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Una introduccion sobre ondas irregulares, aplicadas a la ingenieria naval

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7.1 Introduction

In the space confirmed by the analysis of wave elevation

In the time measurements

Aerial photo of ocean waves

The visible characteristic of the ocean waves is their irregularity in space and in

time

However:

In relatively large areas and for periods of approx. 20-30min the seastate

maintains the appearance

Which means:

The seastate maintains its statistical characteristics, it is statistically stationary

of wave elevation time records

Random (or stochastic) process

With statistically stationary short term characteristics

A long term model may be represented by a succession of short term

seastates

7.2 Generation and Propagation of Waves

Waves are generated by the interaction between the wind and the water surface

through:

Frictional forces between the two fluids

Local pressure field which changes in space and time

If the waves are of small amplitude then the propagation and dispersion of

waves is governed by the superposition principle

Generation of Waves

(a) The seastate results from multiple interactions between the wind and the

free surface, which vary in time and in space

The wave elevation felt at one point in space are the results from the sum of

all effects from all perturbations in the generation area to windward

(b) A local perturbation generates a wave system that radiates from the

perturbation point

At a long distance the wave system generated at a point look like 2D or long

crested

Due to angular dispersion the several wave systems come from different

directions and the combined system is 3D, or short crested

(c) The distance from the observation point to boundary of the generation area (to

windward) is called fetch

(d) At a point fixed in space, the wave elevations increase with time. The time

interval since the storm initiation is called duration

(e) When the wave system reaches a statistically stable condition, then the seastate

is called fully developed

(f) If the observation point is well outside the storm generation area, then waves

look more 2D or regular and the seastate is called a swell

7.3 Short Term Model

short term models

fixed in space

Assuming that all wave components advance in the same direction (long

crested waves), then the wave elevation in a point fixed in space may be

represented by the sum of harmonic and independent components (St. Denis

and Pierson, 1953):

(t ) = i cos( i t i ) (7.1)

i

i , i are the wave amplitude and frequency of the component i

i is the random phase angle

i (t ) = i cos( i t i ) (7.2)

The harmonic wave components can be defined in terms of a function known

as variance spectrum or point spectrum:

i (t ) = S ( i )

2

(7.3)

point spectrum

The variance of an harmonic component may be calculated as:

{ }

T /2

i (t ) = ( )

1

2

2

i cos i t i dt (7.4)

T T / 2

i (t ) = i 2

2 1

(7.5)

2

Combining (7.3) and (7.5) results in:

i = 2 S ( i ) (7.6)

irregular wave can be determined from its variance spectrum

The total variance of the irregular waves is a measure of the severity of the

seastate:

E = (t )

2

(7.7)

random variables,

then

the variance of the sum tends to sum of the variances (for a large number of

independent variables):

E = (t ) = i (t )

2 2

(7.8)

i

E = S ( )d (7.9)

0

of the seastate

Wave Energy

The energy of an harmonic waves per unit area is:

1

g 2

2

On the other hand equations (7.3) is (7.5) show that the variance of the

harmonic components within a frequency interval w is:

i (t ) = S ( i ) i = i 2

2 1

2

Which differs from the wave energy per unit area by a factor of g. This is the

reason why the variance spectrum is sometimes referred as energy spectrum

7.3 How to obtain the variance spectrum from wave records

(A) The wave elevation time records can be obtained from:

Buoys

Stationary Ships

Systems based on laser or radar

Satellites

Radars based onshore or on board of ships

(B) With the wave elevation records, the variance spectrum can be

obtained applying:

The auto-correlation function calculated for various delays and applying

the Fourier transform

T

(t ) (t + )dt

0

7.4 Short Crested Waves

Equation (7.1) represents the wave elevation of long crested waves for a point in

space with coordinates x = y = 0. For an arbitrary point in space the wave

elevation is:

long crested waves

i

The wave elevation for a wave system with its components travelling in different

directions is:

short crested waves

(x , y , t ) = ij [

cos k i (x cos j + y sin j ) + i t ij ] (7.11)

i j

or setting x = y = 0:

[

(x, y , t ) = ij cos it ij ] (7.12)

i j

The variance of the short crested waves is:

2

(t ) = E = ij2 = S ( , )dd

2 1 (7.13)

2 i j 0 0

ij = 2 S (i , j ) (7.14)

The directional spectrum defines the seastate more correctly than the point

spectrum

Directional spectrum

Directional spectrum

7.5 Characteristics of the point spectrum

Variance of the seastate:

A typical wave record measured in a point fixed in space is a continuous and

irregular function.

