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Illustrat ion by Don Eckelkam p

Gary Allen, a graduate of Stanford, is author of None Dare Call It Conspiracy, The
Rockefeller File, Kissinger: Secret Side Of The Secretary Of State, and Jimmy
Carter/Jimmy Carter. Mr. Allen is an AMERICAN OPINION Contributing Editor.

SPECULATION about Who's Who in omists, and political scientists now

the American Establishment is at- actively debate whether America is a
tracting more and more attention as "pluralist society" or an "elitist" one
political journalists, scholars, and - speculation which roughly com-
academics are drawn into the study of pares to the debate among Conserva-
who runs the United States and how. tives between the accidentalists and
Talk of conspiracy is almost fashion- conspiratorialists. While academic
able as commentators set out to redis- proponents of the elitist t heories do
cover the wheels within wheels that we not yet go so far as to charge in public
call the Insiders. Sociologists, econ- that we are the victims of a master

MAY,l978 1
Our Constitution says it is to be we the
people of the United States who run this coun-
try, but powerful elitists now do so by con-
trolling government through key institutions
including the Council on Foreign Relations, the
Trilateral Commission, and a handful of multi-
national corporations and international banks.

conspiracy, many do now see that the Another academic who has done
elitists of big government, big fi- considerable research in the area of
nance, and big business work together elitist control of our country is Pro-
behind the scenes in major interna- fessor Thomas Dye of Florida State
tional projects that threaten our liber- University, who summarized his
ties. Professor William Domhoff, analysis in his 1976 book, Who's Run-
possibly the nation's foremost exposi- ning America ?: Institutional Leader-
tor on the Left of the elitist theory, ship In The United States. * Dye pre-
sees the conflict as one between the sents the arguments of both the plur-
classes, rejecting the Americanist alist and elitist theories. While he
view that a tight group of Insiders avoids expressing his own opinion, the
manipulates the power pyramid from evidence he presents makes it clear
the very top. Domhoff writes: that he is aware of how the game is
" If it is true, as I believe, that the played. Like the late Professor Car-
power elite consists of many thou- roll Quigley of Georgetown, however,
sands of people rather than several Dye is apparently an admirer of the
dozen; that they do not meet as a com - elite who he claims manipulate pow-
mittee of the whole; that there are er for the good of the country. Pro-
differences of opinion between fessor Dye writes:
them; that their motives are not well "The 'elitist' model of the policy
known to us beyond such obvious in- process would portray policy as the
ferences as stability and power; that preferences and values of the dom-
they are not nearly so clever or power- inant elite. Public policy does not re-
ful as the ultra-conservatives think- flect demands of 'the people' but
it is nonetheless also true, I believe, rather the interests, sentiments, and
that the power elite are more unified, values of the very few who partici-
more conscious, and more manipula- pate in the policy -making process.
tive than the pluralists would have us Changes or innovations in public pol-
believe, and certainly more so than icy come about when elites redefine
any social group with the potential to their own interests or modify their
contradict them. If pluralists ask just own values. Of course, elite policy
how unified , how conscious, and how need not be oppressive or exploitative
manipulative, I reply that they have of the masses. Elites may be very
asked a tough empirical question to
which they have contributed virtually "Prentice-Ha ll, Englewood Cliffs, New J ersey,
no data." $8.95 hardbound and $5.95 in paper.

I I I.
'public-regarding,' and the welfare of thirds of all government spending.
the masses may be an important con- More importantly, concentration of
sideration in elite decision -making. resources in the nation's larg est inst i-
But the important point of the model tutions is increasing over time."
is that elites make policy, not masses. Both Dye and Domhoff agree that
The elite model views the masses as there is an institutional elite com-
largely passive, apathetic, and ill- posed of the heads of major corpora-
informed about policy . Mass views tions, international banks, civic orga-
are eas ily manipulated by the elite- nizations, comm unications media,
dominated mass media. Communica- the foundations , and the prestigious
tion between elites and masses flows universities . They realize that the
downward. The 'proximate policy - closest thing America has ever had to a
makers' knowingly or unknowingly king is David Rockefeller, who coordi -
respond pr imarily to the opinions of nates the leaders of the above institu-
the elites." tions. Professor Dye identifies Rocke-
The power of the major Establish- feller as "the only man for whom the
ment institutions, whose leaders com- presidency of the United States
prise the elite, is becoming more and would be a step down."
more concentrated. As Professor Because so much of the Rockefel-
Thomas Dye observes: ler family's vast wealth is now outside
"The nation's resources are con- the United States, David Rockefeller
centrated in a relatively small number is fanatically interested in our coun-
of large institutions. Half of the na- try's foreign policy . Dye reports ad-
tion's industrial assets are concentra- miringly: "Above all, Rockefeller is
ted in 100 manufacturing corpora- an internationalist. His active inter-
t ions; half of the nation's ba nk ing vention in American foreign policy
assets are concentrated in the 50 larg- has pro duced remarkable results. As
est banks; half of the nation's assets has been mentioned, he was personal-
in transportation, communications, ly involved in Nixo n's arrangement of
and utiliti es are concentrate d in 33 detente with the USSR, the Strategic
corporations; two-thirds of t he na- Arms Limitation T alks (SALT), an d
tion's insurance assets are concentra- Nixon's spectacular trip to China. He
ted in just 18 companies; 12 foun da- is the key sponso r of t he Council on
t ions control nea rly 40 percent of all For eign Relat ions."
foundation ass et s; 12 univer si t ies It is through the Council, widely
control 54 percent of all private en- known as the C.F .R., that the Rocke-
dowmen t funds in higher education; 3 fellers manipulat e American foreign
network br oad castin g companies con- policy. Professor Dye describes the
t rol 90 per cent of t he television news, Council's accomplishments as " daz-
and 10 newspaper cha ins account for zling," and while he refrains from
one-third of the daily newspaper cir- using Dan Smoot' s description of it as
culation. It is highly pr obable that 30 America's invis ible government , he
Wall St reet and Wa shington law does observe: " T he CFR is designed to
fir ms exercise comparable domi- build consensus among elites on for-
nance in t he legal field, and that a eign policy ques tions. Its commissions
dozen cultural and civic organizat ions make investigation s concern ing for-
dominate music, drama, the arts, and eign policy, and set maj or direc tions
civic affairs. Federal government of official U.S. policy. This council
alone now accounts for 21 percent of largely determines when reassess-
the gross national product and two - (Continued on page seventy -one. )

