity of failure to end distance

Figure 3.3 shows that the resistance of the connection tends to be directly proportional to

the end distance , but for > 3 failure happens at a bearing stress of somewhat more

than 3 . This leads to the following two expressions for the bearing resistance , neither

of which should be exceeded:

Br 2 = br at f u (3.4)

where br= 0,67

a =distance from middle of hole to end of plate.

t = thickness of plate

f u =tensile strength of plate

See Table 3.2 near the end of this chapter for values of Br1when t =1 mm .

If the forceFudoes not act at right angles to the edge of the steel, as shown in Figure 3.4,

the dimension ashould be used in Equation 3.4. Alternatively, the components Fuxand

Fuycan be calculated, in which case the requirement is:

Fux br a y tf u (3.5)

and Fuy br a y tf u (3.6)

The second equation for in the various pairs of equations that were given above is

based on the distance of the bolt from the end of the plate. Now, if there are bolts in a

row, one could argue that its only the end bolts resistance thats influenced by this

requirement. However, Clause 13.10 (c) states that, if there are bolts in the connection,

the pair of equations becomes:

and Br = br antf u (3.8)

3

It happens quite frequently that a packing is used in a shear-type connection, as

demonstrated in Figure 3.5 (a). Unless this is a friction grip connection, slip can occur as

shown in (b), causing the bolt to be subjected to a combination of shear and bending

moment. SANS 10162-1 doesnt mention anything about this, but EN 1993 1 8 Clause

3.6.1 (12) states that, if t p > d b / 3 the equations for Vr in equation 3.1 and 3.2 above

should become:

Vr = 0,6b Ab f ub (3.9)

ad

where = 1,0 but greater than 0,8

8d + 3t p

Another special case arises where theres only one bolt, or one lateral row of bolts, in a

single lap joint. Thin plates in such a connection tend to rotate as shown in Figure 3.6, and

eventually the bolts act largely in tension. This issue is also not addressed in SANS 10162-1.

SANS 10162-2 does cover the subject in Clause 5.3.4, and we recommend on the basis of

this code that for plates less than 5 mm thick the following equations be used in addition

to Equations 3.3 and 3.4:

If washers are supplied under both the bolt head and the nut:

Check Br = 0,55 0,1 +

3d

( )

b nd h tf u

s

'

(3.11)

where s = lateral spacing of bolts, or width of plate b

for a single bolt.

b= width of plate

Without washers:

Check Br = 0,65

2,5d

( )

b nd h tf u

'

(3.12)

s

4

Figure 3.6 Single end bolts in thin plates

SANS 10162-2 Clause 5.3.4.2 imposes a further limitation to prevent excessive deformations

when the plate is thin and the diameter of the bolts more than 10 times the thickness of

the plate, namely to replace Equation 3.3 with the following:

where x = 0,6

= 1,0 if there are washers under both the bolt head and the nut.

C = 4 0,1d / t if d / t 22

C = 1,8 if d / t > 22

In a shear connection consisting of a long line of bolts the forces in the plates joined and

the shear deformation in the bolts will vary along the length of the connection as shown in

Figure 3.7. Consequently, the shear forces in the bolts will vary as shown in Figure 3.8. This is

handled in SANS 10162-1Clause 13.12.12 by requiring that, in a joint with L 15 d (L is the

distance between the bolts at the opposite ends), the average shear resistance of the

bolts must be reduced to a value Vr where

L

Vr* = 1,075 0,005 Vr (3.14)

d

but Vr not less than 0,75Vr

5

Figure 3.7 Stresses in plates in long bolted splice

How to determine the tensile resistance Tr of a bolt will be discussed in 3.7 below. In a joint

such as that shown in Figure 3.9 the bolts will be subjected to a combination of tension

and shear forces.

6

Figure 3.10 shows test results for bolts in combined tension and shear. It also shows the line

resulting from the requirement of Clause 13.12.1.4 of SANS 10162-1:

Vu Tu

+ 1,4 (3.15)

Vr Tr

and Vu Vr (3.16)

Tu Tr (3.17)

See Table 3.3 near the end of this chapter for values of the resistance under combined

tension and shear.

