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RCS – II

Plastic Moment Redistribution

Chapter I

CHAPTER I

Plastic Moment Redistribution

1.1. Introduction

It is known that an indeterminate beam or frame normally will not fail when the ultimate moment capacity of just one critical section is reached. After formation of plastic hinges at the more highly stressed sections, substantial redistribution of moments occurs at the critical sections as loads are further increased before collapse of the structure takes place.

Redistribution of moments permits the designer to modify, within limits, the moment diagrams for which the members are to be designed. This enables the designer to reduce the congestion of reinforcement, which often occurs in high moment areas, such as at the junction of girders with columns.

Method of analysis allowed in EBCS -2

i.

Elastic, optionally followed by inelastic (plastic) moment redistribution

ii.

Plastic analysis

iii.

Non – Linear analysis

1.2.

Moment curvature relationship

Although it is not needed explicitly in ordinary design, the relation between moment applied to a given beam section and the resulting curvature, through the full range of loading to failure, is important to the study of member ductility, understanding the development of plastic hinges, and accounting for the redistribution of elastic moments that occur in most RC structures before collapse.

Curvature is defined as the angle change per unit length at any given location along the axis of a member subjected to loads as seen in figure 1.2-1.

axis of a member subjected to loads as seen in figure 1.2-1. Figure 1.2-1 Curvature AAiT,

Figure 1.2-1 Curvature

to loads as seen in figure 1.2-1. Figure 1.2-1 Curvature AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
to loads as seen in figure 1.2-1. Figure 1.2-1 Curvature AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Instructor: Misgun S.

RCS – II

Plastic Moment Redistribution

Chapter I

1

From similarity of triangles,

1

Moment of Inertia of Transformed Section

When a beam made of two materials is loaded, the different values of E for the two materials lead to different stress distribution since one materials is stiffer and accepts more stress for a given strain than the other .

However, the elastic beam theory can be used if the beam is hypothetically transformed to either an all steel beam or an all concrete beam, customarily the later. This is done by replacing the area of the steel with an equivalent area of concrete having centroid at the level of the centroid of the steel. The replaced concrete will experience the same force and strain as the steel.

will experience the same force and strain as the steel. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
will experience the same force and strain as the steel. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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RCS – II

Plastic Moment Redistribution

Chapter I

RCS – II Plastic Moment Redistribution Chapter I Figure 1.2-2 Transformed Sections With the above transformed

Figure 1.2-2 Transformed Sections

With the above transformed sections and the idealized stress-strain relationships for steel and concrete figure 1.2-3 (b) and (c) the usual assumptions regarding perfect bond and plane sections, it is possible to calculate the relation between M and ϕ for a typical under-reinforced concrete beam section, subject to flexural cracking as follows.

beam section, subject to flexural cracking as follows. Figure 1.2-3 Under-reinforced concrete beam section, subject

Figure 1.2-3 Under-reinforced concrete beam section, subject to flexural cracking

In the limit case of figure 1.2-3b

Where, l ut is the moment of inertia of the un-cracked transformed section.

the moment of inertia of the un-cracked transformed section. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 3
the moment of inertia of the un-cracked transformed section. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 3

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Instructor: Misgun S.

RCS – II

Plastic Moment Redistribution

Chapter I

RCS – II Plastic Moment Redistribution Chapter I Figure 1.2-4 Moment-Curvature relationship of reinforced beam These

Figure 1.2-4 Moment-Curvature relationship of reinforced beam

These values (ϕcr , Mcr) provide information needed to plot point “1”of the M-ϕ graph of figure 1.2-4.

When the tensile cracking occurs at the section, the stiffness is immediately reduced, and curvature increases to point “2” with no increase in moment. In the limit case, the concrete strain just reaches the proportional limit as shown in figure figure 1.2-3 (c) and the steel is below the yield strain.

ε ε , f f and ε ε

Hence φ ε

c

ε

c

and M f kjbd

2

(ϕel , Mel) provides point “3” on the graph and the curvature at point “2” can be found from the ratio Mcr/Mel.

Once the proportional limit is exceeded, the concrete is well into the inelastic range, although the steel has not yet yielded. The NA depth, C1 is less than the depth a = Kd and is changing with increasing load as the shape of the concrete stress distribution and the steel stress changes.

It is now convenient to adopt a numerical solution to find the concrete compressive force 'C' and the location of its centroid for any arbitrarily selected value of maximum concrete strain εc in the range εel< εc ≤ εcu.

The compressive strain diagram is divided into an arbitrary number of steps and the corresponding stress for each strain read from the stress-strain curve concrete. The stepwise representation of the actual continuous stress block is integrated numerically to find C, and its point of application is located taking moments of the concrete forces about the top of the

taking moments of the concrete forces about the top of the AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
taking moments of the concrete forces about the top of the AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Instructor: Misgun S.

RCS – II

Plastic Moment Redistribution

Chapter I

section. The basic equilibrium requirement, C =T, can be used to find the correct location of the NA, for the particular compressive strain selected, following an iterative procedure.

Alternative to numerical integration, formulae for determining the total compressive force as stated in EBCS 2-1995 can be used and are given below.

i. ε cm ≤ 2‰ and N.A. within the section

6

12

8

4 6

ii. ε cm ≥ 2‰ and N.A. within the section

3

3

2

3

4 2

2 3 2

iii. ε cm ≥ 2‰ and N.A. outside the section

1

189 125 64 16

0.5

40 2

7 125 64 16

Then the total compressive force will be,

1.3. Plastic hinges and collapse mechanisms If a short segment of a reinforced concrete beam is subjected to a bending moment, continued plastic rotation is assumed to occur after the calculated ultimate moment M u is reached, with no change in applied moment. The beam behaves as if there were a hinge at that point. However, the hinge will not be “friction free”, but will have a constant resistance to rotation.

If such a plastic hinge forms in a determinate structure, as shown in figure 1.3-1, an uncontrolled deflection takes place and the structure will collapse. The resulting system is referred to as a mechanism. This implies that a statically determinate system requires the formation of only one plastic hinge in order to become a mechanism.

of only one plastic hinge in order to become a mechanism. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
of only one plastic hinge in order to become a mechanism. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Instructor: Misgun S.

RCS – II

Plastic Moment Redistribution

Chapter I

RCS – II Plastic Moment Redistribution Chapter I Figure 1.3-1 In the case of indeterminate structures,

Figure 1.3-1

In the case of indeterminate structures, stability may be maintained even though hinges have

formed at several cross sections. The formation of such hinges in indeterminate structures

permits a redistribution of moments within the beam or frame.

W and P can be carried by any section strength combination at the supports and mid span as

long as the average of the support moment plus the positive moments at mid span 0.125Wl 2 . This allows the designer to reduce moments at some critical sections as long as it maintains equilibrium by increasing moments at adjacent critical sections. The following questions may be raised: Why decrease in moment at critical section is essential while compensation for the decrease is made by increasing moments at other sections?

Problem of congestion of reinforcement especially at supports can be addressed by adjusting the moment diagram obtained through elastic analysis. Thus the sections at support can be designed for less bending moment than predicted by elastic analysis implying less reinforcement and therefore less congestion. The design load W d is carried through inelastic moment redistribution and the method of analysis involves adjustment of elastic bending moment diagram.

N.B. Plastic Moment redistribution is applicable only to statically indeterminate structures where major load transfer is through bending action.

For illustration let us see the behavior of an indeterminate beam of figure 1.3-2. It will be assumed for simplicity that the beam is symmetrically reinforced, so that the negative bending capacity is the same as the positive. Let the load P be increased gradually until the elastic moment at the fixed support, 3PL/16 is just equal to the plastic moment capacity of the section, M u . This load is

At

16 = 5.33

3

3

(1.1)

this load the positive moment under the load is PL, as shown in figure 1.3-2.

moment under the load is PL, as shown in figure 1.3-2. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
moment under the load is PL, as shown in figure 1.3-2. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Instructor: Misgun S.

