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Limits and Continuity I Class Presentation

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Chandra Vaidyanathan

Dayananda Sagar University, Bengaluru.

chairman-maths@dsu.edu.in

Limits

Limits

Limits

If a function f (x) gets arbitrarily close to L, as x gets arbitrarily close to

x0 , we say that lim f (x) = L.

xx0

Limits

If a function f (x) gets arbitrarily close to L, as x gets arbitrarily close to

x0 , we say that lim f (x) = L.

xx0

QUESTION:

x2 1

How does the function f (x) = vary as x 1?

x 1

Limits

If a function f (x) gets arbitrarily close to L, as x gets arbitrarily close to

x0 , we say that lim f (x) = L.

xx0

QUESTION:

x2 1

How does the function f (x) = vary as x 1?

x 1

QUESTION:

x

How about the function f (x) = as x 0?

|x|

One Sided Limits

One Sided Limits

Remark

So, really what value the function f (x) takes, as x approaches 0, in the

above question seems to depend on whether we approach 0 from the right

or left.

One Sided Limits

Remark

So, really what value the function f (x) takes, as x approaches 0, in the

above question seems to depend on whether we approach 0 from the right

or left.This necessitates the definition of one sided limits.

One Sided Limits

Remark

So, really what value the function f (x) takes, as x approaches 0, in the

above question seems to depend on whether we approach 0 from the right

or left.This necessitates the definition of one sided limits.

Definition

Let f (x) be defined on an interval (a, b), where a < b. If f (x) gets

arbitrarily close to L, as x approaches a from within the interval, we say

that lim+ f (x) = L.

xa

One Sided Limits

Remark

So, really what value the function f (x) takes, as x approaches 0, in the

above question seems to depend on whether we approach 0 from the right

or left.This necessitates the definition of one sided limits.

Definition

Let f (x) be defined on an interval (a, b), where a < b. If f (x) gets

arbitrarily close to L, as x approaches a from within the interval, we say

that lim+ f (x) = L.

xa

Definition

Let f (x) be defined on an interval (c, a), where c < a. If f (x) gets

arbitrarily close to M, as x approaches a from within the interval, we say

that lim f (x) = M.

xa

One Sided Limits

Remark

So, really what value the function f (x) takes, as x approaches 0, in the

above question seems to depend on whether we approach 0 from the right

or left.This necessitates the definition of one sided limits.

Definition

Let f (x) be defined on an interval (a, b), where a < b. If f (x) gets

arbitrarily close to L, as x approaches a from within the interval, we say

that lim+ f (x) = L.

xa

Definition

Let f (x) be defined on an interval (c, a), where c < a. If f (x) gets

arbitrarily close to M, as x approaches a from within the interval, we say

that lim f (x) = M.

xa

Limit

Limit

x

Hence, for the function, f (x) = , we have,

|x|

Limit

x

Hence, for the function, f (x) = , we have, lim+ f (x) = 1 and

|x| x0

Limit

x

Hence, for the function, f (x) = , we have, lim+ f (x) = 1 and

|x| x0

lim f (x) = 1.

x0

Limit

x

Hence, for the function, f (x) = , we have, lim+ f (x) = 1 and

|x| x0

lim f (x) = 1.

x0

Definition

A function f (x) has a limit L, as x approaches x0 , if and only if it has left

hand and right hand limits exist and are equal, i.e.,

Limit

x

Hence, for the function, f (x) = , we have, lim+ f (x) = 1 and

|x| x0

lim f (x) = 1.

x0

Definition

A function f (x) has a limit L, as x approaches x0 , if and only if it has left

hand and right hand limits exist and are equal, i.e.,

xx0 xx0 xx0

Limit

Piecewise linear function

Limit

Piecewise linear function

2.5

2

f(x)

1.5

0.5

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

x

Evaluate the limit for the following function depicted by the graph :

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x0+ x0 x0

Evaluate the limit for the following function depicted by the graph :

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x0+ x0 x0

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x1+ x1 x1

Evaluate the limit for the following function depicted by the graph :

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x0+ x0 x0

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x1+ x1 x1

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x2+ x2 x2

Evaluate the limit for the following function depicted by the graph :

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x0+ x0 x0

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x1+ x1 x1

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x2+ x2 x2

lim+ f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x3 x3 x3

Evaluate the limit for the following function depicted by the graph :

