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Reprintwith corrections 1982

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DET NORSKE VERITAS


HEAD OFFICE: VERITASVEIEN I. I 322 Hf2JVIK
P.O.BOX: 1322 Hf2JVIK, NORWAY
OSLO

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RULES
FOR SUBMARINE
PIPELINE SYSTEMS

1981 DETTE ER PHILLIPS PETROLEUM


COMPANY NORWAY's EIENDOM.

This edition replaces

Rules for the Design, Construction and Inspection of


Submarine Pipelines and Pipeline Risers, 1976

Reprint with corrections 1982

DET NORSKE VERITAS


HEAD OFFICE: VERITASVEIEN I. 1322 H0VIK

! P.O.BOX: 300, 1322 H0VIK, NORWAY


TELEGRAMS: VERITAS, OSLO
TELEX: 76192

I TELEPHONE {International Nos.l: + 4 7 2 12 99 00


TELEPHONE (National Nos.l: (02) 12 99 00

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APPROVED BY THE BOARD OF DIRECfORS

APRIL 30, I 98 I

Det norske Veritas 1981.

Printed by
Det norske Veritas, Oslo.

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5.81.3000
11
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9.82.2000
RULES FOR

SUBMARINE PIPELINE
SYSTEMS

r4it AMENDMENTS AND CORRECTIONS


MAY 1998

11
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DETNORSKE VERITAS
-J Yeritasveien I, N-1322 H0vik, Norway Tel.: +47 67 57 99 00 Fax: +47 67 57 99 II

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CHANGES IN THE RULES

The Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems were published late 1996.

This booklet presents corrections to the Rules.

c.

Det Norske Veritas AS 1998


Data processed and typeset by Division Technology and Products, Det Norske Veritas AS
Printed in Norway by Det Norske Veritas AS
98-05-20 12:23- PtOChl.doc
5.98.800

