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US 20170093156A1 31 cu») United States 2) Patent Application Publication co) Pub. No.: US 2017/0093156 Al Ozbek et al. (43) Pub. Date: Mar. 30, 2017 (34) SCALABLE AND FLEXIBLE CELL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM Publication Classification 6h mc. ee ence 021 00 (200601) Applicant: Testu Motors, Ine, Palo Allo, CA (US) nat aeet gons.an Inventors: Mehmet Ozbek, San Francisco, CA (82). US. Ch . (US) Braden Pheyect See cre 1024 00 (2013.01), HORM 744 Francis, CA(US), Andrew David (201301) aglino, San Francisco, CA (US) (73) Assignee: Testa Motors Inc, Palo Alt, cA(uS) 7) ABSTRACT Appl. Now 1/280.422 An energy storage system includes: a grid te unit compris- ing at leat one DCIAC converter, and multiple pods Con- Filed: ‘Sep. 29, 2016 ‘nected to the grid tie unit, each pod including: a number of cell: and power electronics ont, wherein the cells are Heating relative to the system and are galvanically isolated (60) Provisional pplication No, 62/235.$09, fled on Sep. thereffom. The multiple pods may'be organized into packs, 30, 2015, with a pack including @ thermal management system, Related U.S. Application Data oe oo eee TEES ep e see | t08f j 102 aS ,rr—t——_—=—i“‘=EE £ i (ores [rena [rou [roe rs ste || tte || ties | ss || a || r I i - + CONTROLLER a OS i ‘BUS DAISY 106 110 SOMONITOR eres = oe ale cae codon hm [823 [2 —_ 118 a = ween Le on aaa [reese [Nees reas res] | sees | PACK PACK PACK PACK ‘PACK (COUPLED WITH sheets || ats || ot || eet || [16 Tao L_ on or US 2017/0093156 AI Mar. 30, 2017 Sheet 1 of 6 Patent Application Publication TOFIG.18 VI Old r 8 SOvLIOA wing 01 warRsoUsNL Fenaawm ]]| woo ][wmoor || snowaav [ swowaay ]| swowoay yera| umorancs ||| 90d || save |] sove | ||" save |] sve MaNNoDste|{[ T7eusnnt || weusnan! |] vatisnans || wnu.sron| | wasnont -woIvHoaA OV da ‘UBLUSANI oviog ShiN ow sana HL ‘orem | ONY MNO aNoW SyOvd al HOnOwHL GND ASO SNE wounowos |} OF Sot i Soe _ ETIOUINOD Se une ema wwnoor | [_ anioor ‘SNOILIGGY LL aMo wvusz yovd || xove ove _ synuisnan' |] yasisnaws || wnu.sran| | wsnont 801 e901 901 (GSONSASIIY ONNOUD ADDF + UO CALVTOSI ADDY SNE OG) US 2017/0093156 AI Mar. 30, 2017 Sheet 2 of 6 Patent Application Publication dal ‘Old snouiaay |[ sNowiaay |[snouiaay | uwoor yovd ov wove wove Arsans ¥aMod -weaisnoni| | wwaisnon |] wwauisnon || Twrusnant || rweusnont ||] Syne woos zh 92 ‘snaisis, zr c3qNn0¥S) or @3dAL 1049 zu vamiownoo | ___ WRHL snouicay |[snouiaay ][~ waco. | wwaoor | [ unpoor yovd wove wove yovd wovd -weisnioni || wwrusnan |] wweusnan |] Twesnan || TwRiisnoNt = oeL ‘WITIOUINOD SNS OG NOUS VSISVW AIS OL LSNUSHLS FROM FIG. 1A Patent Application Publication Mar. 30,2017 Sheet 3 of 6 US 2017/0093156 AI 106 a ge 206 S INDUSTRIAL PACK 16 7h PODS- 124 DC, 25504 D00R 210 | 400 4, 0 200 Nel g i ame CES] BB] |||) [ssumoczewnn}+ Sel|_ | ibee~ot canoe asa }+ 88]| | | [tsssfesamoc, zanna} g° Wt kWh DO, 2-4 pod 4 Ei || |208c. = i ‘.5KWh DG, 2-4KW pod 1) [esewmc, ean pod He . UPD) [ewme, ean pod «|| 2 rie Gil 8 zoen+| || 2008 [BsxHmb0. 24nd + a ‘ ||| [ume zap} 8\|8 iW 4 A] [swwmoc-2au ond] + 2 ||| [samo 2ai pa = |]! [moe zanwoa] + z i Bl | | feamocenes|| BLT Tiron axe] + > i ee Cee es ihe 212 We WDASY GRAN roan. wake) _]2144 Le wvpomrtopont = FIG. 2 co LV DAISY CHAIN ‘GROUND Patent Application Publication Mar. 30, 2017 Sheet 4 of 6 US 2017/0093156 Al : @ INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM 300 ' i 1 | erone STEWASTER COMPUTER 306 ' 1||| caus | WI] contmoueR to20NousTRALPACKS 108 1 1 1 116 Wt 1800s | i TODGIAG 1 (Co I seme ™ i CONTROLLER, 1 i aaa wanpenc _}~3t0a 1 i) 12 308 310}|] III, ; ‘ADDTIONAL DGDC K 3495 ! 1)| THER 1 1)|L_cowrowen 1 1 1 1 \ i \ FIG. 3 402 | RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM \ 7POD ! 1400! | fnrewace | | [__wavocse 43108 |) 1 ; covmouteR | | |"apomona pane ¢~310b | | | 1 \ 1 \ } 406 s ! \ \ \ \ \ \ FIG. 4 Patent Application Publication Mar. 30, 2017 Sheet 5 of 6 US 2017/0093156 Al as 512 510 506 DDGIAC 3K 240, W en | isorareD ‘KW 240 BACKUP mooue | “Sone KW 120 BALANCING STAGE 512 510 506 DCIAC aK 240 a “410 MINMUM exwn | gotateD "480 MAXIMUM, ‘kW 240 BACKUP mooue | ‘Sone 508 KW 120 BALANCING STAGE ‘SKWNONSSOLATED | | SKWNON-ISOLATED 504 pepe penne 504 ‘KW PANEL ‘6 PANEL 502 STRING STRING 502 FIG. 5 US 2017/0093156 AI Mar. 30, 2017 Sheet 6 of 6 Patent Application Publication r r zo} —— r r 9°Dld o19.[ onmustawa | | ONRIS EWE 708 noose |? 