,From page four The C.F.R. List
It should be kept in mind that not
THEY RUN AMERICA all of the members of the Council on
ments of U.S. foreign or military pol- Foreign Relations are Insiders . Cer -
icy are desired . . . . CFR publishes tainly all are considered potential In-
the journal Foreign Affairs, considered siders when they are invited to join,
throughout the world the unofficial but occasionally the membership
mouthpiece of U.S . foreign policy. committee guesses wrong and admits
Few important initiatives in U.S. pol- a patriot who refuses to compromise
icy are not first outlined in articles in his country for the advancement of
this publication . . . ." his career. Those who sit on the
The C.F .R. is a conduit where cor- C.F.R. 's board of trustees are some-
porate and government policy are thing else. They are committed to the
merged. Thomas Dye reports: "Recog- conspiracy or they wouldn't be in this
nizing that U.S. corporations make key position. Here is who they are:
foreign policy, as well as the U.S. gov- David Rockefeller serves as chair-
ernment, the CFR provides 'corpora- man of the board of trustees of the
tion services' for large fees; these C.F .R. He holds the same position
sources include consultation, infor- with the elitist Trilateral Commission
mation, and the right to nominate which will be discussed next. Mr.
'promising' young executives to at- Rockefeller is also chairman of the
tend its semi-annual seminars. Its cor- board of Chase Manhattan, the
porate members include Chase Man- world's most politically powerful
hattan, General Motors, Ford Motors, bank. It is he who heads the Rockefel-
Continental Can, Gulf Oil, General ler family empire which controls
Electric, and other giant corporations ' E xxon, the nation's largest corpora-
- particularly those with overseas in- tion. Through trusts and foundations
terests. The CFR limits itself to 700 the family also controls the Mobil,
individual resident members (New Standard of Indiana, Standard of
York and Washington) and 700 non - California, Chevron, Sohio, Phillips
resident members. There are few in- 66, and Marathon oil companies. The
dividuals in top positions in American Rockefeller family has controlling
institutions with an interest in for- interest in the vast Citicorp (First Na-
eign affairs who are not CFR mem- tional City Bank) and holds ten mil-
bers . . . ." lion dollars or more of stock in East-
Dye quotes Theodore White, chron- man Kodak, General Electric, Texas
icler of Presidential campaigns, on Instruments, and Three M. David
the fact that both Democrat and Re- serves as trustee of the $185 million
publican Administrations rely on the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, the
C.F .R. to staff all key positions. " Its Rockefeller Family Fund, and the
roster of members," says White, "has University of Chicago.
for a generation under Republican Robert O. Anderson is chairman
and Democratic administrations of Atlantic Richfield Oil Company
alike, been the chief recruiting and is a member of the board of Chase
ground for cabinet level officials in Manhattan Bank and many other
Washington . ..." The C.F.R. is powerful institutions. He recently led
openly said to be the command post or a failed attempt to take control of the
the nerve center of what Dye identi- National Rifle Association.
fies as the American " Liberal" Estab- Robert Bates serves on the staff
lishment. of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and

MAY, 1978 71
has been treasurer of the Association he is a member of the elitist Pilgrim
of American Rhodes Scholars. Society and president of the Insti-
David E. Bell taught at Harvard, tute For World Order.
his alma mater, and has served as vice J. Richardson Dilworth is an in-
president of the Ford Foundation . vestment banker whose chief job is
Michael Blumenthal is Secretary managing the vast assets of the
of the U.S. Treasury. Coming to the Rockefeller family. He served Kuhn,
United States via Shanghai after Loeb & Company, an Insider invest-
World War II, he rose dramatically to ment banking firm which reportedly
become president of the giant played a key role in financing the Bol-
Bendix Corporation, a trustee of shevik Revolution and the first Five
Princeton, a director of the Atlantic Year Plan. Dilworth is a director of
Council, and a member of the Trilat- RH. Macy & Company, International
eral Commission. Basic Economy Corporation, Chase
Zbigniew Brzezinski is the Henry Manhattan Bank, Chrysler Corpora-
Kissinger of the Carter Administra- tion, and is a trustee of Yale.
tion, playing C.F.R policy-control Hedley Donovan is a Rhodes
agent as the President's National Scholar who is Editor-in-Chief of
Security Advisor. Brzezinski has long Time, Incorporated, a trustee of the
been a David Rockefeller intimate, Insiders' Carnegie Endowment for
did time with the Rand Corporation International Peace, and a member of
think tank, and was the founding di- the Trilateral Commission.
rector of the Trilateral Commission. George Franklin is a Harvard
McGeorge Bundy taught and was graduate with a law degree from Yale
dean at Harvard, was a political anal- who serves as an assistant to Nelson
yst for the C.F.R, and was moved Rockefeller. Franklin worked for the
into what became the Kissinger- C.F.R from 1945 to 1971, served the
Brzezinski post as special assistant national council of the radical For-
for national security affairs to Pres- eign Policy Association, and is an of-
idents Kennedy and Johnson. Bundy ficer of the Atlantic Council, which is
now presides as president of the Ford considering a merger with the Trilat-
Foundation. eral Commission. He is related to the
C. Douglas Dillon is the Number Rockefellers by marriage.
Two man in the C.F.R A 1931 gradu- Gabriel Hauge is president of
ate of Harvard, he is certainly one of Manufacturers Hanover Bank, one
the five top Insiders in the country. of New York's big six. A former stat-
Dillon has been chairman of the istician for the Federal Reserve,
board of the powerful investment Hauge serves with the Carnegie En-
banking firm of Dillon, Read & Com- dowment for International Peace and
pany. He served as Undersecretary of is a member of the Pilgrim Society.
State for Economic Affairs in the Theodore Hesburgh is the manic
Eisenhower Administration and was progressive priest who is president of
Secretary of the Treasury under Notre Dame. He has been a director
Kennedy-Johnson. He is a member of of the Woodrow Wilson National Fel-
the Trilateral Commission and was lowship, chairman of the federal
chairman of the Rockefeller Founda- Civil Rights Commission, the Carne-
tion. Mr. Dillon has served on the gie Commission on the Future of
board of the Brookings Institution, Higher Education, and the Adlai
the leading Democrat think tank. An Stevenson Institute. Father Hesburgh
open ad vocate of World Government, is a trustee of the Rockefeller Foun-

