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7 IRREGULAR WAVES

7.1 Introduction

The visible characteristic of the ocean waves is their irregularity:


In the space confirmed by the analysis of wave elevation
In the time measurements

Aerial photo of ocean waves

NUNO FONSECA - IST


Aerial photo of ocean waves

Wave elevation time record (Fissel et al., 1999, OTC10794)


The visible characteristic of the ocean waves is their irregularity in space and in
time
However:
In relatively large areas and for periods of approx. 20-30min the seastate
maintains the appearance
Which means:
The seastate maintains its statistical characteristics, it is statistically stationary

THEN Confirmed from the analysis


of wave elevation time records

For the seakeeping calculations the irregular waves can be represented as a:


Random (or stochastic) process
With statistically stationary short term characteristics
A long term model may be represented by a succession of short term
seastates
7.2 Generation and Propagation of Waves
Waves are generated by the interaction between the wind and the water surface
through:
Frictional forces between the two fluids
Local pressure field which changes in space and time

If the waves are of small amplitude then the propagation and dispersion of
waves is governed by the superposition principle
Generation of Waves
(a) The seastate results from multiple interactions between the wind and the
free surface, which vary in time and in space
The wave elevation felt at one point in space are the results from the sum of
all effects from all perturbations in the generation area to windward
(b) A local perturbation generates a wave system that radiates from the
perturbation point
At a long distance the wave system generated at a point look like 2D or long
crested
Due to angular dispersion the several wave systems come from different
directions and the combined system is 3D, or short crested
(c) The distance from the observation point to boundary of the generation area (to
windward) is called fetch

(d) At a point fixed in space, the wave elevations increase with time. The time
interval since the storm initiation is called duration
(e) When the wave system reaches a statistically stable condition, then the seastate
is called fully developed
(f) If the observation point is well outside the storm generation area, then waves
look more 2D or regular and the seastate is called a swell
7.3 Short Term Model

A long term model may be represented by a succession of


short term models

The figure shows a typical wave elevation record obtained in a point


fixed in space

Time vs Wave elevation


Assuming that all wave components advance in the same direction (long
crested waves), then the wave elevation in a point fixed in space may be
represented by the sum of harmonic and independent components (St. Denis
and Pierson, 1953):

(t ) = i cos( i t i ) (7.1)
i

In this case x = y = 0 and:


i , i are the wave amplitude and frequency of the component i
i is the random phase angle

Each harmonic component used to represent the irregular wave is:

i (t ) = i cos( i t i ) (7.2)
The harmonic wave components can be defined in terms of a function known
as variance spectrum or point spectrum:

i (t ) = S ( i )
2
(7.3)

point spectrum
The variance of an harmonic component may be calculated as:

{ }
T /2
i (t ) = ( )
1

2

2
i cos i t i dt (7.4)
T T / 2

Where T is the wave period. The former equation reduces to:

i (t ) = i 2
2 1
(7.5)
2
Combining (7.3) and (7.5) results in:

i = 2 S ( i ) (7.6)

Meaning that the amplitudes of the harmonic components of an


irregular wave can be determined from its variance spectrum
The total variance of the irregular waves is a measure of the severity of the
seastate:

E = (t )
2
(7.7)

Since the individual harmonic components in (7.1) are independent and


random variables,
then
the variance of the sum tends to sum of the variances (for a large number of
independent variables):

E = (t ) = i (t )
2 2
(7.8)
i

Or integrating equation (7.3) we have:



E = S ( )d (7.9)
0

The area under the variance spectrum gives the variance


of the seastate
Wave Energy
The energy of an harmonic waves per unit area is:
1
g 2

2
On the other hand equations (7.3) is (7.5) show that the variance of the
harmonic components within a frequency interval w is:

i (t ) = S ( i ) i = i 2
2 1
2
Which differs from the wave energy per unit area by a factor of g. This is the
reason why the variance spectrum is sometimes referred as energy spectrum
7.3 How to obtain the variance spectrum from wave records
(A) The wave elevation time records can be obtained from:
Buoys
Stationary Ships
Systems based on laser or radar
Satellites
Radars based onshore or on board of ships

(B) With the wave elevation records, the variance spectrum can be
obtained applying:
The auto-correlation function calculated for various delays and applying
the Fourier transform
T

(t ) (t + )dt
0

Using FFT programs (Fast Fourier Transform)


