RCS – II
Plastic Moment Redistribution
Chapter I
CHAPTER I
Plastic Moment Redistribution
1.1. Introduction
It is known that an indeterminate beam or frame normally will not fail when the ultimate moment capacity of just one critical section is reached. After formation of plastic hinges at the more highly stressed sections, substantial redistribution of moments occurs at the critical sections as loads are further increased before collapse of the structure takes place.
Redistribution of moments permits the designer to modify, within limits, the moment diagrams for which the members are to be designed. This enables the designer to reduce the congestion of reinforcement, which often occurs in high moment areas, such as at the junction of girders with columns.
Method of analysis allowed in EBCS 2
i. 
Elastic, optionally followed by inelastic (plastic) moment redistribution 
ii. 
Plastic analysis 
iii. 
Non – Linear analysis 
1.2. 
Moment curvature relationship 
Although it is not needed explicitly in ordinary design, the relation between moment applied to a given beam section and the resulting curvature, through the full range of loading to failure, is important to the study of member ductility, understanding the development of plastic hinges, and accounting for the redistribution of elastic moments that occur in most RC structures before collapse.
Curvature is defined as the angle change per unit length at any given location along the axis of a member subjected to loads as seen in figure 1.21.
Figure 1.21 Curvature
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Instructor: Misgun S.
RCS – II
Plastic Moment Redistribution
Chapter I
^{}^{}
1
From similarity of triangles,
^{} ^{⇒} ^{} ^{}
1
^{}
Moment of Inertia of Transformed Section
When a beam made of two materials is loaded, the different values of E for the two materials lead to different stress distribution since one materials is stiffer and accepts more stress for a given strain than the other .
However, the elastic beam theory can be used if the beam is hypothetically transformed to either an all steel beam or an all concrete beam, customarily the later. This is done by replacing the area of the steel with an equivalent area of concrete having centroid at the level of the centroid of the steel. The replaced concrete will experience the same force and strain as the steel.
_{} _{} _{} _{}
^{} ^{}
^{}
_{} _{}
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RCS – II
Plastic Moment Redistribution
Chapter I
Figure 1.22 Transformed Sections
With the above transformed sections and the idealized stressstrain relationships for steel and concrete figure 1.23 (b) and (c) the usual assumptions regarding perfect bond and plane sections, it is possible to calculate the relation between M and ϕ for a typical underreinforced concrete beam section, subject to flexural cracking as follows.
Figure 1.23 Underreinforced concrete beam section, subject to flexural cracking
In the limit case of figure 1.23b
^{} ^{} ^{} ^{}^{}^{} ^{} ^{}
_{} _{}_{} ≪ _{}
_{}_{} ^{} ^{}
_{}
_{}_{} ^{} ^{}^{}^{} ^{} ^{}^{}
Where, l _{u}_{t} is the moment of inertia of the uncracked transformed section.
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RCS – II
Plastic Moment Redistribution
Chapter I
Figure 1.24 MomentCurvature relationship of reinforced beam
These values (ϕcr , Mcr) provide information needed to plot point “1”of the Mϕ graph of figure 1.24.
When the tensile cracking occurs at the section, the stiffness is immediately reduced, and curvature increases to point “2” with no increase in moment. In the limit case, the concrete strain just reaches the proportional limit as shown in figure figure 1.23 (c) and the steel is below the yield strain.
ε _{} ε _{}_{} , f _{}_{} f _{}_{} and ε _{} ε _{}
Hence φ _{}_{} ^{ε} ^{}
c
_{} ε
c
and M _{}_{} ^{f} ^{}^{} ^{k}^{j}^{b}^{d}
2
(ϕel , Mel) provides point “3” on the graph and the curvature at point “2” can be found from the ratio Mcr/Mel.
Once the proportional limit is exceeded, the concrete is well into the inelastic range, although the steel has not yet yielded. The NA depth, C1 is less than the depth a = Kd and is changing with increasing load as the shape of the concrete stress distribution and the steel stress changes.
It is now convenient to adopt a numerical solution to find the concrete compressive force 'C' and the location of its centroid for any arbitrarily selected value of maximum concrete strain εc in the range εel< εc ≤ εcu.
The compressive strain diagram is divided into an arbitrary number of steps and the corresponding stress for each strain read from the stressstrain curve concrete. The stepwise representation of the actual continuous stress block is integrated numerically to find C, and its point of application is located taking moments of the concrete forces about the top of the
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RCS – II
Plastic Moment Redistribution
Chapter I
section. The basic equilibrium requirement, C =T, can be used to find the correct location of the NA, for the particular compressive strain selected, following an iterative procedure.
Alternative to numerical integration, formulae for determining the total compressive force as stated in EBCS 21995 can be used and are given below.
i. ε _{c}_{m} ≤ 2‰ and N.A. within the section
_{}_{} 6 _{}_{}
12
8 _{}_{}
4 6 _{}_{} ^{} ^{} ^{}
ii. ε _{c}_{m} ≥ 2‰ and N.A. within the section
_{} ^{3} ^{} ^{}^{}
3
2
^{}
_{} ^{} ^{}^{}
3
4 2
2 _{}_{} 3 _{}_{} 2 ^{} ^{}
iii. ε _{c}_{m} ≥ 2‰ and N.A. outside the section
1
_{} _{1}_{8}_{9} 125 64 _{}_{} 16 _{}_{}
_{} 0.5
40 2 ^{}
7 125 64 _{}_{} 16 _{}_{}
Then the total compressive force will be,
_{} _{} _{}_{}
1.3. Plastic hinges and collapse mechanisms If a short segment of a reinforced concrete beam is subjected to a bending moment, continued plastic rotation is assumed to occur after the calculated ultimate moment M _{u} is reached, with no change in applied moment. The beam behaves as if there were a hinge at that point. However, the hinge will not be “friction free”, but will have a constant resistance to rotation.
If such a plastic hinge forms in a determinate structure, as shown in figure 1.31, an uncontrolled deflection takes place and the structure will collapse. The resulting system is referred to as a mechanism. This implies that a statically determinate system requires the formation of only one plastic hinge in order to become a mechanism.
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RCS – II
Plastic Moment Redistribution
Chapter I
Figure 1.31
In the case of indeterminate structures, stability may be maintained even though hinges have
formed at several cross sections. The formation of such hinges in indeterminate structures
permits a redistribution of moments within the beam or frame.
W and P can be carried by any section strength combination at the supports and mid span as
long as the average of the support moment plus the positive moments at mid span 0.125Wl ^{2} . This allows the designer to reduce moments at some critical sections as long as it maintains equilibrium by increasing moments at adjacent critical sections. The following questions may be raised: Why decrease in moment at critical section is essential while compensation for the decrease is made by increasing moments at other sections?
Problem of congestion of reinforcement especially at supports can be addressed by adjusting the moment diagram obtained through elastic analysis. Thus the sections at support can be designed for less bending moment than predicted by elastic analysis implying less reinforcement and therefore less congestion. The design load W _{d} is carried through inelastic moment redistribution and the method of analysis involves adjustment of elastic bending moment diagram.
N.B. Plastic Moment redistribution is applicable only to statically indeterminate structures where major load transfer is through bending action.
For illustration let us see the behavior of an indeterminate beam of figure 1.32. It will be assumed for simplicity that the beam is symmetrically reinforced, so that the negative bending capacity is the same as the positive. Let the load P be increased gradually until the elastic moment at the fixed support, 3PL/16 is just equal to the plastic moment capacity of the section, M _{u} . This load is
At
_{}_{} ^{1}^{6} ^{} ^{} = 5.33 ^{} ^{}
3
3
(1.1)
this load the positive moment under the load is _{}_{} PL, as shown in figure 1.32.
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RCS – II
Plastic Moment Redistribution
Chapter I
Figure 1.32
The beam still responds elastically everywhere but at the left support. At that point the actual fixed support can be replaced for purpose of analysis with a plastic hinge offering a known resisting moment M _{u} , which makes the beam statically determinate.
The load can be increased further until the moment under the load also becomes equal to M _{u} , at which load the second hinge forms. The structure is converted into a mechanism, as shown in figure 1.32 c, and collapse occurs. The moment diagram at collapse is shown in figure 1.32d.
The magnitude of the load causing collapse is easily calculated from the geometry of figure 1.3
2d.
From which
_{}
^{} ^{}
2 ^{=} 4
= _{} = ^{6} ^{} ^{}
(1.2)
By comparison of equation 1.2 and 1.1, it is evident that an increase of 12.5% is possible beyond the load which caused the formation of the first plastic hinge, before the beam will actually collapse. Due to the formation of plastic hinges, a redistribution of moments has occurred such that, at failure, the ratio between positive moment and negative moment is equal to that assumed in reinforcing the structure.
1.4. Rotation Requirement It may be evident that there is a direct relation between the amount of redistribution desired and the amount of inelastic rotation at the critical sections of a beam required to produce the desired redistribution. In general, the greater the modification of the elasticmoment ratio, the greater the required rotation capacity to accomplish that change. To illustrate, if the beam of figure 1.22a had been reinforced according to the elasticmoment diagram of figure 1.22.b, no
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RCS – II
Plastic Moment Redistribution
Chapter I
inelasticrotation capacity at all would be required. The beam would, at least in theory, yield simultaneously at the left support and at midspan. On the other hand, if the reinforcement at the left support had been deliberately reduced (and the midspan reinforcement correspondingly increased), inelastic rotation at the support would be required before the strength at midspan could be realized.
Reinforced concrete members with bending are designed to have certain ductility, which ensures that the member is capable of undergoing a certain amount of rotation after yielding of the tension steel reinforcement and before crushing of the concrete in compression.
Generally, the amount of redistribution depends on
• Hinge sections must be able to undergo necessary inelastic deformation. Since the inelastic rotational capacity is a function of reinforcement ratio as in figure 1.41, this implies an upper limit on the reinforcement,
• Hinges should not occur at service load since wide cracks develop at hinge location, and
• Equilibrium must be maintained.
Figure 1.41 Momentcurvature diagram
To ensure that designs remain underreinforced (ductile), EBCS2 recommends that the ratio x/d, at sections of largest moment, does not exceed the values given by the following equations as functions of percent plastic moment redistribution.
Where
≥ 0.44 + 1.25 ^{} ^{⇒}
≥ 0.56 + 1.25 ^{} ^{⇒}
≤ − 0.44
_{1}_{.}_{2}_{5}
≤ − 0.56
_{1}_{.}_{2}_{5}
, _{}_{} ≤ 35
, _{}_{} > 35
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RCS – II
Plastic Moment Redistribution
Chapter I
For example, for 20% redistribution
0.8 ⇒
^{=}
0.8 − 0.44
_{1}_{.}_{2}_{5}
= 0.288 ( _{}_{} ≤ 35
^{=}
0.8 − 0.56
_{1}_{.}_{2}_{5}
= 0.192 ( _{}_{} > 35
In moment redistribution usually it is the maximum support moments, which are (adjusted) reduced so that economizing in reinforcing steel and also reducing congestion of bars at the column.
Requirements for applying moment  redistribution are:
• Equilibrium between internal and external forces must be maintained; hence it is necessary to recalculate the span moments.
• Maximum redistribution is 30%
( _{}_{}_{} = 0.7)
Redistribution 
δ 
k 
x 
μ 
^{*} 
k 
z ^{*} 
0 
1.0 
0.450 
0.295 
0.814 