If_ any pe1so~ suffers loss or damage which is proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of Del Norske Veritas, then .De! NOtSke Veri las :;hall pay compe~sation to such ~rson for
hrs Pl'oved d1rectloss or damage. However, the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to ten times the fee charged lor the serv1ce 1n quesijon, proVJded that the ma;.umum compensatiOn shall
never exceed USD 2 million.

~~~ision "Det Norske Veritas" shall mean the Foundation Del Norske Veritas as well as all its subsidiaries, directors, officers, employees, agents and any other acting on behalf of Del Norske
Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems
Amendments and Corrections, May 1998 - Page 3

SECTION 1
AMENDMENTS AND CORRECTIONS

A. Introduction
Sec.l Page 4
A 100 General
Paragraph 8257 has been rewritten as follows:
I 01 This section includes corrections not yet incorporated in
the current Rule Chapters. 257 Pressure, Local pressure; Local Design Pressure (p 1.,),
Local Incidental Pressure (prJ or Local Test Pressure (p,J:
In addition corrections of misprints and clarifications of the
The internal pressure at any point in the Pipeline System or
text may be included.
Pipeline section or the corresponding Design Pressure,
Incidental Pressure or Test Pressure. This is equal to the
Design!lncidentalffest Pressure at the reference height plus
B. Amendments and Corrections the static head of the transported medium due to the
difference between the reference height and the height of the
B I 00 General
section being considered. The Local Design Pressure is
101 Current amendments and corrections are as follows: normally the internal pressure to which the Pipeline is to be


) designed unless given by the Pressure Test requirement, see
Sec.9 0500.
rc.~ Sec.l Page 1
I In paragraph A21 0 the last three entries in the list of Sec.l Page 5
! references should read:
RP B40 I Cathodic Protection Design, 1993 In item CJOO, the following should be added to the list of
RP 0501 Erosive Wear in Piping Systems, 1996
abbreviations:
Guideline No.l3: Interference Between Trawl Gear and c Clad
Pipelines.
D Nominal outside diameter. This shall mean the
actual outside diameter, i.e. 12,75" fora 12"
Sec.l Page 4 pipe (clarification)
In paragraph 82 51, Fig.l should be replaced with figure KVL Charpy value parallel to the rolling direction
below:
KVT Charpy value transverse to the rolling direction

r. I
L
LRFD
MPS
MSA
Lined
Load and Resistance Factor Design
Material Procedure Specification
Manufacturing Survey Arrangement
Local test pressure

ll Rm
Rpx
SMTS
Strength equivalent to a permanent elongation
ofx%
Rtx Strength equivalent to a total elongation of x %

Sec.2 Page 7
J Paragraph 8302 has been rewritten as follows:

J 302 Materials are to be manufactured at works which have


been approved by DNV. The approval scheme is described in
Certification Note 1.5. Certification of materials will be
based on compliance with all specified tests and inspections

.]
as defined in these Rules. Unless otherwise specially
Figure I approved, certification is to take place at the manufacturer's

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l DET NORSKE VER!TAS

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Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems
Page 4 -Amendmen-ts and Corrections, May 1998

works and the surveyor is to attend and witness testing and Sec.S Page 29
inspection in accordance with the appropriate material and
manufacture requirements ofSec_6 and Sec.? herein. The heading 'Propagation buckling' above paragraph C314
has been deleted
Sec.2 Page 11

In paragraph 401 the last entry in the list of information Sec.S Page 30
should read:
Paragraphs C402 and C403 have been amended to read:
contractor's Quality System Manual
402 The following stress conditions are to be satisfied:
Sec.3 Page 14
cr, ,;, 17 SMYS, 15 5. Dlt,; 45
In the Guidance note ofparagraph B202 the last sentence
should read: cr,5.1]SMYS, 155.D/t5.45

Other methodologies for identification of potential hazards where


are Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Hazard
Operations studies (HAZOP).

the equivalent stress


Sec.S Page 28
longitudinal stress
The Guidance note ofparagraph C205 should read:
'7 usage factor given by Table C4.
Guidance note:
The pressure containment criteria may alternatively be expressed in
an LRFD format as follows (not applicable to pressure test):
Table C4 Usage Factors for equivalent and longitudinal
bursting Limit State: stress check
Alaterial Safety Class
D- t
(p,,- p,) 2l 5 ~" I, I S~1TS requirements Low Normal High
Normal 0,96 0,87 0,77
yielding Limit State:
Fulfilling 404 1,00 0,90 0,80
D-t
(Pr. - p,) 2l,; TJ, 1,1 SMYS
403 All Load Factors in Sec.4 Table AI are to be equal to
where unity for the stress check in 402. Condition load factors in
Sec.4 Table A2 are to be included.
Pr. local incidental pressure

external pressure

Tis Tlu usage factors from Table CI or Table C2 Sec.S Page 35


depending on whether the additional requirements
in 205 are fulfilled or not

The LRFD-format will give identical wall thickness as the common


formula for I 0% incidental pressure and no external pressure. The
The reference in paragraph G I 09 should read: I 08
c. I
I

LRFD-format should be used for incidental pressure less than I0 %.

---e-n-d---o-f---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---note---

Sec.S Page 28

Paragraph C302 has been amended to read:


302 For pipes manufactured by the UOE or UO process, a
reduction of 15 %or 7,5 %in the SMYS, respectively, is
normally required as a minimum in the Local Buckling
design check relevant for external pressure in 306 (312) and
314.

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DETNORSKE VERITAS
Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems
Amendments and Corrections, May 1998 - Page 5

Sec.5 Page 35 Sec.6 Page 43


The first part of the Guidance note to paragraph Gl Jl has Paragraph D207 has been rewritten as follows:
been amended as follows:
207 A Charpy V-notch transition curve is to be established
Guidance note: for duplex steel base material. 5 sets are to be tested in the
The mean overbend strain temperature range from 70C to +20C. The Charpy y.
notch energy value in the transverse direction, at the
D Minimum Design Temperature, is to be minimum 150 J
Emean = R +Eaxial average and with no single value less than 135 J.
2

is to satisfy
Sec.6 Page 43

,1
where

Em~

Eilllial
stinger radius

calculated mean overbend strain

axial strain contribution


In paragraph D306the parameter R,o,s should read: R.o,s

Sec.6 Page 44
Paragraph D3 10 should read:
I 310 The following requirements are to be met:

~-
r~ 1,05 safety factor for concrete crushing
yield strength and tensile strength are to meet the
limit mean strain giving crushing of the concrete. requirements of Table C3 or C6 as relevant
1
I
~ Positive strain denotes tensile strain. the R. o,,IR,. ratio is not to exceed 0,95
I the elongation is to be minimum 15%
Charpy V -notch impact toughness is to be according to
Sec.6 Page 39 Table C3 and Table C4 or Table C6 as relevant
the hardness of weldments is to meet the requirements in
In paragraph C/03, ' .. testing is to performed ..'should read: C205 or C308 as relevant.
' .. testing is to be performed ..'
~
-. Sec.6 Page 39 Sec.6 Page 44

In paragraph C 104, 'Engineering Critical Assessment' Paragraph E/02 has been rewritten as follows:
should read: 'Engineering Criticality Assessment' I 02 Manufactures of linepipe are to provide records and
statistics from previous production to demonstrate that the
Sec.6 Page 40, 41 values required for SMYS will be below the mean minus two
standard deviations of the results obtained from the quantity
In Tables C3 and C6, the parameter R,o.s should read: R.o.s ordered. This applies to linepipes which shall fulfill the
additional requirements in Section 5 C205, C311 and C404.
Corresponding demonstrations are to be provided for that
Sec.6 Page 43 SMTS is below the mean minus three standard deviations for
linepipes which shall fulfill the additional requirements in
In paragraph D204, the last sentence has been rewrillen as Section 5 C205. Documentation is required in the form of
follows: records and statistics from the quantity delivered (see KI03).

The Charpy V -notch energy value in the transverse direction,


at the Minimum Design Temperature, is to be minimum 150
J average and with no single value less than 135 J. Sec.6 Page 45
Paragraph E405 has been rewrillen:
J Sec.6 Page 43
In paragraph D205, the second last sentence has been
405 Chemica/tests

rewritten as follows: Ladle analysis is to be performed once for each heat of steel.
] The Charpy V -notch energy value in the transverse direction,
at the Minimum Design Temperature, is not to be less than
113 J average and with no single value less than 101 J.
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Rules for Submarine Pipeline.ystems
Page 6 - Amendments and Corrections, May 1998

Sec.6 Page 47 Table E3 Welded linepipe- mechanical and corrosion


testing t)
Tables 2 and 3 have been amended as follows:
Pipe material
Type of test Location C-Mn Duplex Clod
Steel Steel Steel
Table E2 Seamless linepipe- mechanical and corrosion
testing > Tensile test Pipe body Q&P Q&P Q&P
Weldment Q&P Q&P Q&P
Type of test Pipe material Charpy V-notch test Pipe body Q&P Q&P Q&P
C-Mn Duplex Clad Weldment Q&P Q&P Q&P
steel Steel Steel Bend test Weldment Q&P Q&P Q&P
2
Tensile tests Q&P Q&P Q&P'> Hardness test > Pipe body Q&P Q&P Q&P
Weldment Q&P Q&P Q&P
Charpy V -notch test Q&P Q&P Q&P'>
Weldability tests'> Q Q Q Macro examination Weldment Q Q Q
Hardness tese> Q&P Q&P Q&P'> Metallographic Pipe body - Q&P Q&P
-
examination Weldment - Q&P Q&P
Metallographic
examination
4
Q&P Q&P
CTOD test'> Weldment Q&P - - 4lj
Pitting corrosion test } - Q&P Q&P Strain ageing test Pipe body Q&P - Q&P
Shear strength test 5 ) - - Q&P Weldability testing 4 ) Q Q Q
Additional testing for supplementary requirement, sour Pitting corrosion test 5> Pipe body - Q&P Q&P
service (S)
Weldment - Q&P Q&P
Shear strength test 6) Pipe body - - Q&P
Type oftest Pipe material
Additional testing for supplementary requirement,
C-Mn Duplex Clad
steel Steel Steel
sour service (S)

HIPC Test Q&P Q&P Q&P Pipe material I


sse test Q Q Q Type oftest Location C-Mn Duplex Clad _j
Steel Steel Steel
Additional testing for supplementary requirement,
fracture arrest properties (F) HIPC test Pipe body Q&P Q&P Q&P
sse test Pipe body Q Q Q
Type of test Pipe material Weldment Q Q Q
C-Mn Duplex Clad Additional testing for supplementary requirement,
steel Steel Steel
fracture arrest properties (F) _j
Charpy V -notch Q&P Q&P Q&P'>
transition curve test Pipe material
Strain ageing transition Q&P - Q&P'> Type oftest Location C-Mn Duplex Clad
curve test Steel Steel Steel
Drop weight tear test Q&P - Q&P'> Charpy V -notch Pipe body Q&P Q&P Q&P
transition curve test
Additional testing for supplementary requirement, pipe
for plastic deformation (P) Strain aging transition Pipe body Q&P - Q&P
curve test
Type of test (tests to be Pipe material Drop weight tear test Pipe body Q&P - Q&P
done on strained and
Additional testing for supplementary requirement, pipe
aged material)
C-Mn Duplex Clad for plastic deformation (P)
_,
steel Steel Steel
Type oftest (all tests Location Pipe material
Tensile test Q&P Q&P Q&P'> to be done on strained
C-Mn Duplex Clod
Charpy V -notch test Q&P Q&P Q&P') and aged material)
Steel Steel Steel
Notes
Tensile testing, base Pipe body Q&P Q&P Q&P
I) All testing is to be performed in accordance with the material I
requirements of Appendix B.
2) Test needs to be performed only if specified. Tensile testing, all Weldment Q&P Q&P Q&P -'I
weld metal
3) Acceptance criteria are different for sour and ordinary service.
4) See C309and C514. Charpy V-notch test Pipe body Q&P Q&P Q&P
5) For clad steel pipe only. Q&P Q&P Q&P
Weldment
6) Test of base material only. Hardness test Weldment Q&P Q&P Q&P

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DETNORSKE VERITAS
Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems
Amendments and Corrections, May 1998 - Page 7

Notes Sec.6 Page 49


1) All testing is to be performed in accordance with the
requirements of Appendix B The formula in paragraph EI I 03 has been amended to read:
2) Acceptance criteria are different for sour and ordinary
service.
t ~ ]
3) Test needs to be performed only if specified due to ECA p = -2.- MintSMYS 0,96;SMTS 0,84
requirement (see Sec.5 C205). D-t
u 4) Test needs to be performed only if specified.
5) See C308 and C514.
6) For clad/lined steel pipe only. Sec.6 Page 49

In paragraph EI I07. ' .. tests is at least ..' should read:' .. tests


Sec.6 Page 48 at least ..'

Paragraph 905 has been deleted, paragraph 906 has been


renumbered 905.
Sec.6 Page 50

In paragraph EI205, ' .. gauge at aminimum of ..' should


read: ' .. gauge at a minimum of ..'

L Sec.6 Page 50

iJ In Table 5 the line:

j Radial offset R JJ 6
tmmin ) at weld ;;::: tmin ?)

should be replaced by:


J)
1 at weld ~
6
Radial offset (HFW pipes) R trnmin ) fmin ?) -
J)
Radial offset (SAW pipes) R ~ 0,1 t, but maximum 2,0 mm -

Sec.6 Page 51
In Table E6the lith line should read:

Wall thickness, t ' 1 <: 15 mm 100% 21 1,0 mm JO%and


9)
tin min -t<+ 1,5mm
and the line:

Radial offset R 'I tmmin


6
) at weld ;::: tmin ?)

should be replaced by:


J)
Radial offset (HFW pipes) R tmmin )
6
at weld ~ lmin ?) -
J)
Radial offset (SAW pipes) R ~ 0,1 t, but maximum 2,0 mm -

Sec.6 Page 54
Sec. 7 Page 55
Paragraph KJOJ has been amended to read:
In paragraph A20!, the sixth entry in the list of standards
101 Linepipe,fi/lings and bends should read:

t Linepipe, fittings and bends are to be delivered with


Inspection Certificate 3.l.B according to European Standard
ASTM A370 Standard Test Methods and Defmitions for
Mechanical Testing of Steel Products.
EN I 0204 (Metallic Products - Types of Inspection

t Documents) or accepted equivalent, unless Sec.2 applies (see


Sec.! A I 02).

l DETNORSKE VERITAS

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Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems
Page 8 -Amendments and Corrections, May 1998

Sec, 7 Page 57 Appendix A Page 87

Paragraph D 101 has been amended to read: Table D1 has been rewritten as follows:

101 All base material, fittings and flanges, etc. are to be


delivered with Inspection Certificate 3.1.8 according to
Table Dl Load effects
European Standard EN I 0204 or accepted equivalent, unless
Sec.2 applies (see Sec.! A I 02). Loads
Installation
Functional Moment M, 400 kNm
Sec.8 Page 58 Environmental Moment ME 50 kNm
Functional Axial Load N, 400 kN
In paragraph A302, the first sentence has been amended to 30
Environmental Axial Load ME kNm
read:
Operation
302 For Risers carrying hot fluids of Category B, D and E Functional Moment M, 150 kNm
(Sec.3 C200), the need for a corrosion allowance to Environmental Moment ME 5 kNm
compensate for external corrosion in the Splash Zone (see
Functional Axial Load N, 15 kN
C 100) is to be evaluated.
Environmental Axial Load ME I kNm

Sec.9 Page 68 Appendix A Page 88


In paragraph C50/, the second sentence in the middle part The formula in paragraph 202 has been amended to read:
should read:

Vessels> 5000 t displacement: 2 I


p =--Min [SMYS-0,96;SMTS0,84 l
D-t
for operations < 500 m away from existing installations
and for tie-in operations: Class 3

and the second sentence in the last part should read: Appendix A Page 88
_,~
Vessels < 5000 t displacement: In paragraph 204, the formulae for hoop stress should
for operations < 500 m away from existing installations read:
and for tie-in, Riser installation operations: Class 2
(p~;- p,) - -
D-t
$ 'h l,ISMYS
-I
2t

Sec.9 Page 71
(p~;-
D-t
p,) - -
2t
$ 'J, l,ISMTS t-.1
In paragraph 301, 'Engineering Critical Assessment' should
read: 'Engineering Criticality Assessment'. and the formula for minimum wall thickness should read:

Sec.9 Page 79 D
11-08403
' '
Pt; -pe
2+1
+toorr
~~
i
tnom;?: l,l +tcorr+trab -J
0,8-4032+1 0,95
The second last sentence in paragraph 05 I 4 should read:
Pn -pe
The utilisation during Pressure Testing is to be according to i
Sec.5, C203 and C204. -I

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DETNORSKE VERITAS
Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems
Amendments and Corrections, May 1998- Page 9

Appendix A Page 90 For load combination a):

+[~] ,;
2
In paragraph 302, under sub-paragraph 'Interaction
calculation, collapse pressure', the formulae for should
read: 1,2-1,0-MF,, ]' I
[ M c,a .E._
1,19 1,19

and for load combination b):

[ I,II,OM~:.:I,3ME,,l
and under sub-paragraph 'interaction', the formulae for 2

buckling capacity checks should read:


+[pp':']' ,;I
1,19 1,19

Appendix A Page 93

Figure 5 should be replaced by thefollowingfigure:

20,00 , . - - - - , . . - - - - , . . - - - - . , - - - - - - - - . , - - - - - - - - - - - ,
19,00

18,00

. 17,00 ------------------

~

16.00
15,00 ------- -----=-=--~~--=--- --- --Safety Class
Hoh

14,00 -----t --- ____ Safety C~ss

~ 13,00
1 No<~l

!
12.00
11,00

10,00
-200 0 200 400 600 eoo 1000 1200
Water depth (m)

-~
Appendix A Page 94
Figure 8 should be replaced by the following figure:

l 20 ----------------------------------
_ .J Safety Class High ~
---------------~-----------

--1
19 Safety Class Normal ~-- - Safety Class High
-----,----- ---,-----

'l
18 --,
17 -------+~----~
--------
:::~::~~~~~-~~~~==~~-~,-=-~-~~~~
c
~
16
------- -:.;..---......-
--~----'-- - - - Buckti:lg- hsta!lation
0 15 1 ____ Bucklilg - OperatiOn
~
14 .... A"essure Containrrent
~ 13
--r-- -....... _,_
12

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11
10
-200 0 200 400 600 BOO 1000 1200

J Water depth (m)


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Page I 0 - Amendments and Corrections, May 1998

Appendix B Page 95 Appendix D Page 121

In paragraph A30/ the references should read: 303 to 305 In paragraph 8409 the list item '- demagnetisation' should be
deleted

Appendix B Page 96
Appendix D Page 122
The last sentence in paragraph A 70 I should read:
In paragraph C207, the sub-paragraphs a) and c) are
CTOD tests of base materials and girth welds are to be rewritten as follows:
perorrned with 8 x B surface notched specimens, and with a) Flat bottom holes oriented parallel to weld bevel
specimen oriented transversely to the weld axis. preparations for each bevel angle and in depths not more
than 4 mm apart for each side of the weld (girth welds
only).
Appendix C Page 103 c) Through thickness holes along weld centre line position.
In paragraph 8202, ' .. in welding Fabrication ..' should read:
' .. in welding and fabrication .. '.
Appendix D Page 122

Appendix C Page lOS


In paragraph C208, 'Engineering Critical Assessment' should
read: 'Engineering Criticality Assessment'.
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In paragraph D60/, ' .. supply condition, rolled forged or
cast.' should read: '.. supply condition, rolled, forged or
cast.'. Appendix D Page 122

The heading of item D200 should read: !


D 200 Acceptance criteria based on Engineering -I
Appendix C Page 107
Criticality Assessment (ECA)
In Table EI, note 7), 'Engineering Critical Assessment'
should read: "Engineering Criticality Assessment'.
Appendix D Page 124

Appendix C Page 108 In paragraph F403 the last sentence should read:

The residual magnetism is not to exceed 30 Gauss.


In Table 2, note 12), 'Engineering Critical Assessment'
should read: 'Engineering Criticality Assessment', and the
reference to F200 should read F309.
Appendix D Page 125

Appendix C Page 112 In paragraph F70!, sub-paragraph a) should read:


a) The whole weld and at least 10 mm of the entire wall
-
In paragraph F309, 'Engineering Critical Assessment' should thickness at both sides of the original weld preparation is
read: "Engineering Criticality Assessment'. to be covered by the testing.

i
Appendix C Page 113 Appendix D Page 125 i
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In paragraph F31! the parameter R, o,5 should read: R, o.5 In paragraph F703, 'ISO 10124' should read: ISO 12094

Appendix C Page 114

In paragraph G I 04 the term 'Design Temperature' should


read: 'Minimum Design Temperature'.

DETNORSKE VERITAS
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Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems
Amendments and Corrections, May 1998 - Page II

Appendix D Page 126

The fifth and eighth lines in Table HI should read:

Cap concavity/ Cap concavity: not permitted


root concavity
Root concavity: is to merge smoothly
into the base material and at no point is
the weld thickness to be less than t.
and
Lack of penetration/ Individual length s t, maximum 25 mm.
lack of fusion Accumulated length in any 300 mm
length of weld: :5: t, maximum 25 mm.

I respectively.

Appendix D Page 127

The sixth line in Table H2 should read:


Lack of penetration 1) Z) l) ?)

Root Length: t, maximum 25 t, maximum 25


Embedded 'l Length: 2 t maximum 50 2 t. maximum 50

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PREFACE
VERITAS has published Rules for offshore structures, off-
shore loading systems, process equipment. submarine pipeli-
nes etc., and is prepared to issue a Certificate of Approval for
such installations when found to be designed and constructed
in accordance with the appropriate Rules.

l The procedure for obtaining and retaining a Certificate of


Approval is defined in these Rules.

The purpose of the Rules is to'

Serve as basic philosophy and rule requirements when


applying for certification by VERITAS.
Recommend an international acceptable level of safety
J and reliability by defining minimum requirements re-
garding strength, serviceability and maintenance.
Serve as a technical reference document in contractual
matters between Owner and Contractor.
j The Rules open for a freedom in choice of technical solutions
to obtain an acceptable safety leveL More detailed description
of possible methods satisfying the Rule's requirements, are gi-
ven in the Appendices to the Rules. Other methods will be ac-
l cepted provided the same safety level is obtained.

In addition to the Rules and Appendices, VERITAS also is-


sues Technical Notes, which give further guidelines on speci-
fic problems related to the fulfilment of the Rule's require-
ments.

Where VERITAS is recognized as a Certifying Agent by Na-


I tional Authorities, the Rules may serve as a supplement to
any National Regulations which are mandatory.

Although the Rules, the Appendices and the Technical Notes.


are all prepared with VERITAS' Certificate of Approval in
mind, the publications may be used as guidelines for desig-
ners. owners and others not directly involved in the certifica-
tion process. Where parts of the Rules are copied or applied,
proper reference to the source should be made.

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5

CONTENTS
Section I 2.3.4 Waves.... .. ...................... 15
General regulations 2.3.5 Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ 15
2.3.6 Corrosivity . . . . . . . . . ............... 15
1.1 Symbols. ........... 9 2.3.7 Ice. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15
1.2 Technical terms. ... 10 2.3.8 Air and sea temperatures . . . . ....... 15
2.3.9 Marine growth . . . . . . .............. 15
1.3 Definitions. . . . . . I0
1.3.1 Pipeline system . .... ...... . . I0 2.4 Internal pipe conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15
2.4.1 Installation conditions ..................... 15
J 1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
Submarine pipeline .
Riser system . . . .
Pipeline riser . . . .
. ....... I 0
. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . I 0
. .................. ll
2.4.2
2.5
Operational conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Design temperature. . . . . ............. 16
1.3.5 External riser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I 2.5.1 General............ . .............. 16
1.3.6 Internal riser. . . . ......... II
J 1.3.7
1.3.8
Riser support. . . .
Piping components . . . . . . . . . .
. ............. I I
. ....... I I
2.5.2 Differentiated design temperatures ........... 16

1.3.9 Splash zone . . . . . . ......... I I Section 3


Submerged zone . . . ....... II
J 1.3.10
1.3 .II
1.3.12
Atmospheric zone.
Platform. .............
. ....... I I
. .... I I 3.1
Loads

Loading conditions and design conditions .. 17


1.3.13 Zone I. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. ..... II 3.1.1 General... . ............... . 17
I 1.3.14 Zone 2. . ...... II 3.1.2 Loading conditions .. 17
..i! 1.3.15 Surveillance. . . . . . . . . . .. . ... II 3. 1.3 Design conditions ....... . ..... 17
1.3.16 Inspection . . . . . . . ................ I I
1.3.17 To survey . . . . . . .. II 3.2 Functional loads ......................... 17
1.3.18 A survey . .. II 3.2.1 General . . . ............................ 17
J 1.3.19
1.3.20
Surveyor . . . . . .
Liquid hydrocarbons. .
. ... I I
. .......... I I
3.2.2
3.2 3
Functional
Functional
loads during operation ...........
loads during installation.. . ....
17
17
1.3 21 Gaseous hydrocarbons . . ........... I I 3.3 Environmental loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.3.22 Fluid .......... II
J I4
1.4.1
The Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .........
Application . . ... ..... ..
II
II
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
General .
Wind loads....
Hydrodynamic loads, general.
.. .. .. .
.. .. .. ..
..
.. .
.........
17
18
18
1.4.2 Amendments. . . . . ..... II 3.3.4 Wave loads. . ............. 18
335 Current loads . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
! 1.4.3
1.4.4
Alternative methods and procedures .........
Assumptions . . ..
II
II 3.3.6
3.3 7
Indirect environmental loads .
Ice loads
. .
..
19
19
1.5 Certificate of Approval . ... 12 3.3.8 Accidental loads . ...... 19
1.5.1 Issuance of the Certificate .. .. . 12
j 1.5.2
1.5.3
Recommendations.
Memoranda to Owner ..
....
. .............
12
12 Section 4
15.4 Withdrawal of Certificate. ........ 12 Strength and inplace stability

l 1.6
1.6.1
Concept evaluation ....
General .
....... 12
... 12 4I
4.1.1
General . .
Design analyses.
. .........
. ....
20
20
1.7 Instrumentation for monitoring of the 4.1.2 Design criteria. . .. 20
pipeline system . ... 12 4.1.3 Design conditions . . ... 20
l 1.71
1.8
General ..
Documentation ... ............ 13
... 12
4.2
4.2.1
Pipeline/ riser during operation
General . ..... ........ ...
.... 20
. ....... 20
1.8.1 Submission of documentation ........ "13 4.2.2 Yielding. ...... ........ . . 20

1 1.8.2
1.8.3
1.8.4
Design phase.
Fabrication phase .
Installation phase .
... 13
. . . . . . . . . . . . 13
... 13
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
Buckling
Fatigue.
On-bottom stability .
.......... .....
... 21
. .... 21
. .......... 22
1.8.5 Filing of documentation .. ... 13 4.2.6 Propagating ductile fractures ............... 23

1 4.2.7
4.2.8
4.3
Riser supports. .
Spans. . . . .........
Pipeline/risers during installation
. ... 23
. .... 23
....... 23
Section 2 4.3.1 General. . ...................... 23
l 2.1 General ...
Environment
... 14
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
Yielding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buckling
Fatigue.
. ... 23
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
. .... 24
2.1.1 Environmental phenomena ........ 14
2.1.2 Acceptable environmental data .......... 14 4.4 Piping components and accessories .......... 24
l 2.2
2.2.1
Pipeline route ..
Location ..
...........
.......
14
14
4.4.1 General ................................ 24

2.2 2 Route survey .. ........... 14 Section 5


l 2.2.3
2.2.4
Bottom topography .....
Seabed properties .
...........
.....
14
14
Material requirements for pipes and piping components

2.3 Environmental conditions ... 14 5.1 General . . . . . . . . ........... 25


2.3 I General .......... . ........ 14 5.1.1 Validity ................................ 25
L 2.3.2
2.3.3
Tide ... .
Wind ......... .
.........
........
14
14
S.1.2
5 .1.3
Selection of materials ..................... 25
Material specification ..................... 25
6

5.1.4 Docu_mentation and identification .... 25 6.6.5 Reinforcement. . . . .. _.. 3 3


6.6.6 Application and curing of concrete coating .... 34
5.2 Steel for line-pipes. . ... 25 6.6.7 Testing and inspection .......... 34
5.2.1 Steel making . . . ... 25
5.2 2 Supply condition. . ... 25
5.2.3 Heat treatment .... 25
Chemical composition. ............ . 25 Section 7
5.2.4
Fabrication of pipes and piping components
5.2.5 Mechanical testing ............ . 25
5.2.6 Tensile properties ................. 26
7I General . . ..... 35
5.2.7 Brittle fracture resistance . . . . . . . . . ... 26
7 .I. I Validity. . ..... 35
5.2.8 Resistance against propagating ductile fractures 26
5.2.9 Supplementary fracture toughness testing ..... 27 7.2 Pipe fabrication. . ......... 35
5.2.10 Resistance against hydrogen induced cracking 7.2 I General . . . . . ......... 35
in welded joints. . ............. 27 7.2.2 Fabrication procedure specification ... 35
5.2.11 Resistance against environmental induced 7 .2.3 Qualitification of welding operators. welders
blistering . . . . .......... 27 and arc- air gougers ..................... 3 5
5.2.12 Resistance against sulphide stress corrosion 7.2.4 Qualification of pipe fabrication procedure .... 35
cracking (SSC) . ........ . 27 7.2.5 Hydrostatic testing . . . ... 36
5.2.13 Resistance against chloride stress corrosion 7.2 6 Dimensions and workmanship. . . . . . ..... 3 7
cracking. . . . . . . . . . ............... 27 7.2.7 Visual examination and non-destructive testing 38
7.2.8 Production testing. . ... _. . . . . . . . . .... 38
5.3 Soundness .. ............. 27
7.2.9 Repairs .... 38
5.3.1
5.4
5.4.1
General . . . ......... .
Steel for piping components ..
General . . . . . . ...... .
. 27
.... 27
27
7.3
7.3.1
Fabrication of. piping components ........... 39
General .... 39
-1
7.3.2 Fabrication procedure specification . . ..... 39
5.5 Welding consumables. ........... . 27 7 33 Qualification of fabrication procedures .... _.. 39
5.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7 .3.4 Production testing. . .......... _. . ... 39
5.5.2 Chemical composition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 28 7.3.5 Repair welding of piping components ........ 3 9
5.5.3 Mechanical properties. . ............... 28
7.4 Post weld heat treatment . .......... 39
5.5.4 Handling and storage of welding consumables. 28 7 .4.1 General ... . ......... 39
5.6 Bolt assemblies . . ... 28
5.6.1 General . . ... 28
Section 8
5.7 Materials for support structures ............. 28 Installation
5.7.1 General . . .. 28
8.1 General ... . . 41
Section 6 8 1.1 Specifications. .......... 41
Corrosion protection and weight coating 8.2 Pipeline route .......... 41
8.2 I Route survey .. . . . 41
6.1 Corrosion protection. general. . ... 29 8.2.2 Seabed preparation .. . . . .... 41
6.1.1 Validity. . ... 29
6.1.2 Definitions.. . ... 29 8.3 Construction . . ..... __ . . . _... _..... 41
6.13 General requirements to corrosion protection 8.3.1 Qualification . 41
systems . . . 29 832 Handling and storing . . . 41
8.3.3 Installation operations. . ......... 41 I
6.2 External coating . ................ 29
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
General .
Coating materials .
Coating application ..
..............
................
. . . . . . . . . . . ...
29
29
30
83.4
8 3.5
8.4
Pipeline and cable crossings . . ..... 4 2
Buckle detection . . .................. _.. 42
Anchoring and protection of pipeline systems . 42
-1I
6.2.4 Field joint coating. ....... . .. 30 8 .4.1 General . . . ...... _.. 42
6.3 Cathodic protection. . ... 30 85 Installation welding . . . . . . . . . ........ 4 2 -!
6.3.1 General . . ........ . .... 30 8.5.1 General . . . . . . ............ _ ...... 4 2
6.3.2 Design of system. . ... 30 852 Welding procedure specification . . . . . . 42
6.3.3 Anode materials and fabrication .. 31 85.3 Qualification of the welding equipment and
6.3.4 Installation of anodes ... . . 31 welding procedure . . . ........ 4 2
6.3.5 Testing of system ... 31 85.4 Essential parameters for welding procedures .. 43
855 Qualification of welders and welding operators 43
6.4 Internal corrosion control. . . . . . . . . . . . ... 31 8.5.6 Welding and workmanship . . ..... _.. 43
6.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8 5.7 Production test . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 44
6.4.2 Internal corrosion control by inhibitors. . .. 32 85.8 Repair of field joints. . . . ........ 44
6.4.3 Internal corrosion control by coating . . . .. 32
6.4.4 Internal corrosion control by corrosion 86 Visual examination and non-destructive testing
resistant alloys .................... . . .. 32 of installation welds ...................... 45
6.4.5 Internal corrosion monitoring .. .. 32 8.6.1 General . . . . . . . . ........ 45
l
6.5
8 6.2 Visual examination. . . . . . ..... _.. 45
Protection of risers and pipelines in critical 8.6.3 Nondestructive testing. . ...... 45
~I
areas......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6.5.1 Splash zone protection ........... 32 8.7 Tieins - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.5.2 Protection of risers in 1-tubes, tunnels etc..... 33 8.7.1 General ................................ 45
6.5.3 Protection of risers in internal transition zones. 33 8.7.2 Mechanical connectors .................... 45
6.5.4
6.6
6.6.1
Pipeline shore-approach . . . . . . . ...........
Weight coating.... . . . .
General .......
. ............ 33
. ............. 33
33 8.7.3
8.7.4
88
Welded tie-in on the lay vessel ... , ......... 45
Tie-in by underwater welding . . . . __ ...... 45
Final surveys and tests ............... _.. __ 46
1]
6.6.2 Weight coating specification ................ 33 8.8.1 General ................................ 46
6.6.3
6.6.4
Concrete constituents . . . . ............. 33
Properties of concrete ..................... 33
8.8.2
8.8 .3
Survey of installed pipeline system .......... 46
Survey of corrosion protection system ....... 46 LJ
7

8.8.4 Pressure test . . . . . . . . . . . 46 10.6.1 Liquid penetrant procedure specification ...... 55


8.85 Buckle detection . . . . . .............. 4 7 10.6.2 Liquid penetrant procedure qualification ...... 56
886 Testing of alarm and shutdown systems ...... 47 I 0.6 .3 Qualifications of operators ................. 56
I 0.6.4 Production liquid penetrant testing .......... 56
I 0.6.5 Evaluation of welds and standards of
j Section 9
Operation and maintenance
acceptability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

9.1 General . . . . . .. ......... . .... 48 Appendix A


J 9.1.1
9 .1.2
Owner's duty. . . .. 48
Retension of Certificate of Approval ......... 48
A.!
Environmental loads

9.2 Operation and maintenance of the pipeline. Wind loads.............. . . . ... 63


system . . . .................. 48 A. I.! General . . . . . . . . . . . ............... 63
9.2 I Operation, inspection and maintenance manual 48 A.l.2 Static wind loads ......................... 63
9.2.2 Operation. . . . . . . . . . .. 48 A.l.3 Vortex shedding due to wind ............... 63
9.3 In-service inspection . . ......... 48 A.2 Vortex shedding due to current. . . . . . . . ... 63
A.2.1
J 9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
General . .
Start up inspection .
Periodical inspection. .
. ... 48
. .................. 48
. ............... 48
A.2.2
A2.3
General . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cross-flow oscillations
. ..... 63
In-line oscillations ........................ 64
.............. 64
9.3.4 Frequency of periodical inspection. . . . . . 48 A.3 Recommended values of hydrodynamic
l 9.3.5
9.3.6
93 7
Extent of periodical inspection - pipeline .... 48
Extent of periodical inspection - riser ....... 49
Special inspection . . . . . . . . . . ............. 49
A.3.1
A.3.2
coefficients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General ................................ 64
Added mass coefficient. .
. .. 64

. . . . . . . . . . .. 64
9.4 Repairs . . . . . . .............. 49 A.3.3 Drag coefficient. . . . . ............... 64
9.4.1 General ................... 49 A.3.4 Lift coefficient. . . . . . ............... 64
9.4.2 Grooves, gouges and notches. . ........ 49 A.4 Wave slamming .... .... 64
9.4.3 Dents. . . . .. 49 A.4.1 Wave slamming loads ..... 64
9.4.4 Leaks..... . . . . . . . .................. 49 A.4.2 Fatigue due to wave slamming ............. 65
1 9.4.5
9.4.6
Repair by welding
Temporary repairs
................... 49
................... 50
Appendix B
Buckling calculations
1 Section 10
Non-destructive testing B.! Local buckling. . . . . . .......... 68
10.1 General .... ............... 51 B.2 Propagation buckling ................. 68
10.1.1 Selection of method .. 51 B.3 Buckling of the pipe as a haP> ...... 69
10.2 Radiographic examination of welds .......... 51
I 0.2 I Radiographic procedure specification. . 51
I 0.2.2 Appendix C
1 I 0.2.3
I 0.2.4
Radiographic procedure qualification.
Qualification of radiographers .
Production radiography ................... 52
. .. 51
. ... 52 Quality control of materials.
Qualification of welding procedures and welding per-
sonnel
10.2.5 Evaluation of welds and standards of
acceptability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
1 103 Ultrasonic examination of welds with
stationary equipment . . .................. 52
C. I
C. I.!
C.l.2
General ................................ 70
Scope...
Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 70
. 70
10.3.1 Equipment. . . .. 52 C.l.3 Testing equipment. ....................... 70
1 10.3.2
10.33
103.4
Ultrasonic procedure specification .
Ultrasonic procedure qualification ........... 52
Calibration of equipment . . .
. ... 52

. . . . . . . . . . . 52
C.2
C.2.1
S tee! making .
General ........................ .
. 70
. 70
10.3.5 Qualifications of operators . . .... 52 C.3 Steel casting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 70

l 103.6
I 0.3.7
Production ultrasonic examination .......... 52
Evaluation of welds and standards of
acceptability. ..... .... . . 52
C.3.1
C.4
General . . . ....................... 70
Chemical analyses ........................ 70
C.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
I 0.4 Ultrasonic examination of welds with
L 10.41
I 0.4.2
portable equipment.
Equipment.
. .................. 52
. .........
Ultrasonic procedure specification ........... 53
. . 52
C.5
C.5.1
Heat treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 70
General.... . ...................... 70
C.6 Surface defects in base material . . . 70
10.43 Ultrasonic procedure qualification ........... 53 C.6.1 General ................................ 70
1 I 0.4.4
I 0.4.5
10.4.6
Calibration of equipment . . . . . . . . . .
Qualifications of operators .
Production ultrasonic examination
. 53
. ......... 53
... 53
C.7
C.7.1
Mechanical testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
General .......... .. ..... . 71
10.4.7 Evaluation of welds and standards of C. 7.2 Tensile testing ........................... 71.

L 10.5
acceptability. . . . .... ...
Magnetic particle examination of welds . 55
55 C. 7.3
C.7.4
C. 7.5
Bend testing. .
Nick break testing...............
Charpy Vnotch impact testing ............. 71
. 71
. ..... 71

10.5.1 Magnetic particle procedure specification . 55 C.7 .6 Macrosection of welded joints . . ....... 71

t 10.5.2
10.5.3
10.5.4
10.5.5
Magnetic particle procedure qualification ..... 55
Qualifications of operators ................. 55
Production magnetic partjcle testing .. 55
C. 7. 7
C. 7.8
C.8
Hardness testing of welded joints ............ 71
Strain ageing testing ...................... 71
Sampling of test specimens. . . . . ..... 72
Evaluation of welds and standards of C.8.1 Seamless pipes ........................... 72
acceptability. ........ 55
l 10.6 Liquid penetrant examination of welds. . 55
C.8.2
C.8 .3
Welded pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 72
Cold formed or forged bends ............... 72

I
8

C.8.4 Forged seamless piping components other 0.1.3 Current demands ..................... 82
than bends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 72 0.1.4 Anode materials . . . .................. 83
C.8.5 Cast piping components . . . ............... 7 2 0.1.5 Current output capacity of anodes. . . .. 84
D.l.6 Calculation of anode life. .. ...... . 84
C.9 Welding procedure qualification ..... 72
D.l.7 Current distribution . . . . 84
C.9.1 General ....... . . 72
D 1.8 Fabrication of anodes ..................... 84
C.lO Qualification of welding personnel ..... 72
0.2 Standards for coating . . . . . . . . . . . .... 84
C.lO.l General . .. ... ...... . 72
D2.1 General . ....... . .. 84
C.l0.2 Test welding . . . . . . . .. . . . . .............. 7 3
C.l 0.3Inspection and testing of qualification test welds 73
02.2 Acceptable standards for coating properties
and test methods referring to generic type .... 84
C.l0.4 Welder qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 73
D.2.3 Application and inspection of coatings.
C.l 0.5Welding operator qualification for
general standards . . . . . . . . ............. 85
mechanized welding . . ............... 7 3
C.l0.6 Qualification of welding personnel for
underwater welding ...................... 7 3
Appendix E
C.l0.7 Extraordinary requalification of welding
personnel ............................... 74 Pressure testing of pipelines and pipeline sections

E.l General .............. 87


E2 Pressure test method no. I .... ......... 87
Appendix D
E.3 Pressure test method no. 2 . ........... 87
Guidelines on corrosion control
E.4 Acceptance criteria .. ..... 87
D.l Design of cathodic protection systems ........ 82
D.l.l E5 Witnessing. . . ........... .. 88
General ........ . 82
0.1.2 Design basis . . . . . . . . . . . ............ 82 E.6 Hydrostatic test report . ... 88


I
9

SECTION 1
GENERAL REGULATIONS
1.1 Symbols (n). = permissible value of ni
p pressure, difference between two absolute pres-
A = cross sectional area of pipe, also:
A exposed area of anode sures, external over-pressure
a = parameter used in wave analyses. (Defined in Fig. Pe~ = critical external over-pressure
I A2), alsoo p, external pressure
j a acceleration P; = internal pressure
a, = relative acceleration Pp, = propagation pressure
initiation pressure
B
B
= buoyant force per unit length of pipe, also:
width of reference block ~1->= frequency distribution of average apparent wave
i b, parameter used in wave analyses. (Given in Table periods
AI) Q = shear force nominal to pipe axis, also:
c = shape (drag) coefficient used in wind force formula Q ~ probability level
q ~ lateral force per unit length of pipe
J Co
CL
em
=
=
=
drag coefficient
lift coefficient
added mass coefficient
qw
R
=wind force per unit length of pipe
reduction factor on number of waves
c, = slamming coefficient R, Reynold's number
r = reference value of n
l d
d
D
water depth, alsoo
diameter
nominal outside diameter of pipe
s
s
= safety factor in on-bottom stability analysis, also:
= Strouhal's number
D, total outside diameter of pipe (including coating) SM = Miner's sum
E modulus of elasticity, also: (SM)p = permissible value ofMiner's sum
1 E
Fh
= consumption rate of anode
total horizontal (lateral) force per unit length of a pi-
T
s
T
number of stress blocks
= thickness of reference block, also:
= average zero-upcrossing period
pe due to dtag and inertia
Fo drag force TI = pipe material temperature at time of installation
l FL
Fm
~ lift force
mass (inertial force
T,
T,
pipe material temperature under considered condi-
tion
= visuab) wave period
F, = wave slamming force
fv = total vertical force per unit length of a pipe due to t nominal wall thickness of pipe
l f
drag and inertia
coefficient of friction, also:
u
u
u
= flow velocity for anodes
= utilization factor, also:
liquid particle velocity no mal to pipe axis
f vortex shedding frequency
f, natural frequency for cross-flow excitation lui absolute (positive) value of u
l f;
H
natural frequency for inline excitation
clearance between pipe and flxed boundary, also:
u, current velocity
u, = resulting design>) velocity due to wave and current
Um = maximum orbital particle velocity
H wave height
HIIJ = significant wave height Uw = particle velocity due to design)) wave
1 H,
Hn ~
visual wave height))
the most probable largest wave height out of I 0"
v flow velocity for anodes
v, = relative water particle velocity
component of wind velocity normal to pipe axis
waves encountered v"
H, reference value ofHn, i.e. for n = r w weight per unit length of pipe in air, including pipe

1 I
K
mean current requirement per anode
diameter factor, also:
contents and water absorbed by the coating, also:
= section modulus of pipe cross section, also:
= net weight of anodes
K slope of the S-N curve
Kc Keulegan-Carpenter number = longitudinal position of a point on a pipe

1 K,
k
kl
=
~
stability parameter
roughness
parameter in wave analyses(Table AI)
= circumferential position of a point on a pipe, also:
mode shape
= linear coefficient of thermal expansion, also:
k, temperature derating factor symbol used in buckling formula .

L L
L
I
~
=
length of reference block, also'
effective life of anode
suspended length, span width
:::: logarithmic decrement of structural dampmg
usage factor
usage factor for equivalent stress
M = bending moment in pipe = usage factor for hoop stress

l M"
Mr
m
critical bending moment
torsional moment in pipe
parameter used in wave analyses. (Defined in Fig.
= permissible usage factor
= permissible usage factor when axis acting alone
= permissible usage factor when ayis ac~ing alo~e
A.2) = angular position of a point on a p1pe relattve to a
defined radius 0 ~ 0
l m,
N
N
=
=
=
effective mass per unit length of pipe
axial force in a pipe, also:
number of years in a probability consideration
y
v
mode shape parameter
= Poisson's ratio, also:
= critical axial force in a pipe . v = kinematic viscocity of a liquid
N"
L N,
N;
=

~
equivalent)) axial force in a pipe subjected to mter-
nal and/ or external pressure
number of constant amplitude stress cycl"'! ((a)) to
= mass density, also:
~ resistivity
= element stress due to net buoyancy force
failure = critical one dimensional compressive stress for com-
pletely elastic buckling (a,E or ayE)
L N;
n
critical number of stress cycles
exponent when number of waves is expressed as a
power of 10 .
= equivalent stress according to von Mises
= permissible equivalent stress
n; actual number of stress cycles of a given stress ran- ~ specified (nominail yield strength
= stress range
~
ge (a);
n; = number of waves within blockj stress range for stress block)) no i
10 J
Gw = element stress due to vertical wave force Maximum operating pressure = maximum pressure to
Gslam element stress due to net buoyancy force which a piping system will be subjected in operation. which
u, = longitudinal stress should include static pressure and pressure required to over-
Gxcr critical longitudinal (compressive) stress come friction.
G~ longitudinal stress due to pipe bending, defined as
M/W Surge pressure = total pressure caused by a change in ve-
longitudinal stress due to axial force = N I A locity of flow within a pipeline system.
G~
G~r = critical ax when M is acting alone Test pressure = pressure specified to be applied to a vessel.
a ~cr = critical ax when N is acting alone pipe, component, etc . on completion of manufacture and/ or
G >P = permissible ax on completion of construction. It may also be the pressure
G~ longitudinal stress due to shell bending specified to be applied to a vessel, etc., after appropriate per-
Gy = hoop stress iods in operation.
0 ycr = critical compressive hoop stress