dation and the Carnegie Foundation of Bell & Howell, and a director of
for Advancement of Teaching. the First National Bank of Chicago,
Nicholas Katzenbach, a graduate Ill inois Be ll Telephone, and the
of Princeton and the Yale Law Brookings Institution.
School, is a Rhodes Scholar who Lucian Pye holds a Yale doctorate,
taught at Yale and the University of was a Rhodes Scholar, and is professor
Chicago Law School, served as U.S. of internationa l studies at M.LT. He
Attorney General and Undersecretary has been a member of the advisory
of State, has been a Ford Foundation council administe ring Ame rica's for-
fellow, and is a director of LB .M . eign aid and is a trustee of t he elitist
John J. McCloy is a director emer- Asia Society.
itus of the Council. During his long Robert Roosa has taught econom-
career of service to the international ics at the University of Michigan,
conspiracy, this Harvard-trained law- Harvard, an d M J .T. For fifteen
yer served as head of the World Bank, years he serve d with the Federal Re -
U.S. Military Governor and High serve Bank of New York. He was Un -
Commissioner in postwar Germany, dersecretary for Monetary Affairs at
and chairman of the Ford Founda- the Treasury Department under Pres-
tion . He was chairman of the board ident Kennedy. Robert Roosa is a
of the Chase Manhattan Bank before partner in t he Insider investment
Prince David ascended the throne; banking firm of Brown Brothers,
head of the U.S. Disarmament Com- Harriman & Company. He is a direc -
mission, whose stated goal was to turn tor of the American Express Com-
over all U.S. weapons to a U.N . military pany, American Express Internation-
force; and, chairman of the board of al Banking Corporation, Owens-Corn-
the Insiders ' Atlantic Institute. ing Fiberglass Corporation, Anacon-
Lane Kirkland is secretary-treasur- da, and Texaco. And, he is a trustee of
er of the A:F .L.-C.LO., representing the Rockefeller Foundation.
the workers of America in the inter- Marshall Shuman has taught at
national bankers club . Or is it the the Russian Research Center at Har-
other way around? Kirkland is also a vard and served as a director of the
member of the elitist Trilateral Com - Russian Institute at Columbia . He has
mission. won the Rockefeller Public Service
Harry McPherson is not yet fifty Award and is author of Stalin's For-
and the youngest of the C.F.R. trust- eign Policy Reappraised.
ees. He was special assistant and Cyrus Vance is J immy Carter's
counsel to President Johnson . Secretary of State. This Yale-trained
James Perkins has spent many lawyer helped negotiate the disastrous
years as an executive with the Insid- Vietnam peace treaty at the Paris
ers ' Carnegie Corporation. From 1950 Peace Conference, has been a director
to 1963 he was president of Cornell of Aetna Life & Casualty, LB .M .,
and has been a trustee of the Rand and Pan American World Airways . He
Corporation and a director of Chase served as a trustee of Yale, the Urban
Manhattan. Perkins has served on the Institute, and the Rockefeller Foun-
Carnegie Commission on Higher Edu- dation, and is a member of the Tri-
cation and as secretary of the Carne- lateral Commission.
gie Foundation. Paul Volcker is well known as the
Peter Peterson was Secretary of world's ace goldphobe. He used to say
Commerce under President Johnson, that if the United States quit sup-
and has been chairman of the boa rd porting the price of gold at thirty-five

MAY, 1978 73
dollars an ounce it would go to five For eign Relations as some Establish-
dollars. Wit h degrees from Princeto n, me nt publications implied when
Harvard, and the London Sc hool of Jimmy Carter loaded up his Adminis-
Economics, he served as an economist tration with its members. Dual mem-
for the New York Federa l Reserve bership in the two organizations is
Ba nk and then for the Chase Man- common. The Trilateral Commission
ha t tan Bank before becoming a high was in fact t he brainchild of C.F.R.
official in the Treasury Depa rtment. pa njandrum Da vid Rockefeller, who
Ha lfway through the Nixo n Adminis- now serves as cha irman of its board.
tration he returned to t he womb at T he name T rilateral Comm ission
Chase Manhattan an d was subse- was chosen because its members come
quently ap pointed to head the key fro m No rth America, Japan, and
New York Federal Reserve Ban k. Western Europe. It is an international
Paul Warnke is an anti-sover- ext ension of the C.F. R. and makes no
eignty man who has been a partner in attempt to disguise the fact that, like
a powerful int ernational law firm, the Council, its primary reason for
served on the ad visory commission to existence is to bring about a New
the U.S. Commission on Civil Righ ts, World Order under the policy control
and now head s the U.S . Arms Control of the Insid ers. The need for World
and Disarmament Agency. Govern ment is openly discussed in its
Franklin Williams pla yed interna- many publicati ons. The Rockefellers
tionalist games at the top level of t he and t he C.F .R. had hoped to use the
Defense Departmen t under President United Nations as t he vehicle for t his
Eisenhower, taught at t he Fletcher purpose. Bu t the Amer ican public re-
Sc hool at T ufts, and is pr esident of sist ed, and as ti me passed the U.N .
t he Asia Fou ndation . becam e the world's lar gest indoor zoo
Carroll Wilson is an M .LT. grad- wit h the Insiders ha vin g problems
uate who has served with t he State manipulat in g its wild men. Ac-
Department as an advi sor on the in- cording to t he Trilateral Commission,
ternational control of atomic energy it will now be necessary to federate
and was general manager of the U.S . the advanced nations of the world
Atomic Energy Commission . He also first and then bring in the Less Devel -
served on t he Rockefeller Brothers oped Coun tries and the Communists
Fund panel on international security. - on terms to be set by ad vanced na-
Now his field seems to be ecology. He t ions dominated by the multinational
was a director of t he Study on Criti cal corpora ti ons. American members of
Global En vironmental Problems and t he Trilateral Commission are:
serves the anti-technology Club of I. W. Abel is former president of
Rome , as well as being a senior advi sor the United Steelworkers of Amer-
to the U.N . Conference on Human ica. His policies on foreign imports
Environment. Wilson was a member and federal regulati on have done
of Nelson Rockefeller's Committee much to undermine the U.S. st eel in-
on Crit ical Choices , is a member of dustry in favor of those Trilateral
the Trilateral Commission, and has partners Japan and Western Europe.
been chairman of the C.F.R. mem- David Abshire has been director
bership committee. of research for the Republican Policy
Committee, is cha irman of the Center
The Trilateral List for Strategic and Interna ti onal
In no way is the Trilateral Commis- Studies at Georgetown, and is a mem-
sion a competitor of t he Council on ber of t he C.F.R.

