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# EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory

Incidence Matrix

Incidence Matrix

## Incidence matrix provides information like

Which branches are incident at which nodes,
Orientation of branches to nodes.
Incidence matrix has two types:
1 Complete Incidence Matrix (Ai )
2 Reduce Incidence Matrix or simply, Incidence Matrix (A)
A Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai , of a connected and directed graph with 3 nodes and
4 branches is given by:
branches
nodes a b c d

1 a11 a12 a13 a14
Ai = 2 a21 a22 a23 a24

3 a31 a32 a33 a34

Incidence Matrix

## In an incidence matrix, whether complete or reduced, having n rows and b columns, an

entry, aij , in the i th row and j th column has the following values:

1, if the branch j is incident to and oriented away from the node, i,
aij = 1, if the branch j is incident to and oriented towards the node, i,

0, if the branch j is not incident to the node, i.

## Consider the following circuit and its graph:

IL L
a a

I1
R1 R2 b 2 c b 2 c
2 I2 1 3 1 3
1 3
Is I3
IC

Vs + C R3 d e f d e f

4 4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 2 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

From the complete graph drawn, we consider its node one after another as
A

b 2 c
1 3

d e f

The complete incidence matrix, Ai , will be a 46 matrix as there are 4 nodes and 6 branches
in the complete graph and is given by

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1
2
Ai =
3
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 3 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

From the complete graph drawn, we consider its node one after another as
A

b 2 c
1 3

Node 1: 1{a,b,d}
d e f

The complete incidence matrix, Ai , will be a 46 matrix as there are 4 nodes and 6 branches
in the complete graph and is given by

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2
Ai =
3
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 3 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

From the complete graph drawn, we consider its node one after another as
A

1
b 2 c
3

Node 1: 1{a,b,d}
Node 2: 2{b,c,e}
d e f

The complete incidence matrix, Ai , will be a 46 matrix as there are 4 nodes and 6 branches
in the complete graph and is given by

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =
3
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 3 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

From the complete graph drawn, we consider its node one after another as
A

b 2 c
1 3
Node 1: 1{a,b,d}
Node 2: 2{b,c,e}
d e f
Node 3: 3{a,c,f}

The complete incidence matrix, Ai , will be a 46 matrix as there are 4 nodes and 6 branches
in the complete graph and is given by

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =
3 1 0 1 0 0 1
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 3 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

From the complete graph drawn, we consider its node one after another as
A

b 2 c
1 3

Node 1: 1{a,b,d}
Node 2: 2{b,c,e}
d e f
Node 3: 3{a,c,f}
Node 4: 4{d,e,f}
4

The complete incidence matrix, Ai , will be a 46 matrix as there are 4 nodes and 6 branches
in the complete graph and is given by

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =
3 1 0 1 0 0 1
4 0 0 0 1 1 1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 3 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 4 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
For example, consider the following complete matrix

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =

3 1 0 1 0 0 1

4 0 0 0 1 1 1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 4 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
For example, consider the following complete matrix

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =

3 1 0 1 0 0 1

4 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 Sum of all
elements in the
given column is
alyways zero!

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 4 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
For example, consider the following complete matrix

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =

3 1 0 1 0 0 1

4 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 Sum of all
elements in the
given column is
alyways zero!

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 4 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
For example, consider the following complete matrix

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =

3 1 0 1 0 0 1

4 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 Sum of all
elements in the
given column is
alyways zero!

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 4 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
For example, consider the following complete matrix

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =

3 1 0 1 0 0 1

4 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 Sum of all
elements in the
given column is
alyways zero!

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 4 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
For example, consider the following complete matrix

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =

3 1 0 1 0 0 1

4 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 Sum of all
elements in the
given column is
alyways zero!

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 4 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
For example, consider the following complete matrix

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =

3 1 0 1 0 0 1

4 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 Sum of all
elements in the
given column is
alyways zero!

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 4 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
For example, consider the following complete matrix

Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
Ai =

3 1 0 1 0 0 1

4 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 Sum of all
elements in the
given column is
alyways zero!

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 4 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
2 Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 5 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
2 Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
3 In a given complete incidence matrix, Ai , the determinant of sub-matrix formed
out of a closed path (traversing through all nodes) of the graph is always zero.