7.4 Short Crested Waves
Equation (7.1) represents the wave elevation of long crested waves for a point in
space with coordinates x = y = 0. For an arbitrary point in space the wave
elevation is:
long crested waves

( x, y, t ) = i cos[ki ( x cos + y sin ) + i t i ] (7.10)


i

The wave elevation for a wave system with its components travelling in different
directions is:
short crested waves

(x , y , t ) = ij [
cos k i (x cos j + y sin j ) + i t ij ] (7.11)
i j

or setting x = y = 0:

[
(x, y , t ) = ij cos it ij ] (7.12)
i j
The variance of the short crested waves is:

2
(t ) = E = ij2 = S ( , )dd
2 1 (7.13)
2 i j 0 0

where the amplitude of the harmonic components is:

ij = 2 S (i , j ) (7.14)

The directional spectrum defines the seastate more correctly than the point
spectrum
Directional spectrum
Directional spectrum
7.5 Characteristics of the point spectrum
Variance of the seastate:
A typical wave record measured in a point fixed in space is a continuous and
irregular function.
Assuming that the process has a mean value, the variance is given by:
T /2
(t ) (t )dt
1
= Lim
2 2
(7.15)
T T T / 2

On the other hand the variance is given by the area bellow the spectrum:

E = (t ) = S ( )d
2
(7.16)
0
Gaussian properties:

Since the propagation of wave systems can be represented by the sum of a


large number of harmonic and statistically independent wave components
then
The wave elevation at one point has a normal or Gaussian distribution:

2
p( ) =
1
exp (7.17)
2E 2E

Using only the variance obtain the probability distribution of the wave elevation
Wave elevation time record

Normal
distribution
Comparison between histogram of measured wave elevations
and fitted normal distribution
600

HS = 4.20m 400 HS = 6.13m


T0 = 11.5s T0 = 11.5s

400 300
N

N
200
200

100

0 0
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
(m) (m)
Histograma - intervalos de 0.4m Histograma - intervalos de 0.5m
Ajuste com distribuio normal Ajuste com distribuio normal
Variance Spectrum
Typical variance wave spectrum

wave spectrum
4 p
S
is the peak frequency or
(m s )
2
modal frequency
T0 = 11.5s
onda :
H S = 4.20m
2
2
Tp =
p
is the peak period or modal
p period

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2

(rad/s)
The nth order moment of the variance spectrum is defined as:


mn = n S ( )d (7.18)
0

The moments of order 0, 2 and 4 represent respectively the:



m0 = (t ) = S ( )d = E
2
Variance of the wave elevation displacement:
0


m2 = & (t ) = 2 S ( )d
2
Variance of the wave elevation velocity:
0


m4 = &&(t ) = 4 S ( )d
2
Variance of the wave elevation acceleration:
0
There are several parameters that can be estimated from the spectrum moments:


Average period of component waves: T1 = S ( )Td / S ( )d

0 0
2m1
T1 = (7.19)
m0

1


Period corresponding to average frequency T1 = 2 S ( )d / m0
of component waves: 0
2m0
T1 = (7.20)
m1

m0
Average period between zero upcrossings Tz = 2 (7.21)
m2
Average period between peaks (between m2
maxima or between minima):
Tc = 2 (7.22)
m4

g
Average wavelength between zero L = TzTc (7.23)
upcrossings: 2
Typical wave record at a fixed point and several definitions
Probability distribution of maxima (and minima)
The wave elevation is a stationary process, with zero mean value and
Gaussian. If additionally the variance spectrum is narrow banded

then
The probability distribution of the maxima (and minima) can be
approximated to a Rayleigh distribution.

Stationary Rayleigh distribution


Process Zero mean of maxima
then
Narrow banded
2
p( ) = exp (7.24)
E 2E
Probability distribution of the maxima (and minima) Rayleigh distribution:

2
p ( ) = exp (7.24)
E 2E

Probability distribution of the double wave amplitude


The cumulative distribution gives the probability that the maxima is smaller
than a specific value *:

( )

p < = 1 exp
( )
2

(7.25)
2E

The Rayleigh distribution is valid only for processes with a narrow banded
variance spectrum. The spectral broadness parameter is defined as:

2
T
= 1 c (7.26)
Tz

=0 the spectrum is narrow banded


In practical terms, narrow banded is assumed when < 0.6
Narrow banded and wide banded spectra
Cumulative probability distribution of the maxima and minima
of the wave elevation