Graham Allison is a Harvard pro - time at the Brookings Institution and
fessor and a member of t he C.F.R. is a member of the C.F .R.
John Anderson is a very "Liberal" William Brock is the forme r Sen-
Republican Congressman from Illi - ator from Tennessee who as chairman
nois . He is a member of the C.F .R. of the Republican National Commit-
Ernest Arbuckle is cha irman of tee refused to com mit the Repu bli -
the Wells Fargo banking chain, a can Party against the Panama Canal
director of Owens Illinois, Safeway treaties. Anybody who is surprised
Stores, and Hewlitt-Packard. A for- doesn't un derstand .
mer dea n of the Gra duate Sc hool of Harold Brown is our Secretary of
Business at Stanford, his career was Defense and a member of the C.F.R.
launched wit h Standard Oil. He was president of Ca l Tech, a dele-
J . Paul Austin is the Harvard Law gate to the SALT surrender talks, and
Sc hool gra duate who is chairman of a director of Sc hroders Ltd ., I.B.M.,
the worldwide Coca-Co la Compa ny . and the Times -Mirror Com pany.
He is also a dir ect or of Continental Zbigniew Brzezinski is discussed
Oil, Morgan Guaranty Bank, Genera l under t he C.F.R. In his book Be tween
E lectric, and Dow Jo nes . Two Ages he st ated that "Marxism
George B all , long a C.F .R. wheel- represents a further vit al and crea-
horse, is a senior partner of the Leh- t ive stage in t he maturing of ma n's
man Brot hers investment banking universal vision .. .. "
firm which recentl y merged with t he J immy Carter gave up a fine job
equa lly powerful Kuhn, Loeb & Com- wit h the family peanut company to
pa ny . He has been U.S. Representa- become David Rockefeller's per sonal
t ive to t he U.N . and was Undersecre- representat ive in Washington, D. C.
tary of State from 1961 to 1966; Warren Christopher is a Depu ty
Lucy Benson was pre siden t of the Secretary of State and a C.F .R.
collectivist Lea gue of Women Voters. member.
She was a director of the Dreyfus Third Alden Clausen is pre sident of t he
Century Fund and a member of the world 's lar gest bank, the Bank of
council of t he Nat ional Municipal America , and a leading proponent of
League. Ms . Benson is now Undersec- aid and trade with the Communists.
retary of State for Secur ity Assis- He is a director of t he Federal Reserve
tance . Bank of San Francisco, a member of
Robert Bowie is a Harvard pr o- the powerful Business Council, and
fessor, has held numerous positions a member of t he C.F .R.
with t he State Department, and is a William Coleman, ano ther Har-
member of the C.F.R. vard-tra ined lawyer, is the former
John Brademas was a Rhode s Secret ary of Transportation. He is a
Scholar and a member of t he Harvard director of Pan American World Air-
board of overseers. A very "Liberal" ways , Penn M utual Life In sur an ce,
Democra t Congressman from north- First Pennsylvani a Banking & Trust
ern Indiana, he sits on t he central Company, and sits on the board of
com m ittee of t he febrile World govern ors of the Ameri can Stock Ex -
Counci l of Chur ches and is a member change. He ha s been counsel to t he
of the C.F.R. U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament
Andrew Brimmer is a Fulbright Agency, a trust ee of the Rand Cor-
Fellow wit h a Ph.D. from Harvard porat ion and t he Brookings Insti tu -
who was the first black to serve on the tion, and is a member of the C.F.R.
Federal Reserve Board. He also did Barber Conable is a " Liberal" Re-

MA Y, 1978 75
publican Congressman from upstate positions in the State Department and
New York. been a delegate to the U.N. He is an
Richard Cooper is a graduate of outspoken advocate of World Govern-
the Fabian Socialists' London School ment, is presently U.S. Ambassador
of Economics. Cooper is an Undersec- to Communist-plagued Italy, and is a
retary of State, has been senior staff member of the C.F .R.
economist of the Council of Econom- William Hewitt heads John Deere
ic Advisors, and is on the board of & Company, is a director of Conti-
directors of the Atlantic Council. nental Illinois, American Telephone &
This outspoken C.F.R. member has Telegraph, Continental Oil, and the
written bluntly of his desire for Chase Manhattan Bank. He is a mem-
World Government in his book Eco- ber of the Insiders' Business Council, a
nomics Of Interdependence and in ar- trustee of the Carnegie Endowment
ticles in the C.F .R. journal. for International Peace, and a direc-
John Culver is a Harvard graduate tor of the U.N. Association. Hewitt is
and former Harvard Summer School a member of the C.F.R.
dean who, after being legislative as- Richard Holbrooke has been
sistant to Senator Edward Kennedy managing editor of the Leftist For-
and serving in the House, was elected eign Policy magazine, is a member of
Democratic Senator from Iowa. He is the C.F.R., and is now serving the
a C.F.R. member. Carter State Department.
Gerald Curtis is a professor at Thomas Hughes, another Rhodes
Columbia and a C.F .R. member. Scholar, is president of the enormous-
Lloyd Cutler is a director of ly influential Carnegie Endowment.
Kaiser Industries and the N .&W. He is a member of the Foreign Policy
Railway. He has served with the State Association and of the C.F .R.
Department and was secretary of the Robert Ingersoll has been U.S.
Lawyers Civil Rights Commission. Ambassador to Japan. He is a director
Cutler was also with the O.E.O. and of the Business Council and member
was executive director of the National of the C.F.R.
Commission on the Causes and Pre- J.K. Jamieson is the former
vention of Violence. A C.F.R. mem- chairman of the board of Exxon. He
ber, he has been a lecturer at the is a director of the Chase Manhattan
Brookings Institution. Bank, Equitable Life Assurance So-
Emmett Dedmon has been a vice ciety, U.S. International Nickel, and a
president and editorial director of the member of the C.F.R.
Chicago Sun- Times and Chicago Edgar Kaiser is president of
Daily News . Kaiser Industries and its vast subsidi-
Hedley Donovan. See C.F.R. aries. He is vice chairman of the
Daniel Evans, a "Liberal" Repub- Stanford Research Institute, and a
lican formerly governor of Washing- member of the Business Council and
ton, is a longtime Nelson Rockefeller the C.F.R.
supporter. He was with the Urban Lane Kirkland. See C.F.R.
Coalition and was awarded the Order Sol Linowitz is most famous for
of the Silver Beaver. Honest. negotiating the giveaway of our Pan-
Donald Fraser is a wildly radical ama Canal, but that is far from the
Democratic Congressman from extent of his activities. He has been
Minnesota now running for the Sen- chairman of the board of Xerox and
ate and a member of the C.F.R. chairman of the National Urban Co-
Richard Gardner has held many alition. Sol is a director of Time, In-