10 
0.9 
0.368 
0.252 
0.840 

20 
0.8 
0.288 
0.205 
0.880 

30 
0.7 
0.208 
0.143 
0.914 
Table 1.41 Moment Redistribution Design Factors
Design procedure using table No. 1a & 1b (with moment redistribution)
Steps
Calculate _{}
•
a) If _{} _{} ^{∗} , where k _{m} * is the value of k _{m} shown shaded in general design table No. 1a,
corresponding to %age moment redistribution, section is singly reinforced.
Enter the general design table 1a using k _{m} and concrete grade. Read k _{s} from general design table No. 1a corresponding to steel grade.
Evaluate _{} ^{} ^{} ^{} ^{}
b) If _{} > _{} ^{∗} , the section has to be doubly reinforced.
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RCS – II
Plastic Moment Redistribution
Chapter I
Calculate k _{m} ⁄k _{m} * Read k _{s} and k _{s} ' corresponding to k _{m} ⁄k _{m} * and steel grade from table No. 1b and No. 1a respectively. Assume d _{2} =d" and read ρ (correction factor) from table No. 1a using k _{m} ⁄k _{m} * and
d _{2} /d.
Read ρ' corresponding to d _{2} /d and %age moment redistribution from table No. 1b. Calculate
_{} _{}
′ _{} ′ _{} ′
Design procedure using general design chart (with moment redistribution)
• Calculate ^{} ^{}^{}
^{} _{}_{}
a) If ^{∗} , section is
singly reinforced.