Gyp = permissible hoop stress (in tension) Strength test pressure = pressure of a higher magnitude than
GyE critical compressive hoop stress for completely elast- test pressure and with short duration.
ic buckling when ay is acting alone
Leak test pressure = pressure normally of a lower magni-
= tangential shear stress
tude than test pressure and with at least the same duration.
radial shear stress
Minimum design temperature = lowest possible steady state
temperature which the pipeline system experiences during
1.2 Technical terms installation and operation. Enviionmental as well as opera-
tional temperatures are to be considered.
_J
Longitudinal stress normal stress acting parallel to pipe
axis. Maximum design temperature = highest possible steady state
temperature which the pipeline system may be exposed to
Hoop stress = normal stress acting in the circumferential di- during installation and operation. Environmental as well as
_J
rection. operational temperatures are to be considered.

Tangential shear stress = shear stress which in a cross sec- Restrained lines = pipelines which cannot expand or con-
tion of the pipe acts m the tangential (circumferentiaO direc- tract in the longitudinal direction due to fixed supports or
tion. friction between pipe and soil.

Radial shear stress = shear stress which in a cross section of Understrained fines = pipelines without substential axial res-
the pipe acts in the radial direction. traint (Maximum one fixed support and no substential fric-
tion!.
Pipe bending moment ::: bending moment (M) in the pipe
cross section as a whole. Suspended length ::::: length of a pipeline without contact
with the sea bottom or other supports ( = unsupported
Shell bending moment = bending moment (mxor my) in the iengthl.
pipe wall per unit length.
Laying parameters == essential parameters affecting the stres-
Pipe bending stresseS = longitudinal stresses due to pipe ses in a pipeline during laying. such as applied tension. stin-
bending moment. ger curvature. etc.

Shell bending stresses stresses due to shell bending mo- Nominal wall thickness the pipe wall thickness that is spe-
ment. cified for supply of pipes.

Longitudinal shell bending stresses = longitudinal stresses Nominal pipe diameter = the outside pipe diameter to be us-
(ax b) due to longitudinal shell bending moment (m,.). ed in the design calculation.

Hoop bending stresses = hoop stresses (a/) due to circum-


ferential shell bending moment (hoop bending moment -
m,).
1.3 Definitions
Direct stresses = stresses of which the resultant acts in the
middle surface of the pipe wall ( = membrane stresses).

~I
1.3.1 Pipeline system
Internal pressure = pressure inside the pipe. May be given as By a pipeline system is meant an interconnected system of
absolute pressure or gauge pressure. submarine pipelines. pipeline risers, their supports. all in-
tegrated piping components. the corrosion protection system
External pressure = ptessure (immediately) outside the pipe. and weight coating.
May be given as absolute pressure or gauge pressure.
1.3.2 Submarine pipeline
~I
Overpressure = difference between two absolute pressures.
A submarine pipeline, later referred to as pipeline, is defined
as that part of a pipeline which is located below the water
Initiation pressure ::: external overpressure required to initi-
surface at maximum tide, except pipeline risers (see I .3 .4).
ate a propagating buckle from an existing local buckle or
The pipeline may, wholly ur in part be suspended above the
dent.
sea floor, rest on the sea floor or be buried below the sea
Propagation pressure = external overpressure required to
propagate a buckle that has been initiated ( at a higher pres-
floor.

1.3.3 Riser system


li
sure).
By riser system is meant the riser. its supports, all integrated
Design pressure = maximum internal operating pressure. piping components and corrosion protection system.
II

1.3.4 Pipeline riser 1.3.17 To survey


A pipeline riser. later referred to as riser, is defined as the By to survey is normally meant to carry out surveillance on
connecting piping or flexible hose between a submarine pi- behalf of Veritas.
peline on the sea floor and the processing equipment on a
platform. Exact points of riser termination are to be agreed 1.3.18 A survey
upon in each case. By a survey is meant the general inspection carried out by the
Owner. by his contractor or by Veritas.
1.3.5 External riser
By external risers is meant risers which are mounted in such 1.3.19 Surveyor
a way that no effective shelter against the action of wind. wa- By a Surveyor is meant a person carrying out surveillance on
ves, and currents is provided. behalf of Veritas.

1.3.6 Internal riser 1.3.20 Liquid hydrocarbons


By internal risers is meant risers which are effectively shelter- By liquid hydrocarbons is meant crude oiL condensate, natu
ed against the action of wind, waves and currents. ral gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, pet-
roleum products and their fractions in their liquid phase.
1.3.7 Riser support
By riser supports is meant structures intended for fixing the 1.3.21 Gaseous hydrocarbons
riser to the platform or for local or continuous guidance of By gaseous hydrocarbons is meant hydrocarbons in a vapor
the riser. phase from wells drilled for the purpose of producing liquid
hydrocarbons or natural gas.
1.3.8 Piping components
By piping components is meant items integrated in the pipeli 1.3.22 Fluid
ne/ riser such as flanges. tees, bends, reducers and valves. By fluid is meant a gas, liquid or slurry that is transported
through the pipeline system.
1.3.9 Splash zone
By the splash zone range is meant the astronomical tidal ran
ge plus the wave height having a probability of exceedance of 1.4 The Rules
0.01. The upper limit of the splash zone is determined by as
suming 65% of this wave height above HAT and the lower 1.4.1 Application
limit by assuming 35% below LAT.
1.4 .\.1 These Rules apply to submarine pipeline systems as
defined in 1.3 .I intended for the transportation or transporting
1.3.10 Submerged zone liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons as defined in 1.3.20 and
By the submerged zone is meant the region below the splash \.3.21. The Rules may also be applied. wholly or in part. to
zone including sea water, sea bottom, and buried or mud zo pipeline systems carrying other products. This is to be decided
ne. by Veritas in each separate case.

1.3.11 Atmospheric zone 1.4.2 Amendments


By the atmospheric zone is meant the region above the splash 1.4.2.1 Amendments to the Rules may be undertaken at
zone. any time and may also be applicable for pipelines or risers
which have already been approved by Veritas.
1.3.12 Platform
By a platform is meant a fixed or permanently anchored off Unless otherwise decided, the amendments are to come into
shore installation onto which the riser is mounted. force 6 months after the date of issurance.

1.3.13 Zone I 1.4.2.2 Application of amendments to pipelines or risers al-


ready approved, or in the process of approval. will be limited
By Zone I is meant the part of the seabed located more than to cases where it is judged essential to the structural integrity.
a certain distance away from any platform or building, nor If amended requirements to construction. materials, dimensi-
mally to be taken as 500 m. ons. etc. are to be made applicable to pipelines or risers al-
ready approved, necessitating re-analysis and re-evaluation of
1.3.14 Zone 2 strength requirements, this will be clearly stated in the
By Zone 2 is meant the part of the seabed located close to any amendments.
platform or building, and normally to be taken as a distance
ofSOO m. ].4.3 Alternative methods and procedures
1.4.3.1 Veritas is prepared to consider alternative methods
1.3.15 Surveillance and procedures found to represent overall safety and strength
By surveillance is meant the work carried out by Veritas in standards equivalent to those of the Rules.
order to assure that the pipeline or riser is built and operated
in accordance with the Rules. This work comprises approval 1.4.4 Assumptions
of drawings, procedures and specifications and inspection 1.4.4.1 These Rules are based on the assumption that pipe-
and control during prefabrication and installation. It also in line or riser in question is designed. constructed and oper:1ted
eludes the work carried out by Veritas in order to assure that by adequately skilled personel according to sound engineer-
the inservice inspection and maintenance are carried out ac ing practice.
cording to these Rules. This surveillance is not meant to re
place the quality control program of the contractor/ operator. 1.4.4.2 The Owner and or his contractors are to establish
and implement a detailed, independent quality control system
1.3.16 Inspection covering all phases involved by the Certification. The quality
By inspection is meant the quality control carried out by the control functions are to be directed and performed by compe-
Owner or his contractors. tent persons.

L
12

1.4.4.3 It is assumed in these Rules that external risers on 1.5.4 Withdrawal of Certificate
platforms and similar structures are adequately protected
from impacts from vessels and similar accidental mechanical 1.5.4.1 Veritas reserves the right to withdraw the Certificate
influence. Hence it is assumed that the protecting structure, of Approval if the Owner fails to comply with the directives of
and not the riser, is designed for such loads. operating the system within the specified limits.

1.5.4.2 Withdrawal may also take place when the Owner


fails to carry out regular in-service inspection and mainten-
1.5 Certificate of Compliance ance according to the specifications for such inspection and
maintenance. Such work is to be surveyed by Veritas, see
1.5.1 Issuance of the Certificate Section 9.
1.5.1.1 Upon request Veritas is prepared to issue a Certifi-
cate of Compliance for pipeline systems when found to be de- I .5 .4 .3 Any of the events mentioned below may lead to
signed and constructed in accordance with these Rules. withdrawal:
The pipeline system is damaged, or is suspected of having
1.5 .I .2 The client requesting certification is to: been damaged, in a manner likely to impair its safety,
submit required documentation with complete and correct strength or stability.
information of significance for certification, see I .8 .I . The pipeline system demonstrates signs of deterioration
pay all expenses which arise in connection with the sub- likely to impair its safety, strength or stability.
mitted request. The pipeline system is subjected to any alteration, repair
or replacement which will impair the operational safety.
1.5 .1.3 The Certificate of Compliance will be issued after
Veritas' consideration of all relevant documents and declara- 1.5.4.4 The withdrawal may be made conditional. in that it
tions of survey concerning the pipeline system in question. will be executed only if the Owner has failed to carry out his
The Certificate will contain: obligations within a stipulated time period.
a description of the pipeline system and its function.
a specification of the operational limitations for the pipeli- 1.5.4.5 If the situation leading to withdrawal of the Certifi-
ne system. cate of Compliance no longer exists. the Certificate may be
a specification of the geographical location of the pipeline reinstated. As a condition hereto, Veritas can requ1re that the
system. pipeline system will be subjected to certain specified surveys
a statement that the pipeline system is designed and con- tests or imrrovements.
structed in accordance with these Rules and under the sur-
veillance of Veritas.

1.5 .1.4 Individual Statement of Compliance may upon re- 1.6 Concept evaluation
quest be issued for design, fabrication, installation or testing.
1.6.1 General
1.5.2 Recommendations
I .6 .I .I Prior to the detailed design. the overall concept of
1.5 .2 .I On matters considered to represent a possible safety the pipeline system is to be checked in order to identify pos-
hazard Veritas will issue separate recommendations. sible weak points or unacceptable designs. This applies to
such as:
1.5.2.2 Recommendations may be issued to the effect that selection of pipeline route and protection methods
specified actions (e.g. repairs) or specified surveys are to be location and protection of riser
Carried out within specified time limits. Recommendations location and protection of landfall
may also be given regarding reduction of permissible loading. possibilities for pigging. inspection and monitoring of the
pipeline
1.5 .2 .3 Once a recommendation is formally issued the validi- choice of Codes.
ty of the Certificate of Compliance is conditional upon com-
pletion of the required work before the expiry date. The Ow- 1.6.1.2 Accidental situations should be taken into account
ner is expected to take the necessary steps to fulfil the condi- in the detailed design.
tion without further action from Veritas. Should circumstan-
ces occur that make the fulfilment of the recommendation im- 1.6 .1.3 Special attention should be paid to protection of and
practical before the expiry date. or that requires the recom- to the possibilities for inspection and maintenance of gas ri-
mendation to be altered, the Owner's request for a change of sers inside waterfilled or closed compartments, and to gas li-
extention of the recommendation should be made in good nes near platforms and populated areas.
time before the expiry date.
1.6.1.4 For systems that involve new technology it may be
1.5.2.4 The Owner should notify Veritas when a recom- recommended to carry out an overall safety analysis.
mendation has been completed so that a completion survey
may be carried out before expiry of the time limit.
1.7 Instrumentation for monitoring of the pipeline system
1.5.2.5 Updated lists of recommendations will be forward- condition
ed regularly to the Owner and to the Surveyor carrying out
the surveillance. I. 7 .I General

1.5.3 Memoranda for Owners


I .5 .3. I Memoranda for Owners are information to the Ow-
1.7 .) .I By instrumentation is meant special devices for ob-
servation and monitoring of the loading, response and condi- 1
tions of the pipeline system during fabrication, installation or
ners regarding observed damage, deterioration or other sig- operation.
nific.ant change in a structure which does not justify the issu-
ance of a recommendation at the present time. I .7 .1.2 Instrumentation may be required when visual in-
spection or simple measurements are not considered practica-
1.5.3.2 Updated lists of these memoranda will be forward- ble or reliable, and available design methods and previous ex-
ed regularly to the Owner and to the Surveyor carrying out
the surveillance.
perience are not sufficient for a reliable prediction of the per-
formance of the pipeline system. L
13

1.8 Documentation 1.8.2.6 Materials and fabrication of pipes and components.


The following is to be submitted for approval'
1.8.1 Submission of documentation Material specifications for pipes, piping components, sup-
I .8 .1.1 This section outlines the documentation required in ports, bolts, nuts and welding consumable.
order to obtain a Certificate of Compliance. Detailed require- Fabrication specification of pipes, piping components and
ments to the documentation is described in the respective main supports.
sections.
1.8.2.7 Corrosion protection. The following information is
1.8 .1.2 Documentation essential for the understanding of to be submitted for approval'
the pipeline system and necessary to prove its safety is to be Specification for coating and coating application, includ-
submitted Veritas. ing field joint coating
Specification for anodes
1.8.2 Design phase Specification of cathodic protection system including de-
I .8 .2 .I The Owner is normally to submit to Veritas the de- sign calculations
sign documentation before fabrication and installation com- Description of anode location
mence. Drawing of anode, including rebar and earthing connec~
tion
1.8.2.2 Concept evaluation. The following is to be submitt- Specification for protection of risers and pipelines in criti-
ed for iriformation: cal areas such as in splash zone, J-tubes, tunnels.
Water depth along the pipeline route Specification for internal corrosion control.
Pipe dimensions
Fluid to be transported 1.8.2.8 Construction. The following information is to be
Design life submitted prior to start of construction.
Maximum and minimum design temperature Construction procedure specifications including installa-
Design pressure tion, tie-ins and protection
Project schedules Description of construction vessels and equipment
Plans for known future developments along the pipeline Specification for installation welding
route Description of quality control system including specifica-
Type and grade of material tion for non~destructive testing
Corrosion protection system Specification for final surveys and tests

The following is to be submitted for approval: 1.8.3 Fabrication phase


Overall drawing(s) showing location of the pipelines rela- 1.8.3 .I During and/ or after fabrication the following doc-
tive to platforms. buildings. populated areas, ship lanes umentation is to be submitted:
and harbours and other items or activities essential for Material certificates for pipes, piping components. riser
the safety of the pipeline. supports and anodes
Platform layout with risers. riser protection system, cra- Fabrication procedure qualification report including
nes, living quarters, boat landing area as well as rescue welding procedure qualification record
area clearly marked. Qualification record for welders and welding operators
1.8.2.3 Environment. The following is to be presented for Hydrostatic testing reports
information and evaluation: Production test records (visual. NOT, dimensional)
Soil properties relevant for foundation evaluation Reports on coating
Bottom topography
\V ind and wave conditions 1.8.3.2 Material test certificates for pressurized parts are
Current and tide conditions normally to be endorsed by Veritas.
l'v1aximum and minimum seawater and air temperatures
Corrosivity 1.8.4 Installation phase
Ice conditions I .8 .4 .1 During and/ or after construction the following doc-
Seismic activity umentation is to be submitted:
Marine growth As-laid alignment sheets
As-built drawings of special pipeline geometries such as
1.8.2.4 Loads. The following is to be presented for in- expansion loops and crossings
formation: As-built drawings of riser systems
- Any loads during fabrication, installation and operation As-built isometric drawings of risers showing the location
which may govern the design. of each item and weld and with reference to their item/
The following is to be presented for approval: heat/ number/ certificate and heat treatment report num-
- Calculation of functional loads ber if relevant
- Calculation of environmental loads Non-destructive testing records
As-built drawings of non-standardized piping compo-
1.8.2.5 Strength and inplace stability. The following is to be nents such as tees and reducers
submitted for approval: Post weld heat treatment report
Structural drawings of risers and riser supports. Dimensional control report if relevant
Structural drawings of special pipeline geometries such as Final inspection report
expansion loops. crossings and laterals. Hydrostatic test report
Structural drawings of non-standardized piping compo- Report on pigging and drying (if relevant)
nents such as tees, reducers. connectors etc. Report on performance of the cathodic protection system
On bottom stability analysis. Report on trenching/ protection
Structural analysis, including control against excessive
yielding, fatigue failure, propagating ductile fracture and 1.8.5 Flllng of documentation
brittle fracture as applicable.
Structural stability analysis, including control against 1.8.5.1 It is the Owner's responsibility to keep complete fi-
buckling and excessive displacements. les on all relevant documentation during the life of the pipeli-
Dynamic analysis, including vibration analysis, if rel- ne system. Documentation to be filed is at least as defined in
evant. I .8 .2- I .8 .4. The file should include the necessary reports
Foundation analysis. including sea bottom stability. from operation, in-service inspection and maintenance.
14

SECTION 2
ENVIRONMENT
2.1 General 2.2.2.5 The intended pipeline route is to be surveyed for
wrecks and obstructions down to a depth exceeding that
2.1.1 Environmental phenomena reached by the pipeline during installation. burial or opera
tion.
2.1.1 .I All environmental phenomena which may impair
the proper function of the system or cause a reduction of the
2.2.2.6 The results of the survey are to be presented in an
system reliability are to be considered. Such phenomena in-
accurate route map indicating the location of the pipeline and
clude wind, waves, currents, ice, seismic, geological. and geo-
related facilities and the seabed properties. See 2.2.4.
technical conditions, temperature, fouling, biological activit-
ies, chemical components of water, and transported fluid etc.
2.2.3 Bottom topography
2.1.2 Acceptable environmental data 2 .2 .J. I All topographical features influencing the stability
2.1.2.1 The environmental conditions arc to be described and installation of the pipeline are to be covered by the route
using adequate data for the areas in which the system is to be survey. The survey is at least to define:
installed. obstructions in the form of rock outcrops. large boulders
etc. that could require levelling or removal operations
2.1.2.2 Data supplied by generally recognized consultants prior to pipeline installation
will normally be accepted as a basis for design. Background topographical features that contains potentially unstable
information on data collection and derivation is to be sub- slopes. sand waves. deep valleys and erosion in form of
mitted on Veritas' request. scour patterns or material deposits.

2. I .2.3 The various environmental factors are to be describ- 1.2.4 Seabed properties
ed by characteristic parameters based on statistical data or 2 .2 .4 .I All the geotechnical properties necessary for
long term observations. If sufficient data directly applicable evaluating the effects of relevant loading conditions are to be
for location in question are not available. reasonably conserv- determined for the subtloor deposits. This should include
ative estimates based on relevant data for other relevant loca- possihle unst<.lb!e depo:-,its in the vicinity of the pipeline.
tions may be used.
2.2.4.2 The geotechnical properties may be obtained
2 .I .2 .4
Statistical data are to be utilized in describing en- through a combination of seismic survey. coring. in situ tests
vironmental parameters of a random nature (e.g. waves. and borings with sampling.
wind). Proper care is to be exercised in deriving such par-
ameters in a statistically valid manner. and generally accepted Supplementary informations may be obtained from geologi-
methods are to be used. cal ~llrVe)'S. sea bottom topographical surveys. \isual sur-
veys. biological investigations, chemical examinations and la-
boratory testing on samples from borings.

2.2 Pipeline route Guidelines for site and laboratory testing may be found in
Veritas Technical Note TNA 302.
2.2.1 Location
2.2.4J Special investigations of the subtloor deposits ma\
2.2.1 .I The route should be selected with due regard to the be required to evaluate specific problems. Examples of such
probability of darnagcs to the pipe and the consequences of a problems arc:
possible pipe rupture. Factor~ to take into consideration are: ease of excavation and/ or burial operations.
population density possibilities of flow slides or liquefaction as the result of
location of living quarters repeated loadings.
ship traffic
I
fishing activity ......1
offshore operations 2.3 Environmental conditions
unstable seabed
corrosivity of the environment 2.3.1 General
Known future operations in the vicinity of the route is to be
taken into consideration. 2.3 I .I Possible effects of the various environmental actions
arc to be taken into account to the extent relevant to the si-
2.2.2 Route suney tuation considered.
2.2 .2 .I A detailed route survey is to be performed to pro-
vide sufficient data for design and construction.
2.3.2 Tide
J
2.3.2.1 rides are to be taken inlo consideration \Vhen the
2.2 .2 .2 The route survey is to cover sufficient width and ac- Vo.'atcr depth is a significant parameter. such as when deter- I
curacy to permit the safe and proper installtion and operation mining wave loads on a riser. planning laying operations. de- -l
of the pipeline termining maximum or minimum water pressures etc.

2.2.2.3 The accuracy needed may vary along the proposed 2.3.2.2 The assumed maximum tide is to include both as-
route. A higher degree of accuracy is required in areas where tronomical tide and storm surge. i\.1inimum tide estimates
other activities. obstructions or highly varied seabed topogra- should be based on the astronomical tide and possible nega-
phy or subsurface conditions may dictate more detailed in- tive storm surge.
vestigations.

2.2.2.4 A proper investigation to reveal possible conflicts 2.3.3 Wind


J
with existing or planned installations is to be performed. Ex- 2.3.3.1 Direct action of wind is to be taken into considera-
amples of such installations are other submarine pipelines and tion for slender risers. The possibility of vibrations of such ri-
communication cables. sers excited by wind is to be considered. Special attention is .J.
15

to be paid to wind loads in the construction and transporta- salinity


tion phases. oxygen content
pHvalue
2.3.3.2 For risers the wind data used are in principle to be resistivity
the same as those used for the design of the platform. current
biological activity (sulfate reducing bacteria etc.)
2.3.3.3 If the riser is positioned adjacent to other structural
parts. possible effects due to disturbance in the flow field 2.3.7 Ice
should be considered when determining the wind loads. Such 2.3 .7 .I In case the installation is to be located in an area
effects may either be caused by an increase or reduction of where ice may develope or drift. proper consideration of ice
the wind speed. or by dynamic excitations caused by vortexes conditions and their possible effects on riser or pipeline is to
shed from the adjacent structural parts. be made. The ice conditions should be studied with particular
attention to possible:
2.3.4 Waves ice forces on riser and on pipeline
2.3.4.1 The effect of waves is to be taken into consideration potential scour at pipeline location and contact \Vith pipe-
for both pipeline and riser. Examples of such effects are the line by floating ice
action of wave forces on riser or on pipeline during installa- ice problems during the installation operations
tion or when resting on bottom (not buried). Examples of indi-
rect effects are deformation of riser due to wave forces acting 2.3.7.2 The description of icc conditons should preferably
on the platform. and deformation of pipeline due to Jay barge be in accordance with the \Vorld \1eterorological Organiza-
motions in waves. tion Sea-Ice Nomenclature.
Possible liquifaction and transportation of sea bed material is
also to be considered. 2.3.8 Air and sea temperatures
2.3.8.1 Reasonably accurate air and sea temperature statist-
2.3.4.2 If the riser is positioned adjacent to other structural ics are to be provided. These data are important for proper
parts. possible effects due to disturbance of the flow field determination of design temperatures. possible thermal stres-
should be considered when determining the wave loads ses. deformations. displacements. etc.
Such effects may either be caused by changes in the wave
particle kinematics. or by dynamic excitation caused by vor- 2.3.8.2 The period of observations on which the maximum
texes shed from the adjacent structural parts. and minimum air and sea temperature statistics are based.
should preferably be several years.
2.3.4.3 For riser the wave data to be used are in principle to
be the same as those used for the design of the platform. 2.3.9 Marine growth
2.3.4.4 For the assessment of \Vave conditions along the pi- 2.3.9.1 The effect of marine growth on riser and pipeline
peline route a limited number of intenals may be assumed. loads is to be considered. taking into account all biological
each of which being characterized by water depth. bottom to- and environmental factors relevant to the site in question.
pography and other factors affecting the wave conditions.
2.3.9.2 For determination of the hydrodynamic loads spe-
2.3.5 Current cial attention is to be paid to the effective diameter increase
and the equivalent roughness of accumulated marine growth
2.J.5.1 The effect of current is to be taken into considera- when determining the hydrodynamic coefficients.
tion for both pipeline and riser.

2.3.5.2 The assumed current velocities are to include po~


sible contributions from tidal current. \\ind induced currents.
storm surge current. density current and possible other cur-
rent phenomena. f~or ncar shore regions longshore current
due to wave breaking should also be constdered

2.3.5.3 The tidal current may normally be determined from 2.4 Internal pipe conditions
harmonic analyses of recorded data. while wind induced-.
storm surge and density currents may be determined either 2.4.1 Installation conditions
from statistical analyses of recorded data. or from numerical 2.4.1.1 A description of the internal conditions during stor-
simulations. age. installation. and pressure testing is to be prepared. Of
special concern is the duration of exposure to sea water and
Normally a wind induced surface current speed correspond- moist air. and whether inhibitors are to be used.
ing to 2 per cent of the I hour mean \\ind speed will be ac- Sec section 4. 5 and 6.
cepted.
2.4.2 Operational conditions
2.3.5.4 In regions where bottom material may erode. spe-
cial studies of the current conditions ncar the bottom includ- 2.4.2.1 The phy-sical and chemical composition of the pro-
ing boundary layer effects may be required for onboltom duct and the pressures and temperatures along the pipeline
stability calculations of pipelines are to be specifiL"d

2.3.5.5 For risers and for pipeline~ during laying reasonable 2.4.2.2 Limits of temperatures and preSSlliTS. and allowed
assumptions should be made as to current velocit\ distribu- concentrations of corrosive components for the product to be
tion over the depth. For ri~ers this is normally to b~ the same transported arc to be specified. Of special concern is the con-
as used for the platform. tent of:
sulphur compounds
2.3.6 Corrosi\'ity water
2 .J .6 .I For the evaluation of the corrosion protection sys- chlorides
tem the following properties. with seasonal variations of the oxygen
sea water and soil along the route are to be considered: carbon dioxide
- temperature hydrogen sulphide.
16

2.5 Design temperature 2.5.2 Differentiated design temperatures


2.5.1 General 2.5.2.1 \Vhen estimated operational and environmental
temperatures vary significantly along the pipeline, a differ-
2.5.1.1 Minimum and maximum design temperatures for entiated design temperature for different intervals or sections
pipeline system is to be established for selection of adequate of the pipeline system may be specified.
materials for pipes and coating. See section 4. 5 and 6.

l
l
17
SECTION 3
LOADS
3.1 Loading conditions and design conditions Note that weight of transported contents and buoyancy will
not have the same effect on stresses as weight of pipe if the
3.1.1 General pipe is vertical or inclined. See also 3.2.3.2.
3 .I .I .I In order to relate permissible stresses or strains to
the probability of the loading and the risks involved these R u 3.2.2.3 Pressure is to include:
internal fluid pressure,
les define two loading conditions and tyto design conditions.
external hydrostatic pressure,
soil pressure for buried pipes.
3.1.2 Loading conditions
3.1.2.1 Any part of the pipeline system is to be designed for 3.2.2.4 Thermal expansion and contraction loads are pri-
the most unfavorable of the following loading conditions: marily to include the effect of product temperature on mate-
a) Functional loads rial temperature. Possible other causes of changes in material
b) Design environmental loads and simultaneously acting temperature are also to be considered. The temperature dif-
functional loads ference to be considered is that between material temperature
during operation and material temperature during installa-
Functional loads and design environmental loads are defined tion. (Loads due to thermal expansion of an enclosed fluid are
in 3.2 and 3.3 to be included in internal fluid pressure}} mentioned in
3 2 2.3)
3. l .2.2 For each of the above loading conditions and for
each member or cross section to be considered. the most un- 3.2.2.5 Thermal expansion or contraction loads do not ha-
favourable relevant combination. position and direction of ve to be taken into account when they do not influence the
forces which may act simultaneously are to be used in the an- capacity to carry other loads. Fluctuation in temperature may
alysis. cause fatigue and be taken into account when checking fati-
gue strength.
3.1.2.3 All direction of wind, waves and current are to be
assumed equally probable, unless statistics show clearly that 3.2.2.6 Prestressing. such as permanent curvature or a per-
wind, waves and current of the prescribed probability are dif- manent elongation introduced during installation, is to be ta-
ferent for different directions. ken into account to the extent the capacity to carry other
loads is affected by the prestressing.
3.1.3 Design conditions
3.2.2.7 The functional loads are mainly static. Exception
3 .I .3 .I Both loading conditions defined in 3.12 .I are to be may be internal fluid pressure. which may change with time
considered for all different conditions or phases relevant to rapid enough to cause dynamic effects. Under normal condi-
the pipeline or riser in question. tions this effect may be considered allowed for by the per-
missible hoop stress in the static condition.
3 .1.3 .2 \Vith respect to levels of permissible stresses
(strains) any situation or phase is to be referred to one of the 3.2.3 Functional loads during installation
two following design conditions:
3.2.3.1 The functional loads during installation may be
Pipeline system during operation grouped as
Pipeline system during installation weight
pressure
Closer definitions of the above design conditions are given in installation forces.
4.1.3.2.
3.2 .J .2 If the buoyancy of the pipe is included in the term
weight, the longitudinal force due to pressure is to be add-
3.2 Functional loads ed. If weight in air is used together with the actual pressure
normal to the surface, the effect of pressure on the longitudi-
3.2.1 General nal force is automatically included in the result.
3 .2. I. I Functional loads are loads which are necessary con 3.2.3.3 Installation forces are to include all forces acting on
sequences of the system's existence, use and treatment in the the pipe due to the installation operations. Typical installation
various situations under ideal conditions. Ideal conditions forces are applied tension during laying and forces from the
means no wind, waves etc., i.e. no environmental loads act trenching machine if trenching is carried out after laying.
ing.

3.2.1.2 Functional loads which normally are to be consid-


ered for the operation and installation phases are given in
3.2.2 and 3.2.3. 3.3 Environmental loads
3.2.2 Functional loads during operation 3.3.1 General
3.2.2.1 Functional loads during operation will normally be 3.3 .1.1 Environmental loads are loads due to wind, waves.
those due to current and other environmental phenomena. Loads due to
weight
pressure human activities independent of the pipeline system are also
thermal expansion and contraction included, e.g. impact from trawl boards.
prestressing.
3 .3 .1 .2 The environmental loads are random in nature and
3.2.2.2 Weight is to include' should in principle be evaluated by means of probabilistic
weight of pipe, including coating and all attachments to methods. Natural. simultaneous occurence of diffet:ent en-
the pipe. vironmental phenomena is to be determined by proper super-
weight of transported contents, postition of their individual effects, taking into account the
buoyancy. probability of their simultaneous occurence.
18

3.3 .I .3 The environ ental loads during normal operation a = liquid particle acceleration normal to the pipe axis
are not to be taken le S than the -most probable severest load (wave induced particle acceleration).
in a time period of I 0 years. ar = relative acceleration between water particle and pi-
pe normal to the pipe axis.
3.3.1.4 For temporary phases the design period is to beta- Cm = added mass coefficient. In general Cm is a function
ken as three times the expected duration of the phase, but not of Reynolds number, Keulegan-Carpenter number,
less than 3 months. See also 3.3.1.5. pipe roughness, and the distance between the pipe
and a flxed boundary. This boundary may f.inst. be
3.3.1.5 The environmental parameters for determination of the seabottom for a pipeline on or close to the sea-
environmental loads in temporary phases lasting 5 days or bottom, or the caisson wall for the outside riser on a
less, and which can be interrupted on a 48 hours warning, gravity structure. Proposed values of Cm given in
can be based on reliable weather forecasts. Appendix A may be used.
D, total outside diameter of the pipe (including coating.
3.3.2 Wind loads marine growth etc.).
3.3.2.1 Wind loads, based on given wind data, may be de 3.3.4.3 The drag force per unit length of the pipe is to be
termined in accordance with a recognized code or in accord-
calculated as:
ance with Appendix A. Direct application of data from ade-
quate tests may also be used.
F 0 = 1/2 Q Co V,l V,l D,
3.3 .2 .2 The wind data assumed for the determination of
= drag force per unit length normal to the pipe axis.
loads are to be based on statistical information. See also
drag coefficient for the flow normal to the pipe axis.
2.3.3.2. When combined w-ith maximum wave loads the one
In general C 0 is a function of Reynolds number.
minute sustained wind speed is to be used. If gust wind only
Keulegan-Carpenter number, pipe roughness and
is more unfavourable than sustained wind in conjunction
the distance between the pipe and a fixed boundary
with wave loads, the 3 seconds gust wind speed is to be used.
Proposed values ofC 0 are given in Appendix A.
3.3.2.3 In addition to the determination of maximum static
v water particle velocity relative to the pipe. normal
' to the pipe axis.
(or quasistatid wind loads, the possibility of vibrations due to
windinduced cyclic loads is to be considered. Guidelines per- IV, I absolute value of V r introduced to obtain proper
sign ofFn
taining in particular to the vortex shedding phenomena are
given in Appendix A.
see 33.4.2.

3.3.3 Hydrodynamic loads, general 3.3.4.4 If the riser is built up of a number of closely spaced
pipes. interaction and solidification effects are to be taken into
3.3.3.1 Hydrodynamic loads are flow induced loads caused account when determining the mass and drag coefficient for
by the relative motions between the pipe and the surrounding each individual pipe or for the whole bundle of pipes. If suf-
liquid. When determining the hydrodynamic load:s. the rela- ficient data is not available large scale model tests may be re-
tive liquid partidt: vdocities and accelerations used in the cal- quired.
culations are to be established taking into account contribu-
tions from waves. current and pipe motions if significant. 3.3.4.5 For pipes on or close to a fixed boundary lift forces
perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. and perpendicular to the
3.3 .3 .2 The hydrodynamic loads on a pipe may be divided velocity vector are to be taken into account. These forces are
into the following five categories: to be calculated as:
Drag and lift forces which are in phase with the absolute
or relative water particle Yelocity.
Inertia forces which are in phase with the absolute or
relative water particle acceleration. where
Flow induced cyclic loads due to vortex shedding and
other instability phenomena. Fl lift force per unit length acting normal to the axis of
Impact loads due to wave slamming. the pipe. and normal to the velocity vector.
Buoyancy variations due to wave action. C 1_ the lift force coefficient. In general CLis a function
of Reynolds number, Keulegan-Carpenter number.
Flow induced cyclic loads and wave slamming loads are delt pipe roughness and the distance between the pipe
with in Appendix A. and a fixed boundary. Proposed values of CLare gi-
ven in Appendix A.
3.3.4 Wave loads
3.3.4.1 Wave-induced loads acting on a submerged pipe are
to be calculated according to recognized methods. In the de- 3.3.4.6 To obtain the combined effect of simultaneous drag,
termination of the hydrodynamic coefficients involved. rel- lift and inertia forces, these are to be added vectorially. taking
evant model test data and published data may be used. the phase angles between them into account.
Forces obtained directly by reliable and adequate model tests 3.3.4.7 Possible influence of adjacent structual parts should
may alternatively be used in the prediction of wave loads. be taken into account when determining the wave loads as
described in 2.3.4.2.
3.3.4.2 The inertia force per unit length of the pipe is to be
calculated as: 3.3.4.8 For exposed risers and suspended spans of pipeli-
-D' D2 nes, the possibility of vibrations due to vortex shedding and
Fm=Q ~ a+e C miTta
-- c other instability phenomena due to wave action should be
4 4
considered.
where

the inertia force per unit length acting normal to the 3.3.5 Current loads
pipe axis. 3.3 .5 .I The current induced drag and lift forces on a pipeli-
= the mass density of the surrounding water. ne or riser arc to be determined in combination with the wa-
19

ve forces. This may be done by a vector additon of the wave Weight of the ice.
and current induced water particle velocities. If available. Impact forces due to thaw of the ice.
computations of the total particle velocities and accelerations Forces due to expansion of the ice.
based on more exact theories of wave - current interaction. Increased wind- and wave-forces due to increased expos-
will be preferred. ed area or volume.

3.3.5.2 Special attention is to be paid to possible current in- 3.3.7 .3 Forces from floating ice are to be calculated accord-
duced vibrations of exposed risers and free spans of pipelines ing to the best available theory. Due attention is to be paid to
due to vortex shedding or other instability phenomena. the mechanical properties of the ice, contact area, shape of
For guidance see Appendix A. structure. direction of ice movements etc. The oscillating na-
ture of the ice forces (build-up of lateral force and fracture of
3.3.6 dndirect>) environmental loads moving ice) is to be taken into account in the structural ana-
lysis. When forces due to lateral ice motion will govern struc-
3.3.6.1 For a riser during operation possible significant soil
tural dimensions. model testing of the ice-structure interac-
deformation, displacement of the platform due to soil de-
tion may be required.
formation. and significant.platform deformation are to beta-
ken into account. Some portion of the connected pipeline
may also be considered for such effect.

3.3.6.2 For a pipeline during laying. the effect of lay-vessel


movements due to waves are to be considered. For a riser be- 3.3.8 Accidental loads.
ing installed from a vessel a similar effect may be considered. 3 .3 .8 .I Accidental loads are to be classified as environ-
mental loads. and they are to be taken into consideration for
3.3.7 Ice loads those parts of the system where such loads are likely to oc-
3.3.7.1 In areas where ice may develop or drift. the possi- cur. Examples of accidental loads are impact from vessels.
bility of loads on the pipeline system is to be considered. Such trawl boards and dropped object as well as fire.
forces may partly be due to ice frozen on the pipeline system
itself. and partly due to floating ice. For shore approaches 3.3.8.2 The pipeline and its accessories are to be protected
and areas of shallow water the possibility of ice scouring and against accidental loads which are likely to occur. Such loads
impacts from drifting ice is to be considered. are
impacts from vessels
3.3 .7 .2 In case of ice frozen to above-v,:ater parts of the sys- - impacts from trawlboards
tem (e.g. due to sea spray) the following forces are to be con- - impacts from dropped objects
sidered: See also 1.4.4.3.
20

SECTION 4
STRENGTH AND INPLACE STABILITY
4.1 General 4.1.3.2 In these Rules two main design conditions are de
fined,
4. I. I Design analyses
4.1.1.1 The design analyses are to be based on accepted Pipeline systems during operation
principles of statics, dynamics, strength of materials, and soil Pipeline systems during installation
mechanics, and are to be in accordance with these Rules. See
also 4.i.2.3. 4.1.3.3 The term during operation refers to normal situa
tions after completed installation whether the system is in
4.1.1.2 Simplified methods of analysis may be used if these operation or not. Shutdown conditions and conditions during
are reasonably conservative. Model tests may be used in maintenance operations are included. Repair situations are
combination with or instead of theoretical calculations. In ca- normally not included.
ses where theoretical methods are inadequate, model or full
scale tests may be required. 4.1.3 .4 The term i<during installation)) refers to any situa
tion (construction, installation. laying, burial) before complet
4.1.1.3 \Vhen determining responses to dynamic lOads, the ed installation of the system. Repair situations will normally
dynamic effect is to be taken into account if deemed signi- also be included.
ficant. Dynamic analyses or reasonably conservative qua-
sistatic considerations may be used.
4.2 Pipeline/ riser during operation
4.1.1.4 All forces and support displacements which may
influence the safety, are to be taken into account. For each 4.2.1 General
cross section or part of the system to be considered, and for 4.2.1.1 The pipeline/ riser is to have a minimum safety
each possible form of failure to be analysed, the relevant against the modes of failure mentioned in 4.1.2.1.
combination of forces which may act simultaneously are to
be considered. 4.2.1.2 In order to avoid damage to the pipeline/risers they
should not be located too close to foreign structures, pipeli-
4.1.1.5 These Rules do not include the problem of optimum nes, wrecks boulders etc. If, however. this is unavoidable the
design, which would involve repeated design analyses. Pipe pipeline/ riser should be kept in position by clamps, supports
diameter. operating pressure and other vital parameters are etc. \Vhen one pipeline is crossing another the recommended
assumed to be known. minimum clearance between the two pipelines is 0.3 m.
4.1.2 Design criteria
4.2.1.3 External risers are to be adequately protected against
4.1.2.1 Pipelines and risers arc to be designed against the impact loads from vessels and other mechanical influence
following possible modes of failure: The protection may be obtained by:
Excessive yielding suitable location with regard to boat landings. etc ..
Buckling - installation of rendering structures.
Fatigue failure - location of the risers within the platform structure itself.
Brittle fracture The protection system is subject to approval. Sec 3.3.8.
Excessive damage to or loss of weight coating (see Sec