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 5 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
2 Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
3 In a given complete incidence matrix, Ai , the determinant of sub-matrix formed
out of a closed path (traversing through all nodes) of the graph is always zero.
a

2
1 c 3
b
a b c d e f
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
e f
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
d Ai =

3 1 0 1 0 0 1

4 0 0 0 1 1 1
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 5 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
2 Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
3 In a given complete incidence matrix, Ai , the determinant of sub-matrix formed
out of a closed path (traversing through all nodes) of the graph is always zero.
a

2
1 c 3
b
L1
Possible closed path that includes all nodes in the graph!
d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 5 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
2 Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
3 In a given complete incidence matrix, Ai , the determinant of sub-matrix formed
out of a closed path (traversing through all nodes) of the graph is always zero.
a

2
1 c 3
b
L2
Possible closed path that includes all nodes in the graph!
d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 5 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
2 Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
3 In a given complete incidence matrix, Ai , the determinant of sub-matrix formed
out of a closed path (traversing through all nodes) of the graph is always zero.
a

2
1 c 3
b

d e f
L3

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 5 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
2 Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
3 In a given complete incidence matrix, Ai , the determinant of sub-matrix formed
out of a closed path (traversing through all nodes) of the graph is always zero.
a

2
1 c 3
b
a b c d e f
L1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
e f
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
d Ai =

3 1 0 1 0 0 1

4 0 0 0 1 1 1
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 5 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
2 Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
3 In a given complete incidence matrix, Ai , the determinant of sub-matrix formed
out of a closed path (traversing through all nodes) of the graph is always zero.
a

2
1 c 3
b
a b c d e f
L1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
e f
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
d Ai =

3 1 0 1 0 0 1

4 0 0 0 1 1 1
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 5 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
2 Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
3 In a given complete incidence matrix, Ai , the determinant of sub-matrix formed
out of a closed path (traversing through all nodes) of the graph is always zero.
a

2
1 c 3
b
a b e f c d
L1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1
e f
2 0 1 1 0 1 0
d Ai =

3 1 0 0 1 1 0

4 0 0 1 1 0 1
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 5 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
2 Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
3 In a given complete incidence matrix, Ai , the determinant of sub-matrix formed
out of a closed path (traversing through all nodes) of the graph is always zero.
a

2
1 c 3
b
a b e f c d
L1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1
1 1 0 0

e f
2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
d Ai = = Zero?

3 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

1 1

4 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 5 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, Ai

Properties:
1 The algebraic sum of elements in any column of Ai is zero.
2 Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be constructed
since Ai is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
3 In a given complete incidence matrix, Ai , the determinant of sub-matrix formed
out of a closed path (traversing through all nodes) of the graph is always zero.
a

2
1 c 3
b
a b e f c d
L1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1
1 1 0 0

e f
2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
d Ai = = Zero?

3 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

1 1

4 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1

1 1 0 0
-1 1 0 0 1 0

0 -1 1 0 = 1 0 0 1

1 -1 0 1

= 1(1) 1(1) = 1 + 1 = 0
-1 0 0 1 0 -1 -1 0 -1 -1
0 0 -1 -1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 5 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Reduced Incidence Matrix (Incidence Matrix), A

## 1 Suppose a graph has n number of nodes and b number of branches. Now, if we

remove any row from the complete incidence matrix, Ai , obtained from the graph,
the resulted matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix or simply,
incidence matrix, A.

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 6 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Reduced Incidence Matrix (Incidence Matrix), A

## 1 Suppose a graph has n number of nodes and b number of branches. Now, if we

remove any row from the complete incidence matrix, Ai , obtained from the graph,
the resulted matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix or simply,
incidence matrix, A.
2 The order of the (reduced) incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 6 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Reduced Incidence Matrix (Incidence Matrix), A

## 1 Suppose a graph has n number of nodes and b number of branches. Now, if we

remove any row from the complete incidence matrix, Ai , obtained from the graph,
the resulted matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix or simply,
incidence matrix, A.
2 The order of the (reduced) incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.
3 Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted from a complete
incidence matrix, Ai to form an (reduced) incidence matrix, A.