Evaluate Z from chart using _{} / 

Evaluate _{} ^{} ^{} 
b) If > ^{∗} , section is doubly reinforced.
∗
Evaluate Z* from chart using _{}
∗
Evaluate _{} Calculate
^{∗} _{}_{} ^{}
^{∗} /
^{} ^{}
∗
_{}_{} _{} _{} _{}_{}
_{} _{}
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RCS – II
Continuous Beams, OneWay Solid And Ribbed Slabs
Chapter II
CHAPTER II
CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND ONEWAY RIBBED SLABS
2.1. Introduction
Continuous beams, oneway slabs and continuous oneway ribbed slabs are indeterminate structures for which live load variation has to be considered. This is because dead load is always there but live load might vary during the life time of these structures.
Oneway slabs transmit their load mainly in one direction (i.e., the direction. of span). A 1m strip is taken in the direction of span and treated similar to continuous beams.
Elastic analysis such as slopedeflection, moment distribution and matrix method or plastic analysis or approximate method such as the use of moment coefficient or such methods as portal or cantilever can be used.
2.2. Analysis and design of continuous beams
The three major stages in the design of a continuous beam are design for flexure, design for shear, and design of longitudinal reinforcement details. In addition, it is necessary to consider
deflections and crack control and, in some cases, torsion. When the area supported by a beam exceeds 37m ^{2} , it is usually possible to use a reduced live load in calculating the moments and shears in the beam.
Figure 2.21 Oneway slab and continuous beam
The largest moment in continuous beams or oneway slabs or frames occur when some spans are loaded and the others are not. Influence lines are used to determine which spans should be loaded and which spans should not be to find the maximum load effect.
Figure 2.22a shows influence line for moment at B _{.} The loading pattern that will give the largest positive moment at consists of load on all spans having positive influence ordinates.
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RCS – II
Continuous Beams, OneWay Solid And Ribbed Slabs
Chapter II
Such loading is shown in figure 2.22b and is called alternate span loading or checkerboard loading.
The maximum negative moment at C results from loading all spans having negative influence ordinate as shown in figure 2.22d and is referred as an adjacent span loading.
Figure 2.22 Influence line for moment and loading patterns
Similarly, loading for maximum shear may be obtained by loading spans with positive shear influence ordinate and are shown in figure 2.23.
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RCS – II
Continuous Beams, OneWay Solid And Ribbed Slabs
Chapter II
Figure 2.23 Influence line for shear
In ACI code, it is required to design continues beam and oneway slabs to be design for the following loading patterns,
1. Factored load on all spans with factored partition load and factored live load on two adjacent spans and no live load on any other span. This will give the maximum negative moment and maximum shear at the support between the two loaded spans. This loading case is repeated for each interior support.
2. Factored dead load on all spans with factored partition load and a factored love load on alternate spans. This will give maximum positive moment at the middle of the loaded span, minimum positive moments (which could even be negative) at the middle of the unloaded spans, and maximum negative moment at the exterior support.
3. Factored dead and live load on all spans. Although this condition represents the maximum vertical loading possible, it is unlikely to cause the maximum reaction, shear forces, or bending moment for continuous beams.
After obtaining the maximum load effects of continuous beams, the design of continuous beams is carried out as discussed in reinforced concrete structures I course for no moment redistribution case and as in chapter I of this course encase of moment redistribution. For convince, design steps of no redistribution by using kmks table is recalled below. Note that charts can also be used for design given in EBCS 21995 Part 2.
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RCS – II
Continuous Beams, OneWay Solid And Ribbed Slabs
Chapter II
Steps for design using design table (no moment redistribution)
1. Evaluate K _{m}
2. Enter the general design table No 1.a using K _{m} and concrete grade.
a. If K _{m} ≤ K _{m} *, the value of K _{m} show shaded in design Table No 1.a, then the section is singly reinforced.
 Enter the design table No 1.a using K _{m} and concrete grade
 Read K _{s} from the table corresponding to the steel grade and K _{m}
 Evaluate A _{s}
b. If K _{m} ≥ K _{m} *, then the section should be doubly reinforced.
 Evaluate K _{m} / K _{m} * and d’’/d
 Read K _{s} , K _{s} ’, ρ and ρ’ from the same table corresponding to K _{m} / K _{m} *, d’’/d and concrete grade
 Evaluate
_{} _{}
′ _{} ^{} ^{′} ^{} ^{} ^{} ^{} ^{′}
Design using general design chart
1. Calculate _{}_{} _{,} _{} =
2. Enter the general design chart,
^{} ^{}^{}
^{} _{}_{}
•
If < ^{∗} ,
section is singly reinforced.
section is doubly reinforced.
• Evaluate Z from chart using _{} = /
Evaluate Z from _{} = / by reading value of _{} from chart using
Evaluate _{} = ^{} ^{}^{}
• If > ^{∗} ,
•
∗
Evaluate _{} _{,} _{}
=
^{∗} _{}_{} ^{}
• Calculate
= ^{} , + ^{} , ^{−} ^{} ,
( − _{} ) _{}_{}
∗
∗
( )
∗
= ^{} , ^{−} ^{} ,
( − _{} ) _{}
( )
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RCS – II
Continuous Beams, OneWay Solid And Ribbed Slabs
Chapter II
2.3. Analysis and design of oneway slabs Slabs are flat plates used to provide useful horizontal surfaces mainly for roofs and floors of buildings, parking lots, airfields, roadway etc.
Classification: Beam supported slabs may be classified as:
1. Oneway slabs  main reinforcement in each element runs in one direction only. (Ly/Lx >2). There are two types· one way solid slabs and one way ribbed slabs.
2. Twoway slabs  main reinforcement runs in both directions where ratio of long to short span is less than two. (Ly/Lx ≤ 2)
Others types of slab include flat slab, flat plates, two way ribbed or grid slabs etc.
Oneways slabs are considered as rectangular beams of comparatively large ratio of width to depth and ratio of longer span to width (short span) is greater than two.
When L _{y} /L _{x} > 2, about 90% or more of the total load is carried by the short span, i.e., bending takes place in the direction of the shorter span.