lion 6)
Loss of inplace stability (external equilibrium) 4.2.1.4 In zone 2 and where found necessary pipelines are
Propagating ductile fracture to be protected against unacceptable mechanical influence.
Protection may be achieved by one or a combination of the
For design against corrosion, see Section 6. following means:
Concrete coating
4.1.2.2 These Rules do not specify any limitations regard Burial
ing elastic deformations or vibrations, provided the effect of Backfilling
large deformations and the effect of dynamic behavior. in Other mechanical protection.
eluding fatigue effect of vibrations, are taken into account in
the strength analyses. 4.2.1.5 When a submerged pipeline is to be thermally in-
sulated, special attention is to be paid to the watertightness
4.1.2.3 Strength criteria are here primarily based on the and shear strength of the insulation as well as to corrosion
method of permissible stresses. The limit state method may monitoring.
also be used. provided the load and material factors used for
the ultimate limit state will represent the safety required in 4.2.2 Yielding
these Rules. See also I .4.3. 4.2.2 .l For pipelines the tensile hoop stress (ay) due to a pr~
ssurc differential between internal and external pressures. IS
4.1.2.4 The safety against brittle fracture is normally con not to exceed the permissible value o-Yfl given below.
sidered satisfactory if the materials are in accordance with
Section 5 and the workmanship. welding, and testing are in
accordance with Section 7 ,8 and I 0.

4.1.3 Design conditions


usage factor(See Table 4.1)
4.1.3.1 The safety against the modes of failure mentioned = permissible hoop stress
in 4.1.2.1 is to be checked for the design conditions in which specified minimum yield strength
the mode of failure in question is possible - with due regard = temperature derating factor.
to permissible stress (or strain) levels in the considered condi For material temperatures below 120C, k 1 = 1.0
tion. A general definition of design conditiom> is given in may normally be used. For higher temperatures a
3.1 .3. A more precise definition of the design conditions. to reduction of kt, depending on type of material, is to
which different stress levels are connected. is given in 4.1.3.2. be considered.

J
21

Table 4.1 Usage factor is not to exceed the permissible value aep given below.

Zone Loading condition Oep = l7ep aF kt


TJep usage factor as defined in Table 4.1
a b ax = longitudinal stress
I 0.72 0.96 ay = hoop stress
2 + riser 0.50 0.67 r xy tangential shear stress

4.2.2.2 If not a more accurate method is used, the tensile aF and k, are defined in 4.2.2.1.
hoop stress, to be compared with ayp of 4.2 .2 .I , is to be deter
mined by the following formula' 4.2.2.9 For suspended spans in axially restrained lines the
axial force developed due to the sag may be taken into ac
D count. If this effect will stop the bending strain (or flattening)
a, = (p,- p,) 2t
within the limit given in 4.2.2.5 and 4.2.2.6. the value of a,
P1 = Internal pressure to be inserted in the formula of 4.2.2.8 may be determined as
Pe external pressure if the span acts as a cable. In such a case stresses due to ther
D = nominal outside diameter of pipe mal expansion will only be those corresponding to the chan
nominal wall thickness of pipe (see 7 .2.6 .5) ge in sag caused by the thermal expansion.

4.2.2.10 Corrosion and erosion allowances are not to be


(pi~ pJ is to be the maximum o~ the difference (pimax- Pe inl
included in the nominal thickness used for the determination
along the portion of the pipeline mtended to have constant jj, t
of stresses.
and material properties. and which is to be pressure tested in
one and the same operation. Pi is not to be taken less than 4.2.2.11 Possible strengthening effect of weight coating on
the highest of the following preSS~res at the considered point: a steel pipe is normally not to be taken into account in the
maximum steady state operating pressure design against yielding. Coating which adds significant stiff-
- static head pressure with the line in a static condition
ness to the pipe may increase the stresses in the pipe at dis-
continuities in the coating. When appropriate this effect is to
Pe 1 is not to be taken higher than the water pressure at the
be taken into account.
co ll.Sidered point corresponding to low tide.

4.2.2.3 For risers and for pipeline sections where longitudi- 4.2.3 Buckling
nal stresses are essential for equilibrium. the equivalent stres-
4 2.3.1 The possibility of buckling is to be considered. De
ses are normally to be used as a criterion for safety against ex-
pending upon the load and support conditions of the pipe,
cessive yielding. The criteria for equivalent stresses are given
one or more of the following three buckling modes may be
in 4.2.2.8. possible:
Local buckling of the pipe wall due to external pressure.
4.2.2.4 For pipeliners and risers the permissibk longitudinal
axial force and bending moment. See 4.2.3.2 through
stress (a:.) and shear stress Cr w) depend on the consequences of 4.2.3.4.
yielding. In cases where possible strain (displacement) does not
Propagation buckling due to external pressure - when
exceed the permissible strain (see 4.2 .2 .5 ), stresses need not to
first a local buckle or similar damage has occured. See
be used as a criterion for safety against excessive yielding. In 4.2.3.5.
cases \Vhere possible strain exceeds the permissible strain (dis-
Buckling of the pipe as a bar in compression. See 4.2.3.6.
placement), the equivalent stress (al) is to be used as the criteri-
on. see 4.2.2.8. 4.2.3.2 The pipeline is to have adequate safety against local
buckling under the most unfavourable combination of ex-
4.2 .2 .5The permissible strain depends on the ductility of the
ternal overpressure, axial force and bending moment. The
material and on previously experienced plastic strain. The pi- applied combination of stresses is to be compared with the
peline or riser is to have acceptable fracture toughness after
critical combinations. The critical combinations may be de-
the deformation. For D/t ratios above a certain value. flatten-
termined from available relevant test results. The empirical
ing may govern. sec 4.2.2.6. formulas, methods and corresponding criteria given in Ap-
pendix B may be used.
4.2.2.6 The flattening due to bending together with the out
of roundness tolerance from fabrication of the pipe (see 4.2.3.3 Bending moment due to a curvature which cannot
7 .2.6.2) is not to exceed 2%: change. e.g. a riser in a Jtube needs not be taken into ac-
count in the buckling analysis.
Dmax - Dmin 2
2 4.2 .3 .4 The effect of weight coating on pipe wall buckling
Dmax + Dmin 100
may be taken into account if satisfactory analytical or ex-
4.2.2.7 The requirements of 4.2.2.5 and 4.2.2.6 apply to perimental documentation is provided.
conditions of permanent strain. such as the permanent curva-
ture of a buried pipeline. They also apply to exposed pipelines 4.2.3.5 Since propagation buckling cannot be initiated be-
in (almost) continuous contact with the bottom. For exposed fore a local buckle has occured, no additional safety against
pipelines not in continuous contact with the bottom the re- propagation buckling is required. For guidance see Appendix
quirements of 4.2 2 5 and 4.2.2.6 will apply provided yield B.
ing would lead to such contact that the strain would be
stopped before exceeding the permissible value. 4.2.3.6 It has to be documented either that the safety
against barbuckling is not less than what is normally accept-
4.2.2.8 Normally for risers and in cases where possible ed or. if barbuckling is unavoidable. that the pipeline/ riser
strain exceeds the permissible strain. e.g. suspended spans will not suffer any damage in the postbuckled mode. For a
where new contact with the bottom is not obtained before nonburried pipeline such proof will normally not be requir
the permissible strain is exceeded, the equivalent stress, defin- ed.
ed as
4.2.4 Fatigue
4.2.4.1 All stress fluctuations of magnitude and number
22

large enough to have a significant fatigue effect on the pipeli-


ne system are to be investigated.
4.2.4.2 Typical causes of stress fluctuations in a pipeline
system are: where
Direct action of waves.
Vibrations of the pipeline system, e.g. due to vortex s = number of stress blocks
shedding caused by current. waves, or wind. ni number of stress cycles in stress block i
Platform movements (displacements or deformations). Ni = number of cycles to failure at constant stress range
Fluctuations in operating pressure and temperature. (a~,
n = usage factor
The above phenomena, together with possible other causes of
stress fluctuations, are to be considered to the extent relevant The number of stress blocks, s, is to be large enough to ensu-
in each case. re reasonalbe numerical accuracy.

4.2.4.3 Fatigue analyses are in particular to be made for The limit damage ration n will depend on the maintainability,
constructional details likely to cause stress consentrations. i.e. possibility for inspection and repair.
The aim of fatigue design is to ensure adequate safety against Recommended values of r} are given in Table 4.3.
fatigue failures within the planned life of the structure. The
specific criteria will depend on method of analysis. of which Methods, other than Miner's rule, for accessing cumulative
two different categories exist: damage will be considered in each separate case.

a) Methods based on fracture mechanics. See 4.2.4.4.


b) Methods based on fatigue tests. See 4.2.4.5.

4.2.4.4 Where appropriate. a calculation procedure based Table 4.3 Usage factor
on fracture mechanics may be used. The specific criteria will
be considered in each separate case. Access for inspection No access Access
Usage factor 0.1 0.3
4.2.4.5 The methods based on fatigue tests consists general-
ly of the following three main steps:
Determination of long term distribution of stress range,
see 4.2.4.6.
4.2.5 On-bottom stability
Selection of appropriate SN curve (characteristic resist
ance), see 4.2.4.7. 4.2.5.1 The pipeline is to be supported, anchored or buried
Determination of the accumulated damage, see 4.2.4.8. in such a way that under the assumed conditions it will not
move from its as-installed position, apart from movements
4.2.4.6 All stress fluctuations imposed during the entin: life, corresponding to permissible deformation, thermal expan-
included the installation phase of the pipeline system which sion. and a limited amount of settlement after installation. I
have magnitude and number large enough to cause fatigue
effects are to be taken into account when determining the
long term distribution of stress range.
Criteria which will limit permissible deformations are:
yielding. buckling and fatigue of pipe
I
~
deterioration/ wear of coating
As most of the loads which contribute to fatigue are of ran- geometrical limitations of supports
dom nature statistical considerations will normally be requir- distance to other pipelines, structures or obstacles
ed for determination of the long term distribution of fatigue
loading effects. Deterministic or spectral analysis may be us- The requirement to permissible deformation may thus vary I
ed. The method of analysis used is subject to acceptance. along the pipeline.

The effect of dynamic response are to be properly accounted 4.2.5.2 If the pipeline at any location along its route is on or
for when determining the stress ranges unless it can be
shown that the dynamic effects are negligible. Special care is
near slopes. the risk of slope failure is to be analysed. Regard-
ing precautions against slides, reference is made to 8.2.2.
J
to be taken to determine the stress ranges adequately in pipe
lines or risers excited in the resonance range. The amount of 4-.2.5.3 Buried lines are to be checked for possible sinking
damping assumed in the analysis is to be conservatively esti- or floatation. For both liquid and gas lines sinking is to be
mated. considered assuming the pipe is waterfLiled, and floatation is .....!
to be considered assuming the pipe is gas- or air-filled.
4.2.4.7 Characteristic resistances are normally given as SN 4.2.5.4 lf the specific weight of the waterfilled pipe is less
curves. i.e. stress versus number of cycles to failure. than that of the soil (including water contents), no further
analyses are needed to document the safety against sinking.
The SN curve used is to be applicable for the material. con- For lines to be placed _in soils having low shear strength. a
struction detail and state of stress considered as well as to the consideration of soil stresses may be required. If the soil is, or
surrounding environment. is likely to be liquefied, it is to be shown that the depth of l
sinking will be satisfactorily limited, either by the depth of li-
The S-N curve is normally to be based on a 95% confidence quefaction or by build-up of resistance during sinking.
limit.
4.2.5.5 If the specific weight of the gas- or air-ftlled pipe is
4.2.4.8 In the general case where stress fluctuations occur Jess than that of the soil, it is to be proven that the shear
with varying amplitude in random order, the linear damage strength of the soil is sufficient to prevent floatation. Con-
hypothesis (Miner's rule) may be used.
Application of Miner's rule implies that the long term dis-
tribution of stress range is replaced by a stress histogram,
sequently, in soils which are or may be liquefied, the specific
weight of the gas- or air-ftlled pipe is not to be Jess that that l
of the soil (if burial is required).
consisting of a convenient number of constant amplitude
stress range blocks (arli and a number of repetitions ni. The fa- 4.2.5.6 Exposed lines resting directly on the bottom without
tigue criteria then reads: any special supporting elements or anchoring devices, except
23

possible weight coating, are to be checked for sinking in the Fatigue (due to possible vortex shedding) see 4.2 .4.
same manner as explained above for buried lines. Further, Interference with human activiteis e.g. fishing
such lines are to have the below required safety against being
lifted off the bottom or moved horizontally. Free spans are not acceptable if they may lead to failure of
the pipeline or put restrictions to human activities.
4.2.5.7 Liquid lines as well as gas lines are, in the air or
gasfilled cOndition, to have a specific gravity higher than that
of sea water. (Negative buoyancy>)). Required minimum va 4.3 Pipeline/ riser during installation
lues will depend on pipe size.
4.3.1 General
4.2.5.8 Horizontal (transverse) stability is to be checked for 4 3 1 1 Strength considerations for the pipeline/risers dur
i~g i~stallation are to be made in order to determine how the
wave and current conditions according to 3.3 .1 .3 and 3 .3 .1.4.
pipeline/ riser may be installed without suffering any damage
The most unfavourable combination of simultaneously acting
which may impair the function or the safety of the completed
vertical and horizontal forces on the pipeline is to be consid
line, or which may involve hazardous installation or repair
erect. When determining this unfavourable combination, it
work. See also Section 8.
may be taken into account e.g. that the forces will vary along
the line, and directional distribution of waves and currents.
4.3.1.2 If the installation analyses for a proposed pipeline/
riser show that an acceptable set of installation parameters
4.2.5.9 If the motions of the pipeline is to be restrained eith
cannot be obtained with the installation equipment to be us~
er by friction force between the pipe and the sea bottom or
by forces mobilized through plastic deformation of the sup ed, the pipeline/ riser is to be modified.
porting soil, a factor of safety of minimum I, I is to be induct
ed when establishing the restraining force. 4.3 .I .3 The requirements of 4.3 apply also, as far as applic-
able. to repair operations.
4.2.5.10 The coefficient of friction may vary (within a wide
range) with bottom material and surface roughness of the pi- 4.3.1.4 Only those sections under 4.3.2, 4.3.3 and 4.3.4
peline. The applied values are to be based on relevant in found pertinent to the various installation techniques/ phases
formation from the actual location. should be considered.

4.2.5.11 Axial (JongitudinaD stability should be checked. 4.3.1.5 Any installation phase/technique is to be checked.
Especially near platforms and/ or places where the pipeline Such phases and techniques are:
changes direction, sufficient flexibility and space for expan- Start of laying operation
sion should be allowed for. The expansion calculation should Normal continous laying
be based on conservative values for the axial friction between Pipe abandon and retrieval
pipeline and soil. Termination of laying operation
Tow out
4.2.5.12 In shallow water repeated loading effects due to Bottom tow
wave action may lead to a reduction of the shear strength of Bottom pull
the soil. This should be considered in the analysis. especially Spool on
where the backfill consists of loose sands which is more sus- Tie-in
ceptible to liquefaction than looser graded deposits and clays. Straightening
Trenching
4.2.6 Propagating ductile fractures Back fill
4.2.6. I Pipelines transporting gas or mixed gas and liquids 4.3.1.6 For any of the phases mentioned in 4.3.1.5 the pipe-
under high pressure are to have reasonable resistance against line/ riser is to have the below required safety against the fol-
propagating (fast running) ductile fractures. lowing modes of failure and damage
Yielding, sec 4.3.2.
This may be obtained by using steel with a high upper shelf Local buckling, sec 4.J.3.
Charpy V -notch toughness, lowering the stress level, me- Fatigue effect. sec 4.3.4.
L chanical cr"ck arrestors. changing the fracture direction or by Excessive damage to weight coating.
combination of these solutions.
4.3.2 Yielding
The design solution is to be supported by calculations based
on relevant experience and/ or suitable tests. See also 5 .2 .8. 4.3.2.1 The primary requirement as to yielding during in-
stallation is that the residual longitudinal strain after installa-
4.2.7 Risers supports tion is not to exceed 0.002 (0.2 per centl.
The above strain limitation does not apply to the bending and
L 4.2.7.1 Riser supports are to be so designed that a smooth
straightening involved in the reel barge method or the pulling
transmission of forces between riser and support is obtained. through a J-tube or similar. see 4.3.2.3-4.3.2.5. \Vhen a pipe
As far as possible, introduction of bending in the pipe wall is has variable stiffness e.g. due to concrete coating. this will lo-
to be avoided. cally give high strain. Such local strain are no to exceed 0.02
(2 .0 per centl .
.L 4.2.7 .2 The riser supports are normally to be designed
against the possible forms of failure with at least the same 4.J.2.2 \Vhen the pipe is to be given a permanent curvature
degree of safety as that of the riser they support. However. if (e.g. by the (<bending shoe)) or the ((J-tubc)) method). strain and
an overall safety consideration indicates that the overall sa- flattening. are to be used as criteria in accordance with 4.3.2.3
fety is increased by a reduction of the failure load of certain and 4 ..1.2.4.
supports. such considerations may govern the support design.
(Weak link principle.)
4.3.2.3 The permissible permanent strain depends on the
1 4.2.8 Spans
ducility of the pipe material. A total. permanent, bending
strain of 0.02 (2 per centl is acceptable. If the bending pro
4.2.8.1 Where there is no contact between the bottom and cedure involves successive bending and straightening of a
the pipeline (free spans) the following problem areas are to be portion of the pipe, the maximum plastic strain is not to exce-
investigated: ed I %. (The corresponding radii of curvature are 25D and
- Excessive yielding, see 4.2.2. 50D.l See also Section 5.
24

4.3.2.4 The flattening due to a permanent curvature togeth- M will exceed 33%. the assumed maximum M is to be
er with the out of roundness tolerances from fabrication of inserted in the formula of4.3.2.6. applying a usage fac-
the pipe shall not exceed 2% . tor of maximum 0,96.
C) The particular effect of transverse forces acting on the
Dmax - Dmin 2.0
2 pipe during laying, namely the change in direction of
+ Dmin
Dmax 100 the pipe axis in the horizontal plane near the lift-off
4.3.2.5 The requirement of 4.3.2.1 apply to the assumed points, is to be specially considered.
most unfavourable condition during installation, i.e. assumed
maximum wind, waves and current acting. (Loading condi- 4.3.3 Buckling
tion b), see 3 .1.2 .1 ). This requirement applies also to portions 4.3.3 .I Local buckling of the pipe wall is to be considered in
of the pipeline where the strains are completely controlled and accordance with the applicable clauses from 4.2 J.
cannot change, e.g. where the curvature is controlled by the Guidelines is found in Appendix B.
curvature of a rigid ramp, whether or not environmental loads
are acting. 4.3.4 Fatigue
4.3.2.6 Instead of a direct consideration of residual strain as 4.3.4.1 \Vhen checking the fatigue life according to 4.2.4.
explained in 4.3 .2 .I and 4.3 .2 .5. the following criterion may possible fatigue effects in the installation phases are to be add-
be applied, ed.

VI (NA + ----w--
0,85M )'
+ a 2y -
(N
A +
0.85M) -
------v;;-- a Y """""r}a F 4.3.4.2 When the bottom tow, bottom pull or the floatation
methode is used for installation of a pipeline, fatigue is consid-
where the usage factor 11 is (),72 for loading condition a) and ered to be a major effect and this effect should be paid special
0,96 for the loading condition b) and portions of controlled attention both through theoretical calculation and tests.
strain in condition al (see 4.3 .2 .5). 4.3.4J \Vind induced cyclic loads on risers during construc-
Other symbols' tion and transportation is to be considered and taken into ac-
count when fOund relevant.
N = axial force Cincluding effect of water pressure).
A cross sectional area of pipe.
M = bending moment
W section modulus of pipe. 4.4 Piping components and accessories
ay hoop stress.
ar = specified minimum yield strength. 4.4.1 General
It is to be noted that if M is determined on the basis of a given
curvature, the nonlinear relationship between moment and 4.4.1.1 All pressure-containing piping components and ac-
curvature is to be taken into account. cessories are generally to represent the same safety as that re-
quired above for plain. straight pipe.
43.2.7 For installation methods involving a J or S shaped
curve of the pipeline N and M are to be determined by an ap- 4.4.1.2 For all components. for wh1ch detailed design pro-
propriate method. suitable for the water depth.' pipe stiffness cedures and criteria arc not. given in these Rules. sufficient
and weight in question. Since the effect of the environmental strength is to be documented in at least one of the following
loads is difficult to determine. the minimum required analyses ways:
are as follows: Equal or similar components have been proven satisfacto-
A) Loading condition a) is to be analyzed in detail, and the ry by previous successful performance under comparable
formula of 4.3 .2.6 is to be applied with a usage factor lJ conditions.
of maximum 0.72. By proof tests.
B) Loading condition b) is to be considered by evaluating By experimental stress analyses.
the increase of M due to environmental loads on the By engineering calculations.
basis of the assumed environmental conditions, the rele-
vant characteristics of the installation equipment (parti- 4.4.1.3 If components designed according to a recognized
cularly the laying vessel). and all available relevant ex- Code or Standard has proven satisfactory performance. design
perience. If there is reason to expect that the increase of according to that Code or Standard may be generally accepted.

I
J
25

SECTION 5
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
FOR PIPES AND PIPING COMPONENTS
5.1 General 5.2.2 Supply condition
5.1.1 Validity 5.2.2.1 The supply condition is to be specified taking into
account possible adverse effects as a result of forming, weld~
5.1.1.1 This section specifies requirements to characteristic ing and heat treatment operations which will occur during
material properties for design and quality control of steel line~ fabrication and installation.
pipes and piping components. The requirements are applica-
ble to C-Mn steels. C-Mn-fine grain treated steels and low al- 5.2.2.2 Steel to be used for general service may be supplied
loyed steels having a specified minimum yield strength up to as rolled, controlled rolled. thermomechanical treated. nor-
500 Mpa. and consumables for welding. malized, quenched and tempered or subcritical age-hardened.

Steels of higher strength, other alloys and other materials 5.2.3 Heat treatment
may be used subject to special approval.
1- 5 .2 .3 .I Steel castings and forgings are to be normalized.
5 .1.1.2 Materials for corrosion prot~ction and weight coat- normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered.
ing are covered by Section 6.
5.2.3.2 Rolled steel for low temperature service (i.e. mirii~
5 .1.1.3 The manufacture is to be capable of producing ma- mum design temperature below 0C) is either to be normal-
terials of required quality. Relevant documentation is to be ized, quenched and tempered or thermomechancically treat-
made available on request. ed.
L
Prequalification testing or an extended quality control sche~ 5.2.4 Chemical composition
me is required for manufacturers having limited experience.
and in cases where new production methods are introduced. 5.2.4.1 The steel is to have a chemical composition which
with the specified manufacturing, fabrication and welding
5 .1.2 Selection of materials procedures will ensure sufficient strength. ductility, toughness
and corrosion resistance.
5.1.2.1 Materials are to be selected with due consideration
to the commodity to be transported. loads. temperature, cor~ 5.2.4.2 The chemical composition of C.Mn and CMn fine
rosion and consequences of a possible failure during installa- grain treated steels to be welded is to be specified within the
tion. operation and maintenance of the pipeline system. analysis limits given in Table 5. I. Modifications may be agre-
ed upon subject to the application of suitable fabrication and
5.1.3 Material specification welding procedures.
5 .I .3 .I A material specification is to be prepared giving the
material requirements for line-pipes. piping components. 5.2 .4 .3 If the hardenability of a steel may be better predict
welding consumables. bolts and nuts and any other impor- ed with another carbon equivalent formula. this may be con-
tant items. The specification is to cover manufacturing meth- sidered together with a revised CE-limit.
ods. chemical composition. heat treatment. mechanical pro-
perties. soundness. quality control testing. documentation 5 .2 .4 .4 The chemical composition is to be determined both
and marking. in the ladle and the product. Ladle analyses are to be taken
for every heat. A check analysis is to be taken for each batch
The specification is to be submitted for approval. of 50 finished products. but at least once every heat.

5.1.4 Documentation and identification 5.2.4.5 The elements listed in Table 5.1 are to be determin-
ed and reported. Other remaining elements added on purpose
5.1.4.1 All materials are to be delivered with test certificates to control the material properties are also to be checked. and
stating the heat number. manufacturing methods, test results. to be reported.
identification etc. Material test certificates for pressurized parts
are normally to be endorsed by Veritas. Procedures for chemical analyses are described in Appendix
c.
5.1.4.2 All materials are to be traceable and suitably mark-
ed for easy identification of manufacturer, grade. heat num- 5 .2 .4 .6 The chemical composition of lowalloy and alloyed
ber. size and application steels will be considered in each case.
5 .1.4.3 Materials of uncertain origin or uncertain quality 5.2.4.7 The impurity level and inclusion contents are to be
are to be rejected. or a special identification and test pro- kept specially low in steel to be used in pipeline systems de-
gramme is to be agreed upon. signed to transport commodities which under unfavourable
conditions may cause blistering, also called stepwise cracking.
(See 5.2.11 and 6.4.)
5.2 Steel for line-pipes
5.2.4.8 The chemical composition is to be specially consid-
5.2.1 Steel making ered for steel to be used in pipelines where underwater weld-
ing is planned for tie-in operations or should be anticipated in
5.2 .1 .1 The steel is to processed and cast in a manner ensur- case of repair situations.
ing uniform composition. properties and soundness. Impurit-
ies and residual elements are to be kept at a level consistent 5.2.5 Mechanical testing
with specified property and service requirements.
5 .2.5 .I The following mechanical properties are essential
5.2.1.2 The steel is normally to be fully killed. Steels for li- and are to be determined and reported as part of the quality
quid pipelines may. however. be semi-killed when the specif- control:
ied minimum yield strength is less than 300 MPa. ~ Yield strength
26

Ultimate tensile strength 5.2.7 Brittle fracture resistance


Elongation
Reduction of area 5.2. 7 .I Base materials and weldments are to be reasonable
Fracture toughness resistant against initiation of brittle fractures. This is to be en-
Hardness of welded joints sured by keeping the transition temperature from brittle to
ductile behaviour sufficiently below the minimum design
temperature.
The reduction of area is normally to be measured only for
cast and forged steels.
Charpy V-notch transition curve is to be established for in-
5 .2.5 .2 The mechanical properties of the base material is. formation for the base material of line-pipes. (See Table 7 .I.)
when practically possible, to be tested with specimens orien- 5.2.7 .2 Base materials and welded joints are normally to
tated transverse to the principal rolling/ working direction. meet the average Charpy V-notch energy values given by Fi-
gure 5.I . Single values are to be at least 7 5% of the specified
5.2.5.3 Procedures for mechanical testing are described in minimum average. Where standard specimens can not be
Appendix C. Alternative standarized methods may be used made, subsize specimens may be used with energy conver-
subject to agreement. tion factors as given in Figure 5 .I .

Table S.l Chemical composition of C-steel, C-Mn steel and


C-Mn fine-grain treated steel for general service.

c Mn Si p s Cu Ni Mo Cr AI Others Carbon
Analysis % % % % % % % % % (totaD % equivalent 21
max. max. max. max. max. max. max. max. max. %max.
Ladle 0.18 1,60 0.55 0.025 0.020 0.35 0.40 0.25 0.20 0.08 I) 0.40
Check 0,20 I ,70 0.60 0.030 0,025 0,35 0.40 0,25 0.20 0,08 I) 0.43

I) V max. 0.10 (y + Nb) max 0.12 2) CE -C+


- \-In-..
6 Cr+\fo+V
5 -t-
Cu+Ni
__1_5_
Nb max. 0.05
Ti max. 0.05
N max. 0.009 (0.015 when AI fine grain treated) 5.2.7.3 The impact testing temperature is to be selected in
Residuals (Cr + Mo+ Cu) max 0.50 accordance with Table 5.3. Maximum testing temperature is.
however. not to be taken !ligher than + 20C.
5.2.6 Tensile properties
5.2.6.1 The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength are Joule Kpm
to meet the specified values for the actual grade. Downgrad-
ing of high strength steels is normally not acceptable. v 4.8
47
v
5.2.6.2 The ratio of yield to ultimate tensile strength is nor-
mally to be maximum 0.85. A ratio up to 0.90 may be ac- 43
v 4,4
cepted for cold expanded pipes having actual yield strength v
proportionally higher than the specified minimum.
v 4.0
5.2.6.3 Stress-strain curve typical for the specified line-pipe
39 f-
v
material is to be recorded. (See 4.3.2.1 and Table 7.1). v 3.6
5.2.6.4 The elongation of the base materials is to comply
35
v
with Table 5.2 1/ 3.2
31
v
27 I/ 2.8

Table 5.2: Minimum elongation for base materials


(Based on flat specimens 38 mm wide.) 4,
235 275 315 355 390 430 4 70
Specified Minimum percent elongation in 50 mm Specified minimum yield strength (MPa)
minimum yield gage length for wall thickness. t mm:
strength MPa t<;;I2.5 12.5 < t<;;25.5 t > 25.5 Specimen Energy
section factor
200-295 27 29 30 (mm 2)
295-340
340-390
390-440
23
22
21
25
24
23
26
25
24
10 X 10
I 0 x 7.5
I
5/6
1
440-500 20 22 23 10 X 5 2/3

5.2.6.5 The reduction of area of cast and forged steels C-.


Fig. S.l Average Charpy V-notch energy values l
C-Mn and C-Mn grain treated is to be at least 35 per cent.
For heavy wall components or higher strength steel a higher
ductility level may be required. 5.2.8 Resistance against propagating ductile fractures
5.2 .8 .l Pipelines trcinsporting gas or mixed gas and liquids
1
5.2.6.6 The ductility in the thickness direction is to be ade- are to be designed in a manner preventing propagating ductile
quate for the part in question. In special cases through thick-
ness tensile testing may be required.
fractures (see 4.2.6). When the design is based on the installa-
tion of line-pipe materials with arrest properties (i.e. a high up L
27

Table 5.3 Charpy V-notch Impact testing temperature (C).

Nomina1 1> RISERS PIPELINES


wall Gas and Liquid Gas 2> Liquid l)
thickness (mml
t <20 mm T=T 0 -10 T=T 0 -10 T=To
20 < t <30 T- T 0 - 20 T-T 0 -10 T-T 0
t> 30 mm T - to be decided in each case
I) Corrosion allowances may be disregarded.
2) Mixed gas and \iqujd(s) are to be treated as gas.
(See I.J.IB.J.)

per shelfCharpy V-energy), the notch toughness requirements limit for SSC resistance, when the accumulated plastic strain
are to be agreed in each case. exceeds 5% .
5.2.8.2 When the design is based on a higher upper shelf Cold formed and/ or welded low alloy steels are normally to
notch toughness. only the base material of line-pipes need to be heat treated and meet the applicable hardness limit when
have fracture arrest properties. sse resistance is required.
5.2.9 Supplementary fracture toughness testing 5.2.13 Resistance against chloride stress corrosion crack-
5.2.9.1 Fracture toughness tests other than the Charpy ing
V-test. may in special cases be allowed or required to assess 5.2.13.1 Materials which are to be used in seawater en-
the resistance to unstable fractures and/ or determine defect vironment are to be resistant against chloride stress corrosion
tolerances in materials and welds. crackning.

Such tests could be Drop Weight Tear Test (DWTT). Crack 5.2.13.2 Application of alloyed steels and/or extra high
Opening Displacements Test (COD), Compact Tension Tests strength steels (specified min yield strength above 500 MPal
(CTl. Drop Weight test (OW) or full scale type tests. Pro is to be specially considered when the pipeline will be operat-
cedures, extent of testing, conditions and interpretation of re ing at higher temperature (above 70C), or the oil and gas
suits are to be agreed in each case. contain significant amounts of chloride components. Verifi-
cation by relevant experience or suitable laboratory tests may
5.2.10 Resistance against hydrogen induced cracking in be required.
welded joints.
5 .2 .I 0 .I The maximum hardness is to be kept at a level safe 5.3 Soundness
ly assuring resistance to hydrogen induced cracking during
welding and in service. After welding the hardness is not to 5.3.1 General
exceed 325 HV5 at any part of the weld unless otherwise re
quired (see 5.2.12). 5.3.1.1 The material is to be free from any defects which
may make the material unsuitable for intended service.
5.2.11 Resistance against environmental induced blister- Cracks. notches. gouges and tears are not acceptable. Over-
ing. laps, slivers, impressed mill scale etc. are to be removed by
grinding unless proved to be of a superficial nature (see
5.2 .II .I Steel for pipelines designed to transport commodit 7.2.6.12).
ies which may cause blistering (also often called hydrogen in-
duced pressure cracking or stepv..ise cracking) is to be made 5.3.1.2 The material is to be free from gross laminations,
in a manner making the steel reasonably resistant. Verifica gross inclusions, segregations, shrinkages and porosity. The
tion by relevant experience or suitable laboratory tests may soundness of rolled, forged and cast material is to be verified
be required for the base materiaL (See 5.2 and 6.4) by non-destructive testing according to agreed procedures
and standards (see 7 .2.7 Jl.
5.2.12 Resistance against sulphide stress corrosion crack-
ing (SSC)
5.2.12.1 Materials and welding consumables for use in pi
peline systems required designed against sulphide stress cor- 5.4 Steel for piping components
rosion cracking (see 6.4), are to have a chemical composition
and strength level suitable for such service. Selection is to be 5.4.1 General
based on documented experience. e.g. NACE Standard 5.4.1.1 Piping components such as bends, valves, flanges.
MR-01-78 (Rev 1980) tees, mechanical couplings etc. are in general to fullfill the sa-
me material requirements as specified for line-pipes of the sa-
5.2 .12 .2 The final hardness of the base material and any part me grade and thickness.
of welded joints is to be kept in the range of 260 HV5 or lo-
wer for pipeline systems required designed against sulphide 5.4.1.2 Modification in chemical composition may be agreed
stress corrosion cracking. The actual limit is to be agreed upon provided special precautions like preheating and post weld
with due considerations to operational conditions, corrosivity heat treatment are included in the welding procedure.
of the commodity, material properties, fabrication and weld-
ing procedures. corrosion control and monitoring systems etc.
5.5 Welding consumables
5.2.12.3 Suitable heat treatment may be required for high 5.5.1 General
strength steels and welds to ensure adequate resistance
5.5.1.1 Welding consumab1es are to be suitable for the in-
against sse.
tended application giving a weld with required properties,
5.2.12.4 Cold formed CMn and C-Mn fine grain treated soundness and corrosion resistance in the finally installed
steels are to be heat treated and meet the applicable hardness condition.
28

5.5 .I .2 \V elding consumables are to have classification ac- 5.6 Bolt assemblies
cording to recognized classification schemes. Low hydrogen
consumables are normally to be used for welding of high 5.6.1 General
strength steels.
Cellulosic electrodes may, however, be used provided it is es- 5.6.1.1 Bolts and nuts are to be made of steel having chemi-
tablished special welding procedures preventing hydrogen in- cal composition and mechanical properties in accordance
duced cracking. with, and are to be manufactured and tested to relevant. re-
cognized standards.
5.5 .I .3 Hydrogen controlled consumables are to give a dif-
fusible hydrogen content of max 5ml/ l 00 g weld metal 5.6.1.2 Bolts to be exposed to or immersed in sea water are
(when determined with the glycerin method), and are to be to be of property class 8.8 (ISO R8Q8) or of a equivalent
type approved. strength level. The strength level is not to exceed property
class I 0.9 for bolts to be installed above the splash zone.
5.5.2 Chemical compositon
5 .6 .I .3 When bolt assemblies are to be used in low tempe-
5.5 .2 .I The chemical composition of the weld deposit is to rature service, or having large diameters, fracture toughness
be compatible with the base metal to prevent general and lo- testing may be required.
calized corrosion. Content of alloying elements is to be kept
at a safe level consistent with documented experience. Pre- 5.6.1.4 Bolts, nuts and other fastening elements are to be
cipitation effects due to intended heat treatments are to be protected against corrosion by suitable. durable coatings.
considered. When bolts assemblies are part of or will join components
which are required designed against stress corrosion crack-
5.5.3 Mechanical properties ing. the applicable conditions to materials. manufaCturing
5.5.3.1 The mechanical properties of the weld metal are to and testing would also apply to these connections. (See
meet the base material requirements. Exessively overmatch- 5 2 l2.l
ing yield and tensile strengths are, however, to be avoided.
5.7 Materials for support structures
5.5.3.2 Impairment of tensile and toughness properties due
to intended heat treatments is to be considered.
5.7.1 General
5.5.4 Handling and storage of welding consumables 5.7.1.1 \Vhcn support structures are welded directly to. or
act as a pressurized part of the pipeline system. the material re-
5.5.4.1 \\"elding consumables are to be treated with care to
quirement for the pipeline part in question are to be met.
avoid contamination, moisture pick-up and rusting, and are
to be stored under dry conditions.
5.7 .1.2 Support structures which are not directly welded to
pressurized parts are considered as structural members. The
5.5.4.2 The relative humidity is to be kept at max 40% in
stores for low hydrogen consumables unless supporting evid- material requirements specified for primary structural mem-
bers according to Veritas' Rules for the design, contruction
ence confirm a somewhat higher humidity to be tolerable. and inspection of offshore structures)) - latest issue will nor-
5.5.4.3 Table 5.4 shows generally recommended storage mally apply.
and handling routines. Recycling and rebaking is to be strict-
ly in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions.

Table 5.4 Storage and handling of welding consumables

Type of Storage of Storage of Storage of


consumable hermetically opened consumables
sealed containers withdrawn
containers for use

Covered electrodes
- low hydrogen
type 20-30C 11 l50C 70C 21
- cellulosic tyoe 20-30C 11 20- 30C 11
Flux for submerg-
ed arc welding 20-30C 11 70C Jl

Noles:
I) The temperature should exceed ambient by ...- 5C
2) When Withdrawn for use. low hydrogen consumables are to be kept in
heated containers and normally to be used within 4 hours
3) To be handled accordmg to good workshop practice.
29

SECTION 6
CORROSION PROTECTION AND WEIGHT COATING
6.1 Corrosion protection, general Stray currents may be avoided by means of a metallic con-
ductor connected to the return (negative) side of the stray cur
6.1.1 Validity rent source. Counteraction of the effect of stray current may
be obtained by means of cathodic protection or removal relo-
6.1.1.1 Pipeline systems are to be adequately protected cation of the stray current source.
from corrosion. 6 .I through 6.5 cover minimum require-
ments to corrosion protection systems. 6.6 covers the require-
ments to weight coating.
6.2 External coating
6 .I .I .2 Requirements to pipe materials and welds with res-
pect to environmentally induced cracking such as hydrogen 6.2.1 General
induced pressure cracking (hydrogen blistering) and sulphide 6.2 1.1 The external coating is to provide adequate corro-
stress corrosion cracking are given in Section 5. sion protection in the actual environment.

6.1.2 Definitions 6.2.1.2 Different parts of the pipeline systefn such as


6. 1.2 .I Splash zone' The splash zone is defined as the as-
pipe coating
tronomical tidal range plus the wave height having a proba-
field joint coating
bility of exceedance of 0.0 I. The upper limit of the splash zo-
coating of supports
ne is determined by assuming 65% of this wave height above
HAT and the lower limit by assuming 35% below LAT.
are to be adequately covered by the coatings specifications.
6.1.2.2 Submerged zone: The submerged zone is defined as
6.2.2 Coating materials
the region below the splash zone including sea water and sea
bottom zone. 6.2.2.1 The following generic types of external coating may
be used for corrosion protection:
6.1.2.3 Atmospheric zone: The atmospheric zone is defined
as the region above the splash zone. Coal tar and asphalt enamels and asphalt mastic. normal-
ly in combination with concrete weight coating for sub-
6.1.2.4 External coating: External coating is organic. in 4
merged pipelines/ risers.
organic or metallic materials applied to the external metal Epoxy, on conditions of compatibility with any weight
surface to prevent corrosion. coating.
Epoxy and coal tar epoxy for the submerged part of ri
6.1.2.5 Cathodic protection: Cathodic protection is a tech- sers.
nique to prevent corrosion of a metal surface by making the Epoxy, vinyl and coal tar epoxy for atmospheric part of
surface the cathode of an electrochemical cell. risers.
Asphalt mastic or epoxy for field joint coating.
6.1.2.6 Internal protection: Internal protection is different Rubber lining for risers.
systems to reduce corrosion attacks of internal surfaces of pi 4

pelines and risers. Other generic types of coatings may be used if satisfactory
long term performance under similar exposure conditions is
6.1.3 General requirements to corrosion protection sys- documented. Relevant laboratory data and field testing may
tems be satisfactory documentation. This will be considered in
6 .I .3 .l The pipeline system is normally to be protected by each case. (See 6.2.2.3)
external coating in the submerged zone as well as the at-
mospheric zone. 6.2.2.2 Asphalt or coal tar based coatings should have a
softening point not less than 30C above the maximum de-
6.1.3.2 In the submerged zone the pipeline system is nor- sign operating temperature of the pipeline system.
mally to be cathodically protected by sacrifical anodes.
6.2.2.3 \Vhen selecting an external coating for a pipeline
6 .I .3 .3 In the splash zone the riser is to be protected by system the following properties arc to be taken into account:
special means of corrosion protection normally in combina-
tion with corrosion allowance. Adhesion or resistance to disbanding
Durability or resistance to chemical. physical and biologi-
6 .I .J .4 For pipeline systems transporting corrosive com- cal deterioration
modities internal protection is required. Service temperature range
Tensile elongation or flexibility
For pipeline systems which are exposed to internal or ex- Strength and impact resistance
ternal erosion wall thickness allowance may be required. Compatibility with concrete weight coating
Repair of damaged coating
6.1.3.5 For risers which are installed in J-tubes. tunnels etc.
special means of corrosion protection are normally required. The relation between adhesion and strength properties with
time should be fairly constant so that underrusting or shield-
6 .I .3 .6 The possibilities of stray currents in connection ing of cathodic protection in case of disbanded coating is
with nearby structures are to be evaluated and in areas where avoided.
stray currents are suspected. appropriate tests are to be con-
ducted. Detrimental effects of stray currents arc to be avoided The above properties are to be documented by relevant tests
by applying general preventive methods. or by reference to earlier successful application.

Of special importance is proper grounding of the welding sys- 6.2.2.4 In addition to the properties given in 6.2.2.3 the
tem for barge welding during pipelaying. coating specification is to include information on

j
30

generic type and composition and approval. If an impressed current system is to be used.
coating thickness due consideration is to be paid to avoid overprotection and to
primer design a system with sufficient mechanical strength.
binder
reinforcement 6.3.1.2 Cathodic protection by sacrificial anodes is to be
fillers designed to provide adequate protection during the design life
of the pipeline system.
6.2.3 Coating application
The design may be based on a shorter period if reinstallation
6 .2 .3 .I The external coating is to be applied according to an
of anodes is arranged for.
approved procedure. The procedure is normally to include:
6.3.1.3 Potentials for cathodic protection are given in table