Assuming that the process has a mean value, the variance is given by:

T /2

(t ) (t )dt

1

= Lim

2 2

(7.15)

T T T / 2

On the other hand the variance is given by the area bellow the spectrum:

E = (t ) = S ( )d

2

(7.16)

0

Gaussian properties:

large number of harmonic and statistically independent wave components

then

The wave elevation at one point has a normal or Gaussian distribution:

2

p( ) =

1

exp (7.17)

2E 2E

Using only the variance obtain the probability distribution of the wave elevation

Wave elevation time record

Normal

distribution

Comparison between histogram of measured wave elevations

and fitted normal distribution

600

T0 = 11.5s T0 = 11.5s

400 300

N

N

200

200

100

0 0

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(m) (m)

Histograma - intervalos de 0.4m Histograma - intervalos de 0.5m

Ajuste com distribuio normal Ajuste com distribuio normal

Variance Spectrum

Typical variance wave spectrum

wave spectrum

4 p

S

is the peak frequency or

(m s )

2

modal frequency

T0 = 11.5s

onda :

H S = 4.20m

2

2

Tp =

p

is the peak period or modal

p period

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

(rad/s)

The nth order moment of the variance spectrum is defined as:

mn = n S ( )d (7.18)

0

m0 = (t ) = S ( )d = E

2

Variance of the wave elevation displacement:

0

m2 = & (t ) = 2 S ( )d

2

Variance of the wave elevation velocity:

0

m4 = &&(t ) = 4 S ( )d

2

Variance of the wave elevation acceleration:

0

There are several parameters that can be estimated from the spectrum moments:

Average period of component waves: T1 = S ( )Td / S ( )d

0 0

2m1

T1 = (7.19)

m0

1

Period corresponding to average frequency T1 = 2 S ( )d / m0

of component waves: 0

2m0

T1 = (7.20)

m1

m0

Average period between zero upcrossings Tz = 2 (7.21)

m2

Average period between peaks (between m2

maxima or between minima):

Tc = 2 (7.22)

m4

g

Average wavelength between zero L = TzTc (7.23)

upcrossings: 2

Typical wave record at a fixed point and several definitions

Probability distribution of maxima (and minima)

The wave elevation is a stationary process, with zero mean value and

Gaussian. If additionally the variance spectrum is narrow banded

then

The probability distribution of the maxima (and minima) can be

approximated to a Rayleigh distribution.

Process Zero mean of maxima

then

Narrow banded

2

p( ) = exp (7.24)

E 2E

Probability distribution of the maxima (and minima) Rayleigh distribution:

2

p ( ) = exp (7.24)

E 2E

The cumulative distribution gives the probability that the maxima is smaller

than a specific value *:

( )

p < = 1 exp

( )

2

(7.25)

2E

The Rayleigh distribution is valid only for processes with a narrow banded

variance spectrum. The spectral broadness parameter is defined as:

2

T

= 1 c (7.26)

Tz

In practical terms, narrow banded is assumed when < 0.6

Narrow banded and wide banded spectra

Cumulative probability distribution of the maxima and minima

of the wave elevation

1.0 1.0

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6

p(x<x')

p(x<x')

T0 = 11.5s

onda : T = 16.5s

H S = 4.20m onda : 0

0.4 0.4 H S = 9.89m

Exp. positivos

Exp. positivos

0.2 Exp. negativos

0.2 Exp. negativos

Rayleigh

Rayleigh

0.0 0.0

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 3 6 9

p (m ) p (m )

Another measure of the severity of the seastate is the estimate of the average

value of the 1/nth highest maxima of the process. This is given by the centroid

of the shaded area bellow:

The shaded area represents the probability that a maximum exceed 1/n:

p( > 1/ n ) = p( )d =

1

(7.27)

1 / n

n

The statistically mean value of the maxima above 1/n is:

1/ n = n p( )d (7.28)

1 / n

From equation (7.24) one obtains the probability density function of the wave

height Hw:

H w2

p (H w ) =

Hw

exp (7.29)

4E 8E

From equations (7.28) and (7.29) it is possible to calculate several statistics

related to the wave elevation namely:

Mean value of the 1/3 highest waves, or the significant wave height:

vThe former results are estimated assuming that the spectrum is narrow

banded.

vIn practical terms it is assumed that the spectrum is narrow banded if < 0.6,

which usually in errors smaller than 10%

vThe formulation and equations presented before are valid for many of the

ship responses.