RCS – II

Plastic Moment Redistribution

Chapter I

RCS – II Plastic Moment Redistribution Chapter I Figure 1.3-2 The beam still responds elastically everywhere

Figure 1.3-2

The beam still responds elastically everywhere but at the left support. At that point the actual fixed support can be replaced for purpose of analysis with a plastic hinge offering a known resisting moment M u , which makes the beam statically determinate.

The load can be increased further until the moment under the load also becomes equal to M u , at which load the second hinge forms. The structure is converted into a mechanism, as shown in figure 1.3-2 c, and collapse occurs. The moment diagram at collapse is shown in figure 1.3-2d.

The magnitude of the load causing collapse is easily calculated from the geometry of figure 1.3-

2d.

From which

2 = 4

= = 6

(1.2)

By comparison of equation 1.2 and 1.1, it is evident that an increase of 12.5% is possible beyond the load which caused the formation of the first plastic hinge, before the beam will actually collapse. Due to the formation of plastic hinges, a redistribution of moments has occurred such that, at failure, the ratio between positive moment and negative moment is equal to that assumed in reinforcing the structure.

1.4. Rotation Requirement It may be evident that there is a direct relation between the amount of redistribution desired and the amount of inelastic rotation at the critical sections of a beam required to produce the desired redistribution. In general, the greater the modification of the elastic-moment ratio, the greater the required rotation capacity to accomplish that change. To illustrate, if the beam of figure 1.2-2a had been reinforced according to the elastic-moment diagram of figure 1.2-2.b, no

to the elastic-moment diagram of figure 1.2-2.b, no AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 7 Instructor:
to the elastic-moment diagram of figure 1.2-2.b, no AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 7 Instructor:

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Instructor: Misgun S.

RCS – II

Plastic Moment Redistribution

Chapter I

inelastic-rotation capacity at all would be required. The beam would, at least in theory, yield simultaneously at the left support and at mid-span. On the other hand, if the reinforcement at the left support had been deliberately reduced (and the mid-span reinforcement correspondingly increased), inelastic rotation at the support would be required before the strength at mid-span could be realized.

Reinforced concrete members with bending are designed to have certain ductility, which ensures that the member is capable of undergoing a certain amount of rotation after yielding of the tension steel reinforcement and before crushing of the concrete in compression.

Generally, the amount of redistribution depends on

Hinge sections must be able to undergo necessary inelastic deformation. Since the inelastic rotational capacity is a function of reinforcement ratio as in figure 1.4-1, this implies an upper limit on the reinforcement,

Hinges should not occur at service load since wide cracks develop at hinge location, and

Equilibrium must be maintained.

at hinge location, and • Equilibrium must be maintained. Figure 1.4-1 Moment-curvature diagram To ensure that

Figure 1.4-1 Moment-curvature diagram

To ensure that designs remain under-reinforced (ductile), EBCS-2 recommends that the ratio x/d, at sections of largest moment, does not exceed the values given by the following equations as functions of percent plastic moment redistribution.

Where

0.44 + 1.25

≥ 0.56 + 1.25

− 0.44

1.25

− 0.56

1.25

, ≤ 35

, > 35

5 ≤ − 0.56 1 . 2 5 , ≤ 35 , > 35 AAiT, Department
5 ≤ − 0.56 1 . 2 5 , ≤ 35 , > 35 AAiT, Department

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Instructor: Misgun S.

RCS – II

Plastic Moment Redistribution

Chapter I

For example, for 20% redistribution

0.8 ⇒

=

0.8 − 0.44

1.25

= 0.288 ( ≤ 35

=

0.8 − 0.56

1.25

= 0.192 ( > 35

In moment redistribution usually it is the maximum support moments, which are (adjusted) reduced so that economizing in reinforcing steel and also reducing congestion of bars at the column.

Requirements for applying moment - redistribution are:-

Equilibrium between internal and external forces must be maintained; hence it is necessary to recalculate the span moments.

Maximum redistribution is 30%

( = 0.7)

Redistribution

δ

k

x

μ

*

k

z *

0

1.0

0.450

0.295

0.814

10

0.9

0.368

0.252

0.840

20

0.8

0.288

0.205

0.880

30

0.7

0.208

0.143

0.914

Table 1.4-1 Moment Redistribution Design Factors

Design procedure using table No. 1a & 1b (with moment redistribution)

Steps

Calculate

a) If , where k m * is the value of k m shown shaded in general design table No. 1a,

corresponding to %age moment redistribution, section is singly reinforced.

Enter the general design table 1a using k m and concrete grade. Read k s from general design table No. 1a corresponding to steel grade.

Evaluate

b) If > , the section has to be doubly reinforced.

> ∗ , the section has to be doubly reinforced. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
> ∗ , the section has to be doubly reinforced. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Instructor: Misgun S.

RCS – II

Plastic Moment Redistribution

Chapter I

Calculate k m ⁄k m * Read k s and k s ' corresponding to k m ⁄k m * and steel grade from table No. 1b and No. 1a respectively. Assume d 2 =d" and read ρ (correction factor) from table No. 1a using k m ⁄k m * and

d 2 /d.

Read ρ' corresponding to d 2 /d and %age moment redistribution from table No. 1b. Calculate

Design procedure using general design chart (with moment redistribution)

Calculate

a) If , section is

singly reinforced.

Evaluate Z from chart using /

Evaluate

b) If > , section is doubly reinforced.

Evaluate Z* from chart using

Evaluate Calculate

/

chart using ∗ Evaluate Calculate ∗ ∗ / ∗ AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 10
chart using ∗ Evaluate Calculate ∗ ∗ / ∗ AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 10

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RCS – II

Continuous Beams, One-Way Solid And Ribbed Slabs

Chapter II

CHAPTER II

CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND ONE-WAY RIBBED SLABS

2.1. Introduction

Continuous beams, one-way slabs and continuous one-way ribbed slabs are indeterminate structures for which live load variation has to be considered. This is because dead load is always there but live load might vary during the life time of these structures.

One-way slabs transmit their load mainly in one direction (i.e., the direction. of span). A 1m strip is taken in the direction of span and treated similar to continuous beams.

Elastic analysis such as slope-deflection, moment distribution and matrix method or plastic analysis or approximate method such as the use of moment coefficient or such methods as portal or cantilever can be used.

2.2. Analysis and design of continuous beams

The three major stages in the design of a continuous beam are design for flexure, design for shear, and design of longitudinal reinforcement details. In addition, it is necessary to consider

deflections and crack control and, in some cases, torsion. When the area supported by a beam exceeds 37m 2 , it is usually possible to use a reduced live load in calculating the moments and shears in the beam.

live load in calculating the moments and shears in the beam. Figure 2.2-1 One-way slab and

Figure 2.2-1 One-way slab and continuous beam

The largest moment in continuous beams or one-way slabs or frames occur when some spans are loaded and the others are not. Influence lines are used to determine which spans should be loaded and which spans should not be to find the maximum load effect.

Figure 2.2-2a shows influence line for moment at B . The loading pattern that will give the largest positive moment at consists of load on all spans having positive influence ordinates.

of load on all spans having positive influence ordinates. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 11
of load on all spans having positive influence ordinates. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 11

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RCS – II

Continuous Beams, One-Way Solid And Ribbed Slabs

Chapter II

Such loading is shown in figure 2.2-2b and is called alternate span loading or checkerboard loading.

The maximum negative moment at C results from loading all spans having negative influence ordinate as shown in figure 2.2-2d and is referred as an adjacent span loading.

figure 2.2-2d and is referred as an adjacent span loading . Figure 2.2-2 Influence line for

Figure 2.2-2 Influence line for moment and loading patterns

Similarly, loading for maximum shear may be obtained by loading spans with positive shear influence ordinate and are shown in figure 2.2-3.

shear influence ordinate and are shown in figure 2.2-3. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 12
shear influence ordinate and are shown in figure 2.2-3. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 12

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RCS – II

Continuous Beams, One-Way Solid And Ribbed Slabs

Chapter II

Beams, One-Way Solid And Ribbed Slabs Chapter II Figure 2.2-3 Influence line for shear In ACI

Figure 2.2-3 Influence line for shear

In ACI code, it is required to design continues beam and one-way slabs to be design for the following loading patterns,

1. Factored load on all spans with factored partition load and factored live load on two adjacent spans and no live load on any other span. This will give the maximum negative moment and maximum shear at the support between the two loaded spans. This loading case is repeated for each interior support.