corporated, and of the Marine Mid- tary of the Department of Health,
land Bank and Pan American Air- Education and Welfare; Secretary of
ways. A Leftwing activist, he is a di- Defense; U.S. Attorney General; and,
rector of the National Planning Asso- Undersecretary of State. He is U.S.
ciation and the American Assembly. Ambassador to the U.N.'s Law of the
He is a member of the C.F.R. Seas Conference and (surprise!) be-
Bruce MacLaury is president of longs to the C.F.R.
of the Brookings Institution and a David Rockefeller. See C.F.R.
member of the C.F .R. Robert Roosa. See C.F.R.
Paul McCracken earned his doc- William M. Roth, scion of the
torate at Harvard, served as director Matson shipping lines, has been an
of research for the Federal Reserve active "Liberal" Democrat. He is a
Bank of Minneapolis, was a member director of the Crocker National Bank
of the Council of Economic Advisors chain and a trustee of the Institute
under Eisenhower, and was chief eco- for Advanced IStudies at Princeton
nomic adv isor to President Nixon. and the Insiders' Carnegie Institution.
Walter Mondale, our Vice Presi- He is also a member of the C.F.R.
dent, has dual membership in the William V. Roth, a Harvard-
Council on Foreign Relations and the trained lawyer, is U.S. Senator from
Trilateral Commission. He was ap- Delaware and the only one of the six-
pointed to the U.S. Senate. teen C.F.R. members in the Senate to
Lee Morgan is president of the vote against the Panama Canal trea-
Caterpillar Tractor Company. ties. Did someone on those member-
Kenneth N aden is president of ship committees confuse him with
the National Council of Farmer William M. Roth?
Cooperatives. Henry Schacht holds degrees from
Henry Owen, director of the For- both Harvard and Yale. He is presi-
eign Policy Studies Program at the dent of the Rockefeller-controlled
Brookings Institution, is another Cummins Engine Company and a
member of the C.F.R. member of the C.F .R.
David Packard is chairman of the William Scranton is remembered
Hewlitt-Packard electronics company as the former Pennsylvania governor
and was Nixon's first Deputy Secre - who acted as Nelson Rockefeller's
tary of Defense. He is a director of chief hatchet man at the 1964 G.O.P.
the Caterpillar Tractor Company, Convention. He is a director of
Standard Oil of California, and I.B .M ., Scott Paper Company, Mu-
Trans World Airlines. He was a sup- tual of New York, and Sun Oil Com-
porter of Nelson Rockefeller in his pany. Scranton is on the executive
attempts at the Presidency and is an committee of the Trilateral Commis-
advocate of aid and trade with the sion, and a member of the C.F.R.
Communists. Gerard Smith was American
John Perkins is president of the chairman of the Trilateral Commis-
increasingly influential Continental sion, has held numerous positions in
Illinois Bank. the State Department, and was direc-
Peter Peterson. See C.F .R. tor of the U.S. Arms Control and Dis-
Edwin Reischauer is a professor armament Agency and the chief U.S.
of Oriental history at Harvard, a lead - delegate to the SALT talks. He is a
ing Leftwing theoretician, and served trustee of the Brookings Institution
as J.F.K.'s Ambassador to Japan. and a member of the C.F.R.
Elliot Richardson has been Secre- Anthony Solomon is Undersecre-

MAY, 1978 77
tary of t he T reasury an d ass uredly a team is still recruiting. Will iam P .
C.F .R. man. Hoa r brought us up to dat e with the
R obert Taft Jr. is a "Liberal" latest ad ditions in a recent issue of
former Senator from Ohio and disap- The Review Of The News . Here, with
pointing son of the late patriot. asterisks added to denote members of
Arthur Taylor, president of t he C.F.R., is the Hoar update:
C.B.S., is a member of the U.N . Asso- "Among the 25 new North Ameri -
ciation and the C.F.R. can members appointed is former
Philip Trezise has held a plethora Secretary of State Henry Kissin-
of posts within the State Department ger, * who has become a member of
and is a C.F.R. member. the Executive Committee. Following
Cyrus Vance. See C.F .R. are the other new members: Gardner
Paul Warnke. See C.F.R. Ackley, professor of economics,
Marina Whitman served as senior University of Michigan, former
staff economist on Nixon's Counc il Chairman of Counci l of Economic
of Economic Advisors. She is a direc- Advisors; Anne L. Armstrong, *
tor of Manufacturers Hanover Bank former United States Ambassador to
and Westinghouse Electric Corpora- the United Kingdom; George Bush, *
tion. Also a C.F .R. member, Ms . former Director of Central Intelli-
Whitman endeared herself to the gence and Chief of the U.S . Liaison
multinational corporations with her Office in Peiping; Sol Chaikin, pres-
book Government Risk-Sharing In ident, International Ladies Garment
Foreign Investment. Workers Union; Congressman Wil -
Caspar Weinberger, another liam Cohen (R.-Maine), now running
Harvard lawyer, was a leading G.O .P. for the Senate; Senator Alan Cran-
activist fighting Conservative Re- ston (De-California): Senator John
publicans in Cal ifornia politics. He C. Danforth (R.-Missouri); Claude
served as chairman of the F.T.C. and A. Edwards, member, Public Service
Secretary of H .E .W. under Richard Staff Relations Board and former
Nixon. pr esident , Public Service Alliance of
Carroll Wilson. See C.F .R. Canada; Congressman Thomas F oley
Arthur Wood, with degrees from (D.-Washington); George S. Frank-
both Princeton and Harvard, is chair- lin, * Coordinator of the Trilateral
man of the board of Sears Roebuck. Commission and former Executive
Leonard Woodcock succeeded Director of the Council on Foreign
Walter ("Yours for a Soviet Ameri- Relations; and, Hendrick Houthak-
ca") Reuther as president of the ker, professor of econom ics, Harvard
United Auto Workers. A member of University, and a former member of
the C.F .R., he is now Mr. Carter's rep- the Council of Economic Advisors.
resentative to Peiping. "Also: Arjay Miller, Dean of the
Andrew Young, the former Con- Stanford University Graduate School
gressman who was Martin Luther of Business and former president of
King's Lefthand man, is of course Ford Motor Company; Gerald Park-
U.N . Ambassador to the U.S.A . A sy , former Assistant Secretary of the
David Rockefeller protege, Young is Treasury for International Affairs ;
also a member of the C.F .R. William Pearce, vice president of
Cargill Incorporated and former U.S .
Trilateral List Grows Deputy Trade Representative; John
Would this were the whole Trilat- D . R ockefeller IV, Governor of West
eral crew, but David Rockefe ller's Virginia; John C. Sawhill, * presi-