Picos da onda - dist. cumulativa Picos da onda - dist. cumulativa


1.0 1.0

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6
p(x<x')

p(x<x')
T0 = 11.5s
onda : T = 16.5s
H S = 4.20m onda : 0
0.4 0.4 H S = 9.89m
Exp. positivos
Exp. positivos
0.2 Exp. negativos
0.2 Exp. negativos
Rayleigh
Rayleigh
0.0 0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 3 6 9
p (m ) p (m )
Another measure of the severity of the seastate is the estimate of the average
value of the 1/nth highest maxima of the process. This is given by the centroid
of the shaded area bellow:

The shaded area represents the probability that a maximum exceed 1/n:


p( > 1/ n ) = p( )d =
1
(7.27)
1 / n
n
The statistically mean value of the maxima above 1/n is:


1/ n = n p( )d (7.28)
1 / n

From equation (7.24) one obtains the probability density function of the wave
height Hw:
H w2
p (H w ) =
Hw
exp (7.29)
4E 8E
From equations (7.28) and (7.29) it is possible to calculate several statistics
related to the wave elevation namely:

Mean wave height: H w = 2.5 E n=1 (7.30)

Mean wave amplitude: = 1.25 E n=1 (7.31)


Mean value of the 1/3 highest waves, or the significant wave height:

(H w )1/ 3 = 4.0 E n=3 (7.32)

Mean value of the 1/10 highest waves:

(H w )1/10 = 5.1 E n=10 (7.33)

vThe former results are estimated assuming that the spectrum is narrow
banded.
vIn practical terms it is assumed that the spectrum is narrow banded if < 0.6,
which usually in errors smaller than 10%
vThe formulation and equations presented before are valid for many of the
ship responses.
7.6 Frequency of Encounter Wave Spectrum

In the previous sections the wave elevation and the corresponding variance
spectrum were represented with respect to a reference system fixed in the space.
However the waves felt by the ship are modified due to the Doppler effect
associated to the forward speed.

In a reference system fixed in the space the, wave elevation of an harmonic wave
is:
i ( x0 , y0 , t ) = i cos[ki (x0 cos + y0 sin ) i t + i ] (7.34)

where: is the ship heading with respect to the wave


is the random phase angle
A reference system fixed in the ship (with forward speed U) is related with the
space fixed reference system by:

x0 = x + Ut (7.35)

y0 = y
Substituting (7.35) into (7.34) results in the free surface elevation felt by the ship:

ei (x, y, t ) = i cos[ki x cos + ki y sin ( kiU cos )t + i ] (7.36)

Which is the same as:

ei ( x, y , t ) = i cos[k i x cos + k i y sin ei t + i ] (7.37)

Since:

ei = i k iU cos (7.38)

Finally the irregular wave elevation felt by the ship is:

e ( x, y , t ) = i cos [ki x cos + ki y sin ei t + i ] (7.39)


i
The variance of the waves encountered by the ship is:

( e )
2
= i 2 = E = S ( e )d e
1
(7.40)
2 i 0

Where the spectral amplitudes of the wave spectrum in the frequency of


encounter are:

S ( e ) = i 2 / d e
1 (7.41)
2

And since we have:


2U cos
e = 1 (7.42)
g
Then the relation between the spectra represented in the wave frequency and
encounter frequency is:
S ( )
S ( e , ) =
2U cos (7.43)
1
g
7.7 Ocean Wave Data
To define the environment where the ship will operate it is necessary to:
(A) Know the probability of occurrence of the short term seastates
Scatter Diagram (depends on the ocean area and the season)
(B) Use seastate variance spectra appropriate to the ocean area where
the ship operates (depends on the fetch, duration, etc.,)

Ocean wave statistics exist from the following sources:

(a) Visual estimates of wave conditions


b1) Point spectra from
(b) Wave measurements wave measurements
b2) Directional spectra
(c) Hindcast wave climatology
(a) Visual estimates of wave conditions
These are visual estimates of the height and period of the waves by:
(1) Trained observers onboard weather ships
* Data exists only for the North Atlantique
(2) Officers onboard British ships
* This is the most extensive coverage available (Hogben and Lumb, 1967)
* Data from approximately 500 British ships travelling in all oceans
* Data collected between 1953 and 1961