2. Factored dead load on all spans with factored partition load and a factored love load on alternate spans. This will give maximum positive moment at the middle of the loaded span, minimum positive moments (which could even be negative) at the middle of the unloaded spans, and maximum negative moment at the exterior support.

3. Factored dead and live load on all spans. Although this condition represents the maximum vertical loading possible, it is unlikely to cause the maximum reaction, shear forces, or bending moment for continuous beams.

After obtaining the maximum load effects of continuous beams, the design of continuous beams is carried out as discussed in reinforced concrete structures I course for no moment redistribution case and as in chapter I of this course encase of moment redistribution. For convince, design steps of no redistribution by using km-ks table is recalled below. Note that charts can also be used for design given in EBCS 2-1995 Part 2.

can also be used for design given in EBCS 2-1995 Part 2. AAiT, Department of Civil
can also be used for design given in EBCS 2-1995 Part 2. AAiT, Department of Civil

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RCS – II

Continuous Beams, One-Way Solid And Ribbed Slabs

Chapter II

Steps for design using design table (no moment redistribution)

1. Evaluate K m

2. Enter the general design table No 1.a using K m and concrete grade.

a. If K m ≤ K m *, the value of K m show shaded in design Table No 1.a, then the section is singly reinforced.

- Enter the design table No 1.a using K m and concrete grade

- Read K s from the table corresponding to the steel grade and K m

- Evaluate A s

b. If K m ≥ K m *, then the section should be doubly reinforced.

- Evaluate K m / K m * and d’’/d

- Read K s , K s ’, ρ and ρ’ from the same table corresponding to K m / K m *, d’’/d and concrete grade

- Evaluate

Design using general design chart

1. Calculate , =

2. Enter the general design chart,

If < ,

section is singly reinforced.

section is doubly reinforced.

Evaluate Z from chart using = /

Evaluate Z from = / by reading value of from chart using

Evaluate =

If > ,

Evaluate ,

=

Calculate

= , + , ,

( )

( )

= , ,

( )

( )

( ) ∗ = , − , ( − ) ( ) AAiT, Department of Civil
( ) ∗ = , − , ( − ) ( ) AAiT, Department of Civil

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RCS – II

Continuous Beams, One-Way Solid And Ribbed Slabs

Chapter II

2.3. Analysis and design of one-way slabs Slabs are flat plates used to provide useful horizontal surfaces mainly for roofs and floors of buildings, parking lots, airfields, roadway etc.

Classification: Beam supported slabs may be classified as:

1. One-way slabs - main reinforcement in each element runs in one direction only. (Ly/Lx >2). There are two types· one way solid slabs and one way ribbed slabs.

2. Two-way slabs - main reinforcement runs in both directions where ratio of long to short span is less than two. (Ly/Lx ≤ 2)

Others types of slab include flat slab, flat plates, two way ribbed or grid slabs etc.

One-ways slabs are considered as rectangular beams of comparatively large ratio of width to depth and ratio of longer span to width (short span) is greater than two.

When L y /L x > 2, about 90% or more of the total load is carried by the short span, i.e., bending takes place in the direction of the shorter span.

bending takes place in the direction of the shorter span. Figure 2.3-1 One-way slab AAiT, Department

Figure 2.3-1 One-way slab

the direction of the shorter span. Figure 2.3-1 One-way slab AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
the direction of the shorter span. Figure 2.3-1 One-way slab AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

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RCS – II

Continuous Beams, One-Way Solid And Ribbed Slabs

Chapter II

Analysis and design is than carried out by assuming a beam of unit width with a depth equal to the thickness of the slab, continuous over the supporting beam and span equal to the distance between supports (in the short direction or strip A and B) as shown in figure 2.3-2. The strip may be analyzed in the same way as singly reinforced rectangular sections. Near the ends the panel adjacent to the girders, some load is resisted by bending in the longitudinal strips (strips C) and less by the transvers strips (strip A). But for design purpose the effect is ignored and is indirectly accounted by extending top reinforcements into the top of the slabs on each side of the girders across the ends of the panel.

on each side of the girders across the ends of the panel. Figure 2.3-2 One-way and

Figure 2.3-2 One-way and two-way slab action

The load per unit area on the slab would be the load per unit length on this imaginary beam of unit width. As the loads being transmitted to the supporting beams, all reinforcement shall be placed at right angles to these beams. However some additional bars may be placed in the other direction to carry temperature and shrinkage stresses.

Generally the design consists of selecting a slab thickness for deflection requirements and flexural design is carried out by considering the slab as series of rectangular beams side by side.

Remarks:

The following minimum thicknesses shall be adopted in design:

a) 60 mm for slabs not exposed to concentrated loads (e.g inaccessible roofs)

b) 80 mm for slabs exposed mainly to distributed loads.

c) 100 mm for slabs exposed to light moving concentrated loads (e.g slabs accessible to light motor vehicles)

d) 120 mm for slabs exposed to heavy dynamic moving loads (eg. slabs accessible to heavy vehicles)

Unless conditions warrant some change, cover to reinforcement is 15 mm.

The ratio of the secondary reinforcement to the main reinforcement shall be at least equal to 0.2.

The geometrical ratio of main reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than

ratio of main reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than AAiT, Department of Civil
ratio of main reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than AAiT, Department of Civil

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Instructor: Misgun S.

RCS – II

Continuous Beams, One-Way Solid And Ribbed Slabs

Chapter II

0.5

,

The spacing between main bars for slabs shall not exceed the smaller of 2h or 350 mm.

The spacing between secondary bars shall not exceed 400 mm.

2.4. Analysis and design of one-way ribbed slabs Long-span floors for relatively light live loads can be constructed as a series of closely spaced, cast-in-place T-beams (or joists or ribs) with a cross section as shown in figure 2.4-1. The joists span one way between beams. Most often, removable metal forms referred to as fillers or pans are used to form the joists. Occasionally, joist floors are built by using clay-tile fillers, which serve as forms for the concrete in the ribs that are left in place to serve as the celling.

in the ribs that are left in place to serve as the celling. Figure 2.4-1 Typical

Figure 2.4-1 Typical ribbed slab cross-section

General Requirements:

Because joists are closely spaced, thickness of slab (topping),

40

10

1

Ribs shall not be less than 70 mm in width

Ribs shall have a depth, excluding any topping, of not more than 4 times the minimum width of the rib.

Rib spacing shall not exceed 1.0 m

The topping shall be provided with a reinforcement mesh providing in each direction a cross sectional area not less than 0.001 of the section of the slab.

If the rib spacing exceeds 1.0 m, the topping shall be designed as a slab resting on ribs considering load concentrations, if any.

Transverse ribs shall be provided if the span of the ribbed slab exceeds 6.0 m.

When transverse ribs are provided, the center-to-center distance shall not exceed 20 times the overall depth of the ribbed slab.

not exceed 20 times the overall depth of the ribbed slab. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
not exceed 20 times the overall depth of the ribbed slab. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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RCS – II

Continuous Beams, One-Way Solid And Ribbed Slabs

Chapter II

The transverse ribs shall be designed for at least half the values of maximum moments and shear force in the longitudinal ribs.

The girder supporting the joist may be rectangular or T-beam with the flange thickness equal to the floor thickness.

Procedure for design of ribbed slabs

1. Thickness of toppings and ribs assumed based on minimum requirement.

2. Loads may be computed on the basis of centerline of the spacing of joists.

3. The joists are analyzed as regular continuous or T -beams supported by girders.

4. Shear reinforcement shall not be provided in the narrow web of joist thus a check for the section capacity against shear is carried out. The shear capacity may be approximated as 1.1 V c of regular rectangular sections.