Figure 2.31 Oneway slab
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RCS – II
Continuous Beams, OneWay Solid And Ribbed Slabs
Chapter II
Analysis and design is than carried out by assuming a beam of unit width with a depth equal to the thickness of the slab, continuous over the supporting beam and span equal to the distance between supports (in the short direction or strip A and B) as shown in figure 2.32. The strip may be analyzed in the same way as singly reinforced rectangular sections. Near the ends the panel adjacent to the girders, some load is resisted by bending in the longitudinal strips (strips C) and less by the transvers strips (strip A). But for design purpose the effect is ignored and is indirectly accounted by extending top reinforcements into the top of the slabs on each side of the girders across the ends of the panel.
Figure 2.32 Oneway and twoway slab action
The load per unit area on the slab would be the load per unit length on this imaginary beam of unit width. As the loads being transmitted to the supporting beams, all reinforcement shall be placed at right angles to these beams. However some additional bars may be placed in the other direction to carry temperature and shrinkage stresses.
Generally the design consists of selecting a slab thickness for deflection requirements and flexural design is carried out by considering the slab as series of rectangular beams side by side.
Remarks:
• The following minimum thicknesses shall be adopted in design:
a) 60 mm for slabs not exposed to concentrated loads (e.g inaccessible roofs)
b) 80 mm for slabs exposed mainly to distributed loads.
c) 100 mm for slabs exposed to light moving concentrated loads (e.g slabs accessible to light motor vehicles)
d) 120 mm for slabs exposed to heavy dynamic moving loads (eg. slabs accessible to heavy vehicles)
• Unless conditions warrant some change, cover to reinforcement is 15 mm.
• The ratio of the secondary reinforcement to the main reinforcement shall be at least equal to 0.2.
• The geometrical ratio of main reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than
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RCS – II
Continuous Beams, OneWay Solid And Ribbed Slabs
Chapter II
^{} ^{}
0.5
_{} , ℎ _{}_{}
• The spacing between main bars for slabs shall not exceed the smaller of 2h or 350 mm.
• The spacing between secondary bars shall not exceed 400 mm.
2.4. Analysis and design of oneway ribbed slabs Longspan floors for relatively light live loads can be constructed as a series of closely spaced, castinplace Tbeams (or joists or ribs) with a cross section as shown in figure 2.41. The joists span one way between beams. Most often, removable metal forms referred to as fillers or pans are used to form the joists. Occasionally, joist floors are built by using claytile fillers, which serve as forms for the concrete in the ribs that are left in place to serve as the celling.
Figure 2.41 Typical ribbed slab crosssection
General Requirements:
• Because joists are closely spaced, thickness of slab (topping),
40
_{1}_{0} ℎ
1
• Ribs shall not be less than 70 mm in width
• Ribs shall have a depth, excluding any topping, of not more than 4 times the minimum width of the rib.
• Rib spacing shall not exceed 1.0 m
• The topping shall be provided with a reinforcement mesh providing in each direction a cross sectional area not less than 0.001 of the section of the slab.
• If the rib spacing exceeds 1.0 m, the topping shall be designed as a slab resting on ribs considering load concentrations, if any.
• Transverse ribs shall be provided if the span of the ribbed slab exceeds 6.0 m.
• When transverse ribs are provided, the centertocenter distance shall not exceed 20 times the overall depth of the ribbed slab.
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RCS – II
Continuous Beams, OneWay Solid And Ribbed Slabs
Chapter II
• The transverse ribs shall be designed for at least half the values of maximum moments and shear force in the longitudinal ribs.
• The girder supporting the joist may be rectangular or Tbeam with the flange thickness equal to the floor thickness.
Procedure for design of ribbed slabs
1. Thickness of toppings and ribs assumed based on minimum requirement.
2. Loads may be computed on the basis of centerline of the spacing of joists.
3. The joists are analyzed as regular continuous or T beams supported by girders.
4. Shear reinforcement shall not be provided in the narrow web of joist thus a check for the section capacity against shear is carried out. The shear capacity may be approximated as 1.1 V _{c} of regular rectangular sections.
5. Determine flexural reinforcement and consider minimum provision in the final solution.
6. Provide the topping or slab with reinforcement as per temp and shrinkage requirement.
7. Design the girder as a beam.
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Columns
Chapter IV
CHAPTER III
TWOWAY SLABS
3.1. Introduction
Slabs with the ratio of the longer to the shorter span, between 1 & 2 transfer their load in two orthogonal directions. i.e. some portion of the load in the short direction and the remaining portion of the load in the long direction. These slabs are called twoway slabs and they deflect into a dish shaped curvature. This means that they have curvature in both directions and because moments are proportional to curvature, there are moments in both directions, which require reinforcement in the tension zone.
3.2. Analysis and design of two way beam supported slabs
For the slab shown in figure 3.1.1, if beams are incorporated within the depth of the slab itself the slab carries load in two directions. The load at A may be thought of as being carried from A to B and C by one strip of slab, and from B to D and E, and so on, by other slab strips. Because the slab must transmit loads in two directions it is referred to as two way slab.
Figure 3.21 Twoway slab
Consider the simply supported panel under uniform load w.
Figure 3.22
Let w _{x} and w _{y} be load in the x and y direction in which,
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Columns
Chapter IV
_{} _{}
_{} _{} _{} _{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{} 1
Where k _{x} and k _{y} are load distributing factors in the short and long directions respectively.
Because the imaginary strips actually are part of the same slab, their deflections at the intersection point must be the same. Equating the center deflections of the strips in the short (x) and long (y) directions gives
5 