The problem with this approach is that, if prying action is handled as described in 3.7.2

below, the actual tensile force Tuin a bolt remains unknown, so we cannot use the

interaction Equation 3.15. The only thing we can say is that, according to the AISC (Ref),

there will be no prying action if (somewhat modified):

4Tu m

t (3.18)

e f y

m= as in 3.7.2 below

7

e=

smaller of 2mor s (mm)

s= spacing of bolts (mm)

Thus, with a thick enough plate the interaction equation can be used. For thinner plates it

is safer to assume Tumay be as high as Trwhenever there is a possibility of prying action,

and to limit Vuas follows to ensure Equation 3.15 is always satisfied:

Vu 0,4Vr (3.19)

HSFG joints are more expensive than those with bearing bolts and should thus only be

prescribed where they are really necessary, namely in joints subject to impact or vibration,

or where any slip in a connection must be avoided. In the US and Europe preloaded bolts

are quite frequently required by their standards, but we have not seen reason to do so in

South Africa. Note that there is a difference between friction grip and preload, in that

in the latter case no effort is made to ensure a relatively high and predictable coefficient

of friction, although the bolts are treated and fastened identically. The design of friction

grip connections is described in Clause 13.12.2 of SANS 10162-1.

Friction grip joints are designed to resist serviceability or working loads, not ultimate or

factored loads. They usually have a considerable reserve of strength above their slip

resistance (i.e. load at which the friction is overcome and the bolts slip into bearing). If slip

will only cause unserviceability of the structure and not collapse, we may in the design rely

on this post-slip reserve for the ultimate limit state.

frictional resistance must be developed on the faying surfaces between the plies when

they are drawn together by the pretension in the bolts. In practice, considerable variation

exists in the coefficient of friction even for a nominally similar set of circumstances. Clause

13.12.2.2 provides the following equation for determining the slip resistance V sof an HSFG

joint:

on the class of bolt, method of installation, and characteristics of the steel

surfaces. (Note that c1is higher for the turn-of-the-nut method than for other

methods.)

k s =mean slip coefficient

m = number of faying surfaces (contact surfaces of plates clamped together)

n =number of bolts

Ab =gross cross-sectional area of the threaded portion of a bolt

f ub =bolt tensile strength

8

Values of c1, k sand V s can be obtained from Table 3.4 near the end of the chapter or

from Table 5 in SANS 10162-1.

It is important that the steelwork fabricator and erector be made aware of the class of

surface condition or treatment that is required at each joint, and of which bolts need to

be pretensioned.

Clause 13.12.2.3 of SANS 10162-1 deals with joints subject to combined friction (or shear)

and tensile forces. Externally applied tension produces a proportional reduction in the

clamping force between the plies, which in turn produces a corresponding reduction in

the friction resistance of the connection. The relationship is directly proportional, so the

code formula is one of linear interaction. Note that the tensile force used in the formula

includes the applied load plus prying and eccentricity effects, if any, but not the initial pre-

tension.

V 1,9T

+ >1,0 (3.21)

Vs nAb f ub

where T and V = applied tensile and shear forces respectively on the connection

under serviceability loads,

n =number of bolts in connection

Ab =gross cross-sectional area of bolt.

Figure 3.11 Interaction between tension and shear for HSFG bolts

It is advisable to make the plates in HSFG connections subject to combined tension and

shear thick enough so that prying will not be an issue, as it is difficult to know the value of

the prying force. This can be achieved by employing Equation 3.18 above.

9

See Table 3.5 near the end of this chapter for resistances of combined shear and tension

serviceability loads on HSFG connections.

Where a bolt group is loaded with an applied load, the line of action of which is in the

plane of the group but does not pass through the centroid of the group, the bolts are

subject, in addition to the direct shear forces, to shear forces caused by the eccentricity

of the applied load.

The analysis of such fastener groups has traditionally been based on elastic theory, with

the assumption that each fastener will support a) an equal share of the vertical

component of the load, b) an equal share of the horizontal component (if any) of the

load, and c) a proportional share of the moment due to eccentricity of the load,

depending on the fasteners distance from the centroid of the group. The largest value of

the vector sum of these forces on any fastener and limiting it to the resistance of that

fastener, defines the critical load.