handling and treatment of coating materials
6 .I. These potentials apply to sea water and saline mud at
surface preparation
ambient temperatures (5- 25C) and normal sea water com-
temperatures, air humidity and time lags between steps in position (salinity 32 ~ 38%,).
the coating process
testing methods, with reference to generally recognized
Table 6.1 Potential On volts) for cathodic protection of
standards or a correspondingly detailed description
steel
acceptance criteria
repair procedure following attachment of cathodic pro
Metal Reference electrode
tection cables, padeyes, etc.
handling, transport of coated pipes Cu/CuSO, Ag/ AgCI Zn
quality control and inspection Steel in aerobic
reporting procedure environment
a) positive limit - 0.85 -0.80 + 0.25
6.2.3.2 The minimum requirement to pipe surface treat b) negative limit - 110 - 1.05 + 0.00
ment before application of coating is generally blast cleaning
to min. SIS 055900 C Sa 2.5 or equivalent standard. Steel in anaerobic
environment
6.2.3.3 The quality control reports are generally to include: a) positive limit - 0 95 -0 90 + 0.15
b) negative limit - 110 I - 1.05 + 0.00
'
acceptance criteria according to the coating specification Very high strength steel
surface preparation data (yield strength
temperature and humidity measurements ;;. 700 MPal
number of coats and total dry film thickness a) positive limit - 0.85 - 0.80 + 0.25
adhesion data b) negative limit - 1.00 -0 95 + 0.10
holiday detection
information on the location of reinforcement in the coat
ing. In brackish water the potential of the Ag/ AgC I electrode
must be corrected by the actllal chloride composition.
6.2.3.4 A preproduction test is to be carried out at the coat
ing yard in order to demonstrate that the coating can be ade- The zinc reference electrodes is only reliable in open sea-
quately applied under the prevailing conditions. water.

6.2.4 Field joint coating At temperatures other than ambient the potential given in
table 6.1 may not apply Protective potentials which are
6.2.4.1 Field joint coating should be applied according to an I mY /C more negative may be used for steel surfaces ope-
approved procedure of similar nature as described in 6.2.3. rating at temperatures between 25 and l 00C.
The field joint coating should be compatible with the pipe
coating. 6.3.2 Design of system
Criteria for acceptance. repair and rejection of coating before 6.3.2.1 The cathodic protection system is to be designed so
final submersion of pipe are to be stated. Repair methods for that it is able to deliver sufficient current and distribute this
damaged coating under field conditions are to be described in current so that the criteria for cathodic protection is obtained
the procedure for field joint coating. (Table 6.1).

6.2.4.2 Surface preparation by power tool brushing to a


The current density requirement is to be selected on the basis
of the environmental conditions either by experience from si-
J
uniform near-white metal finish may be accepted for asphalt milar conditions or from direct measurements along the rou-
or coal tar based field joint coating. te.
6.2.4.3 When mastic is used for field joint coating, it is of Guidance on the design of cathodic protection sysrems is gi-
special importance to keep the temperature of the mastic ven in Appendix D.
within acceptable limits.

The mastic should be adequately cooled by continuous wa-


6 .3 .2 .2
clude:
Cathodic protection design specification should in-
1
tercooling before the pipes passes over the stinger during lay
ing operations. calculation of area to be protected
influence on/ from electrically connected systems
current density requirement
6.3 Cathodic protection coating breakdown criterion
anode material and manufacturer
6.3.1 General anode weight, design, distribution and total number
calculation of the effectiveness of the system.
6.3 .1.1 The cathodic protection system is normally to be
based on sacrificial anodes. 6 .3 .2 .3 The anode core is to be designed to support the an-
ode during all constructional and operational phases, e.g.
Impressed current may be used upon special consideration transportation, installation etc. 1
31

6.3.3 Anode materials and fabrication The test welds are to be sectioned and examined for bonding
6.3.3.1 Sacrifical anodes may be alloys of aluminium or and possible excessive Cu-penetration using a microscope
zinc. with magnification of at least I OOx. The Cu-penetration is
normally to be less than 0.3 mm for procedures to be used on
The driving potential and electrochemical efficiency of the risers. while maximum 0,8 mm for procedures to be used on
pipelines.
anode alloy are to be documented by appropriate tests. The
testing should be based on long term freerunning tests under
relevant conditions. The hardness in the heat affected zone is to be determined on
the macrosections and is to be within the normal liinit specif-
ied for the pipeline system.
6.3 .3 .2 The anode core should be hot-dip galvanized for
zinc or biastcleaned to Sa 2.5 according to SIS 055955 prior
to casting of the anodes. 6.3.4.7 The welds and electrical connection between anode
and pipe is to be checked before pipe installation. Pipes with
metallic connection between anode and reinforcement in
6.3.3.3 Manufacturers may be required to prove their capa-
weight coating are to be rejected.
bility of delivering anodes which satisfy the actual specifica-
tions.
6.3.5 Testing of system
The anodes are to be furnished with a test certificate at least 6.3.5.1 Potential measurements are to be carried out to en-
stating the manufacturer, the specified alloy composition, an- sure that the pipeline system is adequately polarized. This
ode specification, the charge number. the chemical analysis, testing is to be carried out within one year after installation.
performance test. the method of analysis. and other relevant
information. 6.3.5.2 A program for the testing including test equipment.
procedure for and extent of potential measurements are to be
The anodes are to be properly marked for identification. The submitted for approvaL
marking system is at least to include the manufacturers mark
and the charge number. The reference electrode is to be located as close as possible to
the selected surface point to be measured.
The surface of sacrifical anodes are to be examined I 00% vi~
sually. The anode surface is to be free from coating and
cracks affecting the anode efficiency. 6.4 Internal corrosion control

6.4.1 General
6.3.4 Installation of anodes 6.4.1.1 Internal corrosion control is to be provided for pi-
peline systems transporting corrosive hydrocarbons.
6.3.4.1 The anode arrangements is to be in compliance
with the approved design specification. The anodes are to be Internal corrosion control may be achieved by one or more
mounted in a manner such as to avoid mechanical damage of the following methods:
during handling and installation of pipes. It is advisable that
anodes have a smaller diameter than the weight coating. Application of corrosion inhibitors
Corrosion allowance
6.3.4.2 Anode bracelets are to be fastened securely on the Internal coating
pipe. The two segments may be welded together with steel Application of corrosion resistant alloys or linings
strips in order to ensure satisfactory mechanical connection Drying
and proper positioning. Each anode is to be electrically con~
nected to the pipe by at least two attachments. 6.4.1.2 The following properties of the commodity to be
transported should be taken into account in the establishment
6.).4.3 Electrical connection between anode and pipe is of a program for internal corrosion control:
normally to be made by manual welding or thermite weld-
ing. Attachment welding are to be placed at least 150 mm off Oil/ gas/ water ratios
other welds. Salinity, bacteria content. pH of water phase
Content of corrosive gases such as C0 2. H 2S and 0 2
Manual welds for electrical connections are to be made on an Solids content and flow characteristics
attachment plate. Attachment plates welded directly onto the Temperature and pressure
pipeline/ riser are to be orientated circumferentially, and per-
1- formed with qualified welding procedure. See 8.7. Regarding
material requirements see 5.7. Expected time dependance and variations due to operational
conditions should be indicated. The possibility of changing
6 .3 .4 .4 If thermite welding is used for attachment of anode conditions by seawater injection (secondary recovery) should
cables, welding procedure is to include: be considered at the design stage.

Brand and designation of powder 6 .4.1 .3 Internal corrosion control is normally required
Size of mold. charge and cable when the commodity is containing water or has a relative
Preparation of surface humidity of more than 50% and when the partial pressure of
corrosive gases is above the following limits:
Prior to thermite welding the surface is to be dry. clean and
bright. oxygen '0.001 MPa (0.0 14 psi
6.3.4.5 Attachments of electrical connections by thermite hydrogen sulphide '0.01 MPa (I .4 psil
welding are to be made with a qualified procedure proved to carbon dioxide '0.01 MPa (I .4 psil
give sufficient bonding and negligible Cu-penetration along

L grain boundaries. The size and shape of the mold is to suit the
diameter of the pipe and the anode cable size.
Combination of these corrosive gases may be more agressive,
especially the combination of H 2S and 0 2. The corrosivity
will also generally increase by increasing temperature.
6.3.4.6 Qualification of the thermite welding proCedure is.
to be based on visual examination and mechanical testing of 6 .4. I A The H 2S values listed in 6 .4 .I .3 are to be considered
three test welds. for general corrosion. Regarding limits of hydrogen sulphide
32

for sulphide stress corrosion cracking reference is made to Exposure to corrosion


NACEStandard MRO I 75 (latest revisionl. Consequences of a corrosion failure
Accessibility
6.4.2 Internal corrosion control by inhibitors
6.4.2.1 When inhibitors are used for internal corrosion 6.4 .5 .3 Thickness measurements at selected reference points
control the following conditions are to be taken into account: on risers are to be carried out prior to installation and in con-
nection with periodical inspection (See 9.4.4.3). The measure-
General philosophy for the inhibitor selection ments are to be carried out according to an approved pro-
Trade name cedure which should include information on:
Chemical type and mechanism for inhibition
Solubility and despersibility type of equipment
Ecological effects type of probe
Recommended inhibitor concentrations recording and evaluation procedure
Pressure, flow rate and temperature limitations location of reference points
Compatibility if more than one inhibitor is used
A reference list of previous applications 6.4.5.4 Fluid analysis may provide valuable information on
the corrosion behaviour of a pipeline system. A specification
6.4.2.2 The protective properties of the selected inhibitor on sampling procedure, types, methods, frequency and
are to be properly documented by appropriate laboratory evaluation of fluid analysis should be.submitted for approval.
and/ or field tests. Laboratory tests should include exposure
testing in a relevant fluid with respect to composition, flow, The following analysis may be carried out:
temperature, etc.
pH
Iron content
The testing should normally be carried out by an independant
body. Bacteria
Salinity
6.4.2.3 The inhibitors are to be injected into the system ac- Inhibitor
cording to an approved procedure. The procedure is to in-
clude information on Flow, temperature, pressure, dew point and other operational
characteristics should be recorded as well.
principles of inhibitor application
general arrangement system 6.4 .5 .5 Properly installed electrochemical probes and
dosage weight loss coupons may provide valuable information in
control system systems containing sufficient water. A specification on design
installation and operation of the probes should be submitted
for approval.
6.4.3 Internal corrosion control by coating
6.4.3.1 Internal corrosion control may be ach~eved by app-
lication of a suitable coating system. Regarding properties of
coating materials and application procedures reference is ma- 6.5 Protection of risers and pipelines in critical areas
de to 6.2.2.3-4 and 6.2.3.1.
6.5.1 Splash zone protection
If the coating is applied after the pipeline has been installed.
due consideration should be given to proper surface prepara- 6.5.1 .I In the design of corrosion protection system for ri-
tion and quality control after application. sers in the splash zone, due consideration is to be given to:

If the coating is applied before the pipeline is installed, due temperatures of hydrocarbons
consideration should be given to internal coating of field intermittent wetting and drying
joints. wave forces
resistance to ageing by seawater and sunlight
6.4.3.2 Internal coating which only is applied to increase ease of repair and maintenance
the capacity of the pipeline system is not subject to approval. compability of different materials when such are combin-
Due consideration is to be given to the possibilities of increas- ed.
ed localized corrosion at imperfections in the internal coating.

6.4.4 Internal corrosion control by corrosion resistant al-


6.5.1.2 The riser is to have a corrosion allowance in addi-
tion to other means of corrosion protection as described in
6.5 I .3.
J
loys
6.4 .4 .I Corrosion resistant alloys may be used for corrosion
control. The alloy may be used as solid pipe or as a lining in-
The corrosion allowance is to provide protection for 2 years.
Table 6.2 gives guidelines on determination of the corrosion
allowance as function of operating temperatures of the riser.
J
side the pipeline.

6.4 .4 .2 The corrosion resistance of the alloy should be doc-


umented by reference to previous successful application in si-
Table 6.2 Corrosion allowance of risers as function of
operating temperature J
milar enviroments or laboratory testing. The laboratory test-
ing should include tests for resistance against stress corrosion Temperature. C Corrosion allowance, mm
cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and erosion corrosion.
20
<
-
20
40
2
4
J
6.4.5 Internal corrosion monitoring
40 - 60 6
60 - 80 8
6.4.5.1 Internal corrosion monitoring is normally to in~
elude different procedures such as thickness measurements,
80 - 100 !0 J
fluid analysis, electrochemical probes, electrical resistance 6.5 .I .3 Acceptable means of corrosion protection in the
probes and different types of weight loss coupons. The pro- splash zone are application of a corrosion resistant metallic
gramme should be based on the following: sheating or vulcanised rubber. l
33

6.5.1.4 If metallic sheating is used, the alloy should have caused by the contact between the bottom and the pipeline
adequate corrosion resistance and sufficient thickness and during the towing operation. This is normally to be proved
strength to withstand the loads during installation and opera- through tests. Such tests should be carried out with relevant
tion. The welding is to be carried out to a qualified pro- diameters. submerged weight, concrete quality, jointing
cedure. All welds are to be examined I 00 per cent by suitable methods and along a similar route as the actual towing.
NDT-methods. A sacrificial anode is to be located below the
metallic sheating to compensate for galvanic effects. 6.6.2 Weight coating specification.
6.6.2.1 The following items are normally to be covered by
Metallic shielding should be of a type that can be completely weight coating specification:
seal welded to itself and to the steel doubler plate. No me-
chanical type sealing should be permitted. Thickness and strength
Materials to be used
6.5.1.5 If vulcanised rubber is used, an application pro- Method of application
cedure is to be submitted for approvaL Special precautions Curing method
are to be taken to avoid disbanding at the ends. Inspection and tests
Requirements on storage and handling of coated pipe.
6.5 .1 .6 Other means of corrosion protection may be accept-
able provided adequate properties are documented for the ac- 6.6.3 Concrete constituents
tual conditions.
6.6 .3 .I General. It is to be documented that the properties
6.5.2 Protection of risers in J-tubes, tunnels etc. of the materials under consideration are adequate for the in-
tended purpose.
6.5.2.1 Risers in 1-tubes, tunnels and other inaccessible
areas are to be protected by a suitable coating (see 6 .2) and in- 6.6.3.2 Cement. Cement is to be equivalent to ASTM Port-
hibited seawater or other non-corrosive fluids.
land Cement type I. II. Ill IS or IP.
The properties of inhibitors are to be adequately documented
(see 6.4.2). The tricalcium aluminate content of the cement is to be such
as to enhance the corrosion protection of steel without impar-
A sealing plug should be fitted to the drawn in section of the ing the durability of concrete.
riser so that it seals the Jtube at the bellmouth, when the line
is pulled in. 6.6.3.3 Water. Water is to be free from contamination in
amounts likely to harm the concrete or the reinforcement.
A specification for installation of sealing plug and application
of inhibitors should include a description of provisions for 6.6.3.4 Aggregates. Aggregates are to have sufficient
sampling and chemical analysis of the inhibited fluid. strength and durability. Aggregate containing potentially
reactive or deterious constituents is not to be used. Aggrega-
6.5.2.2 Protection by sacrificial anodes may be used as an tes are to be properly graded.
extra precaution if technically feasible. Monitoring of the
cathodic protection system should be specially considered. 6.6.3.5 Admixtures. Admixtures are to meet requirements of
a recognized standard and are normally to be verified by trial
6.5.3 Protection of risers in internal transition zones mixes.
6.5 .3 .l Protection of risers in internal transition zones (air I
seawater) for instance in shafts of concrete structures may be 6.6.4 Properties of concrete
suitable coating and corrosion allowance. Acceptable corro-
sion allowance may be as given in Table 6.2. 6.6.4.1 General. Concrete for weight coating is to have suf
ficient strength and durability.
Due consideration should be given to the possibilities of in-
spection and repair for transition zones. 6.6.4.2 Strength. The concrete is to have a minimum char-
acteristic strength of 30 N/mm' found from 150 x 300 mm
6.5.4 Pipeline shore-approach. cylindrical speciments tested in accordance with ASTM C39.
6.5 .4 .I The pipeline shore approach are to be specially When test specimens of different shape or dimensions are us-
considered in the design of the corrosion protection system. ed. an appropriate correction factor is to be applied to convert
In the tidal area the pipeline may be treated as risers corrosi- the compressive strength determined to the standard cylinder
on-wise. strength.
Due consideration is to be given to possible interaction with 6.6.4.3 Durability. Permeability is the most important pro-
cathodic protection systems for land based structures and pi- perty determining the long-term durability of concrete expos-
pelines. Electrical insulating devices may be used above the ed to sea water. Low permeability may normally be obtained
water level. by use oL
6.6 Weight coating high cement content
low water-cement ratio preferably below 0.40, however
6.6.1 General not greater than 0.45,
6.6.1.1 This section deals with concrete weight coating. sound and dense aggregates.
Other pipeline anchoring systems will be subject to special proper grading of fine and coarse aggregates,
consideration. good concreting practice and good workmanship ensur-
ing adequate workability .thorough compaction, proper
The main aims of concrete weight coating are to provide neg- curing arid handling.

l ative buoyancy to submarine pipeline throughout its service


life, and to protect corrosion protection coating against me-
chanical damage during pipeline installation and service. 6.6.5 Reinforcement
6.6.5.1 Material properties: Reinforcing steel is to satisfy
l 6.6.1.2 In cases where the bottom tow methods is used for
installation, the concrete coating must withstand the abrasion
the chemical and physical requirements of a recognized
standard.
34

6.6.5.2 Typesc Reinforcement may be in the form of steel wi- plan for testing, inspection, reporting of results etc. at coating
re fabric or welded cages fabricated of plain or deformed bars. yard is subject to acceptance. -
The type and amount of reinforcement is to be selected in due
account of the anticipated pipeline loading and service condi- 6.6.7 .2 Concrete constituents. Testing of the individual ma-
tions and so as to control the crack pattern of the concrete terials is to be carried out at regular intervais during concrete
coating. production. The frequency of testing is to be determined tak-
ing the quality and uniformity of material supply into ac-
6.6.5.3 Splices' Reinforcement type and application method count.
are to insure continuity of the hoop reinforcement.
6.6.7 .3 Concrete. Prior to start of concreting the mix pro-
6.6 .5 .4 Placing: Reinforcing steel is to be accurately placed portions. concrete strength and weight are to be documented
and adequately supported. by tests.

Reinforcing steel is not to make electrical contact with the pi- During production concrete is to be tested regularly for thick-
pe or anodes. ness, strength and density. The frequency is to be minimum
one sample per 15 pipes coated and minimum one per shift.
6.6.6 Application and curing of concrete coating
In addition to molded test specimens the strength tests are to
6.6.6.1 Application. Concrete is to be applied to pipe joint be supplemented by control of the in-place strength measured
using suitable equipment and procedures that will result in on drilled-out cores. The minimum diameter of the core is to
adequately consolidate concrete coating of uniform thickness, be at least 3 times the nominal maximum aggregate size. and
density and strength. The concrete is to be placed as soon as the length to diameter ratio is to be not less than I .0. Sampl-
possible after mixing and in any case well before the initial ing. storing and testing are to be in accordance with
set. ASTM-C42 or equivalent. The core strength is to be convert-
ed to the strength of standard cylinders 150 x 300 mm in ac
6.6.6.2 Curing. The selected method of curing and its dura- cordance with ASTM-C42. The strength requirement is con-
tion is to be such as to ensure satisfactory strength and dura- sidered satisfied provided the mean converted strength of
bility of concrete, and to prevent undue cracking of concrete three cores is at least 85% of the specified minimum char-
coating. acteristic strength and no single core is below 7 5% .
Documentation of the adequacy of the proposed curing
method may be required, particularly for adverse climatic 6 .6. 7.4 Electrical insulation measurements by approved
conditions. procedure to prove no contact between weight coating rein-
forcement and pipeline steel are to be carried out.
6.6.7 Testing and inspection
6.6.7 .I General. Methods for testing of materials are to be
in accordance with a recognized standard. The organization

i
_I

J
J
35

SECTION 7
FABRICATION OF PIPES AND PIPING COMPONENTS
7 .I General 7 .2.2.4 Previously qualified fabrication procedure may be
transferred to a new production when the fabricator has used
7.1.1 Validity it recently for production of pipes to the same or more strin-
7 .1.1.1 This section specifies requirements for fabrication gent requirements under the surveillance of Veritas or an in-
and quality control of pipes and piping components. Material spection agency accepted by Veritas.
properties are to comply with Section 5.
7 .2.2.5 Jointers may be produced in limited numbers using
7 .I .I .2 The fabricator is to be capable of fabricating line pi- sound sections of pipes. The girth welding procedure is to be
pes and piping components of the required quality. Relevant qualified prior to or during initial production as given in
documentation is to be made available on request. 7.2.4 and Table 7.1.

Prequalification testing or an extended quality control pro- 7 .2.2.6 All welding is to be carried out strictly in accord-
gram is required for fabricators having limited experience. ance with the qualified procedure. If any parameter is chang-
for fabricating pipes and components to the actual or similar ed outside the acceptable limits, the welding procedure is to
specifications. be respecified and requalified. Essential parameters and va-
riation limits are specified in 8.5 .4.
7 .1.1.3 The fabricator is to establish and implement a de-
7 .2.3 Qualification of welding operators, welders and arc~
tailed. independent quality control system covering all succes-
sive fabrication steps. The quality control functions are to be air gougers
directed and performed by competent persons. 7 .2 .3 .I Welding personnel is to have reasonable under-
standing of fundamental welding techniques, welding pro-
7 .1.1.4 The schemes for qualification and quality control cedure specifications. relevant methods of nondestructive
described in this section have been based on current recogn- testing and acceptance criteria, obtained through training and
ized fabrication practice. Other methods may also be used. practise prior to qualification testing. see Appendix C.
but are then subject to special approval.
7 .2.3 .2 Qualification testing is required for welding opera-
tors when their tasks are to preset. adjust, start. guide and
stop the welding operation. and thereby may influence the
7.2 Pipe fabrication quality of the weld. Qualification testing may be exempted
for welding operators whose tasks have no influence on the
7.2.1 General weld quality provided they have been given adequate training
7.2 .1 .1 Pipes are to be produced seamless or by fusion on the actual welding equipment.
welding of shaped plates or strips. The submerged arc weld-
ing process is normally to be used. Gas metal arc welding 7.2.3.3 WelderS are normally to be qualified for single side
and external gas shielded flux cored arc welding may be used buttwelding of pipes in the required principal positions. Un-
subject to special approval. der special circumstances qualification may be carried out on
plates.
7.2 .) .2 \Vhere cold expansion is used to adjust size and Repair welders may be qualified for partial thickness repair
strength. the nominal permanent strain is not to exceed 2 per on a representative devised test set up if only such weld re-
cent. Cold expansion is to be performed with tools avoiding pairs will be made.
high local deformations.
7 .2.3.4 The qualification test is to be carried out with the
7 .2.2 Fabrication procedure specification same or equivalent equipment such as to be used during pro-
duction welding. and normally at the actual premises, e.g.
7.2.2.1 A fabrication procedure specification is to be esta- work shop, yard. vessel. The test is to be witnessed by Veri
blished for each work describing the sequences of fabrication tas or an inspection agency recognized by Veritas.
and the successive quality control steps and requirements.
The specification is to be submitted for approval. 7.2.3.5 Qualification testing is normally to be based on vi-
sual inspection and radiographic examination. When the gas
7 .2.2.2 When pipes are to be produced by welding. a detail metal arc process is used, mechanical testing is also to be per-
ed welding procedure specification is to be prepared giving: formed, normally using side bend and nick break test speci-
pipe material standard. grade and project specification. mens.
diameter and wall thickness.
groove preparation and design. Qualification schemes are described in Appendix C.
welding precess.
welding consumables. trade name. recognized classifica- 7 .2.3.6 The qualification expires when the welder and
tion. welding operator have not been welding regularly within the
electrode/ wire diameter. qualified range during a period of more than 6 months.
welding parameters: current. voltage, type of current. po-
larity, travel speed for each arc. 7 .2.3.7 A welder or a welding machine operator who has
number of welding arcs as well as cold and hot wire ad- produced a complete and acceptable welding procedure qua-
ditions. lification test is thereby qualified.
welding position. 7 .2.3.8 Personnel to perform arc-air gouging is to be train-
Welding direction. ed and experienced with the actual equipment. Qualification
number of passes. testing may be required.
preheat and interpass temperatures.
post weld heat treatment. 7 .2.4 Qualification of the pipe fabrication procedure
7 .2.2.3 The fabrication procedure is to be qualified prior to 7 .2.4.1 From the first production batch of maximum 50 pi-
or during initial production. Type and number of tests are gi- pes, two pipes selected by Veritas are to be used for qualifi
ven in 7.2-4 and Table 7.1. cation testing.
36

Type and number of tests to be mad~ for each pipe are given 7 .2.4.3 Failure of a test specimen due to defective prepara-
in Table 7 .I. tion may be disregarded and is to be replaced by a new test
specimen.
Dimensions of test specimens and testing procedure are given
in Appendix C. 7 .2.5 Hydrostatic testing
7.2.5.1 Every pipe is to be hydrostatically tested and with
7.2.4.2 The qualification of the fabrication procedure is to
stand without any sign of leakage or sweats a test pressure (p)
be based on the following requirements:
determined by the following formula for at least 10 seconds:
Hydrostatic testing to the specified test pressure (see
7.2.5). 2t
p ~ a1 K (MPal
Dimensional tolerances and workmanship to the specified
limits (see 7.2.6).
0
Soundness of base material and welds within the specif- aF specified minimum yield strength (MPa).
ied acceptance limits (see 7.2.6 and 7.2.7). t nominal wall thickness (mm).
Check analyses within the specified composition limits D nominal outside diameter (mm).
(see 5.2.4). K factor determined by pipe diameter.
Tensile properties of base material at least equal to the
specified minimum values (see 5.2.6).
Notch toughness of base material at least equal to the Outside diameter K
minimum specified values for resistance against brittle (nomina0
fracture. and propagating ductile fractures when so re-
quired (see 5.2.7 and 5.2.8). OD < 200 0.75
200 < oo ..;sao 0.85
Transverse weld tensile strength at least equal to the spe-
cified minimum tensile strength. OD > 500 0 90
Bending ductility to specified deformation without ap-
pearance of any defect greater than 3 mm, however. For hydrostatic testers equipped with end sealing devices, the
max. 6 mm at the specimen edges. applied sealing force for endsealing resulting in an additional
Brittle fracture resistance of weld metal and heat affected longitudinal stress has to be considered. Supporting calcula-
zone at least equal to the required average and minimum tions to achieve the required stress intensity for computing of
single values (see 5.2.7). tests pressure is to be submitted by the pipe manufacture.
Macrosections with a sound weld merging smoothly into
the pipe. Acceptance criteria as per Table 10.1 . 7.2.5.2 Pressure test records showing test pressure and du-
Maximum hardness equal to or below the specified limit ration are to be available for each pipe.
(see 5.2.10 and 5.2.12).
7 .2.5.3 Pipes which have failed on pressure testing. are to
be rejected

Table 7.1
Qualification of pipe fabrication procedure
Type and number of tests for each pipe

Pipe size. FULL LENGTH BASE MATERIAL TESTS WELD TESTS


outside PIPE TESTS
diameter
lmml Hydro Dimen- Non- Check Tensile test 11 Charpy Tensile Guided Charpy Macro
stattc sional destruc analysis \-notch test bend Vnotch section/
tests mspec tive tests Longi Trans trans1 trans test tough hard
5)
tion tudinal verse uon verse to ness
curve weld 6} "'"
2l.l)
"
Seamless Ace. Ace. Ace.
OD<300 to to to I I - I
OD> 300 7 .2.5 7.2.6 7.2.7 I I I

Welded Ace. Ace. Ace. I


OD <300 to to to I I" - I 2 4 4 samples I
OD > 300 7.25 7.2.6 7.2.7 I I I 2 4 4 samples
Notes:
1. Yield strength. ultimate tensile strength and elongation to be determined with recording of the stre~::.strain cune {only for lineptpesl
2. Charpy Vnotch transition curve is to be established using transverse test samples where so is possible Acceptance testing temperature is to be as specified
in 5.2.7.
3 Where resistance to propagating ductile fracture is to be evaluated by other tests than Charpy testmg. the spectfied tests are to be performed additionally
(see also 5 2.9)
4. The ultimate tensile strength of the weld is to be determined.
5. Guided bend tests to be either 2 face bend plus 2 root bend specimens, or 4 side bend specimens for thickness less and greater than 12.5 mm respectively.
6. Charpy V-impact testing is to be performed at the specified temperature in the weld metal and the heat affected zone at sufficient positions to determine the
overall resistance to brittle fracture (see 5.2.7). Charpy teting is normally to be performed with the notch positioned in Center of weld. on fusion line. 2
mm from fusion line and 5 mm from fusion line (Each sample to provide 3 test specimens)
7. Longitudinal tensile test is to be taken l 80 opposite to the weld
37
Table 7.2
Frequency and extent of pipe production tests

Chemical composition 11 Mechanical testing 2l Hydrostatic test Dimensional Nondestructive


inspection tests

Each heat Each 50 pipe. Each 50 pipe, mini Each pipe Each pipe Each pipe
minimum mum once each heat (Ace. to 7.2.5) (Ace. to 7.2.6) (Ace. to 7.2.7)
once a heat (Ace. to Table 7 .3)

Notes:
I. Check analysis is not required if this has already been performed during an intermediate stage.
2. If there are more than 50 pipes manufactured from each 50 tons. mechanical testing is only required for each 50 tons.

Table 7.3
Number and type of mechanical tests on pipe production tests

Pipe material tests Weld tests

Pipe size Tensile test 11 Charpy2lll Tensile41 test Guided 5l Charpy6 l Macro-
outer dia- Vnotch transverse to bend test Vnotch section/
meter (mml Longi Trans- toughness weld toughness hardness
tudinal verse

Seamless
OD <;300 I I sample
OD > 300 I I sample

Welded
OD <;300 I I sample I 2 2 samples I
OD > 300 I I sample I 2 2 samples I

Notes:
I. Yield strength. ultimate tensile strength and elongation to be determined.
2. Brittle fracture resistance to be determined by Charpy V-notch testing at the specified testing temperature (sec 5.2.7)
3. When pipe material is requ1red to be resistant against propagating ductile fractures. production tests are also to include the specified type and number of
tests.
4. Ultimate tensile strength of the weld to be determined.
5. Bend test to be either I face -+- I root bend. or 2 side bend specimens for thickness less and greater than 12.5 mm respectively
6. Charpy V-notch of weld metal and heat affected zone. Notching of HAZ to be performed at the posit1on giving lowest average energy absorption during
qualification testing.

Table 7.4
Mechanical testing of weld repair procedures

Non-destructive tests Tensile test transverse Guided bend test 21 Charpy V notch Macro-section/ hard-
to weld 11 toughness 3l ness

Ace. to 7 .2.7 .8 2 4 4 I

Notes:
I Tensile test to record ultimate tensile strength of the joint
2 Either two root bends plus two face bends. or four side bends for thickness less and greater than 12.5 mm respectively
3. Impact testing to be carried out with the notch positioned in centre of weld. fusion line, 2 mm from f.l and 5 mm from f.!. This testing may be exempted
from surface repair procedure provided same welding consumable. size and heat input is applied

7 .2.6 Dimensions and workmanship 7 .2.6.3 The inside diameter at the ends is to be measured
7 .2.6.1 Tolerances on dimensions and workmanship for li- over a length of 100 mm from the end and is to comply with
nepipes are given in 7.2.6.2 through 7.2.6.12. When pipes the following limits:
are cut back. the pipe ends are to be rechecked. Tighter toler-
ance limits may be required if installation welding is to be Inside diameter (nominaO Tolerances
performed with welding equipment demanding narrow line- lD <;300 mm + 1.6 mm
up tolerances. -0.4 mm
ID> 300 mm +2.4 mm
7.2.6.2 The outside diameter of the pipe body is to comply -0.8 mm
with the following limits:

Outside diameter (nominal) Tolerances


OD <;500 mm 0,75 per cent
OD> 500 mm I per cent

j
38

7 .2.6.4 The outofroundness is to be limited and measured NOT-records of each pipe are to be identified and traceable
inside pipe over a length I 00 mm from each end, is to comp (see 8 .6.1.3).
Iy with the following limitso
7.2.7.2 Visual examination is to be performed at outside,
Inside diameter (nominal) Tolerances and also inside if access allows. The surface finish of the base
material and the welded seams is to comply with 7.2.6.12
JD.;;500 mm I per cent,
and Table 10.1.
max. 3 mm
ID > 500 mm 0.5 per cent,
max. 5 mm 7.2.7.3 Welded and seamless pipes are to be ultrasonic test
ed full length, or by other suitable, agreed methods, for lami-
7.2 .6 .5 The wall thickness at any point of the pipe material nations and cluster inclusions. Procedures and acceptance cri-
is not to deviate from the nominal thickness by more than teria are to be in accordance with agreed, recognized stand-
plus 15 per cent and minus 12.5 per cent. For welded pipes ards.
having OD > 500 mm, the minus tolerance is not to exceed 8
per cent. Plates and strips may optionally be tested prior to pipe fabri-
cation, but after quenching and tempering if this has been
7 .2.6.6 The variation in pipe weight is to be within minus applied.
3.5 per cent and plus 10 per cent of nominal weight of a sin-
gle length pipe. 7.2.7.4 Longitudinal welds and spiral welds are to be ultra-
sonic tested full length. The testing procedure is to be capable
7.2.6.7 OffseL The radial offset is to be within the following of detecting two-dimensional and three-dimensional defects
limitso located in any direction and position. Additionally such
welds are to be radiographed over a length of 200 mm from
Wall thickness each pipe end.
Offset
(nominaD
Circumferential welds are to be radiographed full length. Ul
t.;;I2.5mm Max. 1.5 mm trasonic testing may also be required in special cases.
t> 12.5 mm 12.5 per cent,
max. 3 mm Weld repairs are to be radiographed full length.

7.2 .6 .8 The straightness of the pipe measured as the gap be- Non-destructive testing is to be in accordance with Section
tween the straight line between the ends and the lowest point 10. \Veld seams are to meet the acceptance limits of Table
of the pipe surface is to be maximum 2,0 mm per meter I 0.1.
length.
7.2.8 Production testing
7 .2.6.9 The pipe is to contain no dents deeper than 6 mm.
being measured as the gap between the prolongation of the 7.2.8.1 Production testing is to be carried out to verify that
original contour of the pipe and the lowest point of the dent. the pipes are fabrkated lo the composition, mechanical pro
The length of a dent in any direction is not to eXceed half the perties. soundness and dimen~ions specified. Production tests
pipe diameter. are to be performed as directed in Tables 7 .2 and 7 .3.

Any cold formed gouges and notches in dented areas are to Testing is to be witnessed by Veritas or an inspection agency
recognized by Veritas.
be removed by grinding (see also 7.2.9.3). -'
I
7.2.8.2 If any of the selected test specimens do not fulfil the
7.2.6.10 The reinforcement of the weld seam is to be kept requirements, the corresponding pipe is to be rejected. In or
within the following limits:

Wall thickness Reinforcement of weld


der that the remaining pipes from the same batch of maxi-
mum 50 pipes (or 50 tons, see note in Table 7 .2) may be ac J
cepted, two similar tests are to be repeated on two different
(nominaD Inside pipe Outside pipe pipes. and both tests are to be satisfactory. Should one of the-
Max. Min. Max. Min. se tests faiL individual testing of the remaining pipes of the _j
t.;;I2.5 mm 2 mm 0 3 mm 0 batch is to be carried out.
t> 12,5 mm 3 mm 0 4 mm 0
7 .2.8.3 Failure of a test specimen due to defective prepara-
The weld seam inside the pipe is to be ground flush over a tion may be disregarded and replaced by a new test speci-
length of I 00 mm from each end. men.
7.2.8.4 If the failure rate exceeds 5 per cent, the quality
7 .2.6.11 The weld is to have an even surface finish and control program is to be increased to an appropriate level and
merge smoothly into the base material. Minor undercutting
may be tolerable without repairs provided the depth and
maintained until the failure cause is identified and eliminated.
Retesting of supplied material and requalification of the fabri-
1
length comply with Table I 0.1. cation procedure may also be required.
7.2.6.12 The pipe surface is to be free from any defects 7 .2.8.5 When pipes have failed by mechanical testing, and
which may make the pipe unsuitable for intended service. acceptable properties are intended restored by a controlled
Cracks, arc burns, notches and gouges are not acceptable. heat treatment, individual retesting is to be performed.
Overlaps, slivers. impressed mill scale etc. which do not
comply with a workmanlike finish are to be removed. Lami-
nations and inclusions extending to the surface or the bevel
face and having a transverse dimension above 6 mm are to
7.2.9 Repairs
7.2.9.1 Pipes containing defects may be repaired. or the de-
1
be removed by grinding (see also 5.3 and 7.2.9.3). fective sections cut off Weld deposits having unacceptable
mechanical properties are to be completely removed before
7 .2. 7 Visual examination and non-destructive testing
rewelding. 1
7 .2.7 .I Each pipe is to be visually examined and non-des- 7.2 .9 .2 Surface defects in pipe material inside the pipe, on
tructive tested after pressure testing. If a pipe is cut back, the the outside of the pipe and less than I 00 rum from the pipe
new pipe end is also to be inspected. end are to be repaired by grinding only. 1
39

In other areas. surface defects may be weld repaired once. 7.3.1.4 When cold forming of pipes to bends or other com-
provided the depth of the defect is maximum I I 3 of the wall ponents introduces a-permanent deformation more than 3 per
thickness. The length of that part of a defect which has depth cent. the mechanical properties.ofC-Mn and C-Mn fine grain
more than I I 8 of wall thickness is to be no longer than I I 4 treated steel are to be retested in the affected region. When
of the outside pipe diameter. such materials are cold deformed more than 5% stress re-
lieving is to be performed. When the deformation exceeds
7.2.9.3 Where defects are eliminated by grinding, the re- I 0% , hot forming is normally to be performed followed by a
maining wall thickness is to be within the minimum specified controlled heat treatment. restoring a uniform microstructure
limit. Grinding is to be performed in a workmanlike manner. and mechanical properties (e.g. normalizing, quenching and
tempering).
L 7.2.9.4 A local weld repair is to be at least 100 mm long.
Weld repairs in pipe material are to be orientated circum- Low alloy steels are normally to be suitably heat treated after
ferential if so is possible. Weld seams may be repaired full any cold and hot forming operation.
length. however. not more than twice in the same afea. Weld
repairs are to be ground to merge smoothly into the original 7 .3.2 Fabrication procedure specification
pipe contour. 7.3.2.1 A fabrication procedure specification describing the
sequences of manufacturing is to be established. When piping
7 .2.9.5 When a heat treated pipe is repaired by welding, a
L new suitable heat treatment may be required depending on
components are to be produced by welding, a detailed weld-
ing procedure specification is to be prepared, see 7 .2.2.
the effect of the weld repair on the properties and microstruc-
ture of the pipe. 7 .3.3 Qualification of fabrication procedures
7 .2.9 .6 Repair welding specifications are to be prepared co- 7.3.3.1 The fabrication procedure is to be qualified by test-
vering repair of the pipe material and of the weld. The fol- ing the first components being produced. A qualification test
lowing information in addition to that mentioned in 7.2 .2 is is to be performed for each group (based on grade of mate-
rial. thickness, bending ratio, fabrication method, as applica-
l to be included in the specifications:

Method of removal of defect, preparation of weld area


ble). Number and type of tests are to follow the requirements
given for pipes, see 7.2.4 through 7.2.7, as applicable.
and subsequent non-destructive testing, see Section I 0.
Minimum and maximum repair depths and lengths. Previous qualification tests may be accepted when the com-
ponent tested meets the specified requirements and the tests
Repair welding is to be performed with a low hydrogen have been witnessed by Veritas or an inspection agency re
welding process using appropriate preheating/ interpass tern cognized by Veritas.

l peratures.
7 .2.9.7 Unless the production welding procedure can be
7 .3.4 Production testing
applied. the repair welding procedure is to be qualified, e.g. 7.3 .4.1 Production testing of fabricated piping components
manual repairs of submerged arc welds of pipe material. The is to be performed according to the methods stated in Table
qualification test welds are to be made on pipe nipples in a 7.2 and 7.3.
l.
manner realistically simulating the repair situations to be
qualified, e.g. Check analysis is to be carried out for each heat. Mechanical
testing is normally to be carried out for each cast component,
- Through thickness repair of weld seam. and once every tenth forged or welded component of each
- Shallow surface repairs of pipe material. lot. If more than one heat is used for fabrication of a lot of
components, each heat is to be tested.
The length of the pipe nipple is to be sufficient to give realis
tic restraint. Pipe material is to be on the high side of the Dimensional inspection and non-destructive testing as specif-
1 chemical composition. ied in 7 .2.6 and 7 .2.7 are to be carried out for each fabricated
piping component. Hydrostatic testing is to be performed by
7 .2.9.8 Qualification testing is to be based on visual inspec- the manufacturer or on site with the piping components as
tion. radiography and mechanical testing. Mechanical testing built-in section, see 8 .8 .4. If the latter is agreed, non-destruc-
is to be performed according to Table 7.4. Repair welding tive testing may be required after the pressure test of the
procedures are to meet the pipe requirements. built-in section.

l 7.3 Fabrication of piping components 7 .3.5 Repair welding of piping components


7.3 .5.1 Repair welding of piping components is to be carr
7 .3.1 General ied out by qualified welders using a qualified repair welding
7.3 .1 .I Piping components such as bends, valves. flanges. procedure as allowed by and according to 7.2.9. After repair
tees. intersections etc. may be forged, cast or welded. The welding, casted and forged piping components are to be post
composition, mechanical properties, heat treatment and weld heat treated. visually examined and non-destructive tes
soundness of piping components are generally to comply ted.
with Section 5 in their final installed condition. Dimensional
tolerances are to comply with recognized standards.

7.3 .I .2 The material flow direction of a forged component


7.4 Post weld heat treatment
is generally to follow the main stress flow pattern. Where
j piping components like flanges, tees. intersections etc. are
made by other methods than shape or die forging, e.g. being 7.4.1 General
machined out of bars or plates. materials without significant 7 .4 .I .I Post weld heat treatment is generally to be perform
