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Mistuning In Bladed Disk

Bladed disks and blades are designed to have uniformity in every aspect, but due to wear and
tears and due to inhomogeneous distribution of material during manufacturing it is almost
inevitable to avoid non uniformity in a similar kind of blades and disk. Small dimensional
differences can altogether change the response of bladed disk to the external forces that are being
applied on it. It can lead to extremely wide range of vibration amplitudes. Assumption of cyclic
symmetry in bladed disk is often used for the aeroelastic analysis, it simplifies the system but at
the same time such assumptions can overlook the response of the system due to material or
manufacturing defects. Systems that are not cyclically symmetric are known as mistuned system,
it is important to remember that mistuning can increase or decrease the vibration amplitude of
the system relative to the tuned system.

Figure 1 tuned bladed disc assembly (left), mistuned bladed disc (right) [6]

Mistuning can have a very detrimental on the life of bladed disk, as explained by Chan & Ewins
that a 5% variation in the blade cantilever frequencies on a 92 bladed turbine disc can lead to one
blade experiencing response levels which are over 500% of those observed on every blade on a
tuned bladed disc 1. For the study of mistuned systems it is important to identify the number of
blades on a disc, interaction between the blades i.e. how the motion of one blade effect the other
and the level of damping. In case of tuned discs inter blade phase angle is either very small or it
remains constant, but in mistuned bladed discs inter blade phase angle is changing due to which
every blade experiences a different force and its response is different from other, it destroys the
cyclic symmetry of bladed disc.

Y,-J. Chan, D,J. Ewins, Management of the variability of vibration response levels in mistuned bladed discs using
robust design concepts, Part 1, Parameter designs.
Consequences of Mistuning [1], [2], [8]
Various consequences of mistuning have been observed in different research studies, some of
them which have been found out during literature review are mentioned below.

Mistuning results in frequency splitting and a double mode for each circumferential
mode. Mode shape is the way in which object deflect at a particular frequency. In
mathematical analysis eigenvalue gives the natural frequency and eigen vector defines
the mode shape. Mode shape of bladed discs are defined by nodal diameter, it occurs
where blade movement is out of phase i.e 0ND will occur when all the blades are in
phase with one another. So for a bladed disc nodal diameter can occur at two closely
spaced frequencies.
High vibration amplitude as compare to tuned discs can result in high cycle fatigue.
Energy localization in some parts of bladed discs.
In various studies it has been observed that mistuning can stabilize the system, it can
reduce flutter. Intentional mistuning is also done at time due to this advantage.

Figure 2 Tuned Bladed disc (left), mistuned bladed disc with energy localization (Right) [5]

Mistuning Identification [3], [7]

In case of tuned blade disc, it is possible to use normal finite element methods for the purpose of
analysis. Because of cyclic symmetry, periodic boundary conditions can be used and the analysis
of blade cascade can predict the vibration pattern of the whole disc. On the contrary in mistuned
system, assumption of cyclic symmetry cannot be used. A complete numerical model would be
required for detail analysis and that can be very expensive and time consuming.

In order to overcome that various reduced order models have been proposed and studied, that are
capable of generating low order models of bladed disc from parent finite element models. Most
of the reduced order models are based on Component mode synthesis or component mode
mistuning (CMS). In this method mode of each component is calculated separately. It used
dynamic condensation and sub structure techniques to reduce model size. Blades and disc are
considered as distinct component and interface is defined between them. Some of the techniques
that have been developed for mistuning analysis are.

1. Craig-Bampton method: Blades are treated as separate component, and disc are
considered cyclically symmetric.
2. Mistuning Projection Method: A classical model analysis is performed, and individual
blade mistuning is projected on cyclic system modes [4]
3. Secondary Model Analysis Reduction Technique (SMART): primary low order model
is generated using component mode synthesis and then secondary model analysis is
performed to generate smaller, secondary low order models [4]

[1] Srinivasan, A.V, Flutter and resonant vibration characteristic of engine blades. An IGTI
scholar paper, Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
[2] Y,-J. Chan, D,J. Ewins, Management of the variability of vibration response levels in
mistuned bladed discs using robust design concepts, Part 1, Parameter designs.

[3] He, Zhijiang, Epureanu,B.I, Pierre,C (2007), Parametric study of the aeroelastic
response of mistuned bladed disc.
[4] Bladh,R, Castanier,M.P, Pierre,C, Component mode based reduced order modeling
technique for mistuned bladed disc-Part II.
[5] Castanier,M.P, Pierre,C, Modelling and analysis of mistuned bladed disk vibration-status
and energy direction.

[6] Viriyasuthee,C, Laxalde,D, Pierre,C, Vibration analysis of mistuned turbine blade,

McGill University, Canada.
[7] Mayorca, M.A, Development and validation of a numerical tool for the aeromechanical
design of turbomachinery.
[8] Pichot,F, Laxalde,D, Sinou,J.J, Thouverez,F, Lombard, J.P (2006), Mistuning
identification for industrial blisk based on the best achievable eigenvector.