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Chapter 1&2 APUSH

Cahokia:
Ancient Agricultural village
Earth mounds
City planning
Near Mississippi River
Outside lifestyle
Woodhenge
Human sacrifice
Cahokians dispersed to far away place and brought their tools & culture
Drought, bad politics, and changing climate = C fade away (mystery)
Chapter 1:
The Native American Experience:
Roughly 60 million natives when Columbus
Civilization to hunter/gathers

The First Americans


3 waves of migrants = native americans
1st land bridge (Bering strait), 2nd water (Bering strait), 3rd was Eskimos
then ppl were cut off from the rest of the world and moved south (Mexico & Andes were
densest areas)
also went east (Rockies & Mississippi)
agriculture = 6000 BC in Mexico/Peru domesticated crops such as Maize and Potato
encouraged population growth and laid foundation for wealthy, urban societies in Mexico

American Empires
Aztecs & Incas
Large capitals and control of fertile land - Tenoch
Aztecs used trade and tribute to accumulate goods and wealth
Aztecs were ruled by priests and warriors, subjugated most of Mex
Aztecs used concurred ppl for sacrifice
Inca capital = large and lots of roads (Cuzco)
Incas = Andes
Incas = ruled by a kings (conqured ppl and used tribute)

Chiefdoms and Confederacies


Maize agr. Spread north 1000AD
Mound building cultures (Mississippi) could have ^pop density with maize
Misp. = Adena & Hopewell
Cahokia = new Misp. Trend
Cahokia worshipped sun
Cahokia had a rapid decline
Misp. Culture survived
Eastern Woodlands = Algonquian & Iroquoian
Ppl in eastern woodland adopted maize but not Misp. Culture
Ppl there lived in small agricultural settlments, men hunted & women tended crops
Before Europeans NA did yearly or biannual forest burnings to clear underbrush
A & I had no distinct ruling style
Chiefs could be local or rule large areas
Some groups used councils or elders to lead (Iroquois Confederacy = Mohawks,Oneidas,
Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas)
I C society was matriarchal
Cheifdoms and confederacies along the east coast competed for land and resources
Great lakes = Ottawas, Ojibwas, and Potawaomis (Anishinaabe)
Great lakes ppl were very mobile and didnt have delineated boundaries
Great plains/ Rockies = small groups
Horses were integrated into GP culture
Horses made NAs like the Comanche and Sioux formidable and allowed them to take
over large territory
There were some small sedentary agricultural groups
Horses = power
Large settlements in southwest canyons
Anasazi = maize = pueblo culture
Irrigation systems and cities built into canyon walls
Drought caused decline
Pacific coast= lots of hunter-gathers with social hierarchy
Powerful clans were warlike and had sea faring capabilities

Patterns of Trade
Extensive trade routes between regions
Hunters and farmers often traded
Valuable goods traveled far (100s of miles)
Wealth was often shared to cement power/loyalty

Sacred Power
Animism was widespread
Women were tied to life (fertility of both earth and ppl)
Men were hunting and war
Many rituals to ensure fertility and appease spirits occurred
War was a cultural imperative for proving YM
Mourning War When a tribe lost warriors in battle retalitated by capturing or killing a
like number of warriors in response

Western Europe: The Edge of the Old World


Hierarchy and Authority
Power came from above (kings-nobles-peasants)
Patriarchies in families
Women surrendered rights and property when married
Men controlled children too
All land to eldest son = primogeniture
Hierarchy remained bc established institutions had power and offered security

Peasant Society
1450 = most ppl peasants
serfdom = landownership/rent = surplus and ^ economy
life followed the seasons (harvest, planting, winter etc)
survival = work
not enough food to go around, many peasant children died (girls would be starved to feed
boys)
religion kept ppl docile

Expanding Trade Networks


Western Europe used to be barbarians
Mediterranean (Byzantine and Arabs) flourished with knowledge and trade
12th century venicians began to trade with Arabs and stimulated trade elsewhere in
Europe
Italian City States Republics No Monarchs but governed by merchant coalitions
Civic Humanism Public virtue and service tot eh state
Italian states had republics with civic humanism (Renaissance)
Economic revolution spread from Italy
Hanseatic league
Merchants conflicted with kings/nobles
Monarchs were able to solidify power bc of trade
Guild Artisan Organizations that controlled entry and practice of a certain trade
Monarchs gave merchants privileges for taxes