7.6 Frequency of Encounter Wave Spectrum

In the previous sections the wave elevation and the corresponding variance

spectrum were represented with respect to a reference system fixed in the space.

However the waves felt by the ship are modified due to the Doppler effect

associated to the forward speed.

In a reference system fixed in the space the, wave elevation of an harmonic wave

is:

i ( x0 , y0 , t ) = i cos[ki (x0 cos + y0 sin ) i t + i ] (7.34)

is the random phase angle

A reference system fixed in the ship (with forward speed U) is related with the

space fixed reference system by:

x0 = x + Ut (7.35)

y0 = y

Substituting (7.35) into (7.34) results in the free surface elevation felt by the ship:

Since:

ei = i k iU cos (7.38)

i

The variance of the waves encountered by the ship is:

( e )

2

= i 2 = E = S ( e )d e

1

(7.40)

2 i 0

encounter are:

S ( e ) = i 2 / d e

1 (7.41)

2

2U cos

e = 1 (7.42)

g

Then the relation between the spectra represented in the wave frequency and

encounter frequency is:

S ( )

S ( e , ) =

2U cos (7.43)

1

g

7.7 Ocean Wave Data

To define the environment where the ship will operate it is necessary to:

(A) Know the probability of occurrence of the short term seastates

Scatter Diagram (depends on the ocean area and the season)

(B) Use seastate variance spectra appropriate to the ocean area where

the ship operates (depends on the fetch, duration, etc.,)

b1) Point spectra from

(b) Wave measurements wave measurements

b2) Directional spectra

(c) Hindcast wave climatology

(a) Visual estimates of wave conditions

These are visual estimates of the height and period of the waves by:

(1) Trained observers onboard weather ships

* Data exists only for the North Atlantique

(2) Officers onboard British ships

* This is the most extensive coverage available (Hogben and Lumb, 1967)

* Data from approximately 500 British ships travelling in all oceans

* Data collected between 1953 and 1961

significant wave height

H V H 1/ 3

The visual estimates of the wave periods is approximately equal to the zero

upcrossing period

TV Tz

(b) Wave Measurements

Data available is limited but more accurate

b1) Point spectra from wave measurements

Point spectra can be computed if the time record of the wave elevation is of

sufficient duration. Wave elevation records can be obtained from:

Ship borne wave meter

Floating buoys with vertical accelerometers

Laser technology

Directional spectra include information not only of the distribution of energy

over the frequency range, but also the angular distribution of the direction of

propagation. Directional spectra can be obtained from:

Buoys fitted with an inertial measurement system to measure the wave

elevation and the slope in two perpendicular directions

Systems installed on satellites

Radar images

(b) Hindcast wave climatology

Calculate the wave spectra from wind data recorded during many years.

Both point spectra and directional spectra can be obtained

Scatter diagram for the Northern North Atlantic

Ocean Areas

7.8 Parametric Wave spectra

Parametric point wave spectra make it possible to obtain the variance wave

spectrum as function of a small number of parameters.

To represent wing generated waves, for fully developed waves and in

areas without fetch limitations

Depends of only one parameter, the wind speed, which can be directly

related to the wave peak period

Not suitable for general design use

There are different spectral forms even if the seastate has the same

significant wave height. Some of the most used spectral forms for

seakeeping problems are:

v The JONSWAP (Joint North Sea Wave Project) spectrum resulted from the

analysis of extensive wave measurements in the North Sea

v North sea is characterized by limited fetch in the generating area

v Resulting wave spectra are more narrow banded than open sea spectra

JONSWAP spectrum

( p2)2

4

S ( ) = g 2 5 e e 2 p

p

(7.44)

where:

Tp is the peak wave period

T p 3.6 H S =5

5.75 1.15

Tp

3.6 H S T p 5.0 H S =e

HS

T p 5.0 H S =5

= 1.25

H S2

= 5.0609 4 [1 0.287 ln ( )]

Tp

Pierson Moskowitz wave spectrum

(b) ISSC spectrum (International Ship Structures and Offshore Congress)

v A two-parameter spectrum

v Can be used to represent rising seas, falling seas and fully developed seas

4

0.313H S2 p4 1.25

S ( ) =

p

(7.45)

e

5

p is the peak wave frequency

Examples of measured and parametric wave spectra

Espectro da Onda Espectro da Onda

10 30

Experimental Experimental

S

(m s )

