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COLLEGE OF ENGINNERING

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

A.Y. 2016-2017

50 SOLVED PROBLEMS

TRANSPORT PROCESSES AND UNIT

OPERATIONS

GEANKOPLIS

Prepared by:

BS Chemical Engineering IV

Professor:

PART I: MOMENTUM TRANSFER

1.Pressure Drop of a Flowing Gas. Nitrogen gas is flowing through a 4-in schedule 40

commercial steel pipe at 298K. The total flow rate is 7.40x10 -2 kg/s and the flow can be

assumed as isothermal. The pipe is 3000 m long and the inlet pressure is 200 kPa.

Calculate the outlet pressure.

Given:

From Appendix A.5

Ds40 = 102.3m/1000m= 0.1023 m A= 8.219x10-3 m2

MW N2 = 28 g/mol

From Appendix A.3

= 1.77x10-5 Pa-s L=3000m

P1 = 200kPa= 2x105 Pa Total mass flowrate= 7.40x10-2 kg/s

Solution:

G=

7.40x102 kg/s

=

8.219x103 m2

G= 9.0035 kg/ m-s2

= 4.6x10-5 m commercial steel Relative Roughness=

4.6x105 m

=

0.1023 m

Relative Roughness= 4.497x10-4

(0.1023 m)(9.0035 kg/ ms2)

NRE = = = 52,037.18, Thus, Turbulent flow

1.77x105 Pas

f= 0.0053

Assume pressure drop is less than 10% of P1

4 2 4(0.0053)(3000m)( 9.0035 kg/ ms2)(.)()

P12 P22 = = 28g

(0.1023m)( )

mol

4.000x1010 - P22 = 4.457x1010

P2 = 188,528.5 Pa or 188.53 Kpa

2.000105 1.885105

%Pressure drop= x100 = 5.75%

2.000105

2. Reynolds number for milk flow. Whole milk at 293K having a density of 1030 kg/m 3

and viscosity of 2.12 cp is flowing at the rate of 0.605 kg/s in a glass pipe having a

diameter of 63.5 mm.

a. Calculate the Reynolds number. Is this turbulent flow?

b. Calculate the flow rate needed in m3 /s for a Reynolds number of 2100 and the velocity

in m/s.

Given:

= 1030 kg/m3 D= 0.0635m

2 ()(0.0635)2

= 2.12x10-3 Pa-s A= = =3.167x10-3 m2

4 4

mdot = 0.605 kg/s

Volumetric flowrate= (0.605kg/s)/(1030kg/m3 )= 5.874x10-4 m3 /s

5.874x104 m3 /s

Velocity= = = 0.1855m/s

3.167x103 m2

0.1855m 1030kg

(0.0635m)( s )( m3 )

a. NRE = = = 5,722.94 , Turbulent flow

2.12x103

2100

b. (5.874x10-4 m3 /s) = 2.155x10-4 m3/s = Vdot

5722.94

2100

(0.1855m/s)= 0.0681 m/s= V

5722.94

3. Frictional Pressure Drop in Flow of Olive Oil. Calculate the frictional pressure drop

in pascal for olive oil at 293 K flowing through a commercial pipe having an inside

diameter of 0.0525m and a length of 76.2m. The velocity of the fluid is 1.22m/s. Use the

friction factor method. Is the flow laminar or turbulent?

Given:

T=293K D=0.0525m

V=1.22m/s L= 76.2m

From Appendix A.4

Olive Oil:

=919.00kg/m3

= 0.084 Pa-s

Solution:

1.22m 919kg

(0.0525m)( s )( m3 )

NRE = = = 700.74 , Laminar flow

0.084

f= 16/ NRE =16/700.74= 0.02283

919 1.22 2

4 2 (4)(0.02283)( 3 )(76.2)( )

Frictional Pressure drop= =

2 2(0.0525m)

4. Pipeline Pumping of Oil. A pipeline laid cross country carries oil at the rate of 795

m3/d. The pressure of the oil is 1793 kPg gage leaving pumping station 1. The pressure

is 862 kPa gage at the inlet to the next pumping station 1. The pressure is 862 kPa gage

at the inlet to the next pumping station, 2. The second station is 17.4m higher than the

first station. Calculate the lost work (F friction loss) in J/kg mass oil. The oil density is

769kg/m3 .