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x0+ x0 x0

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x1+ x1 x1

lim f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x2+ x2 x2

lim+ f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x3 x3 x3

lim+ f (x), lim f (x), lim f (x)

x4 x4 x4

Chandra Vaidyanathan (DSU) Limits and Continuity August 28, 2015 7 / 16

Limits: concept

Definition

1 Right hand limit:

Limits: concept

Definition

1 Right hand limit:

We say that f (x) has right hand limit L at x0 , i.e, lim+ f (x) = L,

xx0

Limits: concept

Definition

1 Right hand limit:

We say that f (x) has right hand limit L at x0 , i.e, lim+ f (x) = L,

xx0

if for every number > 0, a corresponding number > 0, such that

Limits: concept

Definition

1 Right hand limit:

We say that f (x) has right hand limit L at x0 , i.e, lim+ f (x) = L,

xx0

if for every number > 0, a corresponding number > 0, such that

Limits: concept

Definition

1 Right hand limit:

We say that f (x) has right hand limit L at x0 , i.e, lim+ f (x) = L,

xx0

if for every number > 0, a corresponding number > 0, such that

Limits: concept

Definition

1 Right hand limit:

xx0

if for every number > 0, a corresponding number > 0, such that

We say that f (x) has left hand limit L at x0 , i.e, lim f (x) = L,

xx0

Limits: concept

Definition

1 Right hand limit:

xx0

if for every number > 0, a corresponding number > 0, such that

We say that f (x) has left hand limit L at x0 , i.e, lim f (x) = L,

xx0

if for every number > 0, a corresponding number > 0, such that

Limits: concept

Definition

1 Right hand limit:

xx0

if for every number > 0, a corresponding number > 0, such that

We say that f (x) has left hand limit L at x0 , i.e, lim f (x) = L,

xx0

if for every number > 0, a corresponding number > 0, such that

Finding algebraically for given

Definition

We say that f (x) has the limit L at x0 , i.e,

Finding algebraically for given

Definition

We say that f (x) has the limit L at x0 , i.e, lim f (x) = L

xx0

Finding algebraically for given

Definition

We say that f (x) has the limit L at x0 , i.e, lim f (x) = L if for every

xx0

number > 0, a corresponding number > 0, such that

Finding algebraically for given

Definition

We say that f (x) has the limit L at x0 , i.e, lim f (x) = L if for every

xx0

number > 0, a corresponding number > 0, such that

Finding algebraically for given

Definition

We say that f (x) has the limit L at x0 , i.e, lim f (x) = L if for every

xx0

number > 0, a corresponding number > 0, such that

In other words,

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

Show that lim (5x 3) = 2

x1

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

Show that lim (5x 3) = 2

x1

Solution

Set x0 = 1, f (x) = 5x 3, and L = 2 in the definition of limit.

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

Show that lim (5x 3) = 2

x1

Solution

Set x0 = 1, f (x) = 5x 3, and L = 2 in the definition of limit.

For any given > 0, we have to find suitable > 0 so that if x 6= 1 and x

is within distance of x0 = 1, i.e., if

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

Show that lim (5x 3) = 2

x1

Solution

Set x0 = 1, f (x) = 5x 3, and L = 2 in the definition of limit.

For any given > 0, we have to find suitable > 0 so that if x 6= 1 and x

is within distance of x0 = 1, i.e., if 0 < |x 1| < then,

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

Show that lim (5x 3) = 2

x1

Solution

Set x0 = 1, f (x) = 5x 3, and L = 2 in the definition of limit.

For any given > 0, we have to find suitable > 0 so that if x 6= 1 and x

is within distance of x0 = 1, i.e., if 0 < |x 1| < then, f (x) is within

distance of L = 2, that is,

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

Show that lim (5x 3) = 2

x1

Solution

Set x0 = 1, f (x) = 5x 3, and L = 2 in the definition of limit.

For any given > 0, we have to find suitable > 0 so that if x 6= 1 and x

is within distance of x0 = 1, i.e., if 0 < |x 1| < then, f (x) is within

distance of L = 2, that is, |f (x) 2| < .

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

Show that lim (5x 3) = 2

x1

Solution

Set x0 = 1, f (x) = 5x 3, and L = 2 in the definition of limit.

For any given > 0, we have to find suitable > 0 so that if x 6= 1 and x

is within distance of x0 = 1, i.e., if 0 < |x 1| < then, f (x) is within

distance of L = 2, that is, |f (x) 2| < .We find by working

backwards from the - inequality:

5|x 1| <

|x 1| < /5

Finding algebraically for given

Solution contd...

Thus, we can take = /5. If 0 < |x 1| < = /5, then

Finding algebraically for given

Solution contd...

Thus, we can take = /5. If 0 < |x 1| < = /5, then

Finding algebraically for given

Solution contd...

Thus, we can take = /5. If 0 < |x 1| < = /5, then

x1

Finding algebraically for given

Solution contd...

Thus, we can take = /5. If 0 < |x 1| < = /5, then

x1

Remark

The value of we found is not the only one for which the inequality

|5x 5| < holds. Any smaller positive will do as well.

Finding algebraically for given

Solution contd...

Thus, we can take = /5. If 0 < |x 1| < = /5, then

x1

Remark

The value of we found is not the only one for which the inequality

|5x 5| < holds. Any smaller positive will do as well.

QUESTION:

Verify: a) lim x = x0 and b) lim k = k.

xx0 xx0

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

For the limit lim x 1 = 2, find a > 0 that works for = 1.

x5

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

For the limit lim x 1 = 2, find a > 0 that works for = 1.

x5

Solution

We find for such problems as follows:

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

For the limit lim x 1 = 2, find a > 0 that works for = 1.

x5

Solution

We find for such problems as follows:

Solve the inequality |f (x) L| < to find an open interval (a, b) about x0

on which the inequality holds for all x 6= x0 .