MAY, 1978 79
dent of New York University and U.S. Government to provide the Pan-
former Administrator of the Federal ama Canal as hostage with billions to
Energy Administration; Mark Shep- boot. The Panama Canal treaties
herd, * chairman of Texas Instru- should be known as the Bankers' Bail-
ments and former co-chairman of the Out Acts.
Advisory Council on U.S.-Japan Eco- And when the big bankers move
nomic Relations; Edson W. Spen- they move together. The New York
cer, * president and chief executive megabanks are essentially one im-
officer, Honeywell Incorporated; mense bank. A recent Report by the
James R. Thompson, Governor of Senate Subcommittee on Reports, Ac-
Illinois; Russell E. Train, * former counting and Management tells us:
Administrator, Environmental Pro- "Morgan Guaranty is stock-voter
tection Agency; Paul A. Volcker, * Number One in four of its New York
president of the Federal Reserve sister banks - Citicorp, Manufac-
Bank of New York and former Under turers Hanover Corp., Chemical New
Secretary of the Treasury for Mone- York Corp ., and Bankers Trust New
tary Affairs; Martin J. Ward, pres- York Corp . - as well as Bankamerica
ident, United Association of Journey- Corp." And that Report, released
men and Apprentices of the Plumb- January 19, 1978, reveals that twenty-
ing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the one megabanks have voting control
United States and Canada; Glenn over 122 of the nation's largest cor-
E. Watts, president, Communica- porations. Morgan Guaranty is the
tions Workers of America; and, major stock-voter in twenty-seven
George Weyerhauser, president and large corporations and is among the
chief executive officer of the Weyer- top five voters in fifty-six leading
hauser Company." corporations. *
Professor Thomas Dye provides us
The Big Banks with a synopsis of the power of the
Many conspiratorialists believe megabanks over the American econ -
that the megabanks are the most pow- omy. "The Rockefeller banks [and
erful institutions in the nation and the other megabanks]," he says, " in -
that the Council on Foreign Relations fluence corporate decision-making in
and the Trilateral Commission are several ways - by giving or withhold-
used by them to coordinate foreign ing loans to corporations, by placing
and domestic policies favorable to the representatives on corporate boards
international banking establishment. of directors, and by owning or con-
The megabanks have a huge stake trolling blocks of common stock of
in government policies, both foreign corporations. The Federal Reserve
and domestic. Today about seventy- Board estimates that 90 percent of
five percent of their profits come the lending of large banks is made to
from overseas loans. When foreign large corporations. These corporations
loans are in jeopardy, the banks use are dependent upon bank loans for
the government to save their green capital expansion. Often the banks
bacon. No better example could be dictate specific aspects of corporate
found than the Panama Canal trea- policy as a condition of granting a
ties. The total bank loans outstanding loan (in the same fashion that federal
to Panama stand at $2.7 billion. The agencies often dictate policies of
debt service now costs Panama thirty-
nine percent of its annual income, ' See "The Bankers, Part I and II," in Am erican
and the only way it can pay is for the Opinion for February and March, 1978.

MAY,1978 81
state and local governments as a con- member of the elitist Pilgrim Society
dition of receiving federal grants-in- and the C.F.R.
aid). Frequently, banks will also re- J. Richardson Dilworth. See
quire that corporations that borrow Council on Foreign Relations.
money must appoint bank officers or Coy Eklund is president of the
directors to the boards of the corpora- Equitable Life Assurance Society.
tion. This gives the bank continuous James Ferguson, head of General
oversight of the activities of the Foods, is a director of Union Carbide.
debtor corporation. Finally, the trust He belongs to the C.F.R.
departments of major banks hold Richard Furlaud runs Squibb and
large blocks of common stock of in- is a director of Mutual Benefit Life
dustrial corporations on behalf of in- and American Express. He is a mem-
dividuals, pension funds, and invest- ber of the C.F.R.
ment companies. Generally the banks Theodore Hesburgh, See Coun-
vote the shares held in trust in cor- cil on Foreign Relations.
porate elections . . . ." William Hewitt. See Trilateral
Big banking and big government Commission.
are not rivals or enemies, they are Howard Kauffman is president of
partners. Banks are in the business of Exxon.
lending money and politicians and bu- Ralph Lazarus, head of the Fed-
reaucrats are in the business of erated Department Stores, is a direc-
spending it. The relationship suits a tor of Scott Paper and General Elec-
mutual interest in power. Consider tric. Lazarus belongs to the Business
the key people in the megabanks. Council and is a member of the Na-
tional Commission on U.S.-China Re-
Chase Manhattan Bank lations. He is a C.F.R. member.
Chairman of Chase Manhattan, John Macomber is president of
David Rockefeller, is covered in the the Celanese Corporation and a mem-
C.F.R. section. Willard Butcher, its ber of the C.F.R.
president, has been with the bank James Olson is vice president of
since 1947. Naturally he belongs to the A.T.&T.
C.F.R. Chase Manhattan's board of Edmund Pratt is the head of
directors includes: Pfizer, Incorporated.
Charles Barber, a Harvard law- Richard Shinn is president of
yer, is chairman of ASARCO Mexi- Metropolitan Life.
cana and is a member of the C.F.R. Bruce Smart is operating officer
James Binger, a Yale-educated of Continental Group, the container
lawyer, is chairman of Honeywell and companies.
a director of Northwest Airlines, Stanford Smith is president of the
Northwestern Bell, Northwest Can- International Paper Company.
corp, and Three M. He served on Nix- Elvis Stahr describes himself as a
on's Commission on International conservationist and head of the Au-
Trade and Investment and is a mem - dubon Society, but he is a Rhodes
ber of the C.F.R. Scholar and lawyer who was Secretary
William Coleman. See C.F.R. of the Army and a delegate to the
John Connor, a former Secretary United Nations.
of Commerce, is a Harvard-trained John Swearingen is head of Stan-
lawyer who is president of Allied dard Oil of Indiana.
Chemical. He is also a director of William Verity runs Armco
General Motors, General Foods, and a Steel and is a director of Business In-