directional dependent properties are to be used and verified ed for welded joints of C-Mn and C-Mn fine grain treated
by appropriate mechanical tests. steels having nominal wall thickness (see Appendix C) more
than 49 mm.
7.3 .1.3 The effect of forming and heat treatment operations
on mechanical properties, microstructure and corrosion re- \V hen the minimum design temperature is less than - I 0C,
J sistance is to be taken into account. the thickness limit is to be specially decided.
40

The thickness limit for post weld heat treatment of low alloy If the steel has been quenched and tempered, the post weld
ed steels is to be considered in each case. heat treatment temperature is, however. not to be higher than
30C below the tempering temperature.
7 .4.1.2 When post weld heat treatment is used to ensure
adequate resistance of welded joints against sulphide stress 7 .4 .I .4 Heating, soaking and cooling is to be performed in a
corrosion, this is normally to be performed for all thicknes controlled manner. The soaking time is to be 2 min/ mm.
ses. however, minimum I hour. \\'here local heat treatment is
performed. the specified temperature is to be maintained in a
7 .4.1.3 Post weld heat treatment is to be carried out at band extending at least 3 times the wall thickness on each
575-600C for C-Mn and C-Mn fine grain treated steels, side of the weld. The temperature at the edge of the insula
while low alloyed steels are to be post weld heat treated at tion bend is to be maximum half the soaking temperature.
600-625C unless otherwise recommended by the steel rna When the temperature at all parts has fallen to 300C, the
ker. joint may be cooled freely.

J
J
J
j

1
l
1
41

SECTION 8
INSTALLATION

8.1 General 8.2.2 Seabed preparation


8.2 .2 .1 Seabed preparation is to carried out in accordance
8.1.1 Specifications
with an approVed specification.
8.1.1.1 Installation of a pipeline system is to be carried out The specification is to include information such as
in accordance with written specifications, plans and drawings extent of preparation
Which are satisfying these Rules. The specifications are sub preparation methods and equipment
ject to approval by Veritas. inspection methods and equipment

8 .I .I .2 Welding procedures are to be specified as described


in 8.5.2. 8.3 Construction
8.1.1.3 Field coating procedure is to be specified as describ 8.3.1 Qualification
ed in 6.2.4.
8.3.1.1 Construction has to be carried out by means of
8 .I. I .4 NDT procedures are to be specified as described in qualified personnel, procedures and equipment. The quali
Section I 0. fications are to be proved prior to start of construction.

8 .I .I .5 A detailed quality control system has to be specified 8.3.1.2 Welders and welding operators are to be qualified
for all installation activities. see I .4 .4 .2. in accordance with 8.5 .5.

8 .I .I .6 The installation specification is to give detailed in- 8.3.1.3 \Velding procedures are to be qualified in accord
formation on parameters which have to be controlled in or ance with 8.5.3 and 8.5.8.
der to obtain the correct configuration of and stress levels in
the affected portion of the pipeline. The range within which 8.3.1.4 NOT procedures and operators are to be qualified in
the parameters are allowed to vary is to be clearly stated, see accordance with Section I 0.
4.3.
8.3.1.5 It may be required that installation vessels are sur
8.1.1.7 Instrumentation systems used for measuring or con veyed prior to start of installation. This may include testing
trolling essential parameters during the installation operation and calibration of equipment and instrumentation such as
are to be specified. tension machines
winches
8.1.1.8 For a layvessel the following should be included in load cells
the specification: depth gauges
general layout drawings showing location of working welding equipment
stations. tension devices, stinger, supports, guides etc.
profile of ramp and stinger showing proposed pipeline 8.3.2 Handling and storing
configuration 8 .3 .2 .I Pipes, fabricated sections and accesories are to be
brief description of the tension devices with information handled in a safe manner to prevent damage, and are to be
on pulling force. holding force and squeeze pressure adequately supported and protected during storage and trans
brief description of support and guides on layvesscl and portation.
stinger. including information on possible horizontal and
vertical adjustment 8.3 .2 .2 Pipes, prefabricated sections and accessories are to
brief dccription of stinger including weight and buoyancy be inspected before installation. Damaged items are to be re
distribution and procedures for obtaining correct configu paired to the satisfaction of the Surveyor or clearly marked
ration and deplaced. see 6.3.4 and 8.5.8.
brief description of other systems or equipment essential
for the installation operation. 8.3.2.3 Storing of pipes has to be carried out in such a way
that the pipe is not being permanently deformed by its own
8.1.1.9 For a riser installation the specification should in weight or the weight of above layers of pipes. Special care
elude information such as: should be taken for storing heavy coated anode joints.
description and general layout drawings of the riser
showing location of supports. bends, flanges. etc. 8.3.3 Installation operations
detail drawings of riser supports. bends. flanges. spoolpie
ces. etc. 8.3.3.1 The installation of the pipeline system is to be car
description and drawings of corrosion protection system. ried out in accordance with approved procedures and in such
description and specification of equipment essential for a way that the pipe and coating will not be exposed to un
the installation acceptable strains/ stresses or be damaged.
instrumentation systems used for measuring or controll
ing essential parameters during the installation operation 8.3.3.2 Mounting and application or riser supports are to be
procedure specification covering all installation opera carried out so as to obtain the support conditions upon which
tions. the design calculations have been based.
J 8.3.3.3 Instrumentation systems used for measuring or con
trolling essential parameters are to be accessible for the Sur
veyor at any time.
J 8.2 Pipeline route
8.3.3.4 Joining of pipes and subsequent nondestructive
testing are to be carried out in accordance with 8 .5 and 8.6
8.2.1 Route survey
respectively.

J 8.2.1.1 Adequate surveys are to be carried out prior to in-


stallation of the pipeline. see 2.2.
Tie ins of pipeline sections are to be carried out in accordance
with 8.7.

l
42

8.3.3.5 Corrosion coating of field joints is to be carried out 8.4.1.3 Measures for obtaining protection of risers and pi-
in accordance with 6.2 .4. pelines are outlined in 4.2.1.3 and 4.2.1.4.

8.3.3.6 Pipes which have suffered damage during abandon


or retrieval operations are to be replaced or repaired to the
satisfaction of the Surveyor. 8.5 Installation welding
Acceptance criteria for coating damages are to be worked out
prior to start of laying. 8.5.1 General
8 .5 .I .IThe schemes for installation welding described in
8.3.3.7 Survey of the installed pipeline is required when this section have been baSed on current recognized practice.
there is reason to believe that damage has occurred, and that Other methods may also be used, but are then subject to spe-
further laying may render later surveys and repairs difficult cial approval.
or impossible.
8.5 .1.2 All installation welding is to be performed with
8.3.4 Pipeline and cable crossings equipment which has been proved reliable and suitable for
field applications. Prequalification testing is to be performed
8.3 .4.1 Crossing of pipeline and cables is to be carried out in for welding systems where previous field experience is limit-
accordance with an approved specification. Safety measures ed, or the system will be used under new conditions.
adopted to avoid damage on foreign installations or by other
installations are to be specified. 8.5.1.3 Welding may be performed with the manual metal
arc, the flux-cored arc, the gas metal arc or the tungsten inert
8.3.4.2 The specification is to include information such as gas metal arc process. Higher strength steels are to be welded
layout and profile of crossing with low hydrogen consumables unless special welding
auxiliary constructions or components including layers of techniques are used ensuring an equal safety against cold
separation cracking.
methods and equipment adopted for installation
inspection methods. 8.5.2 Welding procedure specification
8.3.4.3 Normally a minimum clearance distance of OJ m is 8.5 .2 .I A welding procedure specification is to be prepared
to be maintained between the pipeline and other pipelines or for each procedure giving the following information:
cables. Pipe material. standard grade and project specification.
Diameter and wall thickness.
8.3.5 Buckle detection Groove preparation and design.
Clamping device and line-up tolerances.
8.3.5.1 In connection with pipelaying from vessel where pi- Welding process.
pe sections are joined onboard the vessel it may be required Welding consumable(s), trade name and recognized clas-
that continuous buckle detection is carried out dur!ng laying. sification.
In such cases the method of buckle detection is subject to ap- Electrode/wire diameter.
proval. Normally a rigid disc is to be located withing the pipe Shielding gas, mixture and flow rates.
at a suitable distance behind the touch down point. Welding parameters, current. voltage, type of current and
polarity, travel speed etc.
8.3.5.2 The diameter of the detector is to be chosen with due Welding position.
regard to pipeline inside diameter and tolerances on ovality. Welding direction.
wall thickness. misalignment and height of internal weld bead. Temporary backing and type (if any).
The following formula may be used. Number of passes.
Time lapse between passes.
d = D-2t-S Preheating and interpass temperatures.
Post weld heat treatment.
where
S = 0.01 D + 0.4 t + 5 l 8.5.3 Qualification of the welding equipment and welding
d = diameter of detector procedure
D = nominal outer diameter of pipe 8.5.3.1 The selected type of welding equipment and the
= nominal wall thickness of pipe specified welding procedure is to be qualified prior to instal-
20% oft, max. 5 mm lation welding. The qualification test is to be carried out with
the same or equivalent equipment as that to be used during
installation. The test is normally to be performed on the yard
8.4 Anchoring and protection of pipeline systems or the vessel where the installation welding is to take place,
and be conducted under representative conditions.
8.4 .1 General The test joints to be used for qualification testing are to be of
8 .4.1.1 The pipeline system is to be protected and/ or an sufficient length to give realistic restraint during welding. Pi-
chored against unacceptable loads and incidents such as: pes on the high side of the specified chemical composition are
lateral axial movements to be selected.
impacts
corrosion 8.5.3.2 When manual welding is to be used. one complete
test joint is to be made. For mechanized welding equipment
8.4 .I .2 Anchoring/ protection of a pipeline system is to be three consecutive complete test joints are to be made.
carried out in accordance with an approved specification. The
specification is at least to include Each test joint is to be subject to visual examination, non-
definition of the final conditions
description of methods and equipment
description of means and instrumentation for control and
destructive tests and mechanical testing.

8.5.3.3 Non-destructive testing is normally to be radio-


J
inspection graphy tested using X-rays. When the gas metal arc process
is used, the test joints are also to be ultrasonic tested. Magnet-
Provisions for corrosion protection are covered in Section 6. ic particle testing may be required in special cases. J
43

Non-destructive testing is to be performed in accordance with ration, dilution and solidification pattern, i.e. groove type
Section I 0 and the soundness of the test welds is to meet the (V, U, Y, X) angles, root gap and root face are to be spe-
acceptance limits given in this section. cially considered.

8.5.3.4 The type and number of mechanical tests for each Welding process' Any change.
joint are given in Table 8 .1. Sampling of test specimens. di-
mensions and method of testing are described in Appendix C. Welding consumables' Any change of type, classification,
diameter and brand as well as additions/ omissions of
The mechanical properties of the test welds are to meet the powders, hot and cold wires.
following requirements:
Gas shielding, Any change of specified mixture, compo-
The ultimate tensile strength of the joint is to be at least sition and flow rate range.
equal to the specified ultimate tensile strength of the pipe
material. When different steel grades are joined, the ulti- Welding position: A change to a principal position not be-
mate tensile strength of the joint is to be at least equal to ing qualified according to Table 8.2.
the minimum specified ultimate tensile strength of the lo-
wer grade. Welding direction: A change from vertical down to verti-
cal up or vice versa.
The guided bend tests are to disclose no defects exceeding
3 mm. Minor cracks, less than 6 mm, originating at the Current, Any change beyond 15% and from AC to
specimen edges may be disregarded if not associated with DC.
obvious defects.
Polarity, Any change.
The fracture surfaces of the nick break test specimens are
to show complete fusion and penetration. Other defects Voltage, Any change beyond I 0% except 5% for
exceeding the limits of Table 10.1 are not acceptable. gas metal arc welding.
Fish eyes)) may be disregarded unless associated with
unacceptable amount of slag inclusions and porosity. Travel speed' Any change beyond I 0% .
The average and single Charpy V-notch toughness at Time lapse between root pass and first filler pass: Any de-
each position is not to be less than specified according to lay significantly increasing the cold cracking risk.
5.2.7. When different steel grades are joined, a st:des of
impact tests is to be performed in the heat affected zone Preheating: Any decrease.
on each side of the weld. The weld metal is then to meet
the more stringent energy requirement. lnterpass temperature: Any significant change in the mi-
nimum and maximum interpass temperature limits.
The maximum hardness is not to exceed the limits given
in 5.2.10 and 5.2.12 as applicable. Post weld heat treatment: Any change significantly affect-
ing mechanical properties, the residual stress level, the
The macrosection is to show a sound weld merging corrosion resistance, i.e. the heating rate, cooling rate,
smoothly into the pipe without defects as per the limits of temperature level and period, heating band and insulation
Table 10.1. width to be specially considered.

8.5.3.5 Failure of a test specimen due to defective prepara-


tion may be disregarded, and is to be replaced by a new test 8.5.5 Qualification of welders and welding operators
specimen. 8 .5 .5 .1 Qualification of welders and welding operators are
generally to be as described in 7.2.3. For underwater welding
8.5.4 Essential parameters for welding procedures additional conditions apply, see 8. 7 .4 .I 0.
8.5.4.1 A qualified welding procedure remains valid as
8.5.5.2 Under special circumstances, qualification of wel-
long as the essential parameters are kept within acceptable li-
ders may be based on visual examination and mechanical
mits and production tests are performed regularly. When one testing only, if so agreed by Veritas. In such cases bend test-
or more variations outside the acceptable limits occur, the ing and nick-break testing are to be carried out in accordance
welding procedure is to be considered invalid, and is to be re- with Appendix C. Acceptance criteria for nick-breaks are,
specified and qualified. however, to be as follows:
8.5.4.2 The essential parameters and the acceptable limits of The fractured surface is to show complete penetration
variations are normally to be as described below. For special and fusion. There is to be maximum one - 1 - gas
welding system other essential parameters and acceptable pocket per cm 2, being less than I ,5 mm in extension. On-
variation limits may have to be imposed. ly minor slag inclusions, with maximum depth 0,8 mm
and with maximum length 3 mm spaced at least 12 mm,
Materials: A change from a lower strength grade to a may be accepted. Fish eyes)) may be disregarded unless
higher. and any change in type, composition and proces- not associated with significant number of slag inclusions
sing significant for the weldability and the mechanical and cluster porosity.
and properties of the weld. The C-content, alloy content,
carbon equivalent and supply condition is to be specially
considered. 8.5.6 Welding and workmanship
Diameter: A change in diameter from one to another of 8 .5 .6 .I All installation welding is to be performed with
the following ranges' OD <;;100 mm. 100 < OD <;;300 qualified welding equipment. qualified welding procedures
and OD > 300. and type of equipment and by qualified welders/ operators.
The back lead of the welding equipment is to be correctly
Thickness: A change outside the thickness interval 0.7 5 connected to avoid stray current giving arise to corrosion, see
to I ,5 t where t is the nominal thickness of the test joint. also 6.3.2.3. Identical welding units, either additional or re-
placement units. may be qualified by non-destructive testing
Groove configuration: Any change(s) important for penet- of production welds.

1
44

Table 8.1 Qualification of glrthweldlng procedure.


Type and number of mechanical tests for each joint.

TEST JOINT NUMBER OF EACH SPECIFIED TEST

Wall Outside Transverse Root bend Face bend Side bend Nick break 21 Charpy V- Hardness
thickness diameter weld tensile notch sam and macro
(mmJ (mmJ ples'l4l5l6l

<;300 2 2 2 0 2. 4 2
<12.5
> 300 4 4 0 4" 4 4 2
<;300 2 0 0 4 2 4 2
> 12.5
> 300 4 0 0 8 4 4 2
Notes:
I) Root and face bend tests may be used instead of side bends
2) Nick break tests may be omitted for manual metal arc welding to be performed above water.
3) Impact testing is not required for t ...;;5 mm.
4) Each Charpy V -notch sample consists of 3 specimens.
5) Impact testing is to be carried out with the \'-notch positioned in the weld metal. on the fusion line. 2 mm from the fusion line and 5 mm from the fusion
line
6) When more welding processt,;s or more welding consumables are used. impact testing is normally to be carried out in the corresponding weld regions if the
region tested cannot be considered representative for the complete weld

8.5.6.2 The bevelled pipe ends are to be free from con- pies are to be located in the weld metal. and in the heat affect-
tamination by moisture, oiL grease. rust etc. which might af- ed zone at the position which showed the lowest average
fect the weld quality. energy absorption during the procedure qualification test. see
8 .5.1.
8.5.6.3 Internal or external line-up clamps are normally not
to be removed before the first two passes are completed. 8.5.8 Repair of field joints
When tack welds are necessary for alignment, these are only
to be made in the weld groove using a qualified welding pro- 8.5 .8 .1 Pipes and welds containing defects are to be repair-
cedure. Defective tack welds are to be completely removed. ed as described in 8 .5.8 .2 through 8.5 .8 .9.

8.5.6.4 Welding is not to be discontinued before the joint 8.5 .8 .2 Defects outside the weld are to be repaired by grind-
has sufficient strength to avoid plastic yielding and cracking ing only. If grinding reduces remaining wall thickness below
during pulling and handling. Prior to restarting after inter- the minimum specified thickness. the defective pipe section is
ruptions, preheating to the minimum specified preheating to be cut out. Grinding is to be performed in a workman-like
temperature is to be applied. manner. and with smooth transition into the pipe surface.

8.5 .6 .5 Supports, attachments, lifting devices etc. used for 8.5 .8 .3 Defects in the weld may be repaired by grinding or
permanent positioning of risers and pipelines are normally to welding. Repair welding specifications are to be prepared,
be welded to a doubler ring. Dou bier rings for temporary use and are to give the following information in addition to that
are to be clamped. relevant of 8 .5.2 .1 .
Method for removal of defect.
Preparation of weld area.
8.5.6.6 Permanent doubler rings are to be made as fully
encircling sleeves and of materials satisfying the requirements Non-destructive tests for confirmation of defect removal.
for pressure parts, see 5. 7. Longitudinal welds are to be made Permissible minimum and maximum weld repair sizes
with a backing strip, avoiding penetration into the main pipe.
The circumferential welds are to be continuous, and made in 8.5.8.4 The repair welding procedures are to be qualified.
a manner minimizing the risk of root cracking and lamellar The qualification tests are to be made in a realistic manner si-
tearing. mulating repair situations likely to occur. e.g.
Through thickness repair.
Table 8.2 Qualified principal welding positions External repairs of undercuts with one stringer pass.
Inside root repair with one pass only.
Test position Applicable welding positions Repeated weld repairs in same area.
lG !G
!G. 2G The repair tests welds are to be made in the overhead
2G through vertical position. using pipe with a chemical compo-
5G lG, 5G
All sition in the upper range of the specification.
2G + 5G
or 6G All
8.5.8.5 The test weld covering through thickness repair is
to be visually inspected. non~destructive tested and mechani-
cal tested as required for the installation welding procedure,
8.5.7 Production test
see 8.5 .3. The single pass test welds are to be visually inspect-
8.5. 7 .I Production tests may be required during installa ed, magnetic particle examined and mechanical tested with
tion. The test is to be performed in a manner which, as far as two macro/ hardness tests provided there is used the same
possible, reproduces the actual welding, and is to cover weld-
ing of a sufficiently large pipe sector in a relevant position.
welding consumables and parameters as for the major re-
pairs.
1
When production testing is required, half the number of tests 8.5.8.6 Preheating is to be performed prior to repair weld-
specified in Table 8 .I are to be carried out. Impact test sam- ing. The minimum specified preheating/ interpass tempera-
45

ture is to be maintained until the repair has been completed. Welded conn~tion on the lay vessel and subsequent lo-
wering.
8.5 .8. 7 Long defects may require repair in several steps to Underwater welding.
avoid yielding and cracking. The maximum length of allowa-
ble repair step is to be calculated based on the maximum The choiCe of method is to be based on an evaluation of the
stresses in the joint during the repair operation. The repair conditions under which the tie-in is to be carried out and the
length is to be at least approximately i 00 mm even if the de- service conditions under which the tie-in is to operate.
fect is of less extension.
8.7.1.2 The tie-in operation is to be carried out in accord-
8.5 .8 .8 Grinding is to be performed after arc air gouging to ance with an approved tie-in specification.
remove any carbon pick-up.
8. 7. 1.3 Tie-in specification is to include'
8.5 .8 .9 A joint may be repair welded twice in the same description and specification of components which will
area. If the joint still contain defects, the complete joint is to be introduced as permanent parts of the pipeline.
be cut out unless special repair welding procedures simulat- calculation of stresses occurring during installation and
ing actual number of weld repairs have been qualified. operation.
procedure specifications covering all tie-in operations.
description and specification of equipment and instru-
8.6 Visual examination and non-destructive testing of mentation essential for the installation.
installation welds description and specification of methods of inspection and
testing.
8.6.1 General
8.7.2 Mechanical connectors
8.6.1.1 Installation welds including repairs made by grind-
ing and welding are to be visual examined and non-destruc- 8.7.2.1 Mechanical connectors include flanges, couplings or
tive tested. other components adapting similar mechanical principles of
obtaining strength and tightness.
8.6.1.2 Non-destructive testing is to be performed in ac
cordance with qualified procedures and qualified NDT -opera 8.7 .2.2 An evaluation is to be carried out for loads andre-
tors. see Section l 0. sulting stresses to which the components are subjected during
installation and operation. Safety factors to be included to en-
8.6.1.3 Inspection and NOT-records are to be made for sure an equivalent overall safety to that adopted for the ad-
each weld including any repair actions. The records are to be jacent pipeline.
marked and identified in a suitable manner enabling tracebili-
ty to location of welds and the welding procedure<s) being us- 8.7.3 Welded tie-in on the Jay vessel
ed. 8.7 .3 .1 Lifting and lowering of the pipeline during the tie-in
operation are to he carried out so that induced stresses are
8.6.2 Visual examination within the allowable limits for pipeline or riser respectively
8.6.2.1 Visual examination is to be carried out for all during installation.
welds.
8.7 .3 .2 Suitable means for monitoring the configuration of
8.6.2.2 The finished welds and the pipe surfaces are to the pipeline section are to be used.
comply with the acceptance criteria specified in Table 10.1.
8.7.3.3 \Velding and inspection of the tie-in is to be carried
8.6.2.3 Welds which do not comply with Table 10.1 are to out in accordance with approved specifications, see 8.5 and
be repaired according to 8.5 .8 or cut out. 8.6.

8.6.3 Non-destructive testing 8.7.4 Tie-in by underwater \'\-'elding


8.6 .3 .I All installation welds are to be radiographed full 8.7.4.1 Welding is to be carried out with a low hydrogen
length. Ultrasonic testing and magnetic particle testing may process in a chamber (habitat) from which the water has been
be required depending on the applied welding method. displaced.

8.6.3.2 Defects which exceed the acceptance limits in Table Other methods are subject to special approval.
10.1 are to be completely removed and repaired in accord-
ance with 8.5.8. Magnetic particle testing is normally to be 8.7 .4.2 Sealing devices are to be of a proven design and ma-
used to ensure complete removal of defects prior to repair nufacture. Sealing pigs are to be pressure tested prior to in-
welding. stallation into the pipeline sections unless this has been carr-
ied out at an earlier stage.
8.6 .3 .3 \\l eld repairs are to be radiographed. This examina-
tion is to cover the repaired area and an additional length of 8.7.4.3 A detailed welding procedure specification is to be
50 mm at each end of the repair weld. established, and is in addition to that specified in 8.5.2.1 to
contain:
8.6.3.4 Magnetic particle testing may replace radiography water depth.
when the defect is located at the outside of the pipe, and is re- pressure inside the chamber.
moved by grinding only. gas composition inside the chamber.
humidity level.
temperature fluctuations inside the chamber.
8.7 Tie-ins 8.7 .4.4 Storag"e and handling routines of welding con-
sumables on the support vessel and in the welding chamber
8.7.1 General as well as the sealing and the transfer procedures to the weld-
8.7.1.1 Tie-ins between different portions of a pipeline, or ing chamber are to be specified.
between pipeline and riser. may be carried out by one of the
following methods. 8.7.4.5 The welding procedure is to be qualified under re-
- Mechanical connectors. presentative conditions in a suitable testing facility. The qua-

j
46

lification test is to consist of minimum one complete joint for Thickness of cover or depth of trench (if applicabl~) and
manual welding and minimum three joints for mechanized description of the state of rest along the route
welding system. Verification that the condition of weight coating or the
anchoring system which provides for on-bottom stability
The qualification program may be increased when the under- is in accordance with the approved specification
water welding will occur under conditions where previous Description of wreckage, debris or other objects which
experience is limited, or will be undertaken by a company may affect the cathodic protection system or otherwise
with limited experience in this field. impair the pipeline
Description and location of damages to the pipeline, its
8. 7.4 .6 The qualification test welds are to be inspected and coating or cathodic protection system
tested as per 8 .5 .3 and comply with the requirements specif-
ied for the pipeline section in question. 8.8.2.2 The final survey report of the installed riser is to
verify that the riser, including supports, clamps, anchors, pro-
8.7.4.7 Preheating to a suitable temperature is to be applied tection devices (e.g. fenders, casings, etc.) and corrosion pro-
for moisture removal and hydrogen diffusion. tection system, are installed in accordance with approved
drawings and specifications.
8.7 .4.8 The essential parameters for underwater welding
are those specified in 8.5.4.1 plus those given in 8.7.4.3. The 8.8.3 Survey of corrosion protection system
acceptable variation limits are normally those specified in
8.8 .3 .I Inspection of the external coating of the pipeline
8.5 .4 plus the following, system is required. Special attention should be given to the ri-
ser in the splash zone.
Pressure inside chamber: any increase
Gas composition inside chamber: any change 8.8 .3 .2 Spot measurements of the polarization along the pi-
Humidity: any increase beyond peline may be required in areas with damaged coating. Spe-
specified range may cial attention is to be paid to areas far from sacrificial anodes
be required and areas with stress concentrations.
8.7.4.9 A confirmation test weld may be required made on 8.8.3.3 In areas where measurements indicate that cathodic
location prior to starting the tie-in welding. The test weld is protection has not been attained, some corrective action is to
to be made on pipe coupons in the habitat under actual con- be arranged, e.g. mounting of additional sacrificial anodes,
ditions. The coupons are to cover welding from the 6 o'clock increasing current output from rectifiers, or application of
to 9 o'clock region. Subject to acceptable visual inspection protective coating.
and radiography in accordance with 8.6 the tie-in welding
may commence. Mechanical testing is to be performed as 8.8 .3 .4 The possibility of over-protection is to be investigat-
soon as possible. The number of mechanical tests is half that ed at locations where detrimental effects of over-protection
required for welding procedure qualification. may be suspected.
When the same welding habitat, equipment and welding pro- 8.8 .3 .5 The possibility of stray currents are to be investigated
cedure are used for consecutive tie-ins on the same pipeline by measurements and visual observations by qualified per-
under comparable conditions further confirmation test welds sonnel. Provisions according to 6.1.3.6 are to be complied
are not required. with where detrimental effects may be suspected.
8.7.4.10 The tie-in weld is to be non-destructive examined 8.8.4 Pressure test
full length, as per 8 .6 and comply with the applicable accept-
ance standard in Section I 0. 8.8.4.1 The pipeline system is to be pressure tested after in-
stallation. The testing is to be carried out in accordance with
8.7.4.11 Prior to qualification testing for underwater weld- an approved procedure. A pipeline system may be tested in
ing. the welder is to have passed a surface welding tests (see sections. e.g. between top of risers or between top of the riser
7 .2.3) and have relevant training for welding under pressure. and shore. \V hen a pipeline is to be buried or covered. the pre-
ssure test is to be performed after such operation.
Qualification for underwater welding is to consist of at least
one test weld made in a testing facility under representative 8.8.4.2 The test is normally to be carried out with liquid test
conditions in accordance with the qualified underwater weld- medium.
ing procedure. The test weld is to be visually inspected, radio-
graphed and mechanically tested, see 7 .2.3 and Appendix C. 8.8.4.3 The pressure test is to prove the strength and the
tightness of the tested section. The minimum test pressure is to
be I .25 times the design pressure. Hoop stress in the pipe dur-
ing testing is normally not to exceed 90 per cent of the mini-
mum specified yield strength. Higher stresses will be consider-
8.8 Final surveys and tests ed in each case.
8.8.1 General 8.8.4.4 During pressurizing. added test liquid versus pre-
8.8. l .I A final survey of the installed pipeline system is to ssure is to be recorded in order to evaluate the amount of resi-
be carried out in order to verify that the condition of the pi- dual air in the test section.
peline system satisftes the approved specification and the re-
quirements of these Rules. 8.8.4.5 After pressurizing sufficient time has to be allowed
for stabilization of the pressure in the pipe section.
8.8.1.2 If the pipeline is to be buried or covered by other
protection stabilization methods, surveys are normally requir- 8.8.4.6 The holding time for pipeline sections is normally to
ed both before and after burial (covering) operations. be minimum 24 hours. after the pressure has stabilized. For
short lines and risers 8 hours holding time may be accepted.
8.8.2 Survey of installed pipeline system For pipesections that can be I 00% visually inspected the hold-
ing period is normally to be at least 2 hours.
8.8.2.1 The final survey on the pipeline system is at least to
provide the following information: 8.8.4.7 Alternative pressure testing procedures may also be
- Detailed plot of the pipeline position accepted. For guidance see Appendix E.

j
47

8.8.4.8 If the tested section bursts or leaks, the failure is to be 8.8.6 Testing of alarm and shutdown systems
corrected and. the section retested. 8.8.6.1 It is the Owner's responsibility to protect the pipeli
ne system against operational conditions for which the sys-
8.8.4.9 Pressure testing of tie~in welds between already test- tem is not designed.
ed sections may in special cases be exempted provided the re-
gular radiqgraphic examination is extended with ultrasonic ex- 8.8.6.2 Instrumentation for the safe operation of the pipeli-
amination or other suitable methods. Monitoring may be re- ne system is to be tested according to generally recognized co-
quired. The NDT procedures and operators are to be qualified des and the manufacturer's recommendations prior to start of
for this testing; see Section I 0. operation.
8.8.5 Buckle detection 8.8 .6 .3 Emergency shutdown systems are to be tested ac-
8.8.5.1 Buckle detection is to be carried out by running a cording to generally recognized codes prior to start of opera-
gauge pig (caliper pig) through each pipeline section after in- tion.
'
I- stallation. When the pipeline is to be buried. the final buckle
detection is to be performed after trenching.

1-

I-
I

..L

l
1
48

SECTION 9
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
9.1 General 9.3 In-service inspection

9.1.1 Owner's duty 9.3.1 General


9.1.1.1 The Owner is to inform Veritas when inspections re- 9.3 .I . I In-service inspection is to be carried out according
quired to retain the certificate is to be carried out. to an acceptable program, see 9.2 .I .2.

9 .1.1.2 The Owner is to retain files of the running inspection 9.3.1.2 Veritas may have free access to
and the remedial measures taken and make these files availa-
scrutinize in-service inspection reports
ble upon request. carry out survey in connection with in-service inspection
9.1.1.3 The Owner is forthwith to notify Veritas if any of made by the Owner or his contractors
the events occur as given below, so that the need for surveys carry out survey.
can be determined: whenever found necessary in order to retain the Certificate of
Compliance.
the pipeline system is damaged. or is suspected of having
been damaged. in a manner likely to impair its safety or
9.3.2 Start up inspection
strength
the pipeline system demonstrate signs of deterioration like 9.3.2.1 The objective of the start up inspection is to observe
Iy to impair its safety or strength during and immediately after start up any movements or be+
the pipeline system is subjected to any alteration, repair or haviour of the pipeline system. This may include inspection
replacement and measurement of the distance between the bend connect-
transportation of new fluids. ing the pipeline and the riser and the installation in order to
detect lateral or axial movement. If necessary these measure-
9.1.2 Retension of Certificate of Compliance ments are to be continued until such movements have stabil-
9 .1.2 .I The Certificate of Compliance will be retained in the ized.
operating phase provided the requirements in these Rules are
satisfied. See also 1.5 .2. 9.3 .2 .2 Mechanical couplings including flanges may require
visual inspection during start up. Leak detection is to be car
ried out when found necessary

9.3.3 Periodical inspection


9.3.3.1 The frequency and extent of each periodical inspec-
9.2 Operation and maintenance of the pipeline system tion arc to be based on factors such as
9.2.1 Operation, inspection and maintenance manual type of inspection
design and function of the pipeline system
9.2.1.1 The Owner is to prepare a manual for this opera- seabed conditions and protection
tion, inspection and maintenance of the pipeline system. environmental conditions
corrosion/ erosion conditions
9.2. 1.2 The operation. inspection and maintenance manual traffic density
is to: condition of the pipeline system as installed and as per
describe organization and management of the mainten- earlier inspections
ance and in-service inspection possible consequences of failure
identify all items to be monitored. inspected and main-
tained 9.3 .3 .2 Pipeline systems that are not in operation are also to
specify the monitoring equipment. inspection method and be subject to periodical inspection if the Certificate of Compli-
frequency for each item to be inspected ance is to be retained.
specify operation limitations
specify start up/ shut down procedures 9.3.4 Frequency of periodical inspection
9.3.4.1 /\periodical inspection IS normally to be carried out
9.2.2 Operation annually if not otherwise agreed upon. The time for annual
9.2.2.1 Pressure at delivery and receiving stations alon'g the inspection may. under normal circumstances, be selected
pipeline is to be controlled and recorded. It may also be re- with due regard to factors such as weather conditions and
quired that the temperature and dew point of the product is operation of the pipeline system.
measured and recorded at various points in the pipeline sys
tern at regular intervals. 9.3.4.2 Veritas may. upon request, accept a continuous in-
spection in lieu of regular periodical inspection. Each part of
9.2.2.2 Automatic shut down valves and other safety devi- the system is to be controlled as frequently as in the case of
ces in the pipeline system is to be tested and inspected. The regular periodical inspection.
inspection should verify that the devices are in good condi-
tion and properly performs the safety function. 9.3.4.3 The Owner is to notif~ Veritas on occasions when
such parts of the pipeline system. which are not normally ac-
9.2.2.3 It is assumed that regulators and pressure relief val- cessible for inspection. may be examined. l
ves not part of the pipeline system are subject to regular test-
ing and inspection.

9.2 .2 A Surge pressure is not to exceed 1 , I times the inter-


nal design pressure.
9.3.5 Extent of periodical inspection - pipeline
9.3.5.1 The pipeline is to be surveyed to detect free spans.
1
and. if specified to be buried. to detect exposed sections.
9.2.2.5 The concentration of aggressive and toxic compo-
nents in the product is to be monitored.
Length of free spans and exposed sections and degree of ex-
posure is to be quantified. L
49

9.3.5.2 Visual inspection of exposed parts of the pipeline is 9.4 Repairs


to be carried out to determine the general conditions of the
pipeline and locate areas that may be subjected to close visual 9.4.1 General
inspection and testing. This is to include detection and mapp-
ing of 9.4.1.1 All repairs are to be carried out by qualified per-
sonnel in accordance with approved specifications and pro-
mechanical damages to the pipeline cedures. and up to the standard defined for the pipeline.
coating damages
anode consumption and condition 9 .4 .I .2 Repairs of parts that are subject to certification are
condition of the seabed with respect to scouring or build- to be surveyed and approved by Veritas.
up of seabed substance
signs of lateral and axial movement 9.4.1.3 The Owner is to notify Veritas in advance of any
leaks such action and to submit the necessary plans and specifica-
tions for approval. The exact documentation that is to be sub-
9.3 .5 .3 Control of the performance of the corrosion protec- mitted for approval or information purposes is to be decided
tion system is to be carried out. If found necessary, potential in each particular case.
measurements are to be conducted at the discretion of the
Surveyor and in accordance with 8.8.3. 9 .4.1.4 Pipeline systems with defects may be operated tem-
porarily at a reduced pressure until the defect has been re-
9.3 .5 .4 Inaccessible parts of the pipeline system are to be re- moved.
motely examined by suitable equipment.
9.4.2 Grooves, gouges and notches
9.3 .5 .5 Thickness measurements may be required where
there is reason to believe that the pipe wall thickness may be 9.4 .2 .I Sharp defects like grooves. gouges and notches are
reduced due to external/ internal corrosion or erosion (e.g. to be removed by grinding or by other approved repair meth-
the effect of sand content in the flow). od. The remaining wall thickness is to meet the minimum re-
quired for the particular location. see 4.2.2. Deeper defects
Other means for internal corrosion monitoring are also to be are to be removed by cutting out the damaged portion of the
pipe as a cylinder.
used. see 6 .4 .5.
9.4.3 Dents
9.4.3.1 A dent is defined as a depression which produces a
9.3.6 Extent of periodical inspection - riser gross disturbance in the curvature of the pipe wall.
9.3.6.1 Normally the below specified inspection is to be 9 .4 .3 .2 A dent affecting the longitudinal or circumferential
carried out in addition to the inspection specified for the pi- weld is to be removed by cutting out the damaged portion of
peline, see 9.3 .5. the pipe as a cylinder, or by installing a full encirclement
welded split sleeve, see 9.4.5. 9.4.6 and 9.4.7.
9.3.6.2 Close visual inspection of supports. bolts, flanges
and couplings. 9.4.3.3 The acceptability of dents are to be evaluated in
each case. Factors to be taken into consideration are:
9.3.6.3 Thickness measurements at pre-selected reference size and shape of dent
points are to be carried out on a regular basis. see 6.4.5.3. properties of pipe material
The measurements are to be carried out according to an ap- oil or gas
proved procedure which should include information on: pressure
type of equipment possible consequences of pipe rupture
type of probe pigging possibilities
evaluation procedure
location of reference points 9.4.4 Leaks
9.4 .4 .I Prior to permanent repair of any leak, the mecha-
9 .3 .6 .4 Potential readings are to be performed at a fair dist- nisms causing the leak are to be established.
ance from the adjacent anodes.
9.4.4.2 Permanent repair of a leak in pipe body or weld
9.3.6.5 Distance between the bend connection the pipeline may be carried out by cutting out the damaged portion of the
and the riser and the structure is to be measured and recorded. pipe as a cylinder or by installing a full encirclement welded
split sleeve. see 9.4.5. 9.4.6 and 9.4.7.

For low pressure oil lines repair by properly designed leak


clamps may be accepted.
9.3.7 Special inspection
9.3.7 .I If any events occur which impair the safety, 9.4.4.3 Leaking flanges and couplings are to be sealed if
strength or stability of the pipeline system, the Owner is found satisfactory by torquing the bolts or by replacing at
forthwith to notify Veritas and a special inspection is to be least the sealing devices such as gaskets and seals.
carried out.
9.4.5 Repair by welding
Such events are:
the pipeline system is damaged or suspected of having be- 9.4.5.1 Repair welding procedures and welders are to be
en damaged qualified as described in 8.5 .3 and 8.5 .5.
the pipeline system demonstrates signs of deterioration
The pipeline system is subjected to alteration, repair or re- 9.4.5.2 Repair welding above water is to be carried out as
placement. described in 8 .5.

9.3.7.2 Special inspections is normally to be carried out in 9.4.5.3 Underwater repair welding is to be carried out in a
the presence of a Surveyor. The Surveyor is to be provided dry habitat. see 8. 7 A.
with the facilities needed for first hand evaluation of the
conditions necessitating the inspection. 9 .4 .5 .4 Repair welding may in special cases be carried out

'
1
50

on pipelines under pressure. Acceptable repair conditions are 9.4.6 Temporary repairs
to depend on'
actual wall thickness 9.4.6.1 If not possible to take the pipeline out of operation.
pressure repairs may be made by installing properly designed leak
flow rate clamp over the defect. The strength of the sleeve is to be as
oil or gas required in 4.2.2.
welding procedure
safety procedures

9.4 .5 .S AU repair welds are to be visually examined and


non-destructive tested, see 8.6. When relevant. pressure test-
ing is to be carried out as described in 8.8.4.

L
51

SECTION 10
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING.
10.1 General I~age quality indicator sensitivities in per cent of the wall
thtckness based on source and film side indicators res-
10.1.1 Selection of method pectively.
10.1.1.1 Methods for non-destructive testing are to be cho Density. (The density of the radiographs measured on the
sen with due regards to the conditions influencing the sensivi- sound weld metal image).
ty of the methods. Film coverage.

Appropriate methods will be evaluated in each case. 10.2.2 Radiographic procedure qualification
10.2.2.1 Two radiographic exposures are to be made of a
welded joint using pipe of the same diameter and wall thick-
10.2 Radiographic examination of welds ness and of material equal to or similar to that which is to be
used in the pipeline system.
10.1.1 Radiographic procedure specification
10.2.1.1 A procedure specification for the radiographic ex I 0.2.2.2 Image quality indicators of the wire type and of re
amination is to be established and is at least to include the fol- quired number (according to the recommendations of docu-
lowing information: ment IIW /IIS-62-60) are to be placed on both the film side
Material quality and dimensions and the source side. The image quality indicators are to be
Welding process and groove geometry clearly identified, and the sensivity of the source side indi-
Radiation source (X -rays or gamma rays. If gamma rays, cator is to be equal to or better than the requirements given in
Fig. 10.1
type of isotopl.
Technique. (Equipment rating in voltage or curie, ex-
ternal or internal equipmenU. 10.2.2.3 Exposed radiographs are to have an average H&D
Geometric relationships. (Source focal spot size. film- density at the sound weld metal image of 1,8-2.5. High in