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

For the limit lim x 1 = 2, find a > 0 that works for = 1.

x5

Solution

We find for such problems as follows:

Solve the inequality |f (x) L| < to find an open interval (a, b) about x0

x 6= x0 .

on which the inequality holds for all

So, in our case, we need to solve | x 1 2| < 1, to find an interval

about x0 = 5 on which the inequality holds for all x 6= x0 .

Finding algebraically for given

EXAMPLE:

For the limit lim x 1 = 2, find a > 0 that works for = 1.

x5

Solution

We find for such problems as follows:

Solve the inequality |f (x) L| < to find an open interval (a, b) about x0

x 6= x0 .

on which the inequality holds for all

So, in our case, we need to solve | x 1 2| < 1, to find an interval

about x0 = 5 on which the inequality holds for all x 6= x0 .

| x 1 2| < 1

1 < x 1 2 < 1

1< x 1<3

1 < x 1 < 9 2 < x < 10

Chandra Vaidyanathan (DSU) Limits and Continuity August 28, 2015 12 / 16

Finding algebraically for given

Solution Contd...

Find a value of > 0, that places the open interval (x0 , x0 + )

centered at x0 inside the interval (a, b).

Finding algebraically for given

Solution Contd...

Find a value of > 0, that places the open interval (x0 , x0 + )

centered at x0 inside the interval (a, b).

The inequality |f (x) L| < will hold for all x 6= x0 in this -interval.

Finding algebraically for given

Solution Contd...

Find a value of > 0, that places the open interval (x0 , x0 + )

centered at x0 inside the interval (a, b).

The inequality |f (x) L| < will hold for all x 6= x0 in this -interval.

So, in our case, we need to find a value of > 0 that places the centered

interval 5 < x < 5 + , inside the interval (2, 10).

Finding algebraically for given

Solution Contd...

Find a value of > 0, that places the open interval (x0 , x0 + )

centered at x0 inside the interval (a, b).

The inequality |f (x) L| < will hold for all x 6= x0 in this -interval.

So, in our case, we need to find a value of > 0 that places the centered

interval 5 < x < 5 + , inside the interval (2, 10).

If we take to be smaller than 3, then the inequality 0 < |x 5| < will

automatically place x between 2 and 10 to make | x 1 2| < 1.

Algebra of limits

Algebra of limits

1 The limit of the sum of two functions is the sum of their limits.

Algebra of limits

1 The limit of the sum of two functions is the sum of their limits.

2 The limit of the difference of two functions is the difference of their

limits.

Algebra of limits

1 The limit of the sum of two functions is the sum of their limits.

2 The limit of the difference of two functions is the difference of their

limits.

3 The limit of the product of two functions is the product of their limits.

Algebra of limits

1 The limit of the sum of two functions is the sum of their limits.

2 The limit of the difference of two functions is the difference of their

limits.

3 The limit of the product of two functions is the product of their limits.

4 The limit of a constant times a function is that constant times the

limit of the function.

Algebra of limits

1 The limit of the sum of two functions is the sum of their limits.

2 The limit of the difference of two functions is the difference of their

limits.

3 The limit of the product of two functions is the product of their limits.

4 The limit of a constant times a function is that constant times the

limit of the function.

5 The limit of the quotient of two functions is the quotient of their

limits, provided the limit of the denomitor is not zero.

Algebra of limits

1 The limit of the sum of two functions is the sum of their limits.

2 The limit of the difference of two functions is the difference of their

limits.

3 The limit of the product of two functions is the product of their limits.

4 The limit of a constant times a function is that constant times the

limit of the function.

5 The limit of the quotient of two functions is the quotient of their

limits, provided the limit of the denomitor is not zero.

6 The limit of any rational power of a function is that power of the

limit of the function, provided the latter is a real number.

Algebra of limits

EXAMPLE:

Write the above mathematical facts written in plain english, as

mathematical statements.

Algebra of limits

EXAMPLE:

Write the above mathematical facts written in plain english, as

mathematical statements.

EXAMPLE:

x 3 + 4x 2 3

Find the following limit, using the theorem above: lim

xx0 x2 + 5

Algebra of limits

EXAMPLE:

Write the above mathematical facts written in plain english, as

mathematical statements.

EXAMPLE:

x 3 + 4x 2 3

Find the following limit, using the theorem above: lim

xx0 x2 + 5

Theorem

A function f (x) has a limit L as x approaches x0 if and only if the left

hand and right hand limits are equal.

Algebra of limits

EXAMPLE:

Write the above mathematical facts written in plain english, as

mathematical statements.

EXAMPLE:

x 3 + 4x 2 3

Find the following limit, using the theorem above: lim

xx0 x2 + 5

Theorem

A function f (x) has a limit L as x approaches x0 if and only if the left

hand and right hand limits are equal.

Remark

We will not bother to prove this theorem in class now, but you can try this

as an exercise.

Chandra Vaidyanathan (DSU) Limits and Continuity August 28, 2015 15 / 16

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