MA Y, 1978 83
ternational, which is devoted to pro- economic advisor to Richard Nixon
moting aid and trade with the Soviets. and Gerald Ford.
Howard Johnson, chairman of
Morgan Guaranty Trust M.LT. , is a director of the Federal
Chairman of the board is Ellmore Reserve Bank of Boston, John Han-
Patterson, a director of International cock Life, Champion International
Nickel, A.T.&S .F. Railway, and Corporation, Du Pont, and the Put-
Standard Brands. He is a member of nam Fund. He is a trustee for the
the C.F.R. Walter Page, president of Aspen Institute for Humanistic
Morgan Guaranty, is a director of Studies and a member of the C.F.R.
Merck & Company and Kennecott James Ketelsen is president of
Copper. He is a member of the Urban Tenneco.
Coalition, the Foreign Policy Associa- Ralph F. Leach, chairman of the
tion, and the C.F .R. The board of board of Morgan Guaranty, is a direc-
directors of Morgan Guaranty Trust tor of many corporations including
Company includes: the Southern Railroad and the Private
J. Paul Austin. See Trilateral Export Funding Corporation. He is a
Commission. trustee of the Committee for Eco-
Manning Brown is head of New nomic Development.
York Life . He is a director of the Howard J. Morgens, head man at
A&P, Louisiana Land & Exploration, Proctor & Gamble, is a director of
Avon Products, J.P. Stevens & Com - Owens-Corning Fiberglass and Gen -
pany, and Union Carbide. eral Motors. He is a member of the
Carter Burgess is chairman of the Insiders' Business Council.
Foreign Policy Association and a di - Donald E. Procknow, president
rector of American Machine & Foun- of Western Electric, is a director of
dry, American Hotels, American Air- Teletype Corporation, Bell Telephone
lines, Ford Motor Company, and Laboratories, and Ingersoll-Rand.
S .K.F. A former Assistant Secretary John P. Schroeder has been with
of Defense, Burgess is a member of Morgan Guaranty since 1945 and is a
the C.F.R. director of Phelps Dodge, Johns-
Frank Cary is head ofLB.M . and a Manville, and Lone Star Industries.
C.F.R. member. Warren M. Shapleigh is president
Emilio Collado is the former ex- of Ralston Purina and a director of
ecutive vice president of Exxon. He First National Bank of St. Louis and
has been an economist with the Fed- numerous other corporations. He is
eral Reserve and served with the State also a director of Brookings.
Department and the Export-Import George P. Shultz took a de gree at
Bank. Collado is a member of the At- Princeton before earning his Ph.D. at
lantic Council and the C.F.R. M .LT. A specialist in East-West trade
Charles Dickey is president of the policy, he has served as a director for
Scott Paper Company. the International Monetary Fund, In -
John Dorrance runs Campbell ternational Bank for Reconstruction
Soup. and Development, Inter-American
Walter Fallon is chairman of the Development Bank, the Asian Devel-
board of Eastman Kodak. opment Bank, and was senior staff
Lewis Foy is head of Bethlehem economist for Eisenhower's Council
Steel. of Economic Advisors. Shultz, you
Hanna Gray is provost of Yale. will hardly be surprised to learn, is a
Alan Greenspan is the former top member of the C.F.R.

MAY, 1978 85
Manufacturers Hanover Trust bisco, he is a member and past direc-
Chairman of the board is Gabriel tor of the United Nations Association
Hauge, discussed under the C.F .R. of the United States.
John McGillicuddy is president of Howard Blauvelt, chairman of
Manufacturers Hanover. The board the board of Continental Oil, holds
includes: the same position with the Consolida-
William Beer, head of Kraft, is a tion Coal Company.
director of Sears Roebuck and First John Brooks is chairman of the
National Bank of Chicago. He is a Celanese Corporation and a member
member of the Business Council and of the C.F.R.
the C.F .R. Joseph Cullman, a Yale man,
William Beincke, another Yale married into the Lehman family. He
man, is president of Sperry & Hutch- is chairman of Phillip Morris and a
inson and a member of the C.F.R. director of I.B.M., World Trade Cor-
William Cashel is a vice presidentporation, Ford Motor Company, Levi
of A.T.&T. Strauss, and Braniff Airlines. Cull-
James Finley, out of Georgia Tech man is also president of the Whitney
and Harvard, is head of J.P. Stevens,M. Young Jr. Memorial Foundation.
and was forced off his board in William Ellinghaus is president
March by radical pressure. and a director of A.T.&T. and a di-
Barron Hilton is of course presi- rector of J.C. Penney, Bristol Myers,
dent of Hilton Hotels. He is a director
and the Call Corporation.
of Eversharp and M.G.M. Richard Gelb, with degrees from
Jerome Holland, a life member both Yale and Harvard, is the head of
of the N .A.A.C.P., is a member of the
Bristol Myers. He is a director of the
C.F.R. Charter Corporation, a member of
Paul Lyet is chairman of Sperry the New York Urban Coalition, and a
Rand. member of the Insiders' C.F.R
George Munroe is a Harvard- Paul Gorman is a director and
trained lawyer and Rhodes Scholar former chairman of the board of In-
who is a director of New York Life, ternational Paper and at one time
Johns-Manville, and the Southern headed the Penn Central Company.
Pacific. He is a C.F.R. member. He is a director of Campbell Soup and
Charles Pilliod is head of Good- Prudential Insurance Company. Gor-
year Tire & Rubber Company and a man holds membership in the C.F.R.
member of the C.F.R. Vernon Jordan is executive direc-
Marina Whitman. See Trilateral tor of the National Urban League and
Commission. has worked for the N.A.A.C.P. He is a
director of the John Hay Whitney
Bankers Trust Company Foundation, the Rockefeller Founda-
Chairman of the board is Alfred tion, and the Twentieth Century
Brittain, a trustee of the Insiders' Fund.
Carnegie Endowment for Peace and a William May heads American
member of the C.F.R. The board of Can, is a director of Johns-Manville,
directors include: the New York Times Company, and
Lee Bickmore is a director of has been chairman of the National
Western Electric, Carrier Corpora- Conference of Christians and Jews.
tion, Mutual of New York; and, of He served on the Advisory Committee
Hart, Schaffner & Marx. Chairman of the Peace Corps and the Civil
of the executive committee of Na- Rights Commission.