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 6 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Reduced Incidence Matrix (Incidence Matrix), A

## 1 Suppose a graph has n number of nodes and b number of branches. Now, if we

remove any row from the complete incidence matrix, Ai , obtained from the graph,
the resulted matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix or simply,
incidence matrix, A.
2 The order of the (reduced) incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.
3 Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted from a complete
incidence matrix, Ai to form an (reduced) incidence matrix, A.
4 The rank of the incidence matrix, A, is n 1 which is also the rank of the
complete incidence matrix, Ai .

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 6 / 16

Incidence Matrix
Reduced Incidence Matrix (Incidence Matrix), A

## 1 Suppose a graph has n number of nodes and b number of branches. Now, if we

remove any row from the complete incidence matrix, Ai , obtained from the graph,
the resulted matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix or simply,
incidence matrix, A.
2 The order of the (reduced) incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.
3 Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted from a complete
incidence matrix, Ai to form an (reduced) incidence matrix, A.
4 The rank of the incidence matrix, A, is n 1 which is also the rank of the
complete incidence matrix, Ai .
1 1 0 -1 0 0
" #
1 1 0 -1 0 0
0 -1 1 0 1 0
Ai = A= 0 -1 1 0 1 0
-1 0 -1 0 0 1
-1 0 -1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 -1 -1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 6 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Drawing possible trees out of an incidence matrix!

Consider the following graph to draw all possible trees out of it:
a

2
1 c 3
b

d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 7 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Drawing possible trees out of an incidence matrix!

Consider the following graph to draw all possible trees out of it:
a

2
1 c 3
b a

b 2 c
1 3

d e f

d e f
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 7 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Drawing possible trees out of an incidence matrix!

Consider the following graph to draw all possible trees out of it:
a

2
1 c 3 a
b
b 2 c
1 3

d e f
d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 7 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Drawing possible trees out of an incidence matrix!

Consider the following graph to draw all possible trees out of it:
a

2 a
1 c 3
b b 2 c
1 3

d e f
d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 7 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Drawing possible trees out of an incidence matrix!

Consider the following graph to draw all possible trees out of it:
a
a
2
1 c 3
b 1
b 2 c
3

e f
d e f d

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 7 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Drawing possible trees out of an incidence matrix!

Consider the following graph to draw all possible trees out of it:
a
a
2
1 c 3 b 2 c
b 1 3

e f d e f
d

4
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 7 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Drawing possible trees out of an incidence matrix!

Consider the following graph to draw all possible trees out of it:
a
a

2 b 2 c
1 c 3 1 3
b

d e f d e f

4
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 7 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Drawing possible trees out of an incidence matrix!

Consider the following graph to draw all possible trees out of it:
a a

2 b 2 c
1 c 3 1 3
b

d e f d e f

4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 7 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Drawing possible trees out of an incidence matrix!

Consider the following graph to draw all possible trees out of it:
a a
a
a
a
2 bb 2a2 cc
1 3 11 3

?
b a2 c
b c 11 b
b
2a
2 c
c
3
33
1 b 2 c 3
1 b 2 c 3
1 3

dd dd ee
eee f ff
f
d e f ddd e f ff

4
4
4
4
4
4
4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 7 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

Steps to get the number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 8 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

Steps to get the number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!

a

1 1 0 -1 0 0
2 0 -1 1 0 1 0
1 c 3 Ai =

b -1 0 -1 0 0 1

0 0 0 1 -1 -1

d e f

4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 8 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

Steps to get the number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
1 Obtain the incidence matrix, A, from the given graph.

a

2 1 1 0 -1 0 0
1 c 3 A=

0 -1 1 0 1 0

b
-1 0 -1 0 0 1

d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 8 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

Steps to get the number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
1 Obtain the incidence matrix, A, from the given graph.
2 Get its transpose matrix, A0 .

a
1 0 -1
2 1 1 0 -1 0 0 1 -1 0
1 c 3 A= 0 -1 1 0 1 0

0

1 -1

b

A0 =

-1 0 -1 0 0 1 -1 0 0

0 1 0
d e f 0 0 1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 8 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

Steps to get the number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
1 Obtain the incidence matrix, A, from the given graph.
2 Get its transpose matrix, A0 .
3 Multiply the two matrices, that is, A A0 .