5. Determine flexural reinforcement and consider minimum provision in the final solution.

6. Provide the topping or slab with reinforcement as per temp and shrinkage requirement.

7. Design the girder as a beam.

and shrinkage requirement. 7. Design the girder as a beam. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
and shrinkage requirement. 7. Design the girder as a beam. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

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RCS – II

Columns

Chapter IV

CHAPTER III

TWO-WAY SLABS

3.1. Introduction

Slabs with the ratio of the longer to the shorter span, between 1 & 2 transfer their load in two orthogonal directions. i.e. some portion of the load in the short direction and the remaining portion of the load in the long direction. These slabs are called two-way slabs and they deflect into a dish shaped curvature. This means that they have curvature in both directions and because moments are proportional to curvature, there are moments in both directions, which require reinforcement in the tension zone.

3.2. Analysis and design of two way beam supported slabs

For the slab shown in figure 3.1.-1, if beams are incorporated within the depth of the slab itself the slab carries load in two directions. The load at A may be thought of as being carried from A to B and C by one strip of slab, and from B to D and E, and so on, by other slab strips. Because the slab must transmit loads in two directions it is referred to as two way slab.

loads in two directions it is referred to as two way slab. Figure 3.2-1 Two-way slab

Figure 3.2-1 Two-way slab

Consider the simply supported panel under uniform load w.

Consider the simply supported panel under uniform load w. Figure 3.2-2 Let w x and w

Figure 3.2-2

Let w x and w y be load in the x and y direction in which,

x and w y be load in the x and y direction in which, AAiT, Department
x and w y be load in the x and y direction in which, AAiT, Department

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RCS – II

Columns

Chapter IV

1

Where k x and k y are load distributing factors in the short and long directions respectively.

Because the imaginary strips actually are part of the same slab, their deflections at the intersection point must be the same. Equating the center deflections of the strips in the short (x) and long (y) directions gives

5

5

384

= 384

= =

=

=

+ =1

( + 1) =1

1

= +1 , =

+1

Analysis using Table coefficients [EBCS 2-1995]

The coefficients k x & k y as obtained using the previous discussion are approximate because the actual behavior of a slab is more complex than the two intersecting strips. The outer strips not only bend, but also twist. The twisting results in torsional moments and stress pronounced near the corners.

Moments for individual panels with edge simply supported or fully fixed may be computed

from:-

Where:

M i : is the design initial moment per unit width at the point of reference.

initial moment per unit width at the point of reference. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
initial moment per unit width at the point of reference. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

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RCS – II

Columns

Chapter IV

α i : coefficient given in Table A-1 (EBCS 2-1995) as a function of L y /L x ratio and support condition

p d : design uniform load

L x ,L y : shorter and longer span of the panel respectively

,L y : shorter and longer span of the panel respectively Figure 3.2-3 Notations of critical

Figure 3.2-3 Notations of critical moments

The subscripts have the following meaning.

s – Support

f - field (span)

y, x - directions in the long & short span, respectively.

Division of slabs into middle and edge strips is illustrated in Fig. A-4.

The maximum design moments calculated as above apply only to the middle strips and no redistribution shall be made.

Reinforcement in an edge strip, parallel to the edge, need not be less than minimum areas of tension reinforcement.

not be less than minimum areas of tension reinforcement. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 21
not be less than minimum areas of tension reinforcement. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 21

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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RCS – II

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Chapter IV

RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 3.2-4 Division of slab into middle strip and edge

Figure 3.2-4 Division of slab into middle strip and edge strip

Moment adjustment

For each support over which the slab is continuous, there will be two adjacent support moments. The difference may be distributed between the panels at either side of support to equalize their moments as in moment distribution method for frames.

There are two alternatives: -

a. When ΔM s ≤ 0.2 M s,large

The average of initial moments may be used.

b. When ΔM s ≥ 0.2 M s,large Apply moment distribution only to adjacent spans.

Steps to be followed

1. Support and span moments are first evaluated for individual panels using coefficients from Table A-1 .

2. The unbalanced moment is distributed using the moment distribution method.

3. When the support moment is decreased, the span moments M xf and M yf are then

increased to allow for the changes of support moments (equilibrium). This increase is computed as: -

Where c x and c y are coefficient from Table A-2 (EBCS-2)

Flexural reinforcement

The ratio of the secondary reinforcement to the main reinforcement shall be at least equal to 0.2.

, 5

The geometrical ratio of main reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than

ratio of main reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than AAiT, Department of Civil
ratio of main reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than AAiT, Department of Civil

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Columns

Chapter IV

0.5

,

The spacing between main bars for slabs shall not exceed the smaller of 2h or 350

mm.

The spacing between secondary bars shall not exceed 400 mm.

Load on beams

The design uniform loads on beams supporting solid slabs may be computed using: -

Where and are load transfer coefficient given in Table A-3 (EBCS-2)

The shear force carried by concrete in slab can be taken as the one given for beams.

. 25

3.3. Analysis and design of flat slabs

3.3.1. Introduction

Concrete two-way slabs may in some cases be supported by relatively shallow, flexible beams, or directly by columns without the use of beams or girders. Such slabs are generally referred as column supported two-way slabs. Beams may also be used where the slab is interrupted as around stair, walls or at discontinuous edges.

In practice column supported two-way slabs take various forms:

Flat Plates: they are flat slabs with flat soffit. Such slabs have uniform thickness supported on columns. They are used for relatively light loads, as experienced in apartments or similar buildings. Flat plats are most economical for spans from 4.5m to 6m (see Fig. 3.3.1-1a).

Flat Slabs: they are slab systems with the load transfer to the column is accomplished by thickening the slab near the column, using drop panels and/or by flaring the top of the column to form a column capital. They may be used for heavy industrial loads and for spans of 6m to 9m (see Fig. 3.3.1-1c)

Waffle Slabs: they are two-way joist systems with reduced self-weights. They are used for spans from 7.5m to 12m. (Note: for large spans, the thickness required to transmit the vertical loads to the columns exceeds that required for bending. As a result the concrete at the middle of the panel is not efficiently used. To lighten the slab, reduce the slab moments, and save material, the slab at mid span can be replaced by intersecting ribs. Near the

at mid span can be replaced by intersecting ribs. Near the AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
at mid span can be replaced by intersecting ribs. Near the AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Chapter IV

columns the full depth is retained to transmit loads from the slab to the columns (see Fig.

3.3.1-1b)

In this chapter, consideration will be given to flat slabs with or without drop panels or column capitals.

flat slabs with or without drop panels or column capitals. Figure 3.3.1-1 Types of two way
flat slabs with or without drop panels or column capitals. Figure 3.3.1-1 Types of two way

Figure 3.3.1-1 Types of two way column supported slabs

For analysis and design purpose the panel in flat slab is divided in to column strips and middle strips as shown below (EBSC 2)

to column strips and middle strips as shown below (EBSC 2) AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
to column strips and middle strips as shown below (EBSC 2) AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Instructor: Misgun S.

RCS – II

Columns

Chapter IV

RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 3.3.1-2 Division of panels in Flat slabs A column

Figure 3.3.1-2 Division of panels in Flat slabs

A column strip is a design strip with a width on each side of a column centerline equal to 0.25 Lx or if drops with dimension not less than Lx/3 are used, a width equal to the drop dimension. A middle strip is a design strip bounded by two column strips.

The drop panels are rectangular (may be square) and influence the distribution of moments

in the slab. The smaller dimension of the drop is at least one third of the smaller dimension

of the surrounding panels, Lx/3 and the drop may be 25 to 50 percent thicker than the rest

of the slab.

3.3.2. Load Transfer in Flat Slabs

Consider the following column supported two way slabs. If a surface load w is applied (see Fig. 3.3.2-1a), it is shared between imaginary slab strips la in the short direction and l b in the longer direction. Note that the portion of the load that is carried by the long strips l b is delivered to the beams B 1 which in turn carried in the short direction plus that directly carried in the short direction by the slab strips la, sums up to 100 percent of the load applied to the panel. The same is true in the other direction.

A similar situation is obtained in the flat plate floor (see Fig. 3.3.2-1b) where broad strips of

the slab centered on the column lines in each direction serve the same function as the

lines in each direction serve the same function as the AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
lines in each direction serve the same function as the AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Instructor: Misgun S.