Calvin H. Plimpton is president Magnavox, and Deering Milliken.
of the Down State Medical Center at Grace is a member of the C.F.R.
State University of New York, a Harry Gray, president of United
trustee of the World Peace Founda- Technology Corporation, is a director
tion, and a member of the Council on of United Aircraft and Aetna Life &
Foreign Relations. Casualty.
William Tavoulareas, head of John Hanley is president of Mon-
Mobil Oil, is a director of General santo. He is a director of Armco Steel
Foods and a member of the C.F.R and of the shameful National Coun-
Walter Thayer, a Yale lawyer, is a cil for U.S.-China Trade.
partner in the Whitcom Investment H.J. Haynes is chairman of the
Company and president of the Whit- board of Standard Oil of California.
ney Corporation. He was formerly Amory Houghton, a former di-
president of the New York Herald rector of New York Life and U.S.
Tribune and is a director of Dun & Steel who has served on the board of
Bradstreet. Thayer served on the governors of the Federal Reserve Sys-
President's advisory council under tem, is a member of the C.F.R.
J .F.K. and was a special consultant to George Jenkins heads the Metro-
Richard Nixon. politan Life Insurance Company. He
is a director of the St. Regis Paper
Citibank Company, the American Broadcast-
Longtime chairman here has been ing Company, and Bethlehem Steel.
Walter Wriston, who made this New Peter McColough, naturalized in
York's largest bank. Prior to going to 1956, is head of Xerox and has been a
work for First National City Bank treasurer of the Democratic National
(now Citibank), Wriston was with the Committee. He is on the board of the
State Department. Director of num- U.S.-U.S.S.R. Trade & Economic
erous corporations including J .C. Council. He is a member of the Busi-
Penney and G.E. , he was a trustee of ness Council and the C.F.R.
the Rand Corporation and served on Roger Milliken is president of
the advisory committee on reform of Deering Milliken, and a director of
the International Monetary System. Westinghouse and W.R. Grace &
Memberships include the Business Company, among others.
Council and the C.F.R. Robert Oelman is chairman of the
John de Butts, chairman of the board of National Cash Register and
board of A.T .&T., is a director of a director of Proctor & Gamble, Ohio
Sears Roebuck and Kraftco. He is a Bell, Koppers, and the Ford Motor
member of the Business Council. Company.
Lawrence Fouraker is dean of the Edward Palmer, chairman of the
faculty of business administration at executive committee of Citicorp, is a
the Harvard Business School. director of the Del Monte Corpora-
Clifton Garvin, chairman of the tion, Phelps Dodge, Potlatch, Mon-
board of Exxon, is a director of the santo, Borg Warner, and Corning
Economic Development Council, the Glass Works. He is a trustee of the
New York Urban Coalition, and Sloan Committee for Economic Develop-
Kettering Institute. He is a C.F.R. ment.
member. Charles Pigott is president of
Peter Grace, chairman of W.R. PACCAR and a director of Safeco,
Grace & Company, is a director of Boeing, Seattle First National Bank,
Kennecott Copper, Ingersoll Rand, and Standard Oil of California.

MAY, 1978 87
Donald Siebert is head of the J.C. chairman of LB.M. and a director of
Penney Company. the Carborundum Company, Exxon,
Irving Shapiro, chairman of the and Caterpillar Tractor.
board of E.L Du Pont, is a member of Keith Funston served for many
the Urban Coalition and the C.F.R. years as president of the New York
Eleanor Sheldon, president of the Stock Exchange. He was chairman of
Social Science Research Council, is a the board of Owen Mathieson Chemi-
member of the C.F.R. cal Corporation and is a director of
Darwin Smith is head of Kimber- LB.M., Metropolitan Life, Republic
ly Clark. Steel, Avco, Winn-Dixie, and numer-
Albert Williams, chairman of the ous others. Funston is a member of
finance committee of LB.M., is a di- the Business Council.
rector of Mobil Oil and Eli Lilly & James Button is senior vice pres-
Company. He is a trustee of the Al- ident for merchandising of Sears
fred E. Sloan Foundation. Roebuck.
Richard LeBlond, a Princeton
Chemical Bank man, has been with the Chemical
The board chairman is Donald Bank since 1946. He is a member or'
Platten, a director of numerous cor- the C.F.R.
porations including Otis Elevator and John Place is chairman and pres-
Thomson Newspapers. He is treasurer identof Anaconda and a member of
of the Business Council for Interna- the C.F.R.
tional Understanding and, as might Wilbert Walder was president of
be expected ofa Rockefeller-domi- U.S. Steel.
nated institution, is a member of the Richard Wood, chairman of the
C.F.R. President of the Chemical board of Eli Lilly & Company, is a
Bank is Norborne Berkeley. He is a director of Standard Oil of Indiana.
director of Freeport Minerals, Micro- He is a member of the C.F.R.
dot, and Hartz Mountain. The board Franklin Williams has been Am-
includes: bassador to Ghana and served on the
Henry Hillman of the Hillman U.S. Civil Rights Commission. He is a
Coal & Coke Company is a director member of the C.F.R.
of Texas Gas Transmission, National Martha Wallace is executive di-
Steel, Global Marine, Pittsburgh Na- rector of the Henry Luce Foundation
tional Bank, Cummins Engine, and and a member of the C.F.R.
General Electric, among others. Charles Brown, president of
William Renchard, chairman of A.T.&T., is a director of General
the executive committee at Chemical American Transportation, Harris
Bank, is a director of Armstrong Trust & Savings Bank, Inland Steel;
Rubber, New York Life, Borden, and and, Hart, Schaffner & Marx.
Amerada Hess. He is a member of the * * *
U.N. Association and of the elitist NEXT MONTH we shall show how the
Pilgrim Society. Council on Foreign Relations, the Tri-
George Vila is a former head of lateral Commission, and the Big Six
Uniroyal. He is on the board of nu- Banks in New York use their leverage
merous corporations including Bendix. to run American government through
Mr. Vila is a member of the Pil- other institutions including the mul-
grim Society and the Foreign Policy tinational corporations, foundations,
Association. communicatons media, and the Es-
Vincent Learson is the retired tablishment think tanks.