The visual estimates of the wave height is approximately equal to the


significant wave height
H V H 1/ 3
The visual estimates of the wave periods is approximately equal to the zero
upcrossing period

TV Tz
(b) Wave Measurements
Data available is limited but more accurate
b1) Point spectra from wave measurements
Point spectra can be computed if the time record of the wave elevation is of
sufficient duration. Wave elevation records can be obtained from:
Ship borne wave meter
Floating buoys with vertical accelerometers
Laser technology

b2) Directional spectra


Directional spectra include information not only of the distribution of energy
over the frequency range, but also the angular distribution of the direction of
propagation. Directional spectra can be obtained from:
Buoys fitted with an inertial measurement system to measure the wave
elevation and the slope in two perpendicular directions
Systems installed on satellites
Radar images
(b) Hindcast wave climatology
Calculate the wave spectra from wind data recorded during many years.
Both point spectra and directional spectra can be obtained
Scatter diagram for the Northern North Atlantic
Ocean Areas
7.8 Parametric Wave spectra
Parametric point wave spectra make it possible to obtain the variance wave
spectrum as function of a small number of parameters.

(a) The Pierson Moskowitz Spectrum


To represent wing generated waves, for fully developed waves and in
areas without fetch limitations
Depends of only one parameter, the wind speed, which can be directly
related to the wave peak period
Not suitable for general design use
There are different spectral forms even if the seastate has the same
significant wave height. Some of the most used spectral forms for
seakeeping problems are:

(a) The JONSWAP spectrum


v The JONSWAP (Joint North Sea Wave Project) spectrum resulted from the
analysis of extensive wave measurements in the North Sea
v North sea is characterized by limited fetch in the generating area
v Resulting wave spectra are more narrow banded than open sea spectra

JONSWAP spectrum

( p2)2
4

S ( ) = g 2 5 e e 2 p
p
(7.44)


where:

H S is the sinificant wave height


Tp is the peak wave period

T p 3.6 H S =5


5.75 1.15
Tp


3.6 H S T p 5.0 H S =e
HS


T p 5.0 H S =5

= 1.25
H S2
= 5.0609 4 [1 0.287 ln ( )]
Tp

When = 1 in (7.44), sometimes the resulting spectra is called


Pierson Moskowitz wave spectrum
(b) ISSC spectrum (International Ship Structures and Offshore Congress)
v A two-parameter spectrum
v Can be used to represent rising seas, falling seas and fully developed seas

4

0.313H S2 p4 1.25

S ( ) =
p
(7.45)
e
5

H S is the sinificant wave height


p is the peak wave frequency
Examples of measured and parametric wave spectra
Espectro da Onda Espectro da Onda
10 30
Experimental Experimental
S
(m s )
2
8
Terico (Bretshneider) S 25 Terico (Bretshneider)

T = 11.5s (m s )
2

T0 = 11.5s
onda : 0 20
H S = 4.20m onda :
6 H S = 6.13m
15
4
10

2
5

0 0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
f e (Hz ) f e (Hz )
8 SHIP RESPONSES TO IRREGULAR WAVES

The wave spectra that a ship encounters varies continuously in the space an
in the time. On the long term and over large distances the waves are non-
stationary

However it is assumed that:

In the neighbourhood of the ship the wave statistics change slowly enough
such that the reality can be approximated by a succession of short term
processes that are stationary in the neighbourhood of the ship

THEN

On can focus on the ship responses to an


excitation that is random and Gaussian
8.2 Ship Responses to Irregular Waves

(A) The ship responses to regular (and harmonic) waves can be interpreted as
a linear transformation of the wave elevation

on the other hand

(B) The theory of probability says that:


A linear transformation of a random, stationary and Gaussian process
results
Into another random, stationary and Gaussian process

(A) + (B) means that:


If the ship response is linear, then it is possible to relate the stationary and
Gaussian wave field with the stationary and Gaussian ship response

Stationary and Gaussian Stationary and Gaussian


simple relation
wave field ship response
If the ship response is linear, then it is possible to relate the stationary and
Gaussian wave field with the stationary and Gaussian ship response:

In long-crested irregular waves

S j ( , ) = x ( , ) S ( ) a 2
j (8.1)

2
Response Amplitude of Wave
spectrum = transfer function * spectrum

2
Roll response spectrum Roll amplitude of the transfer function wave spectrum
V=10kn, head.=120 V=10kn, head.=120 0.5
50 16
0.4
40
Sx4(graus^2*s)