5 

384 
^{=} 384 
= ^{} ^{} = ^{} ^{}
= ^{} ^{}
_{} = ^{} _{}
_{} + _{} =1
( ^{} + 1) _{} =1
1
_{} = _{} _{} _{+}_{1} , _{} =
^{}
^{} +1
Analysis using Table coefficients [EBCS 21995]
The coefficients k _{x} & k _{y} as obtained using the previous discussion are approximate because the actual behavior of a slab is more complex than the two intersecting strips. The outer strips not only bend, but also twist. The twisting results in torsional moments and stress pronounced near the corners.
Moments for individual panels with edge simply supported or fully fixed may be computed
from:
Where:
_{} _{} _{}
M _{i} : is the design initial moment per unit width at the point of reference.
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Columns
Chapter IV
α _{i} : coefficient given in Table A1 (EBCS 21995) as a function of L _{y} /L _{x} ratio and support condition
p _{d} : design uniform load
L _{x} ,L _{y} : shorter and longer span of the panel respectively
Figure 3.23 Notations of critical moments
The subscripts have the following meaning.
• s – Support
• f  field (span)
• y, x  directions in the long & short span, respectively.
Division of slabs into middle and edge strips is illustrated in Fig. A4.
The maximum design moments calculated as above apply only to the middle strips and no redistribution shall be made.
Reinforcement in an edge strip, parallel to the edge, need not be less than minimum areas of tension reinforcement.
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Columns
Chapter IV
Figure 3.24 Division of slab into middle strip and edge strip
Moment adjustment
For each support over which the slab is continuous, there will be two adjacent support moments. The difference may be distributed between the panels at either side of support to equalize their moments as in moment distribution method for frames.
There are two alternatives: 
a. When ΔM s ≤ 0.2 M s,large
The average of initial moments may be used.
b. When ΔM s ≥ 0.2 M s,large Apply moment distribution only to adjacent spans.
Steps to be followed
1. Support and span moments are first evaluated for individual panels using coefficients from Table A1 .
2. The unbalanced moment is distributed using the moment distribution method.
3. When the support moment is decreased, the span moments M _{x}_{f} and M _{y}_{f} are then
increased to allow for the changes of support moments (equilibrium). This increase is computed as: 
_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}
Where c _{x} and c _{y} are coefficient from Table A2 (EBCS2)
_{} _{}_{}
Flexural reinforcement
• The ratio of the secondary reinforcement to the main reinforcement shall be at least equal to 0.2.
^{•} ^{} , ^{} ^{5} ^{∗} ^{}
• The geometrical ratio of main reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than
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Columns
Chapter IV
^{} ^{}
0.5
_{} , _{}_{}
• The spacing between main bars for slabs shall not exceed the smaller of 2h or 350
mm.
• The spacing between secondary bars shall not exceed 400 mm.
Load on beams
The design uniform loads on beams supporting solid slabs may be computed using: 
Where _{}_{} and _{}_{} are load transfer coefficient given in Table A3 (EBCS2)
The shear force carried by concrete in slab can be taken as the one given for beams.
_{}
. 25 _{}_{}_{} _{} _{}
3.3. Analysis and design of flat slabs
3.3.1. Introduction
Concrete twoway slabs may in some cases be supported by relatively shallow, flexible beams, or directly by columns without the use of beams or girders. Such slabs are generally referred as column supported twoway slabs. Beams may also be used where the slab is interrupted as around stair, walls or at discontinuous edges.
In practice column supported twoway slabs take various forms:
Flat Plates: they are flat slabs with flat soffit. Such slabs have uniform thickness supported on columns. They are used for relatively light loads, as experienced in apartments or similar buildings. Flat plats are most economical for spans from 4.5m to 6m (see Fig. 3.3.11a).
Flat Slabs: they are slab systems with the load transfer to the column is accomplished by thickening the slab near the column, using drop panels and/or by flaring the top of the column to form a column capital. They may be used for heavy industrial loads and for spans of 6m to 9m (see Fig. 3.3.11c)
Waffle Slabs: they are twoway joist systems with reduced selfweights. They are used for spans from 7.5m to 12m. (Note: for large spans, the thickness required to transmit the vertical loads to the columns exceeds that required for bending. As a result the concrete at the middle of the panel is not efficiently used. To lighten the slab, reduce the slab moments, and save material, the slab at mid span can be replaced by intersecting ribs. Near the
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columns the full depth is retained to transmit loads from the slab to the columns (see Fig.
3.3.11b)
In this chapter, consideration will be given to flat slabs with or without drop panels or column capitals.
Figure 3.3.11 Types of two way column supported slabs
For analysis and design purpose the panel in flat slab is divided in to column strips and middle strips as shown below (EBSC 2)
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Figure 3.3.12 Division of panels in Flat slabs
A column strip is a design strip with a width on each side of a column centerline equal to 0.25 Lx or if drops with dimension not less than Lx/3 are used, a width equal to the drop dimension. A middle strip is a design strip bounded by two column strips.
The drop panels are rectangular (may be square) and influence the distribution of moments
in the slab. The smaller dimension of the drop is at least one third of the smaller dimension
of the surrounding panels, Lx/3 and the drop may be 25 to 50 percent thicker than the rest
of the slab.
3.3.2. Load Transfer in Flat Slabs
Consider the following column supported two way slabs. If a surface load w is applied (see Fig. 3.3.21a), it is shared between imaginary slab strips la in the short direction and l _{b} in the longer direction. Note that the portion of the load that is carried by the long strips l _{b} is delivered to the beams B _{1} which in turn carried in the short direction plus that directly carried in the short direction by the slab strips la, sums up to 100 percent of the load applied to the panel. The same is true in the other direction.
A similar situation is obtained in the flat plate floor (see Fig. 3.3.21b) where broad strips of
the slab centered on the column lines in each direction serve the same function as the
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beams. Therefore; for column supported construction, 100 percent of the applied load must be carried in each direction, jointly by the slab and its supporting beams.
Figure 3.3.21 Column Supported twoway slabs (a) with beams (b) without beams
3.3.3. Moments in Flat Slabs Floors
Consider the flat slab floor supported by columns at A, B, C, and D as shown in Fig. 3.3.31a
Figure 3.3.31 Moment Variation (a) criticalmoment section (b) moment variation along a span (c) moment variation along the width of critical section
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Longitudinal Distributions of moments
For the determination of moment in the direction of span l _{1} , the slab may be considered as a broad, flat beam of width l _{2} .
The load, P _{2} = wl _{2} per m length of span.
From the requirement of statics:
In the longitudinal direction (see fig. 3.3.31b)
+ +
In the perpendicular direction
1
_{2} ( + )+ =
_{} _{} _{} _{} ^{}
1 _{8} ( _{} _{} ^{} )
From the above static moment in each direction, the moment in the long direction is larger than those in the short direction unlike to the situation for the slab with stiff edge beams.
Lateral Distributions of moments
The moments across the width of critical sections such as AB or EF are not constant as shown qualitatively (see fig. 3.3.31c). For design purpose, moments may be considered constant within the bounds of a middle strip or column strip, unless beams are present in column lines.
3.3.4. Practical Analysis of Flat slab Floors
The two methods for the analysis of flat slabs are:
a) Direct Design method
b) Equivalent Frame Method
Generally, for both methods of analysis, the negative moments greater than those at a distance h _{c} /2 from the centerline of the column may be ignored provided the moment M _{o} obtained as the sum of the maximum positive design moment and the average of the negative design moments in anyone span of the slab for the whole panel width is such that:
≥ _{} _{+} _{} _{} _{}
_{8}
_{} −
2ℎ _{}
3
Where L _{1} is the panel length parallel to span, measured from centers of columns.
L _{2} is the panel width, measured from centers of columns
h _{c} is the effective diameter of a column or column head (see below)
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When the above condition is not satisfied, the negative design moments shall be increased.
The effective diameter of a column or column head h _{c} is the diameter of a circle whose area equals the crosssectional area of the column or, if column heads are used, the area of the column head based on the effective dimensions as defined below. In no case shall h _{c} be taken as greater than onequarter of the shortest span framing in to the column.
The effective dimensions of a column head for use in calculation of h _{c} are limited according to the depth of the head. In any direction, the effective dimension of a head L _{h} shall be taken as the lesser of the actual dimension L _{h}_{o} or L _{h}_{,}_{m}_{a}_{x} , where L _{h}_{,}_{m}_{a}_{x} is given by:
^{} , ^{=} ^{} ^{+} ^{2} ^{}
For a flared head, the actual dimension L _{h}_{o} is that measured to the center of the reinforcing steel (see Fig. 3.3.41)
Figure 3.3.41 Types of Column Head
3.3.5. Direct Design Method as per EBCS 2, 1995
According to the EBCS 2 specification, the direct design method of analysis is subjected to the following restrictions.
• Design is based on the single load case of all spans loaded with the maximum design ultimate load.
• There are at least three rows of panels of approximately equal span in the direction being considered.
• Successive span length in each direction shall not differ by more than onethird of the longer span
• Maximum offsets of columns from either axis between center lines of successive columns shall not exceed 10% of the span (in the direction of the offset)
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Longitudinal Distribution
The distribution of design span and support moments depends on the relative stiffness of the different sections which in turn depends on the restraint provided for the slab by the supports. Accordingly, the distribution factors are given in the following table.
Outer support 
Near 
First 
Center of 
Interior 