a

2 1 0 -1
1 c 3 1 -1 0
b

1 1 0 -1 0 0 3 -1 -1
0 1 -1

A A0 = 0 -1 1 0 1 0 = -1 3 -1

-1 0 0
-1 0 -1 0 0 1 0
-1 -1 3
d e f 1 0
0 0 1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 8 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

Steps to get the number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
1 Obtain the incidence matrix, A, from the given graph.
2 Get its transpose matrix, A0 .
3 Multiply the two matrices, that is, A A0 .
4 Find the determinant of the matrix just obtained, i.e., |A A0 | which will give us
the total possible number of trees that can be drawn from a given graph!
a

2
1 c 3
3

b -1 -1
3

-1 -1 -1 -1 3
|A A0 | = -1 3 -1 =3 (1) + (1)

-1 3 -1 3 -1 -1

-1 -1 3
d e f
= 3{(3)(3) (1)(1)} + 1{(1)(3) (1)(1)} 1{(1)(1) (3)(1)}

4
= 3{9 8} + {3 1} {1 + 3} = 24 4 4 = 16
AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 8 / 16
Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a

2
1 c 3
b

d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a
a
b 2 c
1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f

4
d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f

4 4
d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4
d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a

b 2 c
1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a

b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f

4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a

b 2 c
1 3
4 4 4 4

4
d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a

b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

4
d e f d e f

4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

4
d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

4
d e f d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

4
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a

b 2 c
1 3
4 4 4 4

d e f

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

4
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a

b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

d e f d e f

4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

4
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

4
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

d e f d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

4
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

d e f d e f d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4 4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A
Number of possible trees

Number of possible trees that can be drawn from any given graph!
a a a
a
b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3

2
1 c 3
b d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4
d e f

16
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

4
d e f d e f d e f d e f
a a a a a

b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c b 2 c
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
4 4 4 4

d e f d e f d e f d e f d e f

4 4 4 4 4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 9 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0 1
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0 1
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0 1 0
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0 1 0
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0 1 0 0
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0 1 0 0
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0 1 0 0 1
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0 1 0 0 1
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f Sum of all
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 elements in the
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 given column is
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 alyways zero!

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 1
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches 2
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 1
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches 2
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 1 3
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches 2
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 1 3
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches 2
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 a
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 1 3
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches 2
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 a
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 1 3 b
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches 2
Nodes a b c d e f c
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 a
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 1 3 b
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches 2
Nodes a b c d e f c d
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 a
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 1 3 b
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches 2
Nodes a b c d e f c d
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 a
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 1 3 b
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1 e
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches 2
Nodes a b c d e f c d
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 a
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 1 3 b
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1 e f
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches 2
Nodes a b c d e f c
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 d
a
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0 1 3 b
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

e f
4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
b
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 d 3 f
2 4
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai =
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 c a e

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
1
AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16
Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai =
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f 2
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0
Ai =

3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f 2
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1 3
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai =
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16

Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f 2
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1 3
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai =
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4
AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16
Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus a
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f 2
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1 3
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai =
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4
AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16
Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus a
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f 2
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1 3
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai = b
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4
AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16
Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus a
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f c 2
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1 3
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai = b
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4
AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16
Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus a
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f c 2 d
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1 3
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai = b
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4
AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16
Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus a
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f c 2 d
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1 3
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai = b
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

e
4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4
AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16
Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus a
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f c 2 d
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1 3
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai = b
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

e f
4 0 1 0 0 1 1
4
AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16
Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus a
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f c 2 d
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1 3
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai = b
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

f
4 0 1 0 0 1 1 e
4
AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16
Incidence Matrix, A

1 0 -1 0 -1 0
A= 0 -1 1 1 0 0

-1 0 0 -1 0 -1

## First, we need to construct the complete incidence matrix, Ai as it is the mathematical

replica of the graph! From the given incidence matrix, A, we know that the complete
incidence matrix, Ai will have n = 3 + 1 = 4 and b = 6. Thus a
Branches
Nodes a b c d e f c 2 d
1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 1 3
2 0 -1 1 1 0 0

Ai = b
3 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1

4 0 1 0 0 1 1 e f
4
AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 10 / 16
Incidence Matrix
Rank