RCS – II

Columns

Chapter IV

beams. Therefore; for column supported construction, 100 percent of the applied load must be carried in each direction, jointly by the slab and its supporting beams.

direction, jointly by the slab and its supporting beams. Figure 3.3.2-1 Column Supported two-way slabs (a)

Figure 3.3.2-1 Column Supported two-way slabs (a) with beams (b) without beams

3.3.3. Moments in Flat Slabs Floors

Consider the flat slab floor supported by columns at A, B, C, and D as shown in Fig. 3.3.3-1a

by columns at A, B, C, and D as shown in Fig. 3.3.3-1a Figure 3.3.3-1 Moment

Figure 3.3.3-1 Moment Variation (a) critical-moment section (b) moment variation along a span (c) moment variation along the width of critical section

(c) moment variation along the width of critical section AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 26
(c) moment variation along the width of critical section AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 26

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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RCS – II

Columns

Chapter IV

Longitudinal Distributions of moments

For the determination of moment in the direction of span l 1 , the slab may be considered as a broad, flat beam of width l 2 .

The load, P 2 = wl 2 per m length of span.

From the requirement of statics:

In the longitudinal direction (see fig. 3.3.3-1b)

+ +

In the perpendicular direction

1

2 ( + )+ =

1 8 ( )

From the above static moment in each direction, the moment in the long direction is larger than those in the short direction unlike to the situation for the slab with stiff edge beams.

Lateral Distributions of moments

The moments across the width of critical sections such as AB or EF are not constant as shown qualitatively (see fig. 3.3.3-1c). For design purpose, moments may be considered constant within the bounds of a middle strip or column strip, unless beams are present in column lines.

3.3.4. Practical Analysis of Flat slab Floors

The two methods for the analysis of flat slabs are:

a) Direct Design method

b) Equivalent Frame Method

Generally, for both methods of analysis, the negative moments greater than those at a distance h c /2 from the center-line of the column may be ignored provided the moment M o obtained as the sum of the maximum positive design moment and the average of the negative design moments in anyone span of the slab for the whole panel width is such that:

+

8

2ℎ

3

Where L 1 is the panel length parallel to span, measured from centers of columns.

L 2 is the panel width, measured from centers of columns

h c is the effective diameter of a column or column head (see below)

effective diameter of a column or column head (see below) AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
effective diameter of a column or column head (see below) AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Chapter IV

When the above condition is not satisfied, the negative design moments shall be increased.

The effective diameter of a column or column head h c is the diameter of a circle whose area equals the cross-sectional area of the column or, if column heads are used, the area of the column head based on the effective dimensions as defined below. In no case shall h c be taken as greater than one-quarter of the shortest span framing in to the column.

The effective dimensions of a column head for use in calculation of h c are limited according to the depth of the head. In any direction, the effective dimension of a head L h shall be taken as the lesser of the actual dimension L ho or L h,max , where L h,max is given by:

, = + 2

For a flared head, the actual dimension L ho is that measured to the center of the reinforcing steel (see Fig. 3.3.4-1)

to the center of the reinforcing steel (see Fig. 3.3.4-1) Figure 3.3.4-1 Types of Column Head
to the center of the reinforcing steel (see Fig. 3.3.4-1) Figure 3.3.4-1 Types of Column Head

Figure 3.3.4-1 Types of Column Head

3.3.5. Direct Design Method as per EBCS 2, 1995

According to the EBCS 2 specification, the direct design method of analysis is subjected to the following restrictions.

Design is based on the single load case of all spans loaded with the maximum design ultimate load.

There are at least three rows of panels of approximately equal span in the direction being considered.

Successive span length in each direction shall not differ by more than one-third of the longer span

Maximum offsets of columns from either axis between center lines of successive columns shall not exceed 10% of the span (in the direction of the offset)

not exceed 10% of the span (in the direction of the offset) AAiT, Department of Civil
not exceed 10% of the span (in the direction of the offset) AAiT, Department of Civil

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Chapter IV

Longitudinal Distribution

The distribution of design span and support moments depends on the relative stiffness of the different sections which in turn depends on the restraint provided for the slab by the supports. Accordingly, the distribution factors are given in the following table.

 

Outer support

Near

First

Center of

Interior

Column

Wall

center of

interior

interior

support

first span

support

span

Moment

-0.040FL

-0.020FL

0.083FL

-0.063FL

0.071FL

-0.055FL

Shear

0.45F

0.40F

-

0.60F

-

0.50F

Total Column

0.040FL

-

-

0.022FL

-

0.022FL

moments

Table 3.3.5-1 Bending Moment and Shear Force Coefficients for Flat slabs of Three or More Equal Spans.

NOTE:

F is the total design ultimate load on the strip of slab between adjacent columns considered.

L is the effective span = L 1 -2h c /3

The limitations of Section A.4.3.1(2) of EBCS 2, need not be checked

The moments shall not be redistributed

Lateral Distribution

The design moment obtained from the above (or equivalent frame analysis) shall be divided b/n the column and middle strips according to the following table.

Apportionment been column and middle strip expressed as percentages of the total negative or positive design moment

Column Strip (%)

Middle Strip (%)

Negative

75

25

Positive

55

45

Table 3.3.5-2 Distribution of Design Moments in Panels of Flat Slabs

NOTE: For the case where the width of the column strip is taken as equal to that of the drop and the middle strip is thereby increased in width, the design moments to be resisted by the middle strip shall be increased in proportion to its increased width. The design moments to be resisted by the column strip may be decreased by an amount such that the total positive and the total negative design moments resisted by the column strip and middle strip together are unchanged.

by the column strip and middle strip together are unchanged. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
by the column strip and middle strip together are unchanged. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Chapter IV

3.3.6. Equivalent Frame Method

The direct design method is applicable when the proposed structures satisfy the restrictions on geometry and loading. If the structure does not satisfy the criteria, the more general method of elastic analysis is the equivalent frame method.

In the equivalent frame method, the structure is divided in to continuous frames centered on the column lines on either side of the columns, extending both longitudinally and transversely. Each frame is composed of abroad continuous beam and a row of columns.

is composed of abroad continuous beam and a row of columns. Figure 3.3.6-1 Building idealization for

Figure 3.3.6-1 Building idealization for equivalent frame analysis

Equivalent Frame Method as per EBCS 2, 1995

According to the EBCS 2 specification, Equivalent Frame Method of analysis is treated as follows:

(1) The width of slab used to define the effective stiffness of the slab will depend upon the aspect ratio of the panels and the type of loading, but the following provisions may be applied in the absence of more accurate methods:

In the case of vertical loading, the full width of the Panel, and

For lateral loading, half the width of the panel may be used to calculate the stiffness of the slab. (2) The moment of inertia of any section of slab or column used in calculating the relative stiffness of members may be assumed to be that of the cross section of the concrete alone.

to be that of the cross section of the concrete alone. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
to be that of the cross section of the concrete alone. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Chapter IV

(3) Moments and forces within a system of flat slab panels may be obtained from analysis of the structure under the single load case of maximum design load on all spans or panels simultaneously, provided:

The ratio of the characteristic imposed load to the characteristic dead load does not exceed 1.25.

The characteristic imposed load does not exceed 5.0 kN/m 2 excluding partitions.

(4) Where it is not appropriate to analyze for the single load case of maximum design load on all spans, it will be sufficient to consider following arrangement of vertical loads:

All spans loaded with the maximum design ultimate load, and

Alternate spans with the maximum design ultimate load and all other spans loaded with the minimum design ultimate load (1.0Gk). (5) Each frame may be analyzed in its entirety by any elastic method. Alternatively, for vertical loads only, each strip of floor and roof may be analyzed as a separate frame with the columns above and below fixed in position and direction at their extremities. In either case, the analysis shall be carried out for the "appropriate design ultimate loads on each span calculated for a strip of slab of width equal to the distance between center lines of the panels on each side of the columns.

Equivalent Frame Method as per ACI Code

According to the ACI Code specification, the Equivalent Frame method was developed with the assumption that the analysis would be done using the moment distribution method.