Column 
Wall 
center of 
interior 
interior 
support 

first span 
support 
span 

Moment 
0.040FL 
0.020FL 
0.083FL 
0.063FL 
0.071FL 
0.055FL 
Shear 
0.45F 
0.40F 
 
0.60F 
 
0.50F 
Total Column 
0.040FL 
 
 
0.022FL 
 
0.022FL 
moments 
Table 3.3.51 Bending Moment and Shear Force Coefficients for Flat slabs of Three or More Equal Spans.
NOTE:
• F is the total design ultimate load on the strip of slab between adjacent columns considered.
• L is the effective span = L _{1} 2h _{c} /3
• The limitations of Section A.4.3.1(2) of EBCS 2, need not be checked
• The moments shall not be redistributed
Lateral Distribution
The design moment obtained from the above (or equivalent frame analysis) shall be divided b/n the column and middle strips according to the following table.
Apportionment been column and middle strip expressed as percentages of the total negative or positive design moment
Column Strip (%)
Middle Strip (%)
Negative
75
25
Positive
55
45
Table 3.3.52 Distribution of Design Moments in Panels of Flat Slabs
NOTE: For the case where the width of the column strip is taken as equal to that of the drop and the middle strip is thereby increased in width, the design moments to be resisted by the middle strip shall be increased in proportion to its increased width. The design moments to be resisted by the column strip may be decreased by an amount such that the total positive and the total negative design moments resisted by the column strip and middle strip together are unchanged.
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3.3.6. Equivalent Frame Method
The direct design method is applicable when the proposed structures satisfy the restrictions on geometry and loading. If the structure does not satisfy the criteria, the more general method of elastic analysis is the equivalent frame method.
In the equivalent frame method, the structure is divided in to continuous frames centered on the column lines on either side of the columns, extending both longitudinally and transversely. Each frame is composed of abroad continuous beam and a row of columns.
Figure 3.3.61 Building idealization for equivalent frame analysis
Equivalent Frame Method as per EBCS 2, 1995
According to the EBCS 2 specification, Equivalent Frame Method of analysis is treated as follows:
(1) The width of slab used to define the effective stiffness of the slab will depend upon the aspect ratio of the panels and the type of loading, but the following provisions may be applied in the absence of more accurate methods:
• In the case of vertical loading, the full width of the Panel, and
• For lateral loading, half the width of the panel may be used to calculate the stiffness of the slab. (2) The moment of inertia of any section of slab or column used in calculating the relative stiffness of members may be assumed to be that of the cross section of the concrete alone.
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(3) Moments and forces within a system of flat slab panels may be obtained from analysis of the structure under the single load case of maximum design load on all spans or panels simultaneously, provided:
• The ratio of the characteristic imposed load to the characteristic dead load does not exceed 1.25.
• The characteristic imposed load does not exceed 5.0 kN/m ^{2} excluding partitions.
(4) Where it is not appropriate to analyze for the single load case of maximum design load on all spans, it will be sufficient to consider following arrangement of vertical loads:
• All spans loaded with the maximum design ultimate load, and
• Alternate spans with the maximum design ultimate load and all other spans loaded with the minimum design ultimate load (1.0Gk). (5) Each frame may be analyzed in its entirety by any elastic method. Alternatively, for vertical loads only, each strip of floor and roof may be analyzed as a separate frame with the columns above and below fixed in position and direction at their extremities. In either case, the analysis shall be carried out for the "appropriate design ultimate loads on each span calculated for a strip of slab of width equal to the distance between center lines of the panels on each side of the columns.
Equivalent Frame Method as per ACI Code
According to the ACI Code specification, the Equivalent Frame method was developed with the assumption that the analysis would be done using the moment distribution method.
A. Basis of Analysis
The equivalent Frame method was developed with the assumption that the analysis would be done using the moment distribution method. For vertical loading, each floor with its columns may be analyzed separately by assuming the columns to be fixed at the floors above and below.
B. Moment of Inertia of Slab Beam
The slab beam includes the portion of then slab bounded by panel centerlines on each side of the columns, together with column line beams or drop panels (if used).
The moment of inertia used for analysis may be based on the concrete crosssection, neglecting reinforcement, but variations in cross section along the member axis should be accounted for (see below).
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Figure 3.3.62 EI values for slab with drop
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Figure 3.3.63 EI values for slab and beam
C. The equivalent Column
In the equivalent frame method of analysis, the columns are considered to be attached to the continuous slab beam by torsional members transverse to the direction of the span for which moments are being found. Torsional deformation of these transverse supporting members reduces the effective flexural stiffness provided by the actual column at the support.
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Figure 3.3.64 Frame action and twisting of edge member
The above effects can be considered by replacing the actual beam and columns with an equivalent column having the following stiffness:
Where:
1
1
1
^{}
∑
+
K _{e}_{c} = Flexural stiffness of equivalent column
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K _{c} = flexural stiffness of actual column
K _{t} = torsional stiffness of edge beam
The torsional Stiffness K _{t} can be calculated by:
Where:
_{}
E _{c}_{s} = modulus of elasticity of slab concrete
9 _{}_{}
_{} 1 − ^{} ^{}
^{}
c _{2} = size of rectangular column, capital, or bracket in the direction of l _{2} .
C = cross sectional constant (roughly equivalent to polar moment of inertia)
The torsional constant C can be calculated by:
Where:
1 − 0.63
^{}
3
x is the shorter side of a rectangle and y is the longer side.
C is calculated by subdividing the cross section of torsional members in to component rectangles and the subdivision is to maximize the value of C.
The torsional members according to ACI Code are as follows:
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Figure 3.3.65 Torsional members
D. Arrangement of Live Load for Analysis
(1) If the unfactored live load does not exceed 0.75 times the unfactored dead load, it is not necessary to consider pattern loadings, and only the case of full factored live load and dead load on all spans need to be analyzed. (2) If the unfactored live load exceeds 0.75 times the unfactored dead load the following pattern loadings need to be considered.
a. For maximum positive moment, factored dead load on all spans and 0.75 times the full factored live load on the panel in question and on alternate panels.
b. For maximum negative moment at an interior support, factored dead load on all panels and 0.75 times the full factored live load on the two adjacent panels.
The final design moments shall not be less than for the case of full factored dead and live load on all panels.
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3.3.7. Shear in Flat Slabs, as per EBCS 2
The concrete section (thickness of the slab) must be adequate to sustain the shear force, since stirrups are not convenient.
Two types of shear are considered
a) Beam type Shear: Diagonal tension Failure and critical section is considered at d distance from the face of the column or capital and Vc is the same expression given earlier for beams or solid slabs.
_{} 0.25 _{}_{}_{} _{} _{} _{}
b) Punching Shear: perimeter shear which occurs in slabs without beams around columns. It is characterized by formation of a truncated punching cone or pyramid around concentrated loads or reactions. The outline of the critical section is shown in Fig. below.
Figure 3.3.71 Critical section remote from a free edge
The shear force to be resisted can be calculated as the total design load on the area bounded by the panel centerlines around the column less the load applied with in the area defined by the critical shear perimeter.
The punching shear resistance without shear reinforcement is:
_{}_{} 0.25 _{}_{}_{} _{} _{}
_{} =
(1 + 50 _{} ) ≤ 2.0
_{} = _{}_{} _{}_{} ^{} ≤ 0.015
=
1
= _{2} ( _{} + _{} ), ℎ
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CHAPTER IV
COLUMNS
4.1. Introduction
A column is a vertical structural member transmitting axial compression loads with or
without moments. The cross sectional dimensions of a column are generally considerably less than its height. Column support mainly vertical loads from the floors and roof and
transmit these loads to the foundation
In construction, the reinforcement and concrete for the beam and slabs in a floor are place
once the concrete has hardened; the reinforcement and concrete for the columns over that floor are placed followed by the next higher floor.
Columns may be classified based on the following criteria:
a. Classification on the basis of geometry; rectangular, square, circular, L shaped, Tshaped, etc. depending on the structural or architectural requirements.
b. Classification on the basis of composition; composite columns, infilled columns, etc.
c. Classification on the basis of lateral reinforcement; tied columns, spiral columns.
d. Classification on the basis of manner by which lateral stability is provided to the structure as a whole; braced columns, unbraced columns.