Given:

Flowrate= 795 m3/d. Z1= 0m P1= 1793kPa

oil= 769kg/m3 Z2= 17.4m P2= 862kPa

Solution:

12 1 22 2

Z1 g + + - Ws = Z2 g + + F

2 1 2 2

12 22

= W s =0

2 2

(17931000) (8621000)

0+ 769 - 0= (17.4m)(9.81m/s2 ) + + F

769/3

3

F= 1039.97 J/kg

5. Pressure in a Sea Lab. A sea lab 5.m high is to be designed to withstand

submersion to 150m, measured from the sea level to the top of the sea lab. Calculate

the pressure on top of the sea lab and also the pressure variation on the side of the

container measured as the distance x in m from the top of the sea lab downward. The

density of seawater is 1020 kg/m3 .

Given:

h1 = 150m from sea level g = 9.81 m/s2

seawater= 1020 kg/m3

Lsea lab= 5m

Solution:

P1= h1 seawater g = (150m)(1020 kg/m3 )(9.81 m/s2 ) = 1.500x106 N/m2 or 1500KN/m2

=(150+x)(10,006.2N/m2)

= (150+x)(10.0062) KN/m2

spherical tank at the bottom of the tank filled with oil having a diameter of 8.0 ft. The top

of the tank is vented to the atmosphere having a pressure of 14.72 psia. The density of

the oil is 0.922g/cm3 .

Given:

P1 = 14.72 psia

P2

English Units

oil = 0.922g/cm3 (62.43) = 57.56 lbm/ft3

P2 = (h2 )( oil )(g/gc) + P0

8.0(57.56)(32.174) 1

=

(32.174)

(144) + 14.72

= 17.92 psia

SI Units

P1 = (h2 )( oil )(g/gc) + P0

P1= (14.72m)(6.89476)= 101.5x 10 N/m2

h2= 8.0ft(1m/3.2808ft) = 2.438m

oil = 0.922g/cm3 (1000) = 922 kg/m3

P2 = 2.438m(922kg/m3 )(9.81m/s2 )+ 101.5 x103 N/m2

P2 = 123.5KN/m2

7. Test of Centrifugal Pump and Mechanical Energy Balance. A centrifugal pump is

being tested for performance and during the test the pressure reading in the 0.305-m-

diameter sunction line just adjacent to the pump casing is -20.7 kPa (vacuum below

atmospheric pressure). In the discharge line with a diameter of 0.254 m at point 2.53

above the sunction line, the pressure is 289.6 kPa gauge. The flow of water from the

pump is measured as 0.1133m3 /s. (The density can be assumed as 1000kg/ m 3 ).

Calculate the kW input of the pump.

Given:

2

A1 = (1 ) = (0.305)2 = 0.073062

4 4

0.11333 /

V1 = = 1.550 m/s

0.073062

0.11333 /

V2 = = 2.236 m/s

0.050672

A2 = (0.254)2 = 0.050672

4

1.550 1000

(0.305)( )( )

3

If = 1x10-3 kg/m-s , NRE = = 1103

= 4.73x105

Thus, flow is turbulent and = 1.0

1 2 2 )

2 1

(2 1 + (2 1 ) + + = 0

2

1 (289.6 + 20.7)103

(2.2362 1.5502 ) + 9.81(2.53 0) + +0 =0

2 1000

W s = -336.4 J/kg

Pump input= 336.4x113.3 x1/1000 = 38.11kW

8. Friction Losses and Pump Horsepower. Hot water in an open storage tank at 82.2C

is being pumped at the rate of 0.379m3 /min from this storage tank. The line from the

storage tank to the pump sunction is 6.1m of 2-in. schedule 40 steel pipe and it contains

three elbows. The discharge line after the pump is 61 m of 2-in. pipe and contains two

elbows. The water discharges to the atmosphere at a height of 6.1 m above the water

level in storage tank.

a. Calculate all frictional losses F.

b. Make a mechanical-energy balance and calculate W s of the pump in J/kg.

c. What is the kW power of the pump if its efficiency is 75%?

Given:

f= 0.0048

422 4(0.0048)(.)(.)

Ff= =

2 (0.0525)(2)

= 104.47 J/kg

Total loss, F= 2.333+ 15.965+ 104.48= 122.77 J/kg

a. F= 122.77 J/kg

V2

+ g2 + + = 0

2

(2.918)2 9.81m 122.77

+ ( 2 ) (6.1m) + + = 0

2 s

b. Ws = -186.85 J/kg

Ws= -Wp

-186.9 J/kg = -0.75 Wp

6.130

Wp= 249.13 = 1.527 kW

1000

the absolute pressure Pa in a vessel containing air. The pressure Pb is atmospheric

pressure, which is 754 mm Hg. The liquid in the manometer is water having a density of

1000kg/m3 . Assume that the density B is 1.30kg/m3 and that the distance Z is very

small. The reading R is 0.415 m. Calculate Pa in psia and kPa.