12
X4/amp(/m)

Se(m^2s)
30 0.3

*
8
20

10 = 4

0
0.2

0.1

0 0.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0
We (rad/s) We (rad/s) We (rad/s)
Simple Statistics of the Ship Responses
The variance of the ship response is:

m0 = x j (t ) = S j ( )d = E
2
(8.2)
0

And more generally the nth order moment of the variance spectrum is defined
as:

mn = n S j ( )d (8.3)
0


m2 = x& j (t ) = 2 S j ( )d
2
(8.4)
0


m4 = &x&j (t ) = 4 S j ( )d
2
(8.5)
0
The periods of the responses are calculated as presented for the wave elevation
by equations (7.19) to (7.23).
Important periods of the responses are:

m0
Average period between zero upcrossings Tz = 2 (8.6)
m2

Average period between peaks (between m2


maxima or between minima): Tc = 2 (8.7)
m4
Probability distribution of maxima (and minima) of the ship response
The distribution of maxima and the statistics of maxima are similar to
those presented for the waves

The linear ship response is a stationary process, with zero mean value
and Gaussian. If additionally the variance spectrum is narrow banded

then
The probability distribution of the maxima (and minima) can be
approximated to a Rayleigh distribution.

Stationary Rayleigh distribution


Process Zero mean then of maxima
Narrow banded
2
p ( ) = exp (8.8)
E 2E
8.3 Statistics of Maxima
statistics of maxima are similar to those presented for the wave
height, although divided by two:

Mean response amplitude:

x j = 1.25 E (8.9)

Mean value of the 1/3 highest response amplitudes, or the


significant response amplitude:

(x )
j 1/ 3 = 2.00 E (8.10)

Mean value of the 1/10 highest waves:

(x )
j 1 / 10 = 2.55 E (8.11)
The probability of exceedance
The cumulative distribution gives the probability that the maximum
of the response is smaller than a specific value xj*:

(
p xj < xj

) ( )
x 2
= 1 exp j (8.12)
2E

And finally the probability that a maximum is larger than a specific
value xj* is:

(
x 2
)
p x j > x j = exp j
( ) (8.13)
2E

Experimental data from a containership in head long crested waves with Fn = 0.25

Empirical cumulative distribution of the heave maxima and minima compared


to Rayleigh distribution

Picos da arfagem - dist. cumulativa Picos da arfagem - dist. cumulativa


1.0 1.0

0.8 0.8

0.6 T0 = 11.5s 0.6


p(x<x')

p(x<x')
onda : T0 = 16.5s
H S = 6.13m onda :
H S = 9.89m
0.4 0.4
Exp. positivos
Exp. positivos
Exp. negativos
0.2 0.2 Exp. negativos
Rayleigh
Rayleigh

0.0 0.0
0 1 2 3 4 0 2 4 6 8
3p (m ) 3p (m )
Experimental data from a containership in head long crested waves with Fn = 0.25

Empirical cumulative distribution of the pitch maxima and minima compared


to Rayleigh distribution

Picos do cabeceio - dist. cumulativa Picos do cabeceio - dist. cumulativa


1.0 1.0

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6
T0 = 11.5s

p(x<x')
p(x<x')

onda : T0 = 16.5s
H S = 6.13m onda :
0.4 0.4 H S = 9.89m
Exp. positivos Exp. positivos
0.2 Exp. negativos 0.2 Exp. negativos
Rayleigh Rayleigh

0.0 0.0
0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6 8
5p ( graus ) p
(graus )
5
Experimental data from a containership in head long crested waves with Fn = 0.25

Empirical cumulative distribution of the vertical shear force and vertical


bending moment maxima and minima compared to Rayleigh distribution

Picos do MFV a meio-navio - dist. cumulativa Picos do ECV na seco 15 - dist. cumulativa
1.0 1.0

0.8 0.8

0.6 T0 = 11.5s 0.6

p(x<x')
p(x<x')

onda :
H S = 6.13m T0 = 11.5s
onda :
H S = 6.13m
0.4 0.4
Exp. alquebramento
Exp. contra-alquebramento
Exp. contra-alquebramento
0.2 0.2 Exp. alquebramento
Rayleigh
Rayleigh