2

8

Terico (Bretshneider) S 25 Terico (Bretshneider)

T = 11.5s (m s )

2

T0 = 11.5s

onda : 0 20

H S = 4.20m onda :

6 H S = 6.13m

15

4

10

2

5

0 0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

f e (Hz ) f e (Hz )

8 SHIP RESPONSES TO IRREGULAR WAVES

The wave spectra that a ship encounters varies continuously in the space an

in the time. On the long term and over large distances the waves are non-

stationary

In the neighbourhood of the ship the wave statistics change slowly enough

such that the reality can be approximated by a succession of short term

processes that are stationary in the neighbourhood of the ship

THEN

excitation that is random and Gaussian

8.2 Ship Responses to Irregular Waves

(A) The ship responses to regular (and harmonic) waves can be interpreted as

a linear transformation of the wave elevation

A linear transformation of a random, stationary and Gaussian process

results

Into another random, stationary and Gaussian process

If the ship response is linear, then it is possible to relate the stationary and

Gaussian wave field with the stationary and Gaussian ship response

simple relation

wave field ship response

If the ship response is linear, then it is possible to relate the stationary and

Gaussian wave field with the stationary and Gaussian ship response:

S j ( , ) = x ( , ) S ( ) a 2

j (8.1)

2

Response Amplitude of Wave

spectrum = transfer function * spectrum

2

Roll response spectrum Roll amplitude of the transfer function wave spectrum

V=10kn, head.=120 V=10kn, head.=120 0.5

50 16

0.4

40

Sx4(graus^2*s)

12

X4/amp(/m)

Se(m^2s)

30 0.3

*

8

20

10 = 4

0

0.2

0.1

0 0.0

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0

We (rad/s) We (rad/s) We (rad/s)

Simple Statistics of the Ship Responses

The variance of the ship response is:

m0 = x j (t ) = S j ( )d = E

2

(8.2)

0

And more generally the nth order moment of the variance spectrum is defined

as:

mn = n S j ( )d (8.3)

0

m2 = x& j (t ) = 2 S j ( )d

2

(8.4)

0

m4 = &x&j (t ) = 4 S j ( )d

2

(8.5)

0

The periods of the responses are calculated as presented for the wave elevation

by equations (7.19) to (7.23).

Important periods of the responses are:

m0

Average period between zero upcrossings Tz = 2 (8.6)

m2

maxima or between minima): Tc = 2 (8.7)

m4

Probability distribution of maxima (and minima) of the ship response

The distribution of maxima and the statistics of maxima are similar to

those presented for the waves

The linear ship response is a stationary process, with zero mean value

and Gaussian. If additionally the variance spectrum is narrow banded

then

The probability distribution of the maxima (and minima) can be

approximated to a Rayleigh distribution.

Process Zero mean then of maxima

Narrow banded

2

p ( ) = exp (8.8)

E 2E

8.3 Statistics of Maxima

statistics of maxima are similar to those presented for the wave

height, although divided by two:

x j = 1.25 E (8.9)

significant response amplitude:

(x )

j 1/ 3 = 2.00 E (8.10)

(x )

j 1 / 10 = 2.55 E (8.11)

The probability of exceedance

The cumulative distribution gives the probability that the maximum

of the response is smaller than a specific value xj*:

(

p xj < xj

) ( )

x 2

= 1 exp j (8.12)

2E

And finally the probability that a maximum is larger than a specific

value xj* is:

(

x 2

)

p x j > x j = exp j

( ) (8.13)

2E

Experimental data from a containership in head long crested waves with Fn = 0.25

to Rayleigh distribution

1.0 1.0

0.8 0.8

p(x<x')

p(x<x')

onda : T0 = 16.5s

H S = 6.13m onda :

H S = 9.89m

0.4 0.4

Exp. positivos

Exp. positivos

Exp. negativos

0.2 0.2 Exp. negativos

Rayleigh

Rayleigh

0.0 0.0

0 1 2 3 4 0 2 4 6 8

3p (m ) 3p (m )

Experimental data from a containership in head long crested waves with Fn = 0.25

to Rayleigh distribution

1.0 1.0

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6

T0 = 11.5s

p(x<x')

p(x<x')

onda : T0 = 16.5s

H S = 6.13m onda :