Incidence Matrix
Rank

## Example: Verify that the rank of A of the following directed graph is n 1.

Node numbers and branch names have been assigned on the given graph as shown
below on the left.
2

a g

b d f

c e
1 3
4

Incidence Matrix
Rank

## Example: Verify that the rank of A of the following directed graph is n 1.

Node numbers and branch names have been assigned on the given graph as shown
below on the left.We now select a tree of our choice as shown on the below right.
2 2

a g a g

b d f b d f

c e c e
1 3 1 3
4 4
Tree : {c, d, e}; Links : {a, b, f , g}

Incidence Matrix
Rank

## Example: Verify that the rank of A of the following directed graph is n 1.

a g

b d f

c e
1 3
4
Tree : {c, d, e}; Links : {a, b, f , g}

Incidence Matrix
Rank

## We then derive the complete incidence matrix, Ai from the graph as

2

a g branches
a b c d e f g
nodes
b d f 1 1 -1 1 0 0 0 0
2 -1 1 0 1 0 1 -1
Ai =

3 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 1

c e
1 3
4 4 0 0 -1 -1 1 0 0
Tree : {c, d, e}; Links : {a, b, f , g}

Incidence Matrix
Rank

## By deleting the last row of Ai , we get the incidence matrix, A as

branches
nodes a b c d e f g

1 1 -1 1 0 0 0 0
A= 2 -1 1 0 1 0 1 -1

3 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 1

Incidence Matrix
Rank

## By deleting the last row of Ai , we get the incidence matrix, A as

branches
nodes a b c d e f g

1 1 -1 1 0 0 0 0
A= 2 -1 1 0 1 0 1 -1

3 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 1
We know the matrix A may also be expressed as A = [At : Al ] where At is the sub-
matrix of A with twigs in the columns and Al the sub-matrix with links in the columns.

Incidence Matrix
Rank

## By deleting the last row of Ai , we get the incidence matrix, A as

branches
nodes a b c d e f g

1 1 -1 1 0 0 0 0
A= 2 -1 1 0 1 0 1 -1

3 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 1
We know the matrix A may also be expressed as A = [At : Al ] where At is the sub-
matrix of A with twigs in the columns and Al the sub-matrix with links in the columns.
It may be noted that At is a square matrix of order (n 1) (n 1) while Al has the
dimension (n 1) (b n + 1).

Incidence Matrix
Rank

## Rearranging columns of A that correspond to twigs and links as A = [At : Al ]:

branches
nodes c d e a b f g

1 1 0 0 1 -1 0 0
A= 2 0 1 0 -1 1 1 -1

3 0 0 -1 0 0 -1 1

Incidence Matrix
Rank

## Rearranging columns of A that correspond to twigs and links as A = [At : Al ]:

branches
nodes c d e a b f g

1 1 0 0 1 -1 0 0 1 0 0
A= 2 0 1 0 -1 1 1 -1 At = 0 1 0

3 0 0 -1 0 0 -1 1 0 0 1

Incidence Matrix
Rank

## Rearranging columns of A that correspond to twigs and links as A = [At : Al ]:

branches
nodes c d e a b f g

1 1 0 0 1 -1 0 0 1 0 0
A= 2 0 1 0 -1 1 1 -1 At = 0 1 0

3 0 0 -1 0 0 -1 1 0 0 1

## The determinant of At = 1 (identity matrix) and |A| =

6 0. Hence, the rank of A is n 1.
Further, for Ai , the rank is also n 1.

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 14 / 16

Text Books & References

M. E. Van Valkenburg
Network Analysis, 3/e.
PHI, 2005.
W.H. Hayt, J.E. Kemmerly, S.M. Durbin
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/e.
MH, 2012.

## AeL. je. siHh/L. J. Singh(nehu/NEHU) EE - 304 Electrical Network Theory 2016.08.23 15 / 16

Text Books & References

M. E. Van Valkenburg
Network Analysis, 3/e.
PHI, 2005.
W.H. Hayt, J.E. Kemmerly, S.M. Durbin
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/e.
MH, 2012.

D. Roy Choudhury,
Networks and Systems,
New Age Publishers, 1998.
M. Nahvi, J.A. Edminister
Schuams Outline Electric Circuits, 4/e.
TMH, SIE, 2007.
A. Sudhakar, S.S. Palli
Circuits and Networks: Analysis and Synthesis, 2/e.
TMH, 2002.

Khublei Shibun!

Thank You!
Any Question?