Myths, Religions, and Holy Warriors


Oldest beliefs = animism
Roman paganism took over animism (eventually followed by Christianity)
Christianity spread more after Constantine conversion
Catholicism = unifying force: preserved Latin and granted rulers power to do so, became
big in lives of peasants
Christians vs Ansimists Animists believed in spiritual forces of natural world,
Christians believed natural world was flawed and power came from outside world with
Supernatural God
non-Christian ideas were suppressed
threatened by Islam the Crusades attacked (1096 -1291)
crusades created popular support for the church
Crusades changed European society: more engrained Christianity, new trade routes,
sugar, prosecution of Jews, and more access to world
1517 = Martin Luther = 95 thesis (disagreement with Catholic doctrine) = start of
reformation
John Calvin = protestants & predestination (god determines the salvaged and the damned
before they are born) set up Christian community in Geneva
Luther cause war between Holy Roman Empire and north Germany
Protestant Reformation = Counter Reformation
Faith conflict shaped colonization

West and Central Africa: Origins of the Atlantic Slave Trade


Empires, Kingdoms, and Mini-states
3 climates in west Africa (Sahel, Savanna, ad Tropical Rainforest)
4 watersheds (Senegal, Gambia, Volta, and Niger)
Sudanic culture began in 9000BC: cattle, agriculture, monotheism, cotton, copper, iron
Kings and princes = divine
Ghana Empire (800 AD) used camels to make trade routes across Sahara
Ghana Mali in 13th Songhai 15th
Gold = power and trade
Mana Musa and the great devaluing of Egyptian currency
People in the rainforest created many mini-states as the environment capped them
at that
Trans-Saharan and Costal Trade
Trans- Saharan trade: gold, copper, salt, slaves
Costal trade with Europeans offered alternative to TS trade
Akan states = gold coast
Bight of Ben = slave coast

The Spirit World


Some Was were Muslim
Most had animist like beliefs in spirits
Ancestor veneration

Exploration and Conquest


Portuguese Expansion
Prince Harry of Portugal discovered Arab trade in the Sahara and encouraged sailing
innovations
Italians joined Port. As they were forced out of Med. By Arabs
Europeans discovered small islands and experimented with agriculture of cash crops
Most islands were uninhabited or the pops were enslaved
Cnaries - Guanches
Europeans couldnt take over mainland Africa kept looking for other routes to Asia
Vasco de gama got to India and got cinnamon and pepper
Port. Set up trading post in Indian Ocean
The African Slave Trade
Port. Took over African slave trade
African empires practiced slavery
Started with gold moved to slaves
Sugar plantations

16th Century Incursions


Port. Went south and east, Spanish went west
I & F combined spain and unified it with religion (inquisition)
Christopher Columbus
Columbus though he could sail to Asia, found Americas instead, claimed them for spain
CC demanded tribute and heard stories of gold so he went back to Spain victorious
CC failed to find gold but colonized the West Indies
New world realized
Spain placed incentives to conquer the new world
Cortez conquered the Aztecs
Jose Ponce De Leon Explored Florida
Balboa First Euorpean to see Pacific
Cortes Conquered Aztec Empire
Pizarro Conquered Inca Empire
Disease wiped out large numbers
Maya and the Inca conquered too
Portuguese find Brazil