Consider the bolt group shown in Figure 3.11 with the origin of the axes at the centroid of

the group. The bolt group must resist a force Fu, with components Fuxand Fuy, acting at

a point with coordinates (e x , e y).

Bolt jwith coordinates ( x j , y j), will be the most critically loaded bolt in the configuration

as shown.

j

2 2

F Fux e y y j Fuy Fuy e x x j

Fuj = ux + + + (3.22)

n Ip n Ip

where I p = polar moment of inertia of the bolt group (taking each bolt as having an

area 1,0) about the centre of gravity at

.

10

( )

n

I p = xi2 + y i2

i =1

In practice most forces in steel structures act parallel to a main axis of a group of bolts,

and Figure 3.13 is representative of such a situation.

Figure 3.13 Bolt group with load eccentric about one axis

is now given by:

2 2

F ey Fu exi Fu

Fui = u i + +

I

p

I

p n

(3.23)

2 2

ey ex 1 1

Fui = i + i + = (3.24)

I I

p p n C

Pr, where Pris the lesser of Vrand Brin

3.1 above, and the magnitude of the force acting on the group is Fu, the connection will

be adequate if

Fu CPr (3.25)

The values of the coefficient C for different bolt groups and load eccentricities are listed

in Tables 3.6 to 3.9 at the end of this chapter.

Coefficients for pre-tensioned high strength friction grip bolts can obviously be derived on

the same basis, so the same tables may be used for HSFG bolts. In this case the resistance

11

of the bolt group, at the serviceability load, isCV s, where V s is the slip resistance of one

bolt.

An alternative method of analysis is that presented by Crawford and Kaku, which uses the

instantaneous centre concept. This method is not used for the tables in this section,

although it gives higher bolt group resistances. We can accept that the procedure

described above is somewhat conservative.

Figure 3.14 gives an indication of the behaviour of different classes of bolts in tension.

Higher strength bolts obviously have a higher tensile strength, but they also have less

ductility than Class 4.8 bolts.

The tensile strength of a bolt is simply equal to its cross-sectional area times its tensile

strength f ub

. However, the smallest area called the tensile stress are As- occurs in the

threaded part, and has the following value:

As = (d 0, 938 p ) (3.26)

2

4

where d = shank or nominal diameter

p = pitch of thread

The tensile stress areas for various bolt sizes are as follows:

Tensile stress area (mm2) 84,3 157 245 353 561 817

The tensile stress area is about 78% of the unthreaded shank area Abgiven by:

12

Ab = d2

4 (3.27)

This leads to the formula for the tensile resistance Trof a bolt:

Tr = 0, 75b Ab f ub (3.28)

where b = 0, 8

The tensile strength of a bolt is not affected by the length of the threaded portion. Figure

3.15 confirms that a bolt with a longer threaded part tends to be about as strong, but

more ductile, than one with a very short thread.

Figure 3.15 Tensile behaviour of Class 8.8 bolts of different thread lengths

If the nut is of the same strength class as the bolt, it is as likely that failure of the fastener will

be by stripping of the threads as by tensile failure of the bolt. This should always be

preceded by yielding of the bolt in tension, thus ensuring that adequate ductility will be

achieved. However, if either the nut is weaker than the bolt or the threads are weaker

than they should be (because they are outside geometric tolerance) then stripping of the

threads may occur prior to yielding of the bolt. In this case the mode of failure will be

undesirably abrupt, with little warning of failure and even less ductility.

Values for the tensile resistance Trof bolts can be obtained from Table 3.2 near the end of

this chapter.

In practice it is not possible to separate the discussion of the strength bolts in tension from

that of the surrounding elements, because flexure of the steel elements may lead to a

significant increase in bolt load as a result of prying action. Figure 3.16 shows the type of

behaviour that tends occur. (The sketches show the bolts preloaded to about 170 kN, but

the behaviour will be very similar with less preload.) In Figure 3.16(a) the flange is relatively

rigid, thus its flexural action may be ignored. For an applied load that is less than the bolt

preload there is no separation of the connected components and only a very modest

13

change in the bolt preload (these changes are due to through-thickness effects in the

immediate vicinity of the bolt). Once the applied load exceeds the bolt preload the

flange separates from the base; from this point onwards to rupture, the tension in the bolt

equals the applied load.