0.0 0.0
0.0E+00 3.0E+05 6.0E+05 9.0E+05 0 4000 8000 12000 16000
M 5
p
(KNm) V3
p
(KN )
Expected Extreme Amplitudes
The statistical theory of extreme values combined with the narrow-band
assumption results in the estimates for the expected maximum in a
sample of N successive maxima:

N = 100 , 3.25 m 0
N = 1000 , 3.85 m 0 (8.14)
N = 10000, 4.45 m 0

However, is a large number of samples of the former sizes are taken, five
percent of them would be expected to contain maximum amplitudes
exceeding:

N = 100 , 3.9 m0
(8.15)
N = 1000 , 4.45 m0

This involves the concept of confidence level


8.4 Assessment of Seakeeping Performance

(A) INTRODUCTION

Operability of a Ship: ship ability to carry out its mission safely


However
The effects of waves degrades the ability to carry out the mission
comparatively to calm water condition

Operability Index:
Measures the degradation of ship ability to carry out its mission
or in other words
Quantifies the seakeeping quality of the ship
The Operability Index accounts for:
o The ship mission, through the use of seakeeping criteria, which represent
acceptable limits of operation
o The hydrodynamic and inertia characteristics of the ship, through the use of a
seakeeping program to calculate the motions transfer functions
o The wave climate where the ship operates, through the use of the probability
distribution of short term seastates

The Seakeeping Criteria ensures that:


The ship is able to physically carry out its mission
The working conditions onboard are acceptable

The Seakeeping Criteria are usually related to absolute motions, relative motions,
accelerations onboard, slamming and green water on deck.
(B) THEORY
The method to calculate the operability index follows four steps:
1. Calculate the ship transfer functions
2. Calculate the ship responses to short term seastates
3. Select seakeeping criteria and calculate curves of maximum significant wave heights
in which the ship can operate
4. Calculate the percentage of time in which the ship is operational in a given ocean
area or route (operability index)

(b1) Transfer Functions


Absolute motions Are calculated for all
Relative motions at selected positions frequency range and heading
Vertical and lateral accelerations at range using a Strip Method
selected positions
(b2) Ship Responses to Short Term Seastates
Pierson Moskowitz spectrum represents the short term seastates in terms of Hs and Tp
The response spectrum is calculated by:

S R ( ) = S w ( )H 2 ( ) (8.16)
And the variance of the response is

R2 = S R ( )d = H S2 Sw1 ( )H ( )d = H S R1
2 2 2
(8.17)
0 0

(b3) Calculate curves of HSmax in which the ship can operate


If a seakeeping criterion is defined as a limiting root mean square of the response CR,
then the maximum allowed Hs for a given mean wave period and ship heading is:

CR
H S max (Tz , ) = (8.18)
R1
(a) If a seakeeping criterion is defined as a limiting root mean square of the response
CR, then the maximum allowed Hs for a given mean wave period and ship heading is:
CR
H S max (Tz , ) = (8.19)
R1

(b) If a seakeeping criterion is defined as a limiting probability, pCR,of exceeding a


critical value rmax, then the corresponding CR may be calculated assuming a Rayleigh
distribution of the peaks of the responses (see eq. 8.13):
2
rmax
CR = (8.20)
2 ln (1 / pCR )

(b4) Calculate the Operability Index


Compare de curves of Hsmax(Tz,) with the scatter diagram for a given ocean area and
calculate the probability that the ship is operational in for that ocean area
(C) CALCULATION EXAMPLE
Containership Fishing Vessel

Area of operation: North Atlantique Area of operation: Portuguese west coast


Lpp = 175 m Lpp = 20.1 m
CB = 0.57 CB = 0.42
Displ. = 24742 ton Displ. = 129.5 ton
Speed = 22 Kn Speed = 10 Kn
(c1) Seakeeping Criteria

Response Location (m) x ,y ,z Criterion


Roll - 4 (rms)
Containership Green water on deck 90, 0, 11 5% (prob)
Vert. accel. at fwd. pp. 90, 0, 0 0.2g (rms)
Slamming 63.8, 0, -9.5 2.5% (prob)
Propeller emergence -83, 0, -4.5 12% (prob)
Vert. accel. at bridge -63, 0, 0 0.15g (rms)
Lat. accel. at bridge -63, 0, 27 0.10g (rms)