Class Notes:
Different time periods (see book)
Technology improvement (gunpowder, sailing stuff, and printing press)
Christians VS Moors (Spain)
Protestant revolt coming soon
Europeans looking for trade routes (Asia = Columbus & Vasco De Gama)
Slave trade picks up (Portuguese), not race based yet
Nation states begin to form in Europe (Argon & Castile in Spain)
New nations began to compete for wealth (trade solidified rulers power who does God
favor)
Columbus (Italian) sailed for Spain (working for non-native countries is common)
Columbian Exchange (organic exchange)
Spain and Portugal were first to claim territory in Americas with Papal support (see
language distribution today)
*Treaty of Tordesillas = pope lets Portugal have land (moves line of demarcation)
Spain was dominant bc of Conquistadores, Sailors, and Encomienda system (Spain
recruited ppl from other countries)
Natives died bc of disease and harsh labor = get West African slaves to replace labor
England made claims in Canada via John Cabot (Italian) but didnt go back (little impact)
Then came again and settled in Roanoke (that didnt worklol)
French claim Verrazano (NY harbor) & Cartier (St. Lawrence R.) but were preoccupied at
home so didnt put much effort
The French claimed Quebec and the Upper Mississippi
Dutch claim the Hudson river (1609) and later New Amsterdam (New York)
Dutch West India Co.
Spanish settlements: Florida (St. Augustine in 1565), New Mexico (Santa Fe in 1610 =
Mission city/fortress), Texas (communities in 1700s - Spain and France compete for the
land), and California (San Diego 1769 & San Francisco 1776 bc of the Russians
exploring)
Franciscan order is responsible for many of the mission cities
Spanish incorporated (subjugated) NA into societies (inter-marriages) but harshly (rigid
class system based on decent)
Peninsulars, Mestizos, Creoles, Mulatoes
The English settled in places where there werent large empires, so they just pushed the
NA out or fought them (no inter-marriages and less subjugation)
French viewed NA as potential trading partners (good relations, intervened in wars of
NA) for furs
NAs saw themselves as distinct groups, allowed Europeans divide and conquer, different
NAs aliened with different Europeans some fled west many died
Chapter 2:
Spains Tribute Colonies
A New American World
After Conquistadors took over them were granted encomiendas which gave them land
and the right to take tribute from NA
Gold and silver were discovered = mines and forced NA labor
Potosi = huge silver mine = half worlds supply = wealthy spain
Silver was traded with Chinese
Gold went to Europe
Wealth caused inflation in Spain
Many Spanish men came over = race mixing = race based social hierarchy
Casta system
NA were forcibly converted

The Columbian Exchange


Diseases killed NA
Syphilis was the only NA disease to go to Europe
Foods from west increased agriculture in east
Animals, plants, and germs went to Americas and a few went the other direction (Wheat,
Barley, Rye, and Rice)

The Protestant Challenge to Spain


Spain struggled to control its holdings (especially the Caribbean)
Protestants began revolting against Spanish rule (Netherlands revolt 1566)
Holland independent in 1581
England created the church of England so Henry VIII could divorce
Henrys daughter made some concessions for Protestants
England tried to usurp Spains holdings (Francis Drake)
England/ Elizabeth also took over Ireland
Spanish Armada destroyed in 1588
Phillip (Spain) used new gold on religious wars and hurt the economy
Englands economy prospered in 16th
Outwork textiles
Mercantilism (state-assisted manufacturing and trade)
England had increase exports and decreased imports = lots of $

Plantation Colonies
Brazils Sugar Plantations
Portugues colonists transformed Brazil into Sugar Plantation zones Pernambuco and
Bahia
Diseases ravaged Native Population in 1559
Due to low Native Population, Portugues turned to African Slaves - 1620

Englands Tobacco Colonies


Failed English Settlements Roanoke
Jamestown Virgiania Named after Queen Elizabeth
Came with intent for Gold All male Half died by 1611 due to disase
Tobacco Cash Crop but required incursion into native lands
House of Burgesses Representative Government
Indian War of 1622 Started by Opechancanough led to Virginia being a Royal Colony
Maryland Cecilius Calvert (Lord Baltimore) Allowed by Charles I

The Caribbean Islands


Thomas Warner St Kitts
Allowed French to settle to better defend against the Spanish
Lesser Antilles were quickly colonized

Plantation Life

Neo-European Colonies
New France
Jacques Cartier 1st claim of St Lawrence river for French
Samuel de Champlain Fur Trading post of Quebec
Hurons Focus of French Catholic missionary activity

New Netherland

Rise of the Iroquois



New England
Roger Williams Opposed decision to establish official religion
Banished and founeded Providence, Rhode Island

Instability, War, and Rebellion


New Englands Indian Wars

Bacons Rebellion

*no notes on summary = waste of time*