Given:

Z= negligible A = 1000kg/m3

R= 0.415 m B = 1.30kg/m3

Pb= 754 mm Hg

Solution:

Pa Pb = R(A - B ) g

= (0.415m)( 1000kg/m3 -1.30kg/m3 )(9.81m/s2 )

Pa Pb = 4065.86 N/m2 = 4.066 KN/m2

754

Pb = (101.325) = 100.53 KN/m2

760

Pa =100.53 KN/m2 + 4.066 KN/m2 =104.596 KN/m2

10. Shear Stress in Soybean Oil. Using Fig. 2.4-1, the distance between the two

parallel plates is 0.00914 m and the lower plate is being pulled at a relative velocity of

0.366 m/s greater than the top plate. The fluid used is soybean oil with viscosity of 4x10-

2 Pa-s at 303K (Appendix A.4).

a.Calculate the shear stress and the shear stress rate using lb force, ft, and s units.

b. Repeat, using SI units

c. If glycerol at 293 K having a viscosity of 1.069 kg/m-s is used instead of soybean oil,

what relative velocity in m/s is needed using the same distance between plates so that

the same shear stress is obtained as in part (a)? Also, what is the new shear rate?

Given:

V2 = 0

y=0.00914m

y2= 0.00914 m= 0.030 ft

V2 = 0.366 m/s = 1.20 ft/s

a.English units

6.71974 ( )

40(

)(1.200)/

(2 1 )

= = 32.174() =

(2 1 ) (0.0300)

2

3.34x10-2 lbf/ft2 Shear stress

(1.200)/

Shear rate= ( 2 1 ) =

2 1 (0.030)

b. SI Units

4.0102

(2 1 ) (0.3660)/

= =

(2 1 ) (0.009140)

(0.3660)/

Shear rate= ( 2 1 ) = = 40.04 s-1 shear rate

2 1 (0.00914)

c. A= Soybean B= Glycerol

B= 1.069kg/m-s A= 4.0x10-2kg/m-s

= 1,069cP

(2 1 ) (2 1 )

1= = =2

(2 1 ) (2 1 )

(y2 y1)A = (y2 y1)B

(4.0x10-2kg/m-s )(0.366m/s-0m/s)A= 1.069kg/m-s(V2 V1)B

(V2 V1)B = 0.01369 m/s or 0.0449 ft/s

(2 1 ) 0.01369/

Shear rate= = = 1.50 s-1

(2 1 ) 0.00914

11. Water Flow Rate in an Irrigation Ditch. Water is flowing in an open channel in an

irrigation ditch. A rectangular weir having a crest length L= 1.75 ft is used. The weir

head is measured as h0 = 0.47 ft. Calculate the flow rate in ft3 /s and m3/s.

Given:

1

L= 1.75ft= 1.75ft x = 0.5344m

3.281

1

h0 = 0.47 ft. x = 0.1433m

3.281

English units

32.174

q= 0.415[1.75ft-0.2 (0.47ft) (0.47ft)1.5 ] 2( )

2

q= 1.776 ft3/s

SI units

9.80665

q= 0.415[0.5334m-0.2 (0.1433m) (0.1433m)1.5 ] 2( )

2

q= 0.0503 m3/s

12. Brake Horsepower of Centrifugal Pump. Using Fig. 3.3-2 and a flowrate of 60

gal/min, do as follows.

a.Calculate the brake hp of the pump using water with a density of 62.4 lbm/ft 3. Compare

with the value from the curve.

b.Do the same for a nonviscous liquid having a density of 0.85 g/cm3.