A. Basis of Analysis

The equivalent Frame method was developed with the assumption that the analysis would be done using the moment distribution method. For vertical loading, each floor with its columns may be analyzed separately by assuming the columns to be fixed at the floors above and below.

B. Moment of Inertia of Slab Beam

The slab beam includes the portion of then slab bounded by panel centerlines on each side of the columns, together with column line beams or drop panels (if used).

The moment of inertia used for analysis may be based on the concrete cross-section, neglecting reinforcement, but variations in cross section along the member axis should be accounted for (see below).

along the member axis should be accounted for (see below). AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
along the member axis should be accounted for (see below). AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Chapter IV

RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 3.3.6-2 EI values for slab with drop AAiT, Department

Figure 3.3.6-2 EI values for slab with drop

Chapter IV Figure 3.3.6-2 EI values for slab with drop AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
Chapter IV Figure 3.3.6-2 EI values for slab with drop AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Columns

Chapter IV

RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 3.3.6-3 EI values for slab and beam C. The

Figure 3.3.6-3 EI values for slab and beam

C. The equivalent Column

In the equivalent frame method of analysis, the columns are considered to be attached to the continuous slab beam by torsional members transverse to the direction of the span for which moments are being found. Torsional deformation of these transverse supporting members reduces the effective flexural stiffness provided by the actual column at the support.

stiffness provided by the actual column at the support. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 33
stiffness provided by the actual column at the support. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 33

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Chapter IV

RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 3.3.6-4 Frame action and twisting of edge member The

Figure 3.3.6-4 Frame action and twisting of edge member

The above effects can be considered by replacing the actual beam and columns with an equivalent column having the following stiffness:

Where:

1

1

1

+

K ec = Flexural stiffness of equivalent column

1 ∑ + K e c = Flexural stiffness of equivalent column AAiT, Department of Civil
1 ∑ + K e c = Flexural stiffness of equivalent column AAiT, Department of Civil

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Chapter IV

K c = flexural stiffness of actual column

K t = torsional stiffness of edge beam

The torsional Stiffness K t can be calculated by:

Where:

E cs = modulus of elasticity of slab concrete

9

1 −

c 2 = size of rectangular column, capital, or bracket in the direction of l 2 .

C = cross sectional constant (roughly equivalent to polar moment of inertia)

The torsional constant C can be calculated by:

Where:

1 − 0.63

3

x is the shorter side of a rectangle and y is the longer side.

C is calculated by sub-dividing the cross section of torsional members in to component rectangles and the sub-division is to maximize the value of C.

The torsional members according to ACI Code are as follows:

The torsional members according to ACI Code are as follows: AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
The torsional members according to ACI Code are as follows: AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Chapter IV

RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 3.3.6-5 Torsional members D. Arrangement of Live Load for

Figure 3.3.6-5 Torsional members

D. Arrangement of Live Load for Analysis

(1) If the un-factored live load does not exceed 0.75 times the un-factored dead load, it is not necessary to consider pattern loadings, and only the case of full factored live load and dead load on all spans need to be analyzed. (2) If the un-factored live load exceeds 0.75 times the un-factored dead load the following pattern loadings need to be considered.

a. For maximum positive moment, factored dead load on all spans and 0.75 times the full factored live load on the panel in question and on alternate panels.

b. For maximum negative moment at an interior support, factored dead load on all panels and 0.75 times the full factored live load on the two adjacent panels.

The final design moments shall not be less than for the case of full factored dead and live load on all panels.

the case of full factored dead and live load on all panels. AAiT, Department of Civil
the case of full factored dead and live load on all panels. AAiT, Department of Civil

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Chapter IV

3.3.7. Shear in Flat Slabs, as per EBCS 2

The concrete section (thickness of the slab) must be adequate to sustain the shear force, since stirrups are not convenient.

Two types of shear are considered

a) Beam type Shear: Diagonal tension Failure and critical section is considered at d distance from the face of the column or capital and Vc is the same expression given earlier for beams or solid slabs.

0.25

b) Punching Shear: perimeter shear which occurs in slabs without beams around columns. It is characterized by formation of a truncated punching cone or pyramid around concentrated loads or reactions. The outline of the critical section is shown in Fig. below.

The outline of the critical section is shown in Fig. below. Figure 3.3.7-1 Critical section remote

Figure 3.3.7-1 Critical section remote from a free edge

The shear force to be resisted can be calculated as the total design load on the area bounded by the panel centerlines around the column less the load applied with in the area defined by the critical shear perimeter.

The punching shear resistance without shear reinforcement is:

0.25

=

(1 + 50 ) ≤ 2.0

= ≤ 0.015

=

1

= 2 ( + ),

≤ 0.015 = 1 = 2 ( + ), ℎ AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
≤ 0.015 = 1 = 2 ( + ), ℎ AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

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Chapter IV

CHAPTER IV

COLUMNS

4.1. Introduction

A column is a vertical structural member transmitting axial compression loads with or

without moments. The cross sectional dimensions of a column are generally considerably less than its height. Column support mainly vertical loads from the floors and roof and

transmit these loads to the foundation

In construction, the reinforcement and concrete for the beam and slabs in a floor are place

once the concrete has hardened; the reinforcement and concrete for the columns over that floor are placed followed by the next higher floor.

Columns may be classified based on the following criteria:

a. Classification on the basis of geometry; rectangular, square, circular, L- shaped, T-shaped, etc. depending on the structural or architectural requirements.

b. Classification on the basis of composition; composite columns, in-filled columns, etc.

c. Classification on the basis of lateral reinforcement; tied columns, spiral columns.

d. Classification on the basis of manner by which lateral stability is provided to the structure as a whole; braced columns, un-braced columns.

e. Classification on the basis of sensitivity to second order effect due to lateral displacements; sway columns, non-sway columns.

f. Classification on the basis of degree of slenderness; short column, slender column.

g. Classification on the basis of loading: axially loaded column, columns under uni-axial bending, columns under biaxial bending.

Composite/In-filled Columns

a) Composite Columns: Columns in which steel structural members are encased in a concrete. Main reinforcement bars positioned with ties or spirals are placed around the structural member.

b) In-filled Columns: Columns having steel pipes filled with plain concrete or lightly reinforced concrete.

filled with plain concrete or lightly reinforced concrete. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 38 Instructor:
filled with plain concrete or lightly reinforced concrete. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 38 Instructor:

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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RCS – II

Columns

Chapter IV

RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 4.1-1 Composite Columns and in-filled columns Tied/Spiral Columns a)
RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 4.1-1 Composite Columns and in-filled columns Tied/Spiral Columns a)

Figure 4.1-1 Composite Columns and in-filled columns

Tied/Spiral Columns

a) Tied Columns: Columns where main (longitudinal) reinforcements are held in position by separate ties spaced at equal intervals along the length. Tied columns may be, square, rectangular, L-shaped, circular or any other required shape. And over 95% of all columns in buildings in non-seismic regions are tied columns.

in buildings in non-seismic regions are tied columns. Figure 4.1-2 Tied Columns b) Spiral Columns: Columns

Figure 4.1-2 Tied Columns

b) Spiral Columns: Columns which are usually circular in cross section and longitudinal bars are wrapped by a closely spaced spiral.

longitudinal bars are wrapped by a closely spaced spiral. Figure 4.1-3 Spiral Columns Behavior of Tied

Figure 4.1-3 Spiral Columns

Behavior of Tied and Spiral columns

The load deflection diagrams (see Fig. 4.1-4) show the behavior of tied and spiral columns subjected to axial load.

behavior of tied and spiral columns subjected to axial load. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
behavior of tied and spiral columns subjected to axial load. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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Chapter IV

RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 4.1-4 Load deflection behavior of tied and spiral columns

Figure 4.1-4 Load deflection behavior of tied and spiral columns

The initial parts of these diagrams are similar. As the maximum load is reached vertical cracks and crushing develops in the concrete shell outside the ties or spirals, and this concrete spalls off. When this happens in a tied column, the capacity of the core that remains is less than the load and the concrete core crushes and the reinforcement buckles outward between the ties. This occurs suddenly, without warning, in a brittle manner.