Figure 3.16 The influence of plate thickness on bolt load, through prying action

However if a thinner, more flexible flange is used the behaviour is more complex. Each

portion of the flange bends into double curvature (see Figure 3.17(b)), with restraining

moments at the bolt centreline developed by the forces Q at or near the tips of the end

plates. Equilibrium requires that 2T = 2Tu + 2Q , which means the bolt forces are increased.

The effect of this amplification of the bolt forces is that the ultimate resistance of the

connection is reduced (in the example shown in Figure 3.16(b), from 270 kN to 210 kN).

14

The accurate assessment of prying forces is extremely complex. Various methods for their

evaluation have been developed, but they vary considerably and some are of limited

applicability. However, a sound approach is that adopted in Eurocode 3: Design of Steel

Structures Part 1-8: Design of Joints, and this will be followed here. This approach has the

beauty of addressing the strength of the assembly bolts and flange or end plate

simultaneously.

Consider the T-connection shown in Figure 3.18(a) with a tensile force 2Tuapplied to its

stem. If the thickness t

of the flange is small, the flanges will yield and yield lines will form

along the lines A-A and B-B, shown as plastic hinges at A and B in Figure 3.18 (b).

ef t 2

Mp = fy

4 (3.29)

2Tu1c = 4M p

2M p

Thus Tu1 =

c (3.30)

This is called Mode1 failure. Note that we dont know the values of either Tor Q

.

As the flange gets thicker the forces in the bolts may reach the values of their tensile

resistance Tr after hinges have formed at B but before they can form at A. This is Mode 2

failure, depicted in Figure 3.18 (c). Virtual work now gives us:

15

M p + qTr

Thus: Tu 2 = (3.32)

q+c

If the flange becomes even thicker a point will be reached where no plastic hinge forms

and we get Mode 3 failure, depicted in Figure 3.18 (d). At this point we simply have:

Tu 3 = Tr (3.33)

To determine which of Modes 1,2 or 3 applies, we simply choose the lowest value among

Tu1 , Tu 2 and Tu 3.

EN 1993-1-8 also provides equations for a more refined approach, assuming that the force

the bolt exerts on the flange is uniformly distributed under the bolt head (or nut), as shown

in Figure 3.19.

This has no effect on Mode 3 failure and little effect on Mode 2, but for Mode1 the

equation becomes:

(4q 0, 25 d w )M p (3.34)

Tu1 =

2qc 0, 25 d w (c + q )

If the dimension q in the figures above becomes very large, the formulae would lead one

to believe that the Mode 2 prying force becomes very small. In reality, elastic bending of

the flange will cause the prying force to shift away from the flange tips. In EN 1993 -1-8 this

is handled by requiring that

q 1,25c (3.35)

16

An interesting situation occurs where the rigid surface to which the flange is bolted is

narrower than the flange, as shown in Figure 3.20. In this case the force Q

acts at the edge

of the supporting surface. In this case qshould be measured as shown.

We must draw attention to the fact although we have given the equations for Tuas the

force that can be resisted per individual bolt, the model we used was symmetric, with a

bolt on either side of the stem. It is thus customary (as in EN 1993-1-8) to give the formulae

for the resistance of a pair of bolts. Prying action can, however, also occur in situations not

involving a Ttype element, as shown in Figure 3.21.

In the approach till now we have worked with a short piece of Tsection. However, in

reality we can have bolts acting in tension in a variety of situations: far from the end of the

flange, near an end, near the edge of the flange, near a stiffener supporting the flange,

near other bolts in a line, etc. Figure 3.22 demonstrates typical situations, and shows the

yield lines that may form near a bolt when the flange yields plastically. Also shown in the

figure are lengths efassociated with each yield line pattern. These lengths have been

calibrated such that the T-stub approach can be used by simply plugging the values for

effrom Figure 3.22 into the equation for M p:

ef t 2

M p = fy (3.36)

4

17

Note that the circular yield line pattern is only applicable to Mode 1 failure, for which we

always have to check that the circular pattern does not control.