Response Location (m) x ,y ,z Criterion


Roll - 6 (rms)
Fishing Vessel Green water on deck 10.8, 0, 4.4 5% (prob)
Slamming 10.8, 0, -2.0 3% (prob)
Vert. accel. at bridge 7.6, 0, 4.5 0.2g (rms)
Lat. accel. at bridge 7.6, 0, 4.5 0.1g (rms)
Propeller emergence -8.15, 0, 1.2 15% (prob)
Vert. accel. work. deck -8.5, 0, 2.5 0.2g (rms)
Lat. accel. work. deck -8.5, 0, 2.5 0.1g (rms)
(c2) Ship Transfer Functions

Calculate: (13 transfer functions) * (7 headings)

Roll Amplitudes (V=22 Kn) Vertical Acceleration at the Bridge (V=22Kn)


7.0 2.5
&&V 2
4 6.0 a
( )
s
k 2.0 180
a
5.0
150 150

120 1.5 120


4.0
90
90
3.0 60
60 1.0
30
30
2.0 0
0.5
1.0

0.0 0.0
0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
L pp / g L pp / g
(c3) Maximum Allowed Significant Wave Heights
Calculate response spectra and variances for: (13 responses) * (25 seastates,
2s<Tz<15s, Hs=1m) * (7 headings)
Calculate H S max (Tz , ) = CR / R1

Max. Sig. Wave Heights (V =10 Kn, = 180) Max. Sig. Wave Heights (V =10 Kn, = 120)
12 12

H S (m ) H S (m )

8 8

4 4

0 0
0 5 Tz (s) 10 15 0 5 Tz (s) 10 15

Roll Water on deck Roll Water on deck


Slamming Vert. accel. at bridge Slamming Vert. accel. at bridge
Lat. accel. at bridge Vert. accel. on deck Lat. accel. at bridge Vert. accel. on deck
Lat. accel. on deck Propeller emergence Lat. accel. on deck Propeller emergence
(c4) Calculate the Operability Index
Compare de curves of Hsmax(Tz,) with the scatter diagram for a given ocean area and
calculate the probability that the ship is operational in for that ocean area

Max.
Max.Sig.
Sig.Wave
WaveHeights
Heights(V
(V=10 Kn, == 120)
=10Kn, 120)
66

H S ((m
H m))
S

Roll
44 Water on deck
Slamming
All criteria
Vert. accel. atsatisfied
bridge
Lat. accel. at bridge
22
Vert. accel. on deck
Lat. accel. on deck
Propeller emergence

00
00 22 44 TTz (s(s) ) 66 88 10
10
z
Global Wave Statistics Area 8, annual statistics
14.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0001
13.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0000
12.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0002 0.0001 0.0001
11.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0003 0.0005 0.0004 0.0002 0.0001
10.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0003 0.0007 0.0008 0.0007 0.0004 0.0001
9.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0006 0.0014 0.0016 0.0011 0.0006 0.0002
8.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0003 0.0015 0.0028 0.0029 0.0019 0.0009 0.0003
Hs (m) 7.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0009 0.0035 0.0059 0.0054 0.0032 0.0013 0.0004
6.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0003 0.0026 0.0083 0.0121 0.0098 0.0051 0.0019 0.0005
5.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0010 0.0073 0.0193 0.0237 0.0165 0.0074 0.0024 0.0006
4.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0033 0.0195 0.0413 0.0414 0.0239 0.0091 0.0025 0.0006
3.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0006 0.0106 0.0454 0.0726 0.0566 0.0260 0.0080 0.0018 0.0003
2.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0025 0.0271 0.0771 0.0855 0.0479 0.0163 0.0038 0.0007 0.0001
1.5 0.0000 0.0002 0.0079 0.0421 0.0656 0.0430 0.0151 0.0034 0.0005 0.0001 0.0000
0.5 0.0000 0.0013 0.0076 0.0134 0.0084 0.0024 0.0004 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5
Tz (s)
Operability Indexes

Fishing Vessel operating in Containership operating in


the Portuguese W. Coast the North Atlantique
(Annual statistics) (GW areas 8, 9, 15 an 16)
Head
F.Foz G.W. 16 Year Winter
(deg)
180 0.88 0.61 0.86 0.74
150 0.91 0.72 0.82 0.70
120 0.96 0.74 0.90 0.84
90 0.77 0.50 1.00 0.99
60 0.96 0.75 0.75 0.59
30 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99
0 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98
Aver. 0.93 0.76 0.90 0.83