When the shell spalls off in spiral columns, the column doesn’t fail immediately because the strength of the core has been enhanced by the tri axial stress resulting from the confinement of the core by the spiral reinforcement. As a result the column can undergo large deformations before collapses (yielding of spirals). Such failure is more ductile and gives warning to the impending failure.

Accordingly, ductility in columns can be ensured by providing spirals or closely spaced ties.

4.2. Classification of Compression Members

4.2.1. Braced/Un-braced Columns

a) Un-braced columns

An un-braced structure is one in which frames action is used to resist horizontal loads. In such a structure, the horizontal loads are transmitted to the foundations through bending action in the beams and columns. The moments in the columns due to this bending can substantially reduce their axial (vertical) load carrying capacity. Un-braced structures are generally quit flexible and allow horizontal displacement (see Fig. 4.2.1-1). When this displacement is sufficiently large to influence significantly the column moments, the structure is termed a sway frame.

the column moments, the structure is termed a sway frame. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
the column moments, the structure is termed a sway frame. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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RCS – II

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Chapter IV

RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 4.2.1-1 Sway Frame/ Un-braced columns b) Braced columns: Although,

Figure 4.2.1-1 Sway Frame/ Un-braced columns

b) Braced columns:

Although, fully non sway structures are difficult to achieve in practice, EBCS-2 or EC-2 allows a structure to be classified as non-sway if it is braced against lateral loads using substantial bracing members such as shear walls, elevators, stairwell shafts, diagonal bracings or a combination of these (See Fig. 4.2.1-2). A column with in such a non-sway structure is considered to be braced and the second order moment on such column, P-∆, is negligible. This may be assumed to be the case if the frame attracts not more than 10% of the horizontal loads.

frame attracts not more than 10% of the horizontal loads. Figure 4.2.1-2 Non-sway Frame / Braced

Figure 4.2.1-2 Non-sway Frame / Braced columns

4.2.2. Short/Slender Columns

a) Short columns

They are columns with low slenderness ratio and their strengths are governed by the strength of the materials and the geometry of the cross section.

b) Slender columns

They are columns with high slenderness ratio and their strength may be significantly reduced by lateral deflection.

strength may be significantly reduced by lateral deflection. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 41 Instructor:
strength may be significantly reduced by lateral deflection. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 41 Instructor:

AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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RCS – II

Columns

Chapter IV

When an unbalanced moment or as moment due to eccentric loading is applied to a column, the member responds by bending as shown in Fig. below. If the deflection at the center of the member is, δ, then at the center there is a force P and a total moment of M + Pδ. The second order bending component, Pδ, is due to the extra eccentricity of the axial load which results from the deflection. If the column is short δ is small and this second order moment is negligible. If on the other hand, the column is long and slender, δ is large and Pδ must be calculated and added to the applied moment M.

Pδ must be calculated and added to the applied moment M. Figure 4.2.2-1 Forces in slender

Figure 4.2.2-1 Forces in slender column

4.3. Classification of Columns on the Basis of Loading

4.3.1. Axially loaded columns They are columns subjected to axial or concentric load without moments. They occur rarely.

When concentric axial load acts on a short column, its ultimate capacity may be obtained, recognizing the nonlinear response of both materials, from:

Where

+

A g is gross concrete area A st is total reinforcement area

When concentric axial load acts on a long column (

obtained from:

12), its ultimate capacity may be

= = 1.25 − /48

4.3.2. Column under uni-axial bending

Almost all compression members in concrete structures are subjected to moments in addition to axial loads. These may be due to the load not being centered on the column or

may be due to the load not being centered on the column or AAiT, Department of
may be due to the load not being centered on the column or AAiT, Department of

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may result from the column resisting a portion of the unbalanced moments at the end of the beams supported by columns.

moments at the end of the beams supported by columns. Figure 4.3.2-1 Equivalent eccentricity of column

Figure 4.3.2-1 Equivalent eccentricity of column load

When a member is subjected to combined axial compression P d and moment M d , it is more convenient to replace the axial load and the moment with an equivalent P d applied at eccentricity e d as shown below.

Interaction diagram

The presence of bending in axially loaded members can reduce the axial load capacity of the member

To illustrate conceptually the interaction between moment and axial load in a column, an idealized homogenous and elastic column with a compressive strength, f cu , equal to its tensile strength, f tu , will be considered. For such a column failure would occurs in a compression when the maximum stresses reached f cu as given by:

+

Dividing both sides by f cu gives:

1

+

as given by: + Dividing both sides by f c u gives: 1 + AAiT, Department
as given by: + Dividing both sides by f c u gives: 1 + AAiT, Department

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RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 4.3.2-2 Interaction Chart for an elastic column The maximum

Figure 4.3.2-2 Interaction Chart for an elastic column

The maximum axial load the column could support is obtained when M = 0, and is P max =

f cu A.

Similarly the maximum moment that can be supported occurs when P=0 and is M max = f cu I/C.

Substituting P max and M max gives:

1 =

+

This is known as interaction equations because it shows the interaction of or relationship between P and M at failure. It is plotted as line AB (see Fig.). A similar equation for a tensile load, P, governed by f tu , gives line BC in the figure. The plot is referred to as an interaction diagram.

Points on the lines represent combination of P and M corresponding to the resistance of the section. A point inside the diagram such as E represents a combination of P and M that will not cause failure. Load combinations falling on the line or outside the line, such as point F will equal or exceed the resistance of the section and hence will cause failure.

the resistance of the section and hence will cause failure. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
the resistance of the section and hence will cause failure. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

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Interaction Diagrams for Reinforced concrete Columns

Since reinforced concrete is not elastic and has a tensile strength that is lower than its compressive strength, the general shape of the diagram resembles Fig. 4.3.2-3

the general shape of the diagram resembles Fig. 4.3.2-3 Figure 4.3.2-3 Interaction diagram for column in

Figure 4.3.2-3 Interaction diagram for column in combined bending and axial load

Balanced condition: For a given cross section the design axial force P b acts at one specific eccentricity e b to cause failure by simultaneous yielding of tension steel and crushing of concrete (see Fig. 4.3.2- 3)

Tension failure controls: For a very large eccentricity of the axial force P n , the failure is triggered by yielding of the tension steel. The horizontal axis corresponds to an infinite value of e, i.e. pure bending at moment capacity M o (see Fig. 4.3.2-3)

Compression failure controls: For a very small eccentricity of the axial force P n , the failure is governed by concrete compression. The vertical axis corresponds to e = 0 and P o is the capacity of the column if concentrically loaded (see Fig. 4.3.2-3)

Interaction diagrams for columns are generally computed by assuming a series of strain distributions, each corresponding to a particular point on the interaction diagram, and computing the corresponding values of P and M (strain compatibility analysis).

The calculation process can be illustrated as follow for one particular strain distribution.

as follow for one particular strain distribution. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 45 Instructor:
as follow for one particular strain distribution. AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 45 Instructor:

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RCS – II Columns Chapter IV Figure 4.3.2-4 Stress-Strain relationship for column In the actual design,

Figure 4.3.2-4 Stress-Strain relationship for column

In the actual design, interaction charts prepared for uniaxial bending can be used. The procedure involves:

Assume a cross section, d’ and evaluate d’/h to choose appropriate chart

Compute:

o

Normal

force ratio:

/

o

Moment ratios:

/

Enter the chart and pick ω (the mechanical steel ratio), if the coordinate (ν, μ) lies within the families of curves. If the coordinate (ν, μ) lies outside the chart, the cross section is small and a new trail need to be made.

Compute , = /

Check A tot satisfies the maximum and minimum provisions

Determine the distribution of bars in accordance with the charts requirement

4.3.3. Column under bi-axial bending

There are situations in which axial compression is accompanied by simultaneous bending about both principal axes of the section. This is the case in corner columns, interior or edge columns with irregular column layout. For such columns, the determination of failure load is extremely laborious and making manual computation difficult.

Consider the Rc column section shown under axial force P acting with eccentricities e x and e y , such that e x = M y /p, e y = M x /P from centroidal axes (Fig. 4.3.3-1c).