2av108 hove | ——— r r vis~[ oaoauvies | | ‘Oarod W108 JOalvI0S+NON WHE | [OSLVI08-NON Ae ‘WALNEANOO 18008 G3LYIOS-NON 38d Ks M8 unas A008 ‘aoa caLyrosi me z09"| ‘aoa caLyosi me ngon NOB UAL US 2017/0093156 Al SCALABLE AND FLEXIBLE CELL-BASED ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM. CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION 10001] The present US. Utility Patent Application claims Priority pursuant to 35 US.C. §119(¢) to U.S. Provisional Application No. 621235,509, entiled “SCALABLE AND FLEXIBLE CELL-BASED ENERGY STORAGE SYS- TEM”, fled Sep. 30, 2015, which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety and made pad of the present US. Utility Patent Application for all purposes. BACKGROUND 10002] Various approaches for energy storage have been tried Some batteries that are designed for lage seal enerpy storage have smaller cells aranged in series an parallel. For ‘example, some cells are arranged in parallel, and then tat ‘init is arranged in parallel with another similar unit and so ‘on. This can require the system to have a disconnect and. ise, and to apply some management strategy that occurs at the high level. These systems can be configured so that they fare paralleled at an electrical interface, which can make them complicated to parallel 10003] One problem with such approaches can be that ‘when batteries are paralleled, one must match their voltae ‘characteristics precisely because they in parallel electrically. ‘This can significantly limit scaabilty of the system. For ‘example, one may need to use very similar chemistry, oF similar éells, or come up with panicularized balancing tmtegies, to manage the diflewent cells within their rings ‘of operating characteristics. Also, with regard to the indi vidual cells, the system is ina sense limited by its weakest Tink, That i if one cell malfunetions this typically renders the whole array of batteries out of service, BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS 10003} FIGS, 1A and 1B show an example of an energy sorage system, [0005] FIG. 2 shows an example of one ofthe packs from FIG. L [0006] FIG. 3 shows an example of an industrial eneray Storage system, [0007] "FIG. 4 shows an example of a residential energy Storage system, 10008) "FIG. 5 shows an example of an energy storage system in an implementation together with solar panels [0009] “FIG. 6 shows an example of & high-power and high-volge energy storage system. DETAILED DESCRIPTION [0010] This document describes examples of systems and Techniques for providing an energy storage system tht is scalable anywhere feom a limited installation on a small site (exe fora residence ora small business) toa massively lange system ata major site (such as fora large company or city) ‘One approach involves taking a relatively smaller block of cells, providing power electronics converter for it, and galvaniealy isolating the block. This ean provide a building block that one ean parallel as many times as necessary, because the battery has been provided with « power elec- tronics interface. One advantage of this approach is that “different types of cells can be used on the sume field. For Mar. 30, 2017, ‘example, ina feld that includes batteries witha cumulative capacity of one GWh or more, the system cam allow use of ferent cell types, different apes of cells, diferent cell vollages anor uilferent physical lypes of cells. The com- mon power eletronies interface provides a DC system for the cells so that they can be considered part of a DC microgrid, This in tun ean allow the cells t0 all bo falnre independent, so that any particular ell can fil and it will not fake out the whole system. This can eliminate or reduce {ailure propagation, provide scalability and abilty to paral- Ielize, as well as provide system ignorance to cell make, energy (ype, and cell age. In short, one can provide an fenergy storage system with the advantage that it does not include a high-voltage battery. [0011] Examples herein describe cells as being a basic building block of the energy slorage system, In various ‘implementations, any suitable form of electrolytic cell ean be used. For example, this includes, but isnot limited to lithium-ion cells having a generally cylindrical form factor, [0012] FIGS, 1 and 18 show an example of an energy storage system 100. This ean be considered an “industrial system implemented at site, as opposed to, say, a different syste that is instead intended primarily for residential use. However, implementations—whether large oF small—can be used in a variety of contexts for many dillerent purposes. Referring to both FIGS. 1A and 1B, the energy storage system 100 includes a power grid tie 102 that converts high-voltage DC from storage modules to AC. In some implementations, the grid tie 102 delivers AC (eg. through 4 480V, 3:phase connection) ta transformer 104, such as {or transformation to medium volta, which ean then be conveyed 0 remote joation through a grid (aot explicitly shown). For this reason, the grid tie 102 can be refered to asa “arid te” in the systom, Instead of, or in addition to, the {nmsformer 104, one or more other components can be use For example, at the site level a contactor ean be placed between the grid and the grid tie, For example, whea ‘multiple such systems are parallelized at single site, they can all share a connection tothe grid. In this example, the arid tc has a capacity of about 250 KW, but higher or lower effet ean be used in other implementations [0013] One or more packs 106 are included in the system Andre connected to the grid te 102 by a DC bus 108. The bus leads current from he packs 106 othe rid te 102 when