Where stiffeners are used to support the flange the problem becomes somewhat more

complex. The applicable yield line pattern and efvalues are shown in Figure 3.23. Note

that the equations for efcontain a valuewhich can be obtained from the graph in

Figure 3.24 with

c

1 = (3.37)

q+c

c*

2 = (3.38)

q+c

18

Figure 3.24 Values of to be used near stiffeners

It is quite cumbersome to read the values of from Figure 3.24. Ref provides a formula

for calculating from 1 and 2, but the formula is extremely unwieldy. Looking at

practical cases, with bolts between 30 and 70 mm from the relevant web or stiffener, it

becomes apparent that 1and 2will lie between 0,45 and 0,65. Within this limited region

the following expression for is accurate to within 2% and the bolt resistances to within

1%:

No theory has been developed for prying action in connections with more than one bolt

each side of the stem of a T, as shown in Figure 3.25. One of two approaches can be

adopted in such a situation: make the flange so thick that prying cannot occur, or add

stiffeners as shown in dotted lines to restore the condition of having only one line of bolts

on each side of a stem or rib.

19

Figure 3.25 T with two rows of bolts each side

The discussion on prying forces also applies to connection in tension involving two angles,

back-to-back as shown in Figure 3.26.

Let us now consider the case of T-stub with a tensile force, as shown in Figure 3.27(a),

without any solid surface the ends of the flange can push against.

If the flange is strong enough, the bolts control and the following applies:

20

Tu = Tr (3.40)

If the flange is not strong enough, plastic hinges will form at A. Taking moments about A

we get:

Tc = M p (3.41)

but T = Pu (3.42)

Mp

thus Pu = (3.43)

c

t 2 ef

where M p = fy

4

The value efcan be taken as the lesser of the spacing of the bolts, the length of the T-

stub, or 4c.

Comparing Equation 3.41 with the Mode 1 value for prying action (Equation 3.30), it is

clear that the plate with prying action can resist twice the load of the one without prying.

Of course, prying action reduces the capacity of the bolts for resisting applied load.

Single sided prying relates to the situation depicted in Figure 3.28. If the angle is thick

enough, failure can happen as shown in Figure 3.28 (b), i.e. the bolt fails. Taking moments

about point A we get:

Tr q = bTu (3.44)

21

qTr

Thus Tu = (3.45)

b

If the leg of the angle fails as shown in Figure 3.28 (c), virtual work gives us:

Tu c = 2M p (3.46)

2M p

Thus Tu = (3.47)

c

t 2 ef

where M p = fy

4

The value of efcan be taken as the lesser of the spacing of the bolts, the length of the

angle, or the length of the appropriate yield line from Figure 3.22 or 3.23.

Note that Equation 3.47 is identical to Equation 3.30 for Mode 1 failure with double sided

prying action.

A bolt acting in shear is not subject to classical fatigue, but if there is repeated movement

in a bolted joint the bolts and the steel can be damaged and deformed, the bolts can

work loose, and the connection can start causing real concern. For this reason it makes

sense to use either a friction grip connection, precision bolting (and in severe cases even

a combination of these), or proprietary fasteners designed for this purpose wherever there

will be either large changes in the direction of force, significant impact forces, or a large

number of cyclic changes in force.

If a bolt is loaded in tension, it is quite susceptible to fatigue, as the thread forms an ideal

notch. Clause 13.12.1.3 of SANS 10162-1 deals with this by stating that for tensile cyclic

loading including bit that refers to prying the permissible range of stress under specified

loads, based on the shank area of the bolt, shall not exceed 214 MPa for Class 8.8 bolts or

262 MPa for Class 10.9 bolts. Note that this applies to the shank area (i.e. 20 2 / 4 mm2 for

an M20 bolt), that the loads are specified (i.e. not multiplied by a load factor), and that

this approach applies regardless of the number of stress cycles.

The reference to prying force in the clause draws attention to the fact that the prying

force effect can cause the stress range to be much higher than a simple calculation

might show. The designer is asked to limit the prying force to less than 30% of the externally

applied load. The best way of achieving this is to avoid prying by making the plate thick

enough see Equation 3.18 so that prying will not occur. (But making the plate thicker

doesnt help for single sided prying see 3.7.3 above.)

The last paragraph in Clause 13.12.1.3 refers to the bolt pretension and suggests that it can

simply be ignored. That is a safe approach, and the following may be more useful.

22

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