In Fig. Fig. 4.3.3-1a the section is subjected to bending about the y axis only with eccentricity e x . The corresponding strength interaction curve is shown as Case (a) (see Fig. 4.3.3-1d). Such a curve can be established by the usual methods for uni-axial bending. Similarly, in Fig. 4.1-16b the section is subjected to bending about the x axis only with eccentricity e y . The corresponding strength interaction curve is shown as Case (b) (see Fig. 4.3.3-1d). For case (c), which combines x and y axis bending, the orientation of the resultant eccentricity is defined by the angle λ

of the resultant eccentricity is defined by the angle λ AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
of the resultant eccentricity is defined by the angle λ AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

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arctan arctan

Bending for this case is about an axis defined by the angle θ with respect to the x-axis. For other values of λ, similar curves are obtained to define the failure surface for axial load plus bi-axial bending.

Any combination of P u , M ux , and M uy falling outside the surface would represent failure. Note that the failure surface can be described either by a set of curves defined by radial planes passing through the P n axis or by a set of curves defined by horizontal plane intersections, each for a constant P n , defining the load contours (see Fig. 4.3.3-1).

P n , defining the load contours (see Fig. 4.3.3-1). Figure 4.3.3-1 Interaction diagram for compression

Figure 4.3.3-1 Interaction diagram for compression plus bi-axial bending

Computation commences with the successive choice of neutral axis distance c for each value of q. Then using the strain compatibility and stress-strain relationship, bar forces and the concrete compressive resultant can be determined. Then P n , M nx , and M ny (a point on the interaction surface) can be determined using the equation of equilibrium

Since the determination of the neutral axis requires several trials, the procedure using the above expressions is tedious. Thus, the following simple approximate methods are widely used.

1. Load contour method: It is an approximation on load versus moment interaction surface (see Fig. 4.3.3-1). Accordingly, the general non-dimensional interaction equation of family of load contours is given by:

+

1

equation of family of load contours is given by: + 1 AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering
equation of family of load contours is given by: + 1 AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering

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where:

0.667 + 1.667 1.15 ≤ ≤ 2

M dx = P d e y M dy = P d e x M dxo = M dx when M dy = 0 (design capacity under uni-axial bending about x) M dyo = M dy when M dx = 0 (design capacity under uni-axial bending about y)

2. Reciprocal method/Bresler’s equation: It is an approximation of bowl shaped failure surface by the following reciprocal load interaction equation.

Where:

e dx

1

1

1

1

+

P d = design (ultimate) load capacity of the section with eccentricities e dy and

P dxo = ultimate load capacity of the section for uni axial bending with e dx only (e dy = 0) P dyo = ultimate load capacity of the section for uni axial bending with e dy only

(e dx = 0)

P do = concentric axial load capacity (e dx = e dy = 0) However interaction charts prepared for biaxial bending can be used for actual design. The procedure involves:

Select cross section dimensions h and b and also h’ and b’

Calculate h’/h and b’/b and select suitable chart

Compute:

Normal force ratio:

Moment ratios:

Select suitable chart which satisfy and

Enter the chart to obtain ω

Compute

Check A tot satisfies the maximum and minimum provisions

Determine the distribution of bars in accordance with the charts requirement

/

/ and /

ratio:

, = /

/ / and / ratio: , = / AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 48 Instructor:
/ / and / ratio: , = / AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 48 Instructor:

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4.4. Analysis of columns according to EBCS 2 (short and slender) Classification of Frames

A frame may be classified as non-sway for a given load case if the critical load ratio for that load case satisfies the criterion:

Where:

0.1

N sd is the design value of the total vertical load N cr is its critical value for failure in a sway mode

In Beam-and-column type plane frames in building structures with beams connecting each column at each story level may be classified as non-sway for a given load case, when first- order theory is used, the horizontal displacements in each story due to the design loads (both horizontal and vertical), plus the initial sway imperfection satisfy the following criteria.

≤ 0.1

Where:

bottom of the story

δ

is the horizontal displacement at the top of the story, relative to the

L

is the story height

H

is the total horizontal reaction at the bottom of the story

N is the total vertical reaction at the bottom of the story,

For frame structures, the effects of imperfections may be allowed for in frame analysis by means of an equivalent geometric imperfection in the form of an initial sway imperfection (assuming that the structure is inclined to the vertical at an angle) Ф determined by:

a. For single story frames or for structures loaded mainly at the top

tan ϕ = 1

150

b. For other types of frames

tan ϕ = 1

200

Where the effects of imperfections are smaller than the effects of design horizontal actions, their influence may be ignored. Imperfections need net be considered in accidental combinations of actions.

The displacement δ in the above equation shall be determined using stiffness values for beams and columns corresponding to the ultimate limit state. As an approximation,

to the ultimate limit state. As an approximation, AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 49 Instructor:
to the ultimate limit state. As an approximation, AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 49 Instructor:

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displacements calculated using moment of inertia of the gross section may be multiplied by the ratio of the gross column stiffness I g to the effective column stiffness I e (see the following section) to obtain δ.

All frames including sway frames shall also be checked for adequate resistance to failure in non-sway modes

Determination of story buckling Load N cr

Unless more accurate methods are used, the buckling load of a story may be assumed to be equal to that of the substitute beam-column frame defined in Fig. and may be determined as:

Where:

EI e is the effective stiffness of the substitute column designed using the equivalent reinforcement area. L e is the effective length. It may be determined using the stiffness properties of the gross concrete section for both beams and columns of the substitute frame (see Fig. 4.4-1c )

In lieu of a more accurate determination, the effective stiffness of a column EI e may be taken as:

0.2

+

Where:

E s is the modulus of elasticity of steel I c , I s , are the moments of inertia of the concrete and reinforcement sections, respectively, of the substitute column, with respect to the centroid of the concrete section (see Fig. 4.4-1c) or alternatively

E c = 1100f cd

0.4

1

Where: M b is the balanced moment capacity of the substitute column 1/r b is the curvature at balanced load and may be taken as

1

=

5

10

The equivalent reinforcement areas, A s, tot, in the substitute column to be used for calculating I s and M b may be obtained by designing the substitute column at each floor level to carry the story design axial load and amplified sway moment at the critical section. The

load and amplified sway moment at the critical section. The AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page
load and amplified sway moment at the critical section. The AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page

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equivalent column dimensions of the substitute column may be taken as shown in Fig, below, in the case of rectangular columns. Circular columns may be replaced by square columns of the same cross-sectional area. In the above, concrete cover and bar arrangement in the substitute columns shall be taken to be the same as those of the actual columns.

The amplified sway moment, to be used for the design of the substitute column, may be found iteratively taking the first-order design moment in the substitute column as an initial value.

In lieu of more accurate determination, the first-order design moment, M dl , at the critical section of the substitute column may be determined using:

Where:

α

+ 3

α + α + 6

α 1 and α 2 are defined before and shall not exceed 10.

and α 2 are defined before and shall not exceed 10. Figure 4.4-1 Substitute Multi-Story Beam-Column

Figure 4.4-1 Substitute Multi-Story Beam-Column Frame

10. Figure 4.4-1 Substitute Multi-Story Beam-Column Frame AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 51 Instructor:
10. Figure 4.4-1 Substitute Multi-Story Beam-Column Frame AAiT, Department of Civil Engineering Page 51 Instructor:

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Slenderness Ratio

The significance of Pδ (i.e. whether a column is short or slender) is defined by a slenderness ratio.

In EBCS 2, the slenderness ratio is defined as follows:

a) For isolated columns, the slenderness ratio is defined by:

where: L e is the effective buckling length

i is the minimum radius of gyration. The radius of gyration is equal to

Where:

I is the second moment of area of the section

A is cross sectional area

b) For multistory sway frames comprising rectangular sub frames, the following expression may be used to calculate the slenderness ratio of the columns in the same story.

12

where: A is the sum of the cross-sectional areas of all the columns of the story K l is the total lateral stiffness of the columns of the story (story rigidity), with modulus of elasticity taken as unity

L is the story height

Limits of Slenderness

The slenderness ratio of concrete columns shall not exceed 140

Second order moment in a column can be ignored if