e. Classification on the basis of sensitivity to second order effect due to lateral displacements; sway columns, nonsway columns.
f. Classification on the basis of degree of slenderness; short column, slender column.
g. Classification on the basis of loading: axially loaded column, columns under uniaxial bending, columns under biaxial bending.
Composite/Infilled Columns
a) Composite Columns: Columns in which steel structural members are encased in a concrete. Main reinforcement bars positioned with ties or spirals are placed around the structural member.
b) Infilled Columns: Columns having steel pipes filled with plain concrete or lightly reinforced concrete.
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Figure 4.11 Composite Columns and infilled columns
Tied/Spiral Columns
a) Tied Columns: Columns where main (longitudinal) reinforcements are held in position by separate ties spaced at equal intervals along the length. Tied columns may be, square, rectangular, Lshaped, circular or any other required shape. And over 95% of all columns in buildings in nonseismic regions are tied columns.
Figure 4.12 Tied Columns
b) Spiral Columns: Columns which are usually circular in cross section and longitudinal bars are wrapped by a closely spaced spiral.
Figure 4.13 Spiral Columns
Behavior of Tied and Spiral columns
The load deflection diagrams (see Fig. 4.14) show the behavior of tied and spiral columns subjected to axial load.
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Figure 4.14 Load deflection behavior of tied and spiral columns
The initial parts of these diagrams are similar. As the maximum load is reached vertical cracks and crushing develops in the concrete shell outside the ties or spirals, and this concrete spalls off. When this happens in a tied column, the capacity of the core that remains is less than the load and the concrete core crushes and the reinforcement buckles outward between the ties. This occurs suddenly, without warning, in a brittle manner.
When the shell spalls off in spiral columns, the column doesn’t fail immediately because the strength of the core has been enhanced by the tri axial stress resulting from the confinement of the core by the spiral reinforcement. As a result the column can undergo large deformations before collapses (yielding of spirals). Such failure is more ductile and gives warning to the impending failure.
Accordingly, ductility in columns can be ensured by providing spirals or closely spaced ties.
4.2. Classification of Compression Members
4.2.1. Braced/Unbraced Columns
a) Unbraced columns
An unbraced structure is one in which frames action is used to resist horizontal loads. In such a structure, the horizontal loads are transmitted to the foundations through bending action in the beams and columns. The moments in the columns due to this bending can substantially reduce their axial (vertical) load carrying capacity. Unbraced structures are generally quit flexible and allow horizontal displacement (see Fig. 4.2.11). When this displacement is sufficiently large to influence significantly the column moments, the structure is termed a sway frame.
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Figure 4.2.11 Sway Frame/ Unbraced columns
b) Braced columns:
Although, fully non sway structures are difficult to achieve in practice, EBCS2 or EC2 allows a structure to be classified as nonsway if it is braced against lateral loads using substantial bracing members such as shear walls, elevators, stairwell shafts, diagonal bracings or a combination of these (See Fig. 4.2.12). A column with in such a nonsway structure is considered to be braced and the second order moment on such column, P∆, is negligible. This may be assumed to be the case if the frame attracts not more than 10% of the horizontal loads.
Figure 4.2.12 Nonsway Frame / Braced columns
4.2.2. Short/Slender Columns
a) Short columns
They are columns with low slenderness ratio and their strengths are governed by the strength of the materials and the geometry of the cross section.
b) Slender columns
They are columns with high slenderness ratio and their strength may be significantly reduced by lateral deflection.
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When an unbalanced moment or as moment due to eccentric loading is applied to a column, the member responds by bending as shown in Fig. below. If the deflection at the center of the member is, δ, then at the center there is a force P and a total moment of M + Pδ. The second order bending component, Pδ, is due to the extra eccentricity of the axial load which results from the deflection. If the column is short δ is small and this second order moment is negligible. If on the other hand, the column is long and slender, δ is large and Pδ must be calculated and added to the applied moment M.
Figure 4.2.21 Forces in slender column
4.3. Classification of Columns on the Basis of Loading
4.3.1. Axially loaded columns They are columns subjected to axial or concentric load without moments. They occur rarely.
When concentric axial load acts on a short column, its ultimate capacity may be obtained, recognizing the nonlinear response of both materials, from:
Where
– +
A _{g} is gross concrete area A _{s}_{t} is total reinforcement area
When concentric axial load acts on a long column ( ^{} ^{}
obtained from:
≥ 12), its ultimate capacity may be
_{}_{}_{} = _{} _{}_{} ℎ _{} = 1.25 − _{} /48
4.3.2. Column under uniaxial bending
Almost all compression members in concrete structures are subjected to moments in addition to axial loads. These may be due to the load not being centered on the column or
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may result from the column resisting a portion of the unbalanced moments at the end of the beams supported by columns.
Figure 4.3.21 Equivalent eccentricity of column load
When a member is subjected to combined axial compression P _{d} and moment M _{d} , it is more convenient to replace the axial load and the moment with an equivalent P _{d} applied at eccentricity e _{d} as shown below.
Interaction diagram
The presence of bending in axially loaded members can reduce the axial load capacity of the member
To illustrate conceptually the interaction between moment and axial load in a column, an idealized homogenous and elastic column with a compressive strength, f _{c}_{u} , equal to its tensile strength, f _{t}_{u} , will be considered. For such a column failure would occurs in a compression when the maximum stresses reached f _{c}_{u} as given by:
+
Dividing both sides by f _{c}_{u} gives:
1
^{+}
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Figure 4.3.22 Interaction Chart for an elastic column
The maximum axial load the column could support is obtained when M = 0, and is P _{m}_{a}_{x} =
f _{c}_{u} A.
Similarly the maximum moment that can be supported occurs when P=0 and is M _{m}_{a}_{x} = f _{c}_{u} I/C.
Substituting P _{m}_{a}_{x} and M _{m}_{a}_{x} gives:
1 =
+
^{}
^{}
This is known as interaction equations because it shows the interaction of or relationship between P and M at failure. It is plotted as line AB (see Fig.). A similar equation for a tensile load, P, governed by f _{t}_{u} , gives line BC in the figure. The plot is referred to as an interaction diagram.
Points on the lines represent combination of P and M corresponding to the resistance of the section. A point inside the diagram such as E represents a combination of P and M that will not cause failure. Load combinations falling on the line or outside the line, such as point F will equal or exceed the resistance of the section and hence will cause failure.
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Interaction Diagrams for Reinforced concrete Columns
Since reinforced concrete is not elastic and has a tensile strength that is lower than its compressive strength, the general shape of the diagram resembles Fig. 4.3.23
Figure 4.3.23 Interaction diagram for column in combined bending and axial load
Balanced condition: For a given cross section the design axial force P _{b} acts at one specific eccentricity e _{b} to cause failure by simultaneous yielding of tension steel and crushing of concrete (see Fig. 4.3.2 3)
Tension failure controls: For a very large eccentricity of the axial force P _{n} , the failure is triggered by yielding of the tension steel. The horizontal axis corresponds to an infinite value of e, i.e. pure bending at moment capacity M _{o} (see Fig. 4.3.23)
Compression failure controls: For a very small eccentricity of the axial force P _{n} , the failure is governed by concrete compression. The vertical axis corresponds to e = 0 and P _{o} is the capacity of the column if concentrically loaded (see Fig. 4.3.23)
Interaction diagrams for columns are generally computed by assuming a series of strain distributions, each corresponding to a particular point on the interaction diagram, and computing the corresponding values of P and M (strain compatibility analysis).
The calculation process can be illustrated as follow for one particular strain distribution.
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Figure 4.3.24 StressStrain relationship for column
In the actual design, interaction charts prepared for uniaxial bending can be used. The procedure involves:
• Assume a cross section, d’ and evaluate d’/h to choose appropriate chart
• Compute:
o 
Normal force ratio: 
_{} / _{}_{} 
o 
Moment ratios: _{} / _{}_{} ^{} 
• Enter the chart and pick ω (the mechanical steel ratio), if the coordinate (ν, μ) lies within the families of curves. If the coordinate (ν, μ) lies outside the chart, the cross section is small and a new trail need to be made.
• Compute _{} _{,} _{}_{}_{} = _{} _{}_{} / _{}_{}
• Check A _{t}_{o}_{t} satisfies the maximum and minimum provisions
• Determine the distribution of bars in accordance with the charts requirement
4.3.3. Column under biaxial bending