0.4 0.4 H S = 9.89m

Exp. positivos Exp. positivos

0.2 Exp. negativos 0.2 Exp. negativos

Rayleigh Rayleigh

0.0 0.0

0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6 8

5p ( graus ) p

(graus )

5

Experimental data from a containership in head long crested waves with Fn = 0.25

bending moment maxima and minima compared to Rayleigh distribution

Picos do MFV a meio-navio - dist. cumulativa Picos do ECV na seco 15 - dist. cumulativa

1.0 1.0

0.8 0.8

p(x<x')

p(x<x')

onda :

H S = 6.13m T0 = 11.5s

onda :

H S = 6.13m

0.4 0.4

Exp. alquebramento

Exp. contra-alquebramento

Exp. contra-alquebramento

0.2 0.2 Exp. alquebramento

Rayleigh

Rayleigh

0.0 0.0

0.0E+00 3.0E+05 6.0E+05 9.0E+05 0 4000 8000 12000 16000

M 5

p

(KNm) V3

p

(KN )

Expected Extreme Amplitudes

The statistical theory of extreme values combined with the narrow-band

assumption results in the estimates for the expected maximum in a

sample of N successive maxima:

N = 100 , 3.25 m 0

N = 1000 , 3.85 m 0 (8.14)

N = 10000, 4.45 m 0

However, is a large number of samples of the former sizes are taken, five

percent of them would be expected to contain maximum amplitudes

exceeding:

N = 100 , 3.9 m0

(8.15)

N = 1000 , 4.45 m0

8.4 Assessment of Seakeeping Performance

(A) INTRODUCTION

However

The effects of waves degrades the ability to carry out the mission

comparatively to calm water condition

Operability Index:

Measures the degradation of ship ability to carry out its mission

or in other words

Quantifies the seakeeping quality of the ship

The Operability Index accounts for:

o The ship mission, through the use of seakeeping criteria, which represent

acceptable limits of operation

o The hydrodynamic and inertia characteristics of the ship, through the use of a

seakeeping program to calculate the motions transfer functions

o The wave climate where the ship operates, through the use of the probability

distribution of short term seastates

The ship is able to physically carry out its mission

The working conditions onboard are acceptable

The Seakeeping Criteria are usually related to absolute motions, relative motions,

accelerations onboard, slamming and green water on deck.

(B) THEORY

The method to calculate the operability index follows four steps:

1. Calculate the ship transfer functions

2. Calculate the ship responses to short term seastates

3. Select seakeeping criteria and calculate curves of maximum significant wave heights

in which the ship can operate

4. Calculate the percentage of time in which the ship is operational in a given ocean

area or route (operability index)

Absolute motions Are calculated for all

Relative motions at selected positions frequency range and heading

Vertical and lateral accelerations at range using a Strip Method

selected positions

(b2) Ship Responses to Short Term Seastates

Pierson Moskowitz spectrum represents the short term seastates in terms of Hs and Tp

The response spectrum is calculated by:

S R ( ) = S w ( )H 2 ( ) (8.16)

And the variance of the response is

R2 = S R ( )d = H S2 Sw1 ( )H ( )d = H S R1

2 2 2

(8.17)

0 0

If a seakeeping criterion is defined as a limiting root mean square of the response CR,

then the maximum allowed Hs for a given mean wave period and ship heading is:

CR

H S max (Tz , ) = (8.18)

R1

(a) If a seakeeping criterion is defined as a limiting root mean square of the response

CR, then the maximum allowed Hs for a given mean wave period and ship heading is:

CR

H S max (Tz , ) = (8.19)

R1

critical value rmax, then the corresponding CR may be calculated assuming a Rayleigh

distribution of the peaks of the responses (see eq. 8.13):

2

rmax

CR = (8.20)

2 ln (1 / pCR )

Compare de curves of Hsmax(Tz,) with the scatter diagram for a given ocean area and

calculate the probability that the ship is operational in for that ocean area

(C) CALCULATION EXAMPLE

Containership Fishing Vessel

Lpp = 175 m Lpp = 20.1 m

CB = 0.57 CB = 0.42

Displ. = 24742 ton Displ. = 129.5 ton

Speed = 22 Kn Speed = 10 Kn

(c1) Seakeeping Criteria

Roll - 4 (rms)

Containership Green water on deck 90, 0, 11 5% (prob)

Vert. accel. at fwd. pp. 90, 0, 0 0.2g (rms)

Slamming 63.8, 0, -9.5 2.5% (prob)