tenst~Y t.llummators are to be available for radiographs with
focus distance. object-film distance, radiation angle with
density m the upper density range.
respect to weld and filrnl
Film type. (Trade name and designation).
Intensifying screens. (Front and/ or back, material, lhick-
nessl.
Exposure conditions. (k V, rnA min. Cimin.)
Processing. (Developing time/temperature, stop-bath, fi-
xation, washing, drying, etc).

1QI sensitivity =.::d~ia~m~e:.lt~e!..r~o~f.:'th~e7:-:'s~m~a~l~le~s~t:{!w~i!!.!re:;__:s~ti!!!ll-Vt,....,s~ib;!!le~J!100:!!:


thickness of the weld
.,.
3,o~r--t-t-t--t-++++++-+--+--+---+---i-~l---h+-+-

5 10 15 20 25 35 40 45 50
Material thickness , mm

Note:
For production radiography; sensitivity
readings based on film side penetrameters
are to be judged as per results from the
procedure qualification.

Fig. 10.1 Required IQ1 sensitivity. Source side parameter.

J
52

10.2.3 Qualifications of radiographers Surface requirements


Type of couplant<s)
10.2.3.1 Radiographers are to be fully capable of perform-
Scanning techniques
ing an operational test using the qualified radiographic pro~
Reporting and identification system
cedure.

10.2.4 Production radiography 10.3.3 Ultrasonic procedure qualification


10.2.4.1 Only approved radiographic procedures are to be 10.3.3.1 The ultrasonic examination procedure is to be
used. If the panorama technique is used to include I 00 per qualified through a procedure qualification test.
cent of a girth weld in one exposure. a minimum of three pe-
netrameters are to be equally spaced around the circumfer- The test is to be performed under normal working conditions
ence. in the presence of a Surveyor.

If the multiple exposure technique is used. at least two penet- The test pieces are to be available as reference during the in-
rameters are to be recorded on each film and located near spection work.
each end of the film.
I 0 J .3 .2 The procedure qualification is to be performed on
For testing of the ends of longitudinal or spiral welded seams. a sample pipe containing artificial defects made as drilled ho-
one penetrameter may be used. les or machined notches. The defects are to be placed both on
the outside and inside of the sample, orientated parallel.
10.2.4.2 The maximum acceptable film lengths are limited transverse and through the weld and in base material. The
by a 6 per cent increase of the wall thickness in the beam di- defect dimensions and locations are subject to agreement.
rection.

10.2.4.3 All films are to be clearly marked to identify the 10.3.4 Calibration of equipment
proper weld and to locate any discontinuities quickly and ac-
curately. Veritas may specify the identification system. 10.3.4.1 Calibration of the ultrasonic equipment is to be
carried out whenever it has been out of function for any rea-
Processing and storage is to be in a \vay that enables the films son including on/ off. and whenever there is any doubt con-
to maintain their quality throughout the design life of the in- cerning proper functioning of the equipment.
stallation.
10.3.4.2 Calibration is to be performed with the sample pi-
pe described in 10.3.3.2. The equipment is to be set to pro-
10.2.5 Evaluation of \'felds and standards of acceptability duce maximum signal amplitude from the artificial defects.
The trigger level is then to be reduced to an agreed level. Cali-
10.2.5.1 The radiographs are to be interpreted by qualified bration is to be performed at the production speed.
personnel. The report is to show if the weld quality meets the
requirements of Table I 0. I. which defects have been judged
unacceptable. and the number of repairs made. 10.3.5 Qualifications of operators

10.2.5.2 Since radiography gives two dimensional results 10.3.5.1 The operators are upon request to be able to de-
only, welds which meet the acceptance criteria may be reject- monstrate the following capabilities:
ed if the density indicates the depth of the defect to be detri- Calibrating the equipment
mental to the integrity of the weld. Performing an operational test under production condi-
tions
10.2.5.3 The Surveyor is to have the right of being final Evaluating size and location of reflectors.
judge in assessment of weld quality.
10.3.6 Production ultrasonic examination
10.3.6.1 The contact surface is to be clean and smooth. i.e.
10.3 Ultrasonic examination of nelds with stationary free from dirt. scale. rust. \Velding spatter. etc. \\'hich may
equipment influence the results of the testing.

10.3.1 Equipment
10.3.7 Evaluation of welds and standards of acceptability
10.3.1.1 The equipment is to
be applicable for the pulse echo technique or the double- 10.3.7.1 For stationary equipment the purpose of the test-
probe technique ing is normally to detect defects which are to be further
use a frequency of 4 \1Hz unless otherwise agreed upon evaluated by radiography.
have a sufficient number of fLXed. guided probes ensuring
examination of the complete seam for longitudinal and Indications giving signals below the agreed trigger level are
transverse defects and for detection of possible lamination acceptable.
interfering the testing
have a trigger system alerting indications of defects and a Indications giving signals above the trigger level arc to be
system alarming malfunctioning of the equipment considered injurious unless further imcstigations by radio-
have a system automatically locating the defect area graphy show that the weld meets the acceptance criteria in Ta-
have a continuous monitoring of weld seam centering ble I 0.1.

10.3.2 Ultrasonic procedure specification 10.3.7.2 The Surveyor is to have the right of being final
judge in assessment of weld quality.
10.3.2.1 A procedure specification is to be established and
is at least to include the following information:
Material quality and dimensions
10.4 Ultrasonic examination of welds with portable
Welding process and groove geometry equipment
Type of instrument
Type(s) of transducers
10.4.1 Equipment
Frequencies
Calibration details 10.4.1.1 The equipment is to

j
53

be applicable for the pulse echo technique and for the The test pieces are to be available as reference during the in
doublepr6be technique spection work.
cover as a minimum the frequency range from 2-6
MHz 10.4.3.2 Reference blocks as described under 10.4.4 will
have a calibrated gain regulator with max. 2 dB per step normally be considered satisfactory as test pieces. \Vhenever
have a flat screen accessible from the front for direct groove geometry, welding methods or other factors may cau
plottirig of reference curves se special problems in flaw detection. Veritas may require
allow echoes with amplitudes of 5 per cent of full screen special test pieces to be prepared.
height to be clearly detectable under test conditions
include straight beam transducers and angle beam trans-
ducers of 45, 70 and 80. 10.4.4 Calibration of equipment
10.4.4.1 Calibration of the ultrasonic equipment is to be
carried out whenever it has been out of function for any rea-
son including on/ off. and whenever there is any doubt con
r PRO8 E CONlACT SURFACE
cerning proper functioning of the equipment.

I 0.4 .4 .2 The l!W /ISO calibration block is to be used for


..l~DIAMETER D T calibration of range and for angle determination. The V2 cali-
bration block according to DIN 54122 may be used for cali-
bration of range only.
T 1-P

L I 0.4.4.3 For evaluation of flaw indications a reference curve


is to be established. The curve is to be plotted on the instru-
Min l8..!f"' ment screen.
1
I 0.4 .4 .4 A reference block is to be used for gain calibration
B and construction of the reference curves. The reference block
40-l)O rrm is normally to be manufactured from the actual material and
have dimensions according to Fig. 10.2.

10.4.4.5 The sound path from the probe in position A to


the reflector. Fig. 10.3 is not to be less than 60 per cent of the
I
nearfield length of the probe.
L Length of reference block given by probe angle and
material range to be covered. I 0.4.4.6 The echo height from position A is to be maxim-
T :=: Thickness of reference block.
ized and the gain control regulated so that the echo height is
8 \V idth of reference block. minimum 40 mm. 7 5 per cent of full screen height. This gain setting is called the
D Diameter of drilled hole. primary gain and is to be recorded. \Y ithout altering this gain
p = Position of drilled hole. setting the maximized echo heights from point B and C are to
be pl~tted on the screen. The reference curve is now to be
drawn as a smooth line through the three points. Two curv-
Actual wall Thickness of Position of Diameter of es. 20 and 50 per cent of the reference curve are also to be
thickness ref. block drilled hole drilled hole constructed.
tin mm Tin mm Pin mm Din mm
10.4.4.7 The primary gain is to be corrected for difference
t<>25 20 or t T/2 2.4 in surface character and attenuation between the reference
25 ~t ~50 38 or t T/4 3,2 block and the actual pipe by means of the double probe
50< t<>IOO 75 or t T/4 4.8 technique. Two identical angle probes. facing each other one
skip distance apart as shown in Fig. 10.4. are to be used. The
primary gain is to be corrected accordingly and then becomes
Fig. 10.2 Reference block for construction of reference the corrected primary gain.
curve for portable equipment.

10.4.5 Qualifications of operators


10.4.2 Ultrasonic procedure specification
10.4.5.1 The operators performing ultrasonic examination
10.4.2.1 A procedure specification is to be established and are to be certified and upon request to be able to demonstrate
is at least to include the following information: the follO\ving capabilities:
Material quality and dimensions Calibrating the equipment
\\' elding process and groove geometry Performing an operational test under production condi-
Type of instrument tions
Type(s) of transducers Interprcting the screen display
Frequencies Evaluating size and location of reflectors.
Calibration details
Surface requirements 10.4.6 Production ultrasonic examination
Type of couplant!s) 10.4.6.1 The contact surface is to be clean and smooth. i.e.
Scanning techniques free from dirt. scale, rust. welding spatter. etc. which may
Reporting and identification system influence the results of the testing.
10.4.3 Ultrasonic procedure qualification 10.4.6.2 The weld is to be examined from both sides as
10.4.3.1 The ultrasonic examination procedure is to be shown in Fig. 10.5 and 10.6.
qualified through a procedure qualification test.
10.4.6.3 For defect detection, the corrected primary gain is
The test is to be performed under normal working conditions to be increased by 6 dB. Defect size evaluation is not to be
in the presence of a Surveyor. performed at this increased gain level.

1
54

\EFERENCE CURVE REFERENCE BLOCK

TRANSMITTER RECENER

1~/1
100%

RECENEO ECHO

~~-----REFERENCE CURVE
',, ~\'----- DIFFE-RENCE (Kd8)
OWING TO DFfERE~E IN MATERIAL TO BE TESTED:
20%
-- FOR THICKNESSES
SURFACE At-ll ATTENUATION

~~&21
-10mm
a A B c

RECEIVED ECHO

Fig. 10.4 Attenuation and surface correction for portable


equipment. Double probe technique.
sq

100%

--REFERENCE CURVE

FOR THICKNESSES 1/1 SI<IP DISTANCE


so BETWEEN 10 AND 25 mm
SCANNING
AREA

b A B

~KIP DISTANCE I

cp- --- ---,


1"- ~-- ~ --

-,
-~--!- /
An ns 1"-

'-f- ---I-,,

/
/
/ ' ''
/"" ' T
,-
'-
--~-

- - - - _)
-~
-1
/ /

T/
/ ''' '
"-r------, I
" Uc ,-
,_ t----- _)
,-

---REFERENCE CURVE Fig. 10.5 Probe movement for testing butt welds, portable
equipment.
FOR THICKNESSES- 25mm

J
10.4.6.4 The defects are to be investigated by maximizing
the echoes with different angle probes and by rotating the I
...J.
probes.
c
I 0.4.6.5 For dimensional evaluation. either the 20
Fig. 10.3 Construction of reference curves for portable
equipment.
dBdrop)) method or the halfvalue-drop method is to be
used. 1
55

10.5.2 Magnetic particle procedure qualification


TR4.NSM!TTER
I 0.5 .2.1 No special procedure qualification test is required.
The procedure is considered qualified based on approval of
the testing procedure specification.

10.5.3 Qualifications of operators


ANGLE PROBE I 0.5 .3 .I Operators performing magnetic particle examina
I ~PARALLEL lO WELD
RECEIVER tion are to be capable of performing and operatiorial test. us*
I ing the test method and technique which is to be applied in
a production.

10.5.4 Production magnetic particle testing


10.5.4.1 The testing equipment is to establish a field
strength between 2.4 kA/m 00 Oe) and 4.0 kA (50 Oe).

I 0.5 .4 .2 Use of permanent magnetic yokes is not permitted.

10.5.4.3 The pipe surface is to be clean and dry. free from


any dirt i.e. grease, oil. lint. scale. welding flux etc. which
may interfere with the examination.

I 0.5.4.4 To ensure detection of discontinuities having axes


in any direction, the examination is on each area to be per-
b famed with the magnetic field shifted in at least two direc-
Fig. 10.6 Detection of transverse cracks. tions approximately perpendicular to each other.

I 0.4. 7 Evaluation of welds and standards of acceptability I 0.5.4.5 Non-fluorescent wet or dry particles are to provide
adequate contrast with the background of the surface being
I 0.4.7 .I As ultrasonic examination is principle detects re* examined.
flector9> in the materiaL all indications are to be considered
as the most dangerous type of defect until otherwise proven. 10.5 .4 .6 Examination with flourescent magnetic particles is
to be conducted in a darkened area using filtered ultraviolet
The report is to show if the weld quality meets the require* light with wave lengths within the range of 3200-3800 A.
ments. which defects have been judged unacceptable and the
number of repairs made. I 0.5 .4. 7 Magnetic particle examination is not to be per
formed on parts with surface temeratures exceeding 300C
I 0.4. 7 .2 In general all defect indications exceeding the re* (570F) Between 60C (140F) and 300C. only dry magnetic
ference curve are to be repaired and reexamined. particle examination is to be used.

I 0.4. 7 .3 All defect indications with length ~ t exceeding 10.5.4.8 Care is to be taken to avoid local heating of the test
50 per cent of the reference curve are to be repaired and ree surface. Prods tipped with lead, or soft prods)) are recom
xamined. mended. Arc strikes and burn marks are to be ground out
and reinspected with a suitable method.
I 0.4.7 A All defects indications exceeding 20 per cent of the
reference curve are to be investigated to the extent that the I0.5 A. 9 Demagnetization is required if the material due to
operator can evaluate the shape, identity and location in the magnetic particle testing has become permanently mag-
terms of the acceptance criteria in Table 10.1. netized and this may interfere with the servicability of the
part or installation.
10.4.7.5 If only one side of the weld is accessible for test
ing. all defect indications exceeding 50 per cent of the refer
ence curve with length ~ t and all defect indications exceed* 10.5.5 Evaluation of welds and standards of acceptability
ing 20 per cent of the reference curve with length ~ 2t are to
be repaired and reexamined.
10.5.5.1 The magnetic particle examination operators are to
report all surface defects detected. The report is to show if the
10.4.7 .6 The Surveyor is to have the right of being final weld quality meet the requirements of Table I 0.1, and the
judge in assessment of weld quality. number of repairs made.

10.5.5.2 Surface which are shown to have defects exceed-


ing the limits given in Table I 0.1 are to be repaired and re*
10.5 1\tlagnetic particle examination of welds examined.

10.5.1 Magnetic particle procedure specification 10.5.5.3 The Surveyor is to have the right of being final
10.5.1.1 A procedure specification is to be established and judge in assessment of weld quality.
is at least to include the following information:
Material quality and dimensions
\V elding process and groove geometry 10.6 Liquid penetrant examination of welds
Type of magnetization
10.6.1 Liquid penetrant procedure specification
Type of equipment
Surface preparation I 0.6.1.1 A procedure specification is to be established and
\Vet or dry method is at least to include the following information:
\lake and type of magnetic particle and contrast paint Material quality and dimensions
\lagnetic field strength Welding process and groove geometry
Demagnetization Surface preparation
Description of examination technique Brand name and specific type (number of letter designa-

1
56

tion if available) of penetrant. remover emulsifier and 10.6.3 Qualifications of operators


developer.
I 0.6 .3 .I Operators performing liquid penetrant examina-
Details of the method of pre-examination cleaning and
tion are to be capable of performing an operational test. using
drying. including cleaning materials used and time allow-
ed for drying. the test method or technique which is to be applied in pro-
duction.
Details of the method of penetrant application: the length
of time that the penetrant remains on the surface. and the
10.6.4 Production liquid penetrant testing
temperature of the surface and penetrant during the ex-
amination if not within the l5C-35C range 10.6.4.1 Liquid penetrant examination is only to be used on
Details of the method of removing excess penetrant from nonferromagnetic materials and materials \Vith great varia-
the surface and of drying the surface before applying the tion in magnetic permeability.
developer.
Details of the method of applying the developer. and 10.6.5 Evaluation of welds and standards of acceptability
length of developing time before examination
10.6.5.1 The .liquid penetrant examination operators are to
Method of postexamination cleaning.
report all surface defects detected. The report is to show if the
surface meets the requirements of Table 10 I and the number
10.6.2 Liquid penetrant procedure qualification
of repairs made.
10.6.2.1 \V'hen the temperature of the surface and the pe-
netrant is within I5C-35C range, no special procedure I 0.6.5.2 Surfaces Which are shown to have defects exceed-
qualification test is required. The procedure is considered ing the limits given in in Table I 0.1 are to be repaired and re-
qualified based on approval of the testing procedure specifi examined.
cation.
I 0.6 .5 .3 The Surveyor is to ha\e the right of being final jud-
Outside the temperature range l5C- 35C a suitable com ge in assessment of weld quality.
parator block is to be used to compare indications from sur-
face defects examined within and outside the range.

l
l
L
1
57

Table I 0.1 Pipeline systems.


Acceptance limits for visual Inspection and radiographic examination.

Internal defects Acceptance limits Note

POROSITY Scattered porosity is to be max. 3 per cent by projected area. Largest


pore dim. t/ 4. max. 4 mm.
Cluster porosity is not to exceed an area of 12 mm in diameter in any
continuous 300 mm of weld length. Max. dim. of any individual pore
is not to exceed t/ 8. max. 2 mm.
Porosity on line is not to penetrate weld surface. largest pore dim.
t/8, max. 2 mm. I

SLAG INCLUSIONS Isolated slago Length <;,t/2. width <;,t/4, max. 4 mm.
Slag lineso Length <;,2t, max. 50 mm. width <;,2 mm.
For wagon tracks>> width of each parallel slag line is not to exceed
1.5 mm. 2. 3, 4

LACK OF FUSION OR
INCOMPLETE PENETRATION Length <;,2t. max. 50 mm. 2. 3, 4

CRACKS Not acceptable. 5

Surface defects

MISALIGNMENT OF ADJOINING
PIPE ENDS <;,0,15 t, max. 3 mm. 3

DENTS Deptho Max. 6 mm. Lengtho Max. OD/2.

COLD FORMED GOUGES.


GROOVES. NOTCHES AND
ARC BURNS Not acceptable. May be removed by grinding.

EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL Fort <;,12.5 mmo Max. 3 and 2 mm respectively.


WELD REINFORCEMENT Fort> 12.5 mmo Max. 4 and 3 mm respectively.

EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL External concavity not acceptable.


CONCAVITY Internal concavity acceptable provided that the density of the radio-
graphic image of the concavity does not exceed that of the adjacent
base metal.

UNDERCUT Depth <;,t/10, max. 0.8 mm.


For girth welds the length of an undercut in any continuous 300 mm
of weld length is not to be more than:
Max. 50 mm for depth .;tf I 0, max. 0,8 mm
Max. I 00 mm for depth .;t/20, max. 0.4 mm
For longitudinal or spiral welds the length is not to be more than
max. I I 5 of the above limits for girth welds.
For depth ~0.3 mm. undercut may be accepted regardless of length
provided its shape and notch effect is not considered detrimental. 2. 3. 6. 7

LACK OF FUSION OR
INCOMPLETE PENETRATION Length -<t. 2. 3. 7

HOLLOW BEAD Length ~t/2. max. 12 mm. 2. 3. 8

BURN THROUGH Max. dim. 6 mm of any single defect. total length max. I 2 mm in
any 300 mm weld length. 3. 4

CRACKS Not acceptable. 5

Notes to the acceptance limits: continuous length of weld which equals five times the length of the defect
I) See porosity chart Fig. 10.7. \Vhen the extent of porosity or slag inclusi area.
ons may mask for detection of other defects. supplementary radiographic 5) Observed cracks should initiate more extensive non-destructive testing of
or ultrasonic examination is required. the joint and revision of the welding procedure.
2) If elongated defects are situated on line and the distance between them is 6) The depth to be measured by mechanical means
less than the length of the longest indication, the defects are to be eva!uat 7) Severe corrosive environment may necessitate more stringent require-
ed as one continuous defect ments to be adopted.
J) Any accumulations of slag inclusions. incomplete penetration. misalign 81 The total length of hollow bead in any continuous 300 mm length of
ment. hollow bead. burn through or undercut are to be judged as the weld metal shall not exceed 50 mm. Individual adjacent hollow bead dis-

- most serious of the defects in question.


4) Not more than one time the defect hmtts as per notes 2 and J within any
continuities. each exceeding 6 mm in length. are to be separated by at
least 50 mm of sound metal.
..... .
58

Table I 0.2 Pipeline and pipeline risers

POROSITY:
Definitions and radiographic characterization. ..........
,,
.... ,, ,,
\

-:/'''''" "'''~,,
Definition:
Voids due to entrapped gas.
Radiographic characterization:.
Sharply defined dark shadows of rounded or elongated sha
~....

~ ..
~''''"'''~
,,
pe.

HOLLOW BEAD:
Definition:
Elongated voids in the root pass.
Radiographic characterization:
Sharply defined dark shadows in tine of elongated shape.

SLAG INCLUSIONS:
Definition:
Slag entrapped during welding.
Radiographic characterization:

-
Dark shadows of irregular shape.

SLAG LINES:
Definition:
Elongated cavities containing slag.
Radiographic characterization:
Dark lines parallel to the weld edges.

LACK OF FUSION
Definition:
-
Plane defect due to incomplete fusion between beads or be-
tween metal and parent metal.
Radiographic characterization:
Thin dark line with sharply defined edges. The line may tend
to be diffuse and wavy depending upon the orientation of the
defect with respect to the xray beam.

INCOMPLETE PENETRATION:
Definition:
Gap left by incomplete filling of the weld root with weld me
tal.
Radiographic characterization:
Dark continuous or intermittent line following the weld root.

CRACKS:
Definition:
Fracture in the weld metal or in the heat affected zone.
Radiographic characterization:
Fine dark line. The line may tend to diffuse and wandering in
direction.

UNDERCUT:
Definition:
A groove in the surface of the pipe following the edge of the
weld.
Radiographic characterization:
Dark line along the edge of the weld. The line may be more
-
or less diffuse dependent on the shape of the undercut.

_, I
j
L
59

lmm PORE DIAMETER


10 PER CENT 3 PER CENT 1 PER CENT


..- ....
















2mm PORE DIAMETER

10 PER CENT 3 PER CENT











4mm PORE DIAMETER

10 PER CENT




I
Fig.10.7
area.

Typical distribution of porosity by projected

-I

1
61

APPENDICES

The purpose of the appendices to the Veritas Rules for sub-


marine pipelines is to provide recommended practice, meth-
ods and procedures for design, construction and inspection of
submarine pipelines.

The appendices give guidance, methods and procedures satis-


fying the Rules' requirements. The engineer is free to use oth-
er methods and procedures than those recommended, provid-
ed an equivalent standard of quality and safety is obtained.

Each appendix is self-contained and the procedures and


methods given may be used independent of the Rules alt-
hough the content of the appendices is directly related to the
Rules.

In the appendices text reference to specific paragraphs in the


Rules is made by giving the paragraph number marked with
the letter (R), see 5.4.2 (R).
63

APPENDIX A
ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS
A. I Wind loads A.l.3.2 In-line excitations may occur when

A.l.l General 1.7 < V,< 3.2


A.i .I .I The wind loads on pipes may be divided into two ca
where
tegories:

Static (constant, quasistatic) wind forces, which are as- v


sumed to be constant as long as the wind is constant. f, D
These forces are assumed to act normal to the pipe axis in v :::: wind velocity normal to the pipe axis
the plane defined by the pipe axis and the wind direction. f, natural frequency of the pipe
See A.l.2. D pipe diameter

Cyclic wind forces due to vortex shedding. Also these A.l.J.J Cross-flow excitations may occur when 4,7 < Yr<
forces are assumed to act normal to the pipe axis. They 8.0, V,asdefinedinA.I.3.2.
may act in two planes - parallel)) and normal>) to the
wind direction. See A.l.3. A.l.3.4 The amplitudes of the vortex shedding induced mo-
tions due to wind may be derived according to the simplified
approach for vortex shedding in steady current given in A.2,
substituting the mass density of the water with the mass
A.1.2 Static wind loads density of the air.
A.I.2.1 The statio) wind force per unit length of the pipe
may be determined as:

qw ~ 0.613CV, 2 D,

where
A.2 Vortex shedding due to current
Wind force per unit length of the pipe, acting normal
to pipe axis in N I m A.l.l General
c Shape coefficient according to A.l.2.2 A .2 .I .I Fluid flow past a riser or a free span on a pipeline
v, Component of the wind velocity normal to the pipe may cause unsteady flow patterns due to vortex shedding.
axis in m/ sec. This may lead to oscillations of the pipe normal to its axis.
D, Total outer diameter of pipe. i.e. including coating
etc., in metres. A.2.1.2 Normally two types of oscillations may be encoun-
tered: oscillations in line with the velocity vector (in-line mo-
A.l.2.2 The shape coefficient should. strictly speaking, de- tion>, and oscillations perpendicular to the velocity vector
pend on wind velocity, pipe diameter and surface roughness. (cross-flow motions). Such oscillations may be investigated
However, in the absence of more accurate data, the coef- according to A.2.2 and A.2.3.
ficients given in Fig. A. I may be used.
A .2 .I .3 For certain critical flow velocities. the vortex shed-
A.l.2.3 As a guidance for the surface roughness used for de- ding frequency may coincide with or be a multiple of the na-
termination of the shape coefficient in Fig. A.l, the following tural frequency of the pipe. resulting in harmonic or sub-
values may be used: harmonic excitations.
k (meters) A.2.1.4 The vortex shedding frequency may be obtained as:
Steel. new uncoated: 5 I 0- 5
5 10 _,
Steel. painted
3 10- 3
f~~
Steel. highly rusted> D
Concrete: 3 I 0- 3
Marine growth: 5 I0- 3 -5 I0-2 where

A.l.2.4 For several pipes (relatively) close together. group ef- f vortex shedding frequency (Hz)
fects may be taken into account. However. if no adequate S1 :::: Strouhai's number
documentation of group effects for the specific case is avail- V flow velocity normal to the pipe axis
able. the shape coefficients given in A.!.2.2 may be used for D pipe diamter
all the individual pipes in the group.
For pipes. Strouhafs number is a function of the Reynold's
A.l.2.5 For pipe sections which are sensitive to dynamic number. see Fig. A.2.
wind loading during construction. transportation or opera-
tion, the dynamic behaviour of the wind is to be taken into A.2.1.5 For determination of the velocity ranges where vor-
account when determining the wind loads. This may either tex shedding induced oscillations may occur. a parameter. V r
be done be use of recognized gust loading factors. or by use called the reduced velocity. is used. V r is defined as
of a stochastic approach for the wind loading.
v = v
r fi D
A.1.3 Vortex shedding due to wind where
A.I.J.I Wind induced cyclic excitations of pipes may occur
in two planes. in-line with or perpendicular to the wind di- V :::: flow velocity normal to the pipe axis
rection. see A.l.l.l. For a closer description of the vortex fi natural frequency of the pipe
shedding phenomena. see A.2. D pipe diameter

...
64

A.2.1.6 An other parameter controlling the motions is the A.3 ~ecommended values of hydrodynamic coefficients
stability parameter. Ks. defined as
A.3.1 General
A.3.1.1 The proper hydrodynamic coefficients to use in each
case will depend on the flow and pipe conditions character-
where ized by

0 logarithmic decrement of structural damping Reynold's numberCR, = U D/vl


e ::: mass density of surrounding water Keulegan-Carpenter numberCKc = U m T /D)
D pipe diameter pipe roughness (k/D)
me ::: effective mass per unit length of the pipe. defined as distance between the pipe and a fixed boundary (H/ D)

L where

m =
f
0
m[ y(x) ]' dx D
H
T
pipe diameter
clearance between the pipe and a fixed boundary
= wave period
' d k roughness height
f [y(x)]' dx
u = flow velocity
Urn
v
maximum orbital particle velocity
= kinematicviscosityofthewater /. :'1 "~-., 1 , . )
0
where A.3 1.2 The hydrodynamic coefficients should preferably be
obtained from relevant model test. taking into account the ac-
m mass per unit length. including structural mass, add- tual values of the different parameters specified in A.3.1. In
ed mass and the mass of any fluid contained within the following some proposed values of the hydrodynamic
the pipe coefficients are given.
y (xJ= mode shape of the actual pipe span
L length of the pipe A.3.2 Added mass coefficient
d submerged length of pipe
A.3 .2.1 The added mass coefficient for a circular cylinder as
function of the distance from a flXed boundary is given in
A.2.2 In-line oscillations
Fig. A.7.
A.2.2.1 Resonant in-line vortex shedding induced oscillations
may occur when I .0 < V r < 3 .5 and Ks < 1.8. For definition The figure may be used for both smooth and rough pipe sur-
ofV,and K5 see A.2.1.5 andA.2.1.6. faces. For a pipe which is not influenced by any fixed bound-
ary, the recommended added mass coefficient is 1.0.
A.2.2.2 Depending on the flow velocity. the vortices will eith-
er be shed symmetrically or alternatively from .either side of A.3.3 Drag coefficient
the pipe.
A.J .3 .I The drag coefficient as function of the Keulegan-
For V r < 2.2. the shedding will be antisymmetricai, and t_he Carpenter number for smooth and marine growth covered
necessary flow velocity for onset of motion may be determm- pipes for supercritical Reynold's numbers is given in Fig.
ed from Fig. A.J. A.S. The figure is valid for free field flow without any influ-
ence of a flXed boundary.
For V r > 2 .2. the shedding will be antisymmetrical.
A.J .3 .2 The drag coefficient for steady current is equal to the
A.2.2.3 The maximum amplitude of the motions due to in- asymptotic value for Kc equal to infinity. For combined wa-
line vortex shedding may be determined from Fig. A.4. ve and current action, the increase of Kc due to the current
may be taken into account.
A.2.3 Cross-flow oscillations
A.3.3.J To determine the drag coefficients for pipes dose to a
A.2.3.J Cross-flow oscillations may occur for Ks < 16 and fixed boundary, the drag coefficients given in ...\.3.3.1 may be
values ofV r as determined from Fig. A.5. multiplied by a correction factor obtained from Fig. A.9.
A.2.3.2 The maximum amplitude of the cross-flow oscilla- A.3.4 Lift coefficients
tions may be determined from Fig. A.6. The mode shape par-
ameter, y, used in this figure is defined as A.3.4.l The lift coefficient for a pipe at a fixed boundary in
oscillatory flow is given in Fig. A.l 0. The figure may be used
L l/2 both for smooth and rough pipe surfaces. In steady flow. the
f[ 2
y (xl] dx
lift coefficient may be taken equal to 1.0. For combined wave
and current action the increase of Kc due to the current may
be taken into account when determining the lift coefficient
0
Y ::: Y max from Fig. A.lO.
l
J [y (x)]dx
4 A.3.4.2 To determine the lift coefficient for pipes at a certain
distance from a fixed boundary, the lift coefficients given in
0 A.3.4.1 may be multiplied by a correction factor obtained
from Fig. A.ll.
where
A.4 Wave slamming
y (xl= mode shape
Ymax::: maximum value of the mode shape
A.4.1 Wave slamming loads
For a simply supported beam in first mode, y is equal to 1.16. A.4.l.l Horizontal pipes in the wave zone may be subjected
For a cantilever beam in first and second mode, the y-value is to forces caused by wave slamming. The dynamic response
equal to 1.31 and 1.50 respectively. of the pipe should be accounted for.
65

A.4.1.2 The wave slamming force per unit length of the pipe The contribution to fatigue from each wave block is gi-
may be calculated as ven as:

n
Y, = R=
,ozo
l:
( -i )K
where Nj 1=20-ni 20
ni = number of waves within block j
Fs = slamming force per unit length in the direction of the N, critical number of stress cycles (from relevant
velocity S-N curve) associated with 6. O"i
~ = mass density of the surrounding water n, = number of stress ranges in excess of the limiting
Cs = slamming coefficient stress range associated with the cut off level of
D = member diameter the S-N curve
v velocity of the water surface normal to the surface of R reduction factor on number of waves. For a gi-
the pipe. Normally the vertical water surface velocity ven element only waves within a sector of I 0
will apply degrees to each side of the perpendicular to the
member have to be accounted for. In case of an
A.4.1.3 The slamming coefficient C 5 may be determined us- undirectional wave distribution, R equals 0.11.
ing theoretical and/ or experimental methods. For smooth, K = slope of the S-N curve (in log-log scale)
circular cylinders the value of C 5 should not be taken less
than 3.0. A.4.2.2 The calculated contribution to fatigue due to slamm-
ing has to be added to the fatigue contribution from other
A.4.1.4 As the slamming force is impulsive. dynamic amplifi- variable loads.
cation must be considered when calculating the response.
References to Appendix A
For a pipe section fixed at both ends. dynamic amplification
factors of 1.5 and 2.0 are recommended for the end moments AI. BSI Code of Practice No. 3. Chapter 5. Part 2, <<Wind
and the midspan moment. respectively. Loads, September I 97 2.
A2. CIRIA Underwater Engineering Group, Report
A.4.2 Fatigue due to wave slamming UR8: Dynamics of Marine StructuresH, London, Ju-
ne 1977.
A.4.2.1 The fatigue damage due to wave slamming may be
A3. Blevins, R.D.: Flowinduced Vibration, Van Nos-
determined according to the following procedure:
trand Reinhold Company, New York. 1977.
Determine minimum wave height. Hmin which can cau-
A4 Heideman, Olsen and Johansson: Local Wave Force
Coefficients>>. ASCE Civil Engineering in the Oceans
se slamming IV. September 1978.
Divide the long term distribution of wave heights, in ex-
AS. Sarpkaya, T.: \"ortex Shedding and Resistance in
cess ofHmm into a reasonable number of blocks Harmonic Flow about Rough Circular Cylinders.
For each block the stress range may be taken as: BOSS 76conference. Trondheim. Norway, August
D. a1 ::: 2 [a a-slam- (crb + a)] 1976.
A6 Sarpkaya, T.: In-line and Transverse Forces on Cy-
as!arn = stress in the element due to the slam load given linders near a \Vall in Oscillatory Flow at High Re-
inA.4.12 ynold's Numbers. OTC Paper No. OTC 2980. May
a-b ::: stress due to the net buoyancy force on the ele-
1977.
ment A7. Sarpkaya. T.: <<Hydrodynamic Drag on Bottom-
aw stress due to \"ertical wave forces on the element mounted Smooth and Rough Cylinder in Periodic
a factor accounting for dynamic amplifications. see Flow>>. OTC Paper C\lo. OTC 3761. May 1979 .
..\4.14 King, R .. Prosser. \1.1., John. D.J.: On Vortex Ex-
AS
Each slam is associated with 20 approximate linear deca- citation of Model Piles in \Vater. Journal of Sound
ying stress ranges and Vibrations. \'ol 29. No.2. pp. 169-180. 1973.

....
66

0.20 11:'----,------r----,.-----,
AMPL.
c DIAM. FIRST INSTABILITY
- REGION, V,<2.2
.
--
~ ' -
1.0 '\. \\
'\. \\ / \
IN-LINE MOTION
"-.\V \ _... f--"1 xlo 3 --
,~-10-~
\\ X\
\\.
\ /
/ /-
/ ;;;?
.....- SECOND INSTABILITY
0.5 v, > 2 2
\~ ./1./ I'~MOOTH--- ---
~/\

----

0
10' 10' 10'
0 05 1.0 1.5 2.0
Fig. A.l. Shape coefficient for circular cylinders. K,
Ref. A.l. Fig. A.4. Amplitude of in-line motion as a function of K 8
Ref. A.2.

LAMINAR SUBCRITICAL
I
CR ITI-
CAL SUPER CRITICAL

0.4 r'\ 6.0


s
0.3
\. v, ~
V~EAK OF CROSS-
FLOW MOTION

~
5.0

0.2
~
0.1
I 4 0 ------
ONSET OF CROSS-/
FLOW MOTION

3. 0

?
0.1 1.0 10 10' 10'
Re
00
,.. ,.. 10'
Re
Fig. A.2. Strouhals number for circular cylinders as Fig. A.5. Flow speed for onset of cross flow motion. Ref.
function of reynolds number. Ref. A.8. A.1.

2.5
1
FIRST \NSTABIUTV SECOND INSTAB.
v, REGION REGION
I
CROSS FLOW
I
2.0 L 1
1. 2

MOTION

I
/ AMPL
y DIAM
10

0.8
15

, 0 I NO MOTION
0.6

0'

0.2

""r-
0 0.5 1 0 1.5 2.0 4 6 8 10 , 14
K, K,

Fig. A.3. Flow velocity for onset of in-line motion. Ref. Fig. A.6. Amplitude of crossflow motion as a function of K5
A.2. Ref. A.3.
67
3.0 50

~

2.29

""" """' ~
3.0

20

20 ......__
\-
1---
,,
1.0 oo
0
" "' 60
Kc "

Fig. A.IO. Lift coefficient for a circular cylinder at a fixed


boundary in oscillatory flow.
Ref. A.S, A.6 and A. 7.

' " " " " " "


Fig. A.7. Recommended value of the added mass , .0
coefficient, em for a circular cylinder.
~
O.B 1\ //
I
.////
TH
-

0.6
\
0. 4
\
\
2.0

""' v ......_
1-tARJN GROW H
\ ROUGH ESS
..........
0.2 .........._
1.0 \. -
.......... 0.0
0. 70 0.0 0. 2 0.4 0.6 0.8 , .0
/ HiD
ST eEL R UGHNE S
Fig. A.ll. Variation of lift force coefficient as a function
of the distance from a fixed boundary.
0.0 Ref. A.S, A.6 and A.7.
0 20 30 40 50 60 70
Kr
Fig. A.8. Drag coefficient for a circular cylinder in
oscillatory flow.
Ref. A.4.

2.0 ~--
' ... -- - -
~
H

-----

----+-
,

I
j
I -

..
-,
--.
I

o.o 0.2 o.t. o_G o.a 1.0


HID
Fig. A.9. Influence of a fixed boundary on the drag
coefficient of a circular cylinder in oscillatory supercritlcal
flow, K, > 20, R,= 10 5 -2 10 6
Ref. A.S, A.6 and A.7.
68

APPENDIX B
BUCKLING CALCULATIONS
B. I Local buckling where
r}xp permissible usage factor (i.e. permissible value of
B.l.l In the absence of more accurate information Cor
methods) the critical combination of longitudinal and hoop ~)whenay:::: 0.
stresses may be expressed as follows: Clxer
1]yp permissible usage factor (i.e. permissible value of

( ~)a+
Gxcr
___!!_y_
Oyer
- I a
....::..L)whena,= 0.
0 yer

(Compressive stress is positive in this formula.)


Other symbols are defined in B.l.l.
a, OxN + axM The usage factors should depend on whether the critical
aN
N stress is in the elastic or in the plastic range. Therefore nor-
~ (Compression positive)
' A mally l)yp will be smaller than '7xp.Recommended usage factor
M . are given in B. I .3.
aM ~ (Compression positive)
' w
8.1.3 A recommended dependence on the degree of plas-
N ~ axial force. ticity involved is given for risers during operation in Table
A " (D- tl t ~ cross sectional area. B.!. For pipelines during operation the factors in Table 8.1
M ~ bending moment. may be multiplied by 1.2. For both pipelines and risers dur-
ing installation, the factors in Table B. I may be multiplied by
w ~
" (D - tl 2 t ~ (elastic) section modulus.
4
maximum I .44. However, no usage factor should exceed I ,0.
See also B.l .4.
D nominal outer diameter of pipe.
~ nominal wall thickness of pipe. Table 8.1 Permissible usage factors - general case

N
Gxcr
a"
+ -'-'-
l,oading
~.;;I I < ---"f_ <3 ~ ;;>3
a, condition a, aF

a)
"' 0 ,48 + 0.04 ~
'1,~0.52 'lp ~ 'lp"C 0,60
a~cr = critical longitudinal stress when N is acting alone "r
(M ~ 0. p~ 0). aE
b) '1,~0,68 >lp ~ 0,62 + 0,06~ 'lp ~ 0.80
Of
a~cr = Of
forD/ t <;20
aE :::: critical stress if completely elastic material. (a,E or a-yE)
~ aF [I - I( ~ -
0,00 20)] for 20 < T < I00 IJyE is defined in B.l.l.
= specified yield strength (corresponding to 0,2% resi-
a,E ::::::: 0 ,42 .:.!._
D
dual strainl.
= critical (maximum) longitudinal stress (when deter- B.l.4 For most pipes buckling due to a, alone will be nearly
mined as M/\V) when M is acting alone (N = 0, plastic, and buckling due to oy alone will be nearly elastic.
P ~ O) For such pipes the recommendations of 8.1.3 will lead to the
usage factors given in Table 8.2.
~r aF ( 1,35- 0,0045 +) Table 8.2 Permissible usage factors - typical D/t
300
a ::::: I+ D/t Installation Operation
Oyer

~ (p,- p) ~ Loading Pipelines Pipelines Pipelines


and Zone 1 Zone 2 and
::::: hoop stress to be considered in buckling analyses. condition
risers risers
(Not necessarily equal to actual hoop stress.)
external pressure.
YJ,, 'lyP 'lxp l}yp 1Jxp l}yp
p,
~ internal pressure.
a) 0.86 0.75 0.72 0,62 0.50 0,43
Pi
p Pe- p 1 :::: external Overpressure!). b) !.00 0.98 0.96 0.82 0.67 0.56
critical hoop stress when p is acting alone (N.::::: 0,
M ~ O).

~ ayE~ E ( D~ s Empty (airfilled) liquid pipes during operation)) may be


considered as during installatiom).

Oyer for ayE> 32 aF


B.2 Propagation buckling
8.2.1 Theoretically, the probability that a propagating buck-
le will be initiated is not higher (but may be lower) than the
B.l.2 The permissible combination of cr, and cry should be
defined by inserting permissible usage factors in the formula probability that a local buckle will occur. However, due to
of B.l.l for critical combination. The permissible combina- the great economic risk involved in propagation buckling, in-
tion may then be expressed as creased safety, or at least a closer investigation. may be ad-
viceable. For such investigation the available results from the
a later research work should be utilized.
<;I
B.2.2 A propagation buckle cannot be initiated in, or propa-
gate into. a portion of the pipe where the maximum external
69

overpressure is less than the propagation pressure (ppr) of the B.3.3 For a pipe subjected to an axial force N in the pipe it-
pipe. A simplified consideration of plastic Work involved in self, an internal pressure Pi and an external pressure p , the
total collapse gives effective)) axial force with respect to bar buckling>> is: e

S =N+ ~ (D- 2tl 2 p - ~ 0 2 p


4 ' 4 '
(Compression positive in this formula.)
which may be considered a lower bound. Ppr will most prob
ably be someWhat higher than given by the above formula. The formula applies to any type of axial restraint. since the
Further , the initiation pressure (piJ is somewhat higher than restraint is reflected in N.
Ppr
B.3.4 If Sis positive, S should be compared with the critical
8.2.3 A propagation buckle cannot be initiated in, but may axial force with respect to bar buckling of the considered
propagate into, a portion of the pipe where the maximum ex- span. If S is zero or negative, buckling is not possible. (Nega
ternal overpressure is between Ppr and Pin(Ppr < p < PiJ. If tive S has a similar effect as tension in an ordinary mem-
buckle arrestors are installated where p ~ Pin there is no need ber, even if the real axial force N is compressive.)
installing such arrestors where Ppr < P < Piw
8.3.5 The required minimum critical axial force Scr in rela-
B.3 Buckling of the pipe as a barn tion to S should depend on axial restraint. If both ends of the
considered span are fixed against axial displacement, S need
B.3.1 If there is doubt about the stability of a span against not be less than Scr Even with S exceeding Scr the pipe may
bar buckling)), the stability may be checked accQrding to the find a new eqilibrium position after a limited lateral deflec-
following. tion. The possible bending stresses should in such cases be
checked. If the considered span is free to contract axially. the
8.3.2 The effect of internal and external pressures may be safety against buckling should be as commonly used in steel
taken into account by introducing an effective)) axial force, construction.
S. which in effect is equivalent to the real axial force in an
ordinary>> compression member in air. Otherwise the pro-
cedure is as for ordinary compression members in air.

r
J...
'
70

APPENDIX C
QUALITY CONTROL OF MATERIALS.
QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES AND WELDING PERSONNEL
C.l General C.4 .I .2 Wet analyses and spectrochemical analyses are to be
made on materials sampled by e.g. drilling or milling and be
C.!.! Scope representative for the material composition.
C. I. I. I This appendix is a guidance to quality control of ma-
terials and defines methods for determination of chemical C.4.1 J Spectrographical analyses are to be made on a clean.
composition, mechanical testing of materials and welds and bright metal surface after grinding to a depth at least 2 mm
schemes for qualification of welding personnel. below the surface. Analyses of semi-killed steel are. however.
to be taken at approximately one quarter thickness position.
Other standardized testing methods. test specimens and
combination of tests may be used subject to agreement. CA. IA Ladle analyses are to be taken prior to and during
steel casting to ensure a uniform composition of each heat.
C.1.2 Definitions
C.4.1.5 Check analyses are to be taken on the final products.
C.l.2.1 Test sampleo The part of the material (pipe. plate. sec The check analyses may, however. optionally be determined
tion. east-on bar. piece cut from forgings etcJ which is select- at an intermediate stage. e.g. on plates. provided the results
ed for testing. are stated on the certificates.

C.l.2.2 Test specimeno The part of the test sample which is C.4.1.6 Determination of chemical composition is to include
prepared by machining etc. for carrying out the various tests. all elements listed in Table 5.1 (R) and other remaining ele-
ments intentionally added to control the material properties.
C.1.3 Testing equipment \Vhen the steel is made from scrap. the manufacturer is also
Testing equipment is to be of proven design with adequate to check the content of other residual elements which may
capacity and accuracy. The equipment is to be satisfactorily impair the quality of the product. e.g. Sn. As. Sb.
maintained and kept in accurate condition by regular calibra-
tion and check routines. Endorsed calibration records are to CA .I .7 The chemical composition is to be stated on the certi-
be kept available in the testing facility. ficate by the elements listed in Table 5.1 (R) and any other
elements intentionally added to control the material propert-
Only competent and trained personnel is to carry out testing. ies. Trace elements need, however. not be reported.

C.4.1.8 Recheck analysis: Should a check analysis fail to meet


C.2 Steel making the specified composition limits. all other heats within the sa-
me batch are to be subject to a complete chemir..:al analysis.
C.2.1 General Only those heats which are \_Vithin the specification. may' be
accepted.
C.2.l.l Steel may be made from pig iron. sponge iron or re-
cycled scrap. Residual elements are to be kept at a level C.4.1.9 Requirements are given in 5.2.4 (R).
which will not impair

hot working ability C.S Heat treatment


weldability
mechanical properties C.S.l General
soundness
surface finish C.5.!.l Heat treatment is to be carried out in a controlled
manner using calibrated equipment. Accuracy of temperature