There are situations in which axial compression is accompanied by simultaneous bending about both principal axes of the section. This is the case in corner columns, interior or edge columns with irregular column layout. For such columns, the determination of failure load is extremely laborious and making manual computation difficult.
Consider the Rc column section shown under axial force P acting with eccentricities e _{x} and e _{y} , such that e _{x} = M _{y} /p, e _{y} = M _{x} /P from centroidal axes (Fig. 4.3.31c).
In Fig. Fig. 4.3.31a the section is subjected to bending about the y axis only with eccentricity e _{x} . The corresponding strength interaction curve is shown as Case (a) (see Fig. 4.3.31d). Such a curve can be established by the usual methods for uniaxial bending. Similarly, in Fig. 4.116b the section is subjected to bending about the x axis only with eccentricity e _{y} . The corresponding strength interaction curve is shown as Case (b) (see Fig. 4.3.31d). For case (c), which combines x and y axis bending, the orientation of the resultant eccentricity is defined by the angle λ
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arctan ^{} ^{} arctan ^{} ^{}^{}
^{}
Bending for this case is about an axis defined by the angle θ with respect to the xaxis. For other values of λ, similar curves are obtained to define the failure surface for axial load plus biaxial bending.
Any combination of P _{u} , M _{u}_{x} , and M _{u}_{y} falling outside the surface would represent failure. Note that the failure surface can be described either by a set of curves defined by radial planes passing through the P _{n} axis or by a set of curves defined by horizontal plane intersections, each for a constant P _{n} , defining the load contours (see Fig. 4.3.31).
Figure 4.3.31 Interaction diagram for compression plus biaxial bending
Computation commences with the successive choice of neutral axis distance c for each value of q. Then using the strain compatibility and stressstrain relationship, bar forces and the concrete compressive resultant can be determined. Then P _{n} , M _{n}_{x} , and M _{n}_{y} (a point on the interaction surface) can be determined using the equation of equilibrium
Since the determination of the neutral axis requires several trials, the procedure using the above expressions is tedious. Thus, the following simple approximate methods are widely used.
1. Load contour method: It is an approximation on load versus moment interaction surface (see Fig. 4.3.31). Accordingly, the general nondimensional interaction equation of family of load contours is given by:
+
1
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where:
_{} 0.667 + 1.667 ^{} ^{}^{} 1.15 ≤ _{} ≤ 2
^{}
M _{d}_{x} = P _{d} e _{y} M dy = P d e x M _{d}_{x}_{o} = M _{d}_{x} when M _{d}_{y} = 0 (design capacity under uniaxial bending about x) M _{d}_{y}_{o} = M _{d}_{y} when M _{d}_{x} = 0 (design capacity under uniaxial bending about y)
2. Reciprocal method/Bresler’s equation: It is an approximation of bowl shaped failure surface by the following reciprocal load interaction equation.
Where:
e dx
1
1
1
1
−
^{}
^{}
^{}
^{}
+
P _{d} = design (ultimate) load capacity of the section with eccentricities e _{d}_{y} and
P _{d}_{x}_{o} = ultimate load capacity of the section for uni axial bending with e _{d}_{x} only (e _{d}_{y} = 0) P _{d}_{y}_{o} = ultimate load capacity of the section for uni axial bending with e _{d}_{y} only
(e _{d}_{x} = 0)
P _{d}_{o} = concentric axial load capacity (e _{d}_{x} = e _{d}_{y} = 0) However interaction charts prepared for biaxial bending can be used for actual design. The procedure involves:
• Select cross section dimensions h and b and also h’ and b’
• Calculate h’/h and b’/b and select suitable chart
• Compute:
• Normal force ratio:
• Moment ratios:
• Select suitable chart which satisfy and
• Enter the chart to obtain ω
• Compute
• Check A _{t}_{o}_{t} satisfies the maximum and minimum provisions
• Determine the distribution of bars in accordance with the charts requirement
_{} / _{}_{}
_{} _{} / _{}_{} _{} and _{} _{} / _{}_{} _{}
ratio:
_{} _{,} _{}_{}_{} = _{} _{}_{} / _{}_{}
AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
Page 48
Instructor: Misgun S.
RCS – II
Columns
Chapter IV
4.4. Analysis of columns according to EBCS 2 (short and slender) Classification of Frames
A frame may be classified as nonsway for a given load case if the critical load ratio for that load case satisfies the criterion:
Where:
^{}
^{}
≤ 0.1
N _{s}_{d} is the design value of the total vertical load N _{c}_{r} is its critical value for failure in a sway mode
In Beamandcolumn type plane frames in building structures with beams connecting each column at each story level may be classified as nonsway for a given load case, when first order theory is used, the horizontal displacements in each story due to the design loads (both horizontal and vertical), plus the initial sway imperfection satisfy the following criteria.
_{}_{} ≤ 0.1
Where:
bottom of the story
δ
is the horizontal displacement at the top of the story, relative to the
L 
is the story height 
H 
is the total horizontal reaction at the bottom of the story 
N is the total vertical reaction at the bottom of the story,
For frame structures, the effects of imperfections may be allowed for in frame analysis by means of an equivalent geometric imperfection in the form of an initial sway imperfection (assuming that the structure is inclined to the vertical at an angle) Ф determined by:
a. For single story frames or for structures loaded mainly at the top
tan ϕ = ^{1}
150
b. For other types of frames
tan ϕ = ^{1}
200
Where the effects of imperfections are smaller than the effects of design horizontal actions, their influence may be ignored. Imperfections need net be considered in accidental combinations of actions.
The displacement δ in the above equation shall be determined using stiffness values for beams and columns corresponding to the ultimate limit state. As an approximation,
AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
Page 49
Instructor: Misgun S.
RCS – II
Columns
Chapter IV
displacements calculated using moment of inertia of the gross section may be multiplied by the ratio of the gross column stiffness I _{g} to the effective column stiffness I _{e} (see the following section) to obtain δ.
All frames including sway frames shall also be checked for adequate resistance to failure in nonsway modes
Determination of story buckling Load N _{c}_{r}
Unless more accurate methods are used, the buckling load of a story may be assumed to be equal to that of the substitute beamcolumn frame defined in Fig. and may be determined as:
Where:
_{}
EI _{e} is the effective stiffness of the substitute column designed using the equivalent reinforcement area. L _{e} is the effective length. It may be determined using the stiffness properties of the gross concrete section for both beams and columns of the substitute frame (see Fig. 4.41c )
In lieu of a more accurate determination, the effective stiffness of a column EI _{e} may be taken as:
_{}
0.2 _{} _{}
+ _{} _{}
Where:
E _{s} is the modulus of elasticity of steel I _{c} , I _{s} , are the moments of inertia of the concrete and reinforcement sections, respectively, of the substitute column, with respect to the centroid of the concrete section (see Fig. 4.41c) or alternatively
E _{c} = 1100f _{c}_{d}
_{}
^{} ^{} ≥ 0.4 _{} _{}
^{1}
Where: M _{b} is the balanced moment capacity of the substitute column 1/r _{b} is the curvature at balanced load and may be taken as
1
=
5
_{} 10 ^{}^{}
The equivalent reinforcement areas, A _{s}_{,} _{t}_{o}_{t}_{,} in the substitute column to be used for calculating I _{s} and M _{b} may be obtained by designing the substitute column at each floor level to carry the story design axial load and amplified sway moment at the critical section. The
AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
Page 50
Instructor: Misgun S.
RCS – II
Columns
Chapter IV
equivalent column dimensions of the substitute column may be taken as shown in Fig, below, in the case of rectangular columns. Circular columns may be replaced by square columns of the same crosssectional area. In the above, concrete cover and bar arrangement in the substitute columns shall be taken to be the same as those of the actual columns.
The amplified sway moment, to be used for the design of the substitute column, may be found iteratively taking the firstorder design moment in the substitute column as an initial value.
In lieu of more accurate determination, the firstorder design moment, M _{d}_{l} , at the critical section of the substitute column may be determined using:
Where:
α
+ 3
α _{} + α _{} + 6 ^{}^{}
α _{1} and α _{2} are defined before and shall not exceed 10.
Figure 4.41 Substitute MultiStory BeamColumn Frame
AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
Page 51
Instructor: Misgun S.
RCS – II
Columns
Chapter IV
Slenderness Ratio
The significance of Pδ (i.e. whether a column is short or slender) is defined by a slenderness ratio.
In EBCS 2, the slenderness ratio is defined as follows:
a) For isolated columns, the slenderness ratio is defined by:
^{} ^{}
where: L _{e} is the effective buckling length
i is the minimum radius of gyration. The radius of gyration is equal to
Where:
^{}
I is the second moment of area of the section
A is cross sectional area
b) For multistory sway frames comprising rectangular sub frames, the following expression may be used to calculate the slenderness ratio of the columns in the same story.
_{} _{} _{} 12
where: A is the sum of the crosssectional areas of all the columns of the story K _{l} is the total lateral stiffness of the columns of the story (story rigidity), with modulus of elasticity taken as unity
L is the story height
Limits of Slenderness

The slenderness ratio of concrete columns shall not exceed 140 

Second order moment in a column can be ignored if 
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