Propeller emergence -83, 0, -4.5 12% (prob)

Vert. accel. at bridge -63, 0, 0 0.15g (rms)

Lat. accel. at bridge -63, 0, 27 0.10g (rms)

Roll - 6 (rms)

Fishing Vessel Green water on deck 10.8, 0, 4.4 5% (prob)

Slamming 10.8, 0, -2.0 3% (prob)

Vert. accel. at bridge 7.6, 0, 4.5 0.2g (rms)

Lat. accel. at bridge 7.6, 0, 4.5 0.1g (rms)

Propeller emergence -8.15, 0, 1.2 15% (prob)

Vert. accel. work. deck -8.5, 0, 2.5 0.2g (rms)

Lat. accel. work. deck -8.5, 0, 2.5 0.1g (rms)

(c2) Ship Transfer Functions

7.0 2.5

&&V 2

4 6.0 a

( )

s

k 2.0 180

a

5.0

150 150

4.0

90

90

3.0 60

60 1.0

30

30

2.0 0

0.5

1.0

0.0 0.0

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

L pp / g L pp / g

(c3) Maximum Allowed Significant Wave Heights

Calculate response spectra and variances for: (13 responses) * (25 seastates,

2s<Tz<15s, Hs=1m) * (7 headings)

Calculate H S max (Tz , ) = CR / R1

Max. Sig. Wave Heights (V =10 Kn, = 180) Max. Sig. Wave Heights (V =10 Kn, = 120)

12 12

H S (m ) H S (m )

8 8

4 4

0 0

0 5 Tz (s) 10 15 0 5 Tz (s) 10 15

Slamming Vert. accel. at bridge Slamming Vert. accel. at bridge

Lat. accel. at bridge Vert. accel. on deck Lat. accel. at bridge Vert. accel. on deck

Lat. accel. on deck Propeller emergence Lat. accel. on deck Propeller emergence

(c4) Calculate the Operability Index

Compare de curves of Hsmax(Tz,) with the scatter diagram for a given ocean area and

calculate the probability that the ship is operational in for that ocean area

Max.

Max.Sig.

Sig.Wave

WaveHeights

Heights(V

(V=10 Kn, == 120)

=10Kn, 120)

66

H S ((m

H m))

S

Roll

44 Water on deck

Slamming

All criteria

Vert. accel. atsatisfied

bridge

Lat. accel. at bridge

22

Vert. accel. on deck

Lat. accel. on deck

Propeller emergence

00

00 22 44 TTz (s(s) ) 66 88 10

10

z

Global Wave Statistics Area 8, annual statistics

14.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0001

13.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0000

12.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0002 0.0001 0.0001

11.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0003 0.0005 0.0004 0.0002 0.0001

10.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0003 0.0007 0.0008 0.0007 0.0004 0.0001

9.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0006 0.0014 0.0016 0.0011 0.0006 0.0002

8.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0003 0.0015 0.0028 0.0029 0.0019 0.0009 0.0003

Hs (m) 7.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0009 0.0035 0.0059 0.0054 0.0032 0.0013 0.0004

6.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0003 0.0026 0.0083 0.0121 0.0098 0.0051 0.0019 0.0005

5.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0010 0.0073 0.0193 0.0237 0.0165 0.0074 0.0024 0.0006

4.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0033 0.0195 0.0413 0.0414 0.0239 0.0091 0.0025 0.0006

3.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0006 0.0106 0.0454 0.0726 0.0566 0.0260 0.0080 0.0018 0.0003

2.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0025 0.0271 0.0771 0.0855 0.0479 0.0163 0.0038 0.0007 0.0001

1.5 0.0000 0.0002 0.0079 0.0421 0.0656 0.0430 0.0151 0.0034 0.0005 0.0001 0.0000

0.5 0.0000 0.0013 0.0076 0.0134 0.0084 0.0024 0.0004 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5

Tz (s)

Operability Indexes

the Portuguese W. Coast the North Atlantique

(Annual statistics) (GW areas 8, 9, 15 an 16)

Head

F.Foz G.W. 16 Year Winter

(deg)

180 0.88 0.61 0.86 0.74

150 0.91 0.72 0.82 0.70

120 0.96 0.74 0.90 0.84

90 0.77 0.50 1.00 0.99

60 0.96 0.75 0.75 0.59

30 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99

0 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98

Aver. 0.93 0.76 0.90 0.83

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