C.2.1.2 Ladle treatment is to be performed in a controlled measurement is to be within 5C.
manner taking appropriate precautions to prevent humidity
increasement and contamination. C.5.1.2 Temperature fluctuations during austenizing are to be
within I 0C. During tempering. stress relieving or post-
weld heat treatment carried out within the range
C.3 Steel casting 500-650C. the fluctuations are to be within I5C.

C.3.1 General
C.J .1.1 Steel may be ingot cast. continuous cast or mould
cast. Sequence casting is subject to agreement. C.6 Surface defects in base material

C.J .I .2 The cast ingot, item or slab is to be inspected for sur- C.6.1 General
face defects. Defects are to be removed prior to subsequent
working. C.6. I .I The steel manufacturer or any other works perform-
ing operations which may influence the surface finish of the
C.J .1.3 Spun cast products are to be machined to a depth en- materiaL are to take precautions and make regular checks
suring removal of impurities and surface defects. with suitable equipment to ensure that the final surface finish
is acceptable.

C.6.1.2 Surface defects are to be removed. Superficial indica-


C.4 Chemical analyses
tions formed at high temperature and without a sharp tip.
may be accepted if their maximum depth is less than 5% of
C.4.1 General
the nominal wall thickness. however, maximum I mm.
C.4.l.l The chemical composition is to be determined by
either wet analyses. spectrochemical or spectrographical C.6 .I .3 Local surface defects may be ground out provided the
methods. remaining thickness is within the minimum specified.
71

C. 7 Mechanical testing C. 7.5 Charpy V-notch impact testing


C.7.1 General C.7 .5.1 Charpy Vnotch specimens are to have dimensions as
given in Fig. C.4. The provisions of ISO R 148 <<Beam impact
C.? .1.1 The material properties are to be determined on the test (V-notchh. are to be applied. When using subsize speci-
product in its final condition. mens (i.e. I 0 x 7.5 and I 0 x 5 mml, all the dimensions except
the height are to be in accordance with the said document.
C.7.1.2 Samples for testing are normally to be cut from the Full size specimens are to be used unless they can not be rea-
product or provided as integrally attached coupons, or ex- sonably provided. The impact toughness is the absorbed ener-
tension pieces. gy expressed in Joule (or kpml. and the symbol being KVT
for specimens orientated transverse to the principal rolling/
C.7 .1.3 Test specimens are to be prepared in a manner which working direction.
does not affect the mechanical properties and the testing.
Wherever possible. tensile and bend test specimens from roll- C. 7.5 .2 Charpy V-notch specimens sampled from the base
ed material are to retain the as-rolled surface finish. material are normally to have their longitudinal axis transver-
se to the principal rolling/ working direction. The notch is to
C. 7 .I .4 The results of specified tests are to be stated in the test be perpendicular to the rolled surface.
certificates including reference to the testing temperature if
different from the room temperature (15- 25C). When the wall thickness exceeds 50 mm. the Charpy
V notch Specimens are to be sampled at approximately t/ 4
C.7.2 Tensile testing position below the outside surface.
C.7.2.1 Tensile test specimens from a product of uniform
thickness are normally to have a rectangular cross section be- C.7 .5 .3 The scale of the machine is to be calibrated to an ac-
ing of full thickness and with the dimensions as given in Fig. curacy of 0.5% of the machine's maximum striking ener-
C.l. Tensile test specimens from castings and forgings of va gy.
rying thickness are to have a round cross section.
C.7 .5 .4 When impact testing is specified to be carried out at a
C.7 .2.2 The yield strength is to be taken as the lower yield temperature lower than the room temperature, the test speci-
point or the stress resulting in 0.2% permanent strain (offset) men is to be cooled down by immersion for I 0 minutes or
or the stress giving 0.5% total elongation during testing. more in a bath of a suitable temperature (e.g. methyl alcohol
cooled by solidified carbon dioxide). When withdrawing the
C.7 .2.3 The ultimate tensile strength is to be determined on test specimen from the bath. the bath temperature is not to be
the basis of the maximum load during testing and the original higher. and not more than 2C lower, than the required test
cross sectional area. temperature. The specimen is to be inserted in the machine
and tested within 5 seconds.
C.7 .2.4 The elongation of base material is to be measured
over a gauge length of 50 mm C.7.5.5 Requirements are given in 5.2.7 (R), 5.2.8 (R), 7.2.4.2
(R) and 8.5.3.4 (R).
C.7.2.5 Requirements are given in 5.2 6 (R). 7.2.4.2 (R) and
8.5.3.4 (R). C.7.6 Macrosection of welded joints
C. 7.6 .I The width of the macrosection is to be minimum
C. 7.2 .6 Pipes may be tensile tested by the ring expansion three times the width of the weld. The section is to be prepar-
technique subject to agreement. ed by grinding and polishing, and etched to clearly reveal the
weld metal and the heat affected zone. The macrosection is to
C. 7.2. 7 Tensile testing for determination of through thickness be examined using a magnification of at least 5 x.
ductility is to be performed in accordance with Veritas' Ru
les for design. construction and inspection of offshore struc C.7.7 Hardness testing of welded joints
tures/ Appendix C)), latest edition.
C.7.7.1 The prepared macrosection is to be used for hardness
testing using the Vickers method with 50 N (5 kp) load. In-
C. 7.3 Bend testing dentations are to be made along traverses. each approximate-
C.7.3.1 Bend test specimens are to have full wall thickness. ly I mm below the surface at either side of the weld. In the
The width of root and face bend specimens are to be approxi- weld metal minimum 6 indentations equally spaced along the
mately 25 mm. The width of side bend specimens are to be traverses are to be made. In the HAZ indent~tions are to be
12.5 mm. The edges may be rounded off to a radius of I I I 0 made along the traverses for approximately each 0.5 mm into
of the thickness. The weld reinforcement on both faces is to unaffected material. and starting as close to the fusion line as
be removed flush with the original surfaces (Fig. C.2). The possible. Reference is made to Fig. C.S.
weld is to be located symmetrically on each specimen.
C.7 .7 .2 In case of a single reading slightly higher than the
C.7.3.2 The specimens are to be bent to an angle of 180 us specified limit further indentations should be made to check if
the high>) value was an isolated case. Then indentations are
ing a former with a diameter of 90 mm. After bending. the
welded joint is to be completely within the tensioned region. to be made in the adjacent region as well as on the opposite
side of the macrosection along the specified traverses. If these
C.7.3.3 Requirements are given in 7.4.2 (R) and 8.5.3.4 (R). additional tests give a hardness within the specification limit.
the slightly high value may be accepted.

C.7.4 Nick break testing C.7 .7 .3 The accuracy of hardness testing with the actual
equipment and method is to be taken into account in the
C.7.4.1 The nick break test specimens are to have full thick-
evaluation of the readings.
ness with the weld reinforcement retained on both faces and
with dimensions as shown in Fig. C.J. The specimens are to
C.7.7.4 Requirements are given in 5.2.10 (R), 5.2.12 (R),
be hacksaw-notched through the thickness from both sides at
7.2.4.2 (R) and 8 5.3.4 (R)
the center of the weld and may be fractured either by pulling.
or reversed bending, or by striking one end w bile the other is
supported. C. 7.8 Strain ageing testing
C. 7.8 .I The specified mechanical properties of a product is
C.7.4.2 Requirements are given in 8.5.3.4 (R) and 8.5.5.2 (R). guaranteed in its final supply condition. In special situations
72

subsequent operations may still affect the material properties. C.8.5 Cast piping components
e.g. by field bending of pipes to bends, pulling of pipes
through J-tubes or pipelaying of reeled pipestrings. The frac- C.8 .5 .I Cast coupons are to be of a size and located in a man-
ture toughness is particularly sensitive to cold deformation. ner realistically predicting the properties of the casting. The
Strain ageing testing may then be a suitable method to asses coupons are to be heat treated with the casting, and are not to
whether adequate notch toughness does remain. be detached before completion of all heat treatments.

C.7 .8 .2 When the material is deformed to a fibre strain more


than 3% strain ageing testing is considered appropriate for C.9 Welding procedure qualification
pipeline systems required to have high resistance against brit-
tle fracture. Base material and weld metal are then to be test- C.9.1 General
ed.
C.9 .I .I The position for sampling of test specimens in con-
C.7 .8 .3 Procedureo The material is to be cold strained by eith- nection with welding procedures for fabrication and installa-
er uniform compression or tensioning to a deformation of tion welding are shown by Figs. C.6 and C. 7 respectively.
5% , or to the actual deformation if this is greater. The mate-
rial is to be artifically aged for I hour. The ageing tempera- The welding procedure specification and the test results are to
ture is to be l00C, or 250C for pipeline systems having ma- be presented on suitable forms including references to pro-
ximum design temperature above I 00C. ject. application, fabrication, installation company and endor-
sement of witnessing.
The deformed and aged material is to be Charpy V -notch tes-
ted at the impact testing temperature and meet the same re-
quirements as specified for the pipeline system. C.lO Qualification of welding personnel

C.IO.l General
C.l 0.1.1 The purpose of qualification testing of welding per-
C.S Sampling of test specimens sonnel is to verify that the welder or welding operator have
the necessary training. skill and understanding to produce
C.8. I Seamless pipes sound welds according to a qualified welding procedure.
C.8.1.l Tensile test specimens (transverse and longitudinal)
and Charpy V-notch specimens (transverse) may be sampled C.IO.l.2 In order to be qualified. welders and welding opera-
from any location within the pipe material. However, if the tors are to be at least 18 years of age, and are to have passed a
pipe has been spun cast, the test specimens are to be taken at relevant theoretical and practical training program.
the inside surface of the pipe.
C.! 0.1.3 The company responsible for the welding opera-
C.8.2 Welded pipe tions is prior to qualification testing. to confirm that each
welder and welding operator have obtained adequate under-
C.8.2.1 Pipe material: Tensile test specimens (transverse and standing of
longitudinal) and Charpy V-notch specimens (transverse), are
to be sampled 180 from the weld. fundamental welding techniques
significance of welding parameters
C.8 .2 .2 Weld seam: The test specimens are to be sampled relevant materials response to welding
transverse to the weld. with the weld deposit at the center, as operation of the welding equipment to be used
shown in Fig. C.6. The same applies for jointers which are welding procedure specifications
produced in the I G principal position (pipes horizontal while handling of welding consumables
rotating). relevant methods of non-destructive testing
relevant acceptance criteria for weld defects
C.8.3 Cold formed or forged bends
C.! 0 .I .4 \V elding personnel to make buttwelds and fillet
C.8.3.1 The test specimens are to be cut from an overlength
welds is to have passed qualification testing for single side,
bend section having received the same deformation and heat
full section buttwelding of pipes in the principal position(s)
treatments as applied for the bends. Base material test speci-
required.
mens are to be sampled from the area of maximum tensional
deformation. The longitudinal axis of the specimen is to be
C. I 0.1.5 \Velding personnel satisfying the above general con-
orientated transverse to the direction of the principal wor-
ditions and having performed an acceptable test weld accord-
king/ grain flow. \Vhen a bend contains longitudinal weld
ing to C.l0.2 is thereby qualified.
seanis). test specimens are also to be selected as described for
welded pipe (C.8 .2).
C.IO.l.6 For underwater welding additional conditions will
apply, see C.l0.4.
C.8.4 Forged seamless piping components other than bends
C.8 .4 .I The test specimens are to be taken from a portion of C.! 0 .I .7 An endorsed qualification test record is to be issued
the forging which has received a deformation representative after completion of an acceptable test weld. The record is to
for the working ratio of the most highly stressed cross sec- be of a suitable form containing information sufficient to
tion. For components with greatly varying working ratios describe applied welding procedure, testing set up. evaluation
and section thicknesses, more test samples may be necessary. methods and conclusions, scope of application and date of
testing.
Separately forged test blanks may be used when integrally
forged extension samples can not be reasonably provided. C.l 0.1.8 Where a qualification of recent date is allowed
transferred to a new project. the welding personnel is to be
C.8.4.2 The test specimens are to be machined with their informed about particular project requirements for which
principal axis transverse to the direction of principle grain their welding performance will be specially important.
flow, and be at least O.lt from the as-forged surface. Where
transverse testing can not reasonably be performed due to the C. I 0.1.9 Requalification is to be performed if the welding
small size of the component, the test specimens may have personnel has not regularly performed qualified welding
longitudinal orientation. within a period of more than six months.
73

C.J0.2 Test welding doubled, and both the new welds are to be acceptable, No
further retests are permitted until the welder/operator has
C.l0.2.1 Prior to starting the test welding, reasonable time is
passed acceptable additional training.
to be permitted to adjust the welding equipment.
If a failure occurred due to conditions beyond the welder's!
C.l0.2.2 If the welding procedure involves more than one
operator's control. this failure may be disregarded, and a new
operation or more welding units. test welding is to include all opportunity to qualify given.
operations and units necessary to complete the weld. Con-
sequently the performance test may require welding with dif- C.J0.4 Welder qualification
ferent welding units and welding parameters.
C. I 0.4.1 A welder is qualified for welding when the condi-
C.l 0.2.3 Two pipe nipples of sufficient length to introduce tions given in C.IO.I, C.I0.2 and C.I0.3 have been fulftlled.
realistic restraint are to be joined according to the qualified Qualified welding positions are given in Table C.2.
welding procedure. The pipe diameter. wall thickness and the
principal position(s) are to be selected in accordance with the C. I 0.4.2 A welder qualification is valid within the limits of
range to be qualified. essential variables as described below. If any of the following
essential variables are changed, a new qualification test is re-
For field installation of transmission pipelines the actual line quired
pipe should be used for qualification testing.
A change of welding process
For welding of pipes with t < 5 mm or OD < 100 mm, the A change of welding direction
test pipe dimensions are to be agreed upon. A change of welding consumables from basic coated to
cellulosic coated or vice versa
C.I0.2.4 For pipe diameters less than 300 mm, the complete A change of pipe diameter from one to another of the fol-
joint is to be welded. For testing on significantly greater dia- lowing diameter groupings, OD .;;; I 00 mm, I 00 < OD .;;;
meter. the welding length is to be at least half the circumfer- 300 mm, and OD > 300 mm
ence such that typical flat. vertical and overhead welds are A change of wall thickness from t > 5 mm to t < 5 mm
made without interruption. A change in principal welding position other than already
qualified, see table C.2
C.l0.2.5 Minimum one swp and start is to be made during A significant change of joint design e.g. V -groove to
welding of the root and cap pass. Electrodes are to be com- Y-groove
pletely consumed. Light mechanical treatment is permitted
for removal of scale. debris and minor local irregularities. Table C.2
however. not for the intent of removing weld defects due to
unsatisfactory performance of welding. Welding is to proce- Principal test position Qualified welding positions
ed with a speed representative for regular production. IG IG
2G IG, 2G
Cl0.2.6 Test material may be of semikilled or killed CMn SG IG, SG
steel for welding on pipeline system designed with unalloyed. 2G + SG All
microalloyed or low alloyed steels with ultimate tensile 6G All
strength maximum 620 MPa. Qualification for welding of
higher strength grades or alloyed steel may require additional C.J0.5 Welding operator qualification for mechanized weld-
testing on the actual material type. ing
C.IO.S.l A welding operator is qualified for welding when
C.10.3 Inspection and testing of qualification test welds the conditions given in C.IO.l, C.l0.2 and C.l0.3 have been
fulfilled.
C.IO.J.l Each test weld is to be visually inspected and show
a workmanlike appearance satisfying Table I 0.1 (R). If found
C. I 0.5.2 An operator's qualification is valid within the limits
acceptable. the test weld is to be radiographed using a qualif-
of essential variables as described for welders, see C. I 0.4 .2.
ied procedure based on X -rays. see section I 0 (R), and comp-
Additionally the qualification is limited to the type of welding
ly with Table I 0.2 (R).
equipment qualified for the actual installation welding. Re-
qualification is further to be initiated if there is made a chan-
C.l 0.3 .2 The test weld is also to be destructively tested if it
ge in the welding procedure which itself requires requalifica
has been made with a welding procedure involving the gas
tion, and this change is depending on the operator's control
metal arc welding process or other processes of high potential
and skill, and necessitate a different operating technique.
for non-fusion defects. Type and number of mechanical tests
are given in Table C.!.
C.10.6 Qualification of welding personnel for underwater
welding
Table C. I
C.l0.6.1 Qualification of welding personnel working under-
Pipe Wall Nick Face Root Side water is to be based on the scheme given in C. I 0 with the ad-
diameter thickness break bend bend bend ditional conditions specified herein.
(rum) (mml test test test test
C.l0.6.2 The test welds are to be produced under actual or si-
QD.;;JOO 2 0 2 0 mulated conditions for the work in question.
I 00 < OD .;;300 t.;;J2.5 4 0 2 0
OD > 300 8 2 2 0 C.l0.6.3 In addition to the requirements given in C.lO.l.J,
OD .;;t 00 2 0 0 2 underwater welding personnel is initially to have passed a
I 00 < OD .;;300 t> 12.5 4 0 0 2 relevant welding test above water before beeing permitted to
OD > 300 8 0 0 4 qualify for welding underwater. Prior to the tests, the wel-
ders are to be given sufficient training to get familiar with the
Sampling of test specimens is shown in Fig. C.8. influence of pressure, temperature, atmosphere etc. on weld-
ing.
C.I0.3.3 If a test weld fails to meet the specified require-
ments. the welder or welding operator may be permitted im- C.! 0.6 .4 Approval of welders/ operators are to be based on
mediate retesting. Then the number of test welds are to be visual. mechanical and radiographic testing.
,,
74

Type and number of mechanical tests are given in Table C. I . is to be examined visually and by radiography. If interrupted
period exceeds 6 months, the performance test is to be as
C.l0.6.5 The applicability of a welder's certificate is given in specified for initial qualification.
Table C.2 as regards welding positions. Applicability for
welding at greater water depths or other pressure or diving For underwater welders who are on stand-by and without
modes will be decided in each case. necessarily doing regular underwater welding. the conditions
for maintenance of the qualification is to be specially agreed
C.l0.6.6 For underwater welders any change of coated elec- upon.
trodes will normally require requalification.
C.I0.7 Extraordinary requalificatlon of welding personnel
C.I0.6.7 Renewal of the certificate for underwater welders C.I0.7.1 Welding personnel may be required to requalify in
may be required if welding has been interrupted for a period case of negligence or questionable welding performance. In
of more than 3 months. The retest is then to consist of mak- such cases the welder/ operator in question shall present evid-
ing minimum one test coupon of length approximately
300-400 mm in an agreed welding position, and the coupon ence of further acceptable training. and are to be requalified
as for initial qualification.
75

r
REDUCED SECTION

60mm-1

LENGTI<
50mm.

lransverse, 01 longitudinal. base material tensile


test specimen

REDUCED SECTION

--1
1
r-60mm

: 1 rt~--1
2SmmRmln.

Weld tensile test-fabrication


of pipes/piping components.

SPECIMEN MAY BE MACHINE OR OXYGEN CUT


SHALL BE PARALLEL AND SMOOTH.
/EDGES

-- I }PPROXIMATELY 25mm

APPROXIMATELY 225 MM --------<..,


WELD REINFORCEMENT SHO
j_ REMOVED ON EITHER ~IDE SPECIMEN _i_
WALL THICKNESS
T T
Wei d tensile test for field weld procedure
qualification test.

- Fig. C.l. Tensile test specimens


76

SPECIMEN MAY BE MACHINE OR OXYGEN CUT.


1/10 MAX.
t\lRAD. ALL CORNERS

----------.......J urPPROX. 2Smm

l - - - - - - - - - 2 0 0 m m (minimum I
SWELO

t:==========]~iiiJi~l::::==========JI~~~
-
4
WALL THICHNESS

WELD REINFORCEMENT IS TO BE REMOVED FROM BOTH FACES FLUSH WITH THE SURFACE OF THE SPECI-
MEN. SPECIMEN SHALL NOT BE FLATTENED PRIOR TO TESTING. CUT SURFACES SHALL BE SMOOTH AND
PARALLEL

FACEBEND/ROOT BEND SPECIMEN

WELD REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE REMOVED FROM BOTH


FACES FLUSf< WITf< THE SURFACE OF THE SPECrMEN

,-
f
!
WALL
THICKNESS

r------200mm (minimum)
I \ t /10 RADIUS MAX. ALL
__L \ CORNERS

I 12.5mm (,.....--"')/
I T I
~ t -j
ITWIDTH OF
SPECIMEN

/WALL THICKNESS

SPECIMENS MAY BE MACHINE CUT TO 12,5 MM WIDTH OR THEY MAY BE OXYGEN CUT TO APPROXIMATE-
LY 20 MM WIDE AND THEN MACHINED OR GROUND SMOOTH TO 12.5 MM WIDTH. CUT SURFACES SHALL
BE SMOOTH AND PARALLEL.

SIDE BEND SPECIMEN

Fig. C.2. Bend test specimens


77

NOTCH CUT BY HACK SAW.


,--,-SPECIMEN MAY BE MACHINE
OR OXYGEN CUT. FACES SHALL
BE REASONABLE PARALLEL
3mm

20mm

I 3mm
.-i-.,._----------,APPROX.22Smm - - - - - - - - - - " " '

! DO NOT REMOVE REINFORCEMENT OF WELD OF


...L EITHER SIDE OF SPECIM[N.~'-------------,
l ~ ,~WALL THICKNESS
T T

Fig. C.3 Nick break test specimen

55
NOTCH POSITIONS

;2
CENTER OF WELD ~I
SZl::J=*===t:1 2 mm

ffi
20
~A
I 20
FUSION LINE lf.l.l
SJ7 !
40 - - - -
2mm FROM f. I. c;:g,,, 2mm

ROOT RADIUS 0, 25
5mm FROM f.l.
\%'!' 5rnm

N Location of Charpy V-notch sample.5


ot welded joints. (Each sample consists of
three specimens.)
----------------~
DETAIL "'A"'

Charpy v- notch
specimen /notch perpendicular
to rolled surface.

Fig. C.4. Charpy V -notch impact testing.


78

,.., 1 MM A.

HARDNESS TESTING
BUTT WELDS

-v1MM

1-----
0.5 mm

I DETAIL A MAGNIFIED I

,..., 1 MM

HARDNESS TESTING HARDNESS TESTING


MULTIPLE PASS SINGLE BEAD REPAIR
WELD REPAIR INSIDE OR OUTSIDE

Fig. C.S. Hardness testing welded joints - schematic.


79

(2//2~0/7/Zdfscfd~a;~
I b] I Tensile test spec.imens.

I I ~
Q I}
I Bend test specimens.
I
1

~}
IMPACT TESTING:
Center of weld metal
I specimens.
Fusion line

2mm from fusion line


spec.i mens.

11
a, :}
i:V
~
A '} 5mm from fu ~ion line
specimens.

Bend test specimens.

Tensile test specimen


Macro section I hardness test
~r-~~=r=7~~7=~~specimen.

Fig. C.6. Welding procedure qu!aification - fabrication


of pipes/ piping components: sampling of test specimens.

II
80

TOP OF PIPE

~----- Hardnesslmacrosection
~-
Face or side bend ----~o;,~-'4""-- ~---- Tensile
-
......
Root or side bend ~----Nick break

OD~ 300mm
- -r-- -~
Nick break
Tensile
-
+--Fusion line
2mm from f. I.
Smm from f. I.
----~lC'-.J.....-~;7~-~ Root or side bend
Ec
- "'
} 8.E"

---~,:.-~ ~~---Face or side bend

'---------- Hardness I m acrosect ion

TOP OF PIPE

Root or side bend


~ ~----------Hardness I macr osection

Nick break ---------to~AI>C? ,.._______ Tensile


Tensile ----------t--~::::Y "J(:=-....-----Root or side bend
Face or side bend----.,(] 1\..- - - Nick break

Outer diameter
OD > 300mm
--Weld metal
~- -------#'3---Fusion line (f.l) "'"'
n-
co.
- 2mm from f. I. a.E
EO
I - 4 - - - Smm from f. I.
-"'
Y...t----Sidebend.
Root or sicfe bend I Nick break
Ni c k break ----------~~"VI1'l- v ..t------Tensile
~~.______ Root or side bend
Tensile - - - - - - - - - - ' " "'~l--,.1,...-
s ide bend ---------~-
"'-----------Hardnesslmacrosection

Note: The indicated locations of the test specimens are to be used for welding positions 2G, SG and 6G.
For qualification of welding in I G position, sampling positions are optional.

Fig. C.7 Welding procedure qualification test-field joints.


Sampling of test specimens
81

TOP OF PIPE

Root bend or !.ide bend Root bend or side bend

TOP OF PIPE

Nick break

Nick break Root bend or side bend


Root bend or side bend

TOP OF PIP

Root bend or ~ide bend


Nick break
Nick break Face bend or side bend

Outer Idiameter
---
00
--t:- ---
300mm
> .

Face bend or ~idebend


I Nick break
Nick break Nick break
N"1ck break Root bend or side bend

- Note: At the company's option, the locations may be rotated 45 degrees counterclockwise or they may
be equally spaced around the pipe except specimens shall not include the longitudinal weld. Also,
at the company's option, additional specimens may be taken.

Fig. C.8 Welder and welding operator performance test-


field joints. Sampling of test specimens
82

APPENDIX D
GUIDELINES ON CORROSION CONTROL
D.l Design of cathodic protection systems For coated pipeline systems, however. the current demand
may increase with time as the coating deteriorates.
D.l.l General
D.l.i. I The purpose of D.! is to provide some general guide- Table D.l presents a general guide for selection of design cur-
lines to the design of cathodic protection systems for sub rent densities. Three minimum design current densities are
listed for some major offshore areas and special environ-
marine pipeline systems.
ments.
Veritas will be open to evaluate cathodic protection systems
based on alternative design methods. The initial current density is used to determine the necessary
current output capacity of new anodes. The final current
D.l.l.2 Cathodic protection for submarine pipelines and ri- density is used to determine the necessary current output ca-
sers is generally by sacrificial anodes. pacity of anodes when the anodes are consumed to the utili-
zation factor. The mean current density is used to determine
The cathodic protection system is generally applied in com- the weight of the anodes.
bination with a suitable coating system. The coating will re-
duce the initial current requirement and improve the current
distribution.

D.l.2 Design basis


Table D.l Guidance on minimum design current densities
D.t.2.1 Design life, Normally the design life of the cathodic (mAl m1) for cathodic protection of bare steel
protection system should be taken as the design life of the pi-
peline system. Initial Mean Final
value value value
D.l.2.2 Environmental conditions: The following parameters
should be taken into account in the design of the cathodic North Sea (northern! 160 120 100
protection system: North Sea (southern! 130 100 90
Arabian Gulf 120 90 80
Temperature of pipeline system India 120 90 80
Temperature of seawater/ sea bed Australia 120 90 80
Oxygen content of seawater/ sea bed Brazil 120 90 80
Chemical composition of seawater/ sea bed Gulf of Mexico 100 80 70
Resistivity of seawater/sea bed \Vest Africa 120 90 80
Current velocity of seawater Indonesia 100 80 70
Biological activity Pipelines (burial
specified) 50 40 30
If relevant parameters from the same area on these are not
available, measurements along the route may be required. Risers in shafts with
flowing seawater 180 140 120
The current output of anodes is dependent on the resistivity. Risers in shafts with
For seawater the resistivity in tropical waters (t::::::: 25C) may stagnant seawater 120 90 80
be taken as 20 ohmcm while in colder waters (t::::::: 5- 10C)
it may be taken as 33 ohmcm. Sea bed (ambient
temperature) 25 20 15
The resistivity of the lm upper layer of the sea bed may be ta-
ken as I 00 ohmcm if no measurements have been carried
out.

0.1.2.3 Potential criteria: The potential criteria for cathodic


protection are given in 6.3.1.3 of the Rules.

D.l.3 Current demands For buried pipelines, higher values are used than for bare
0.!.3.1 The total current demand is given by the current steel in seabed. This is due to that a higher safety margin is
density and the area of exposed steel surfaces. The following necessary and the fact that complete burial may not be ob-
areas should be considered: tained.

areas in seawater 0.1.3.2 The current density for a coated steel surface is high-
areas below mudline ly dependent on the quality of the coating materials and the
unprotected foreign structures in electrical contact with coating application.
the pipeline system
Table 0.2 gives guidelines on the selection of coating break-
The current density is determined by the environmental down criteria for coated structures. The coating breakdown
conditions. The selection of design current densities may be criterion is defined as the ratio:
based on experiences from similar pipeline systems in the sa-
me environment or measurements. Current density coated steel
100%
Current density bare steel
The current density is normally not constant with time. For
bare steel surfaces in seawater the current density may dec- The presented values are based on satisfactory coating appli-
rease due to the formation of calcareous deposit caused by cation. If the coating is particularly exposed to wear and me-
the cathodic current. chanical damage, higher values must be used.
83

To establish the current density requirement for coated steel. 0.1.4 Anode materials
the values in Table 0.1 should be multiplied by the percenta-
0.1.4.1 Zinc anodes should conform to the following compo-
ges in Table 0.2. sition in order to reduce the susceptibility to intergranular
corrosion.
Table 0.2 Guide on coating breakdown criteria (%) for
some coatings (expected lifetime 25 years) max% min%
[nitial Mean Final Aluminium 0.2 0.1
Cadmium 0,06 0.03
Thick film pipeline Iron 0.002
coatings I 10 20 Copper 0.005
Vinyl systems 2 20 50 Silicon 0.125
Epoxy coal-tar 2 20 50 Lead 0,006
Epoxy (high-build) 2 20 50 Zinc remainder
Rubber I 5 10
0.1.4.2 The following electrochemical properties of alloys
D.l.3.3 For pipeline systems in contact with the reinforce other than given in 0.1.4.1 should be documented by ap-
ment of concrete structures. allowance should be made for propriate tests:
current drainage to the reinforcement. An average current
density ofO.S-1 mA/m 2 for the outer reinforcement layer is Driving potential (mY) to polarized steel. i.e. the differ-
normally sufficient. Initial values may be somewhat higher ence between closed circuit anode potential and the po
and final values significantly lower. The area of the outer tentials given by Table 6.1.
reinforcement may be taken as the area of the concrete sur Current capacity (ampere hours/ kg).
face. Susceptibility to passivity.
Susceptibility to intergranular corrosion.
D.!.3.4 The current density may be dependent on the tempe-
rature. For pipelines and risers carrying hot oil or gas an in The testing of the abovementioned properties may be carried
crease in the current density has been observed. out by long term free-running (i.e. without external power
source) laboratory testing, or field testing of full scale anodes.
In the temperature range 25C to 100C an increase in the
current density in the order of I rnA/ m 2 per C as compared Table DJ gives some guidelines on typical values for es-
to the values given in Table D.l may be used. The tempera sential parameters for some technical anodes alloys.
ture to be considered is the temperature difference between
hydrocarbon and seawater I sea bed.

Table 0.3 Electrochemical parameters for some sacrificial anode alloys

Alloy Environment Driving potential Current capacity Consumption rate


(mV) (Ah/ kg) kg/ A year
AI-Zn-Hg seawater (5- 30C) 200-500 2600-2800 3 I - 3.4
AI-Zn-ln seawater (5- 30C) 250-300 2500-2700 3 2 - 3.5
AI-Zn-ln saline mud (5- 30C) 150-250 1300-2300 3.85- 6.7
Al-Zn-ln saline mud U0-90C) 100-200 400-1300 6.7 -22
Zn seawater 200-250 760- 780 11.2 -11.5
Zn saline mud (0-60C) 150-200 760- 780 II 2 -11.5

l
84

D.I.S Current output capacity of anodes 0.1.8 Fabrication of anodes


D.I.5.1 The current output capacity (I) is given by Ohm's 0.1.8.1 The electrochemical properties are highly dependent
law. on the content of alloying elements and impurity elements.
The anode manufacturer should thus prove his capability of
liV delivering anodes which satisfy the specification.
[ ~ (D I)
R
0.1.8.2 The quality control at the anode manufacturing plant
!:1 V = Driving potential should include control systems on the following:
R Circuit resistance (usually taken as the anodic resist-
ance) Raw materials, i.e. checking of documentation.
Production equipment and process.
The anodic resistance is determined by the resistivity of the Testing during and after production.
surrounding environment and the geometric conditions of Identification of products.
the anodes. Empirical formulae as shown in Fig. D.! may be Chemical analysis of products.
used. \V eight and dimensional tolerances.
Visual check of any surface defects.
If the anodes are grouped closely in array, interference be- Documentation (test certificates).
tween the anodes must be taken into account when calculat-
ing the anodic resistance.

0.1.5.2 For bare steel sur(aces the anode current output ca~
pacity should be calculated in the initial stage when the cur-
rent demand is greatest and at the end of the lifetime when 0.2 Standards for coating
the anode is consumed to the utilization factor and the anode
has the lowest current output. 0.2.1 General
0.2 .1.1 Standards or recommendations. for coating materials.
D.!.S .3 Installation of additional anodes with smaller dimen- application and testing are listed below. Most test methods
sions for the initial stage (for instance 3 years) to meet the will be found under the first group referring to the most com-
high initial current requirements may be more economical mon generic types of pipeline coatings. The second group
than to find a single anode shape which meets both initial contains more general guidelines for coating application and
and final current demand. inspection.
For coated structures where an increase in the current density 0.2.2 Acceptable standards for coating properties and test
may be observed the current output capacity should be methods referring to generic type
checked at the end of the lifetime when the anode is consum~
ed to the utilization factor. 0.2.2.1 Coal tar based coatings:

The total current output capacity should be greater than the British Standard BS 4164, Specification for Coal Tar Based
total current demand. Hot Applied Coating \laterials for Protection of Iron & Steel

American \Vater Works Association. A W\V A C 203. Stand-


ard for Coal Tar Protective Coatings and Linings for Steel
D.1.6 Calculation of anode life
\Vater Pipelines - Enamel and Tape - Hot - Applied.
0.1.6.1 The anode life L may be determined as follows'
National Association of Corrosion Engineers NACE 2G 156.
\\' . u Coal Tar Coatings for Underground Use.
L ~ (D.5)
El
D 2 2 2 Asphalt based coating
L effective life of the anodes
W = net mass of the anodes British Standard BS 414 7. Specification for Hot Applied Bitu-
u utilization factor determined by the amount of anode men Based Coating for Ferrous Products.
material consumed when the remaining anode mate-
rial cannot deliver the current required Netherlands Corrosion Committee IL Communication 13.
E co.nsumption rate of the anode published by T.N.O.
I = mean current requirement per anode during the life~
time NACE Publication 2H I 57. Asphalt Protective Coatings for
Underground Pipelines- \\'rapped Systems.
The following values for utilization factor may be used:
The Asphalt Institute, Asphalt Protective Coatings for Pipeli-
Slender anodes: 0.90-0.95 nes - Construction Series No. 96 - \\"'rapped and \1astic
Bracelet anodes: 0.75-0,80 Systems.
Other shapes: 0.75-0,85
NACE Standard RP-02-76. Extruded Asphalt :VIastic Type
Protective Coatings for l,Tnderground Pipelines.
0.1.7 Current distribution
D.2.2.3 Reinforcing materials for coal tar and asphalt based
0.1.7.1 The anodes should be evenly distributed over the coatings:
steel surface to achieve a uniform current distribution.
Netherlands Corrosion Committee IL Communication 13.
For systems with complex geometry model testing may be
necessary. NACE Publication 2J 262, Specifications for fibrous Glass.
Reinforced Type Underground Pipe \Vrap.
It is recommended that the distance between anodes on a
coated pipeline does not exceed !50 m. Close to platforms NACE Publication 2J 162, Specifications for Bitumous Satu-
and pipe crossings additional anodes should be installed. rated Glass Pipe \Vrap.
85

AWW A C 203, Standard for Coal Tar Protective Coatings All surface preparation of pipes for pipelines or risers is nor-
and Linings for Steel \Vater Pipelines- Enamel and Tape- mally to be in accordance with:
Hot - Applied.
Swedish Standard SIS 055900, Pictorial Surface Preparation
NACE Publication 2J 362, Specifications for Asbestos Pipeli- Standards Grade Sa 2 1/2, or better (Sa 3).
ne Felt.
The following standards for surface preparation are consider-
0.2.2.4 Epoxy coating ed to be equivalent:

British Gas Standard (preliminary). British Standard BS 4232, Surface Finish of Blast-Cleaned
Steel for Painting, Second Quality, or better (First Quality).
0.2.2.5 Vulcanized rubber coating:
U.S. Steel Structures Painting Council SSPC. Grade SSPC-SP
British Standard Code of Practice CP 300J, Part I. Rubber. 10. Near-White Blast Cleaning, or better (Grade SSPC-SP 5),

To obtain good bonding the rubber coating should be applied NACE No. 2. Near-White Blast Cleaned Surface Finish, or
by extrusion of a continuous rubber stripe under controlled better (NACE No. !).
tension to rotating pipe.
For field joint coating of weld areas on lay barge or similar.
for coal tar or asphalt based coatings, surface preparation by
wire brushing to remove all weld spatter rust dirt and dust
until a clean uniform grey-white metallic finish is obtained.
D.2.3 Application and inspection of coatings, general
standards 0.2.3.3 Application and inspection of coating.
0.2.3.1 General'
NACE Standard RP-06-75. Recommended Practice. Control
Below are listed some recognized general standards for coat of Corrosion on Offshore Steel Pipelines.
ing application including pipe metal surface preparation, in-
spection and testing of final coatings. For application of pipe- U.S. Steel Structure Painting Council SSPC. Steel Structures
line coatings. the standard listed under 0.2.2 are of primary Painting Manual.
interest. The below requirement to surface preparation of mi-
nimum SIS grade Sa 2,5 or equivalent should always be gov- British Standard BS 5493. Code of practice for protective
erning for yard coating of pipes. coating of iron and steel structures against corrosion.

D.2.3.2 Surface preparation of pipes: References is also made to the standards given in 0.2 .2.

SLENDER ANODES a- 4 I
( ln---1 ) (0.2)
2 " .J r

e ::= resistivity (ohm em)


I \ I length of anode (em)

II II r
r
::= equivalent radius of anode (em)

f; 2
a ::= cross section of anode (cm )
Stand off core greater than 30 em
PLATE ANODES

_Q_ (0.3)
R, 2 .s
S mean length of anode side (em)
b + c
s 2
b ;;..2c

BRACELET ANODES
AND OTHER SHAPES

0.315-e (04)
\/A
A exposed surface area of anode

Fig. D.l Anodic resistance formulae (Ra)


86

APPENDIX E
PRESSURE TESTING OF PIPELINES AND PIPELINE SECTIONS
E.l General E.2.3 The minimum test pressure is to be at least 1.25 times
E. I.! This appendix covers Veritas' guidelines with respect to the design pressure. The hoop stress during pressure testing is
pressure testing of pipelines and pipeline sections. normally not to exceed 90% of SMYS. Higher stresses will
be considered in each case. During pressurizing, added test li-
The purpose of the pressure testing is to verify that the tested quid versus pressure should be recorded in order to evaluate
sections are leakproof and have the required structural the amount of residual air in the test section.
strength to withstand the design pressure with the anticipated
level of safety. E.2.4 After pressurizing sufficient time for stabilization must
be allowed having in mind that a temperature change during
It is assumed that the separate pipes have been individually the pressure test will greatly influence on the pressure. Signi-
pressure tested in the pipe mill. ficant temperature differences between added test liquid and
surrounding environment might lead to a long stabilization
E. L2 The Owner is to establish specifications for hydrostatic time (several days).
testing describing procedures and equipment.
E.2.5 The holding period should normally be 24 hours. If,
The procedure specification is to cover at least the following: however, a I 00 <:--() visual inspection of the tested section is
carried out. the holding period could be limited to the time
Pressure test specification designation and revision num- necessary to carry out this inspection, but not less than 2
ber hours. For short sections as for instance risers 8 hours hold-
Description of the sections to be tested (defining lengths, ing period may be acceptable. During the holding period the
elevations. in-line valves and connectors, branches. con- pressure is to be recorded every I I 2 hours.
nection for test equipment, e.g. isometric drawings. flow-
sheets and alignment sheets)
Test medium (including additives)
E.3 Pressure test method no. 2
Mixing of test medium and additives E.J .I The testing sequence will be as follows:
Test pressures
Test holding time Caliper pigging (normally included)
Description of all testing equipment Filling of test liquid
Description of all testing instruments Stabilization (long sections)
Method for cleaning and removing of air from the test Pressurizing to strength test pressure
section Stabilization
Sequence of pressurizing Holding
Monitoring and recording of test pressure Reduction to leak test pressure
Depressurizing and discharge of test medium Stabilization
Holding
E.l.J Instruments and equipment for measuring pressure, vo- Pressure release
lume and/ or temperature is to have an appropriate measur- Reporting
ing range with sufficient accuracy verified by a recognized
test laboratory. The verification should normally not be older E.3.2 \Vith respect to filling of test liquid and stabilization. re-
than one year. ference is made to E.2.2 and E.2.4.

Pressure measuring equipment is to have an accuracy and re- E.3.3 The minimum strength test pressure is 1.4 times the
peatability of 0 .I % . design pressure. The maximum equivalent stress during pres-
sure testing is normally not to exceed the von Mises equiva-
If temperatures are measured during the pressure test. the ac- lent stress during pressure testing in the pipe mill or 0.96
curacy of temperature testing equipment is to be 0.1 C. times SMYS, whatever is the largest. Higher stresses will be
considered in each case. The holding period for this strength
The volume measurement equipment, if used. is to have a test should not be shorter than I hour and not longer than 3
sensitivity of 0 .I % of the added volume of liquid necessary hours. The pressure is to be recorded every 10 minutes.
to produce a hoop stress equal to SMYS.
E.3.4 The leakproof test pressure is to be 1.1 times the design
E.l.4 Below are described two alternative methods of .pres- pressure. For a leakproof test the holding period should nor-
sure testing. mally be 24 hours. For test sections where I 00% visual in
spection is carried out the holding period could be limited to
E.2 Pressure test method no. the time necessary to carry out this inspection, but not less
than 2 hours. During this holding period, the pressure is to be
E.2.l The testing sequence wil! be as follows: recorded every I /2 hours. For shorter sections, for instance
risers, 8 hours holding period may be acceptable.
Caliper pigging (normally included)
Filling of test liquid
Stabilization (long sections)
Pressurizing to test pressure E.4 Acceptance criteria
Stabilization E.4.1 The test will be accepted if during the test all pressure
Holding containing components in the tested section maintain their in-
Pressure release tegrity and no leaks are found. Since it is difficult to judge if
Reporting certain small pressure changes could be caused by for inst-
ance temperature changes, a pressure change of 0.2% of
E.2.2 Filling of test liquid should be carried out in due time the test pressure could be accepted. If greater pressure drops
prior to the actual pressure testing (several days). During fill- occur the test will not be accepted or the holding period
ing, steps should be taken to ensure that the volume of air re- should be extended until a 24 hour period with acceptable
maining in the test section is minimized. pressure change has occurred.
87

E.4.2 If the temperature is taken into account when interpret- catiof!S along the section to be tested (e.g. one in each end of a
ing the test results. then the Owner has. prior to the test. to long sectionl.
present calculations clearly showing the effect on the pressure
from variations in the following variables: E.6 Hydrostatic test report

Temperature of test liquid when filling E.6.1 The Owner is to provide a test report for each section
Temperature of environment tested.
Restraints
The report is at least to comprise
During the actual test. the temperature of the environment
has to be recorded at several relevant positions along the line. test report as per attached form
The readings to be made every hour. pressure time diagrams
actual pressure volume diagrams plotted versus theoreti-
E.S Witnessing cal pressure volume diagram
if relevant. all temperatures versus time is to be plotted
E.5.1 The pressure testing shall be witnessed by Veritas. If and included
found necessary. Veritas may have surveyors at relevant lo- certificate of pressure measuring equipment
88

HYDROSTATIC TEST REPORT


REPORT NO........ .

Owner.:
Pipeline Description:
Testing Contractor:
Construction Contractor:

Testing Specification:
Section Tested From:
Pump Location:
Pressure Recorder Location (Elevation):
Length of Section' ... Volume of Section:
Pipe Tested (Size. W.T., Grade, Type and Manufacturer),

Type and Source of Test Medium:


Additive' .............. . . Quantity,
Dye .......................... . . Quantity,
Inhibitor: . Quantity,

Dead Weight Tester No.,

Strength Test Pressure: .. ... bar Start of Test' . bar End of Test ....... bar
Leakproof Test Pressure: ......... bar Start of Test . bar End of Test' ....... bar

Time and Date Strength Test Started' . Ended'


Time and Date Leakproof Test Started: . Ended'

Remarks:

Company Representative: . Date:


Contractor Representative: . Date:
VERITAS Representative' . Date:

Attachments:

Pressuretime diagrams

Pressure-volume diagrams .

Temperature-time diagrams .

Instrumentation calibration sheet