Given:

q= 60 gal/min = 62.4 lbm/ft3

For 60gal/min, brake hp= 0.80 hp

=0.58 H= 31ft

60 1 1

mflowrate= ( )( )( 7.481 )(62.4 3 ) = 8.34 lbm/s

60

3

8.34

(31/)(

)

Brake hp= = = 0.810 hp

550 0.58(550)

1

0.810hp x = 0.604kW broke hp= 0.81hp or 0.604kW

1.3410

b. = 62.4 lbm/ft3

= 62.4 lbm/ft3(0.85)= 53.1lbm/ft3

brake hp and brake hp= 0.810hp(53.1lbm/ft3)/62.4lbm/ft3

= 0.689hp

1

0.689hp = 0.513 kW brake hp= 0.689hp or 0.513 kW

1.3410

13. Power for Liquid Agitation. It is desired to agitate a liquid having a viscosity of 1.5

x10-3 Pa-s and a density of 969kg/m3 in a tank having a diameter of 0.91m. The agitator

will be a six-blade open turbine having a diameter of 0.305m operating at 180 rpm. The

tank has four vertical baffles each with a width J of 0.076m. Also, W= 0.0381m. Calculate

the required kW. Use curve 2, Fig 3.4-4

Given:

=1.5x10-3 Pa-s N= 180/3= 3 s-1

= 969kg/m3 J= 0.076m

Dtank = 0.91m 4 vertical baffles

Dturbine = 0.305m at 180 rpm

Using the curve 2, Fig 3.4-4

969

2

(0.305)2 (3.01 )( )

3

NRE= =

1.5103

=180, 300 Turbulent

Curve 2, Np = 2.5

Np=

3 5

2.5= 969

( 3 )(3 1 )3 (0.305)5

P= 172.0 W

P= 0.172 kW or 0.231hp

14. Surface Area in a Packed Bed. A packed bed is composed of cubes 0.020 m on a

side and the bulk density of packed bed is 980 kg/m 3. The density of the solid cubes is

1500 kg/m3.

a. Calculate , effective diameter Dp, and a.

b. Repeat for the same conditions but for cylinders having diameter of D =

0.02 m and a length h=1.5D.

Solution:

a. basis = 1.0 m3 of packed bed

kg

Bulk density = 980

m3

kg

density of solid cubes = 980

m3

980kg

mass ofbed = ( ) ( 1.0m3 ) = (980 kg of solid cubes)

m3

980 kg

volume of solid cubes = = 0.6533 m3

kg

1500 ( 3 )

m

Eq. (3.1 6)

volume of void [total vol solid vol] 1.0 0.6533

= = =

total volume of bed total vol 1.0

= .

surface area of particle

Sp = 6D2

volume of particle

Vp = D3

Eq. (3.1 7)

Sp 6D2 6

aV = = 3 =

Vp D D

Eq. (3.1 9)

6

6

Dp = = 6 =D = .

av D

Eq. (3.1 10)

6(1 ) 6(a 0.3467)

a= =

Dp 0.020

= .

b. = 0.3467 h = 1.5D

D2

Sp = 2 ( ) + D(1.5D) = 2.0D2

4

D2 1.5 3

Vp = ( ) (1.5D) = D

4 4

Eq. (3.1 7)

Sp 2.0D2 8

aV = = =

Vp 1.5 D3 1.5D

4

Eq. (3.1 9)

6

6 9 9

Dp = = 8 = D = (0.02) = .

av 1.5D 8 8

Eq. (3.1 10)

6(1 ) 6(a 0.3467)

a= =

Dp 0.0225

= .

15. Flow Measurement Using a Pitot Tube. A pitot tube is used to measure the flow

rate of water at 20oC in the center of a pipe having an inside diameter of 102.3 mm. The

manometer reading is 78 mm. the manometer reading is 78 mm carbon tetrachloride at

20oC. the pitot tube coefficient is 0.98.

a. Calculate the velocity at the center and the average velocity.

b. Calculate the volumetric flow rate of the water.

Solution:

102.3 78

= = 0.1203 = 0.98 = = 0.78 = 20

1000 1000

. 2

= 998.23 = 1.005103

3

= (0.1023)2 = 8.219103 2

4

. (1), (4 ) = 1595 20

3

. . (3.2 3)

= ( )

= 0.078(1595 998.23)(9.81)

= 456.6

. (3.2 2)

2(2 1 ) 2(456.5)

= ( = 0.98 = 0.9372

998.23

0.1023(0.9372)(998.23)

= = = 95230

1.005103

. 2.10 2

= 0.825

= 0.825(0.9372) = . /

.

= 8.219103 2

= = 0.773(8.219103 )

.

=

16.Force on a Cylinder in a Wind Tunnel. Air at 101.3 kPa absolute and 25oC is flowing

at a velocity of 10m/s in a wind tunnel. A long cylinder having a diameter of 90 mm is

placed in the tunnel and the axis of the cylinder is held perpendicular to the air flow. What

is the force on the cylindrical per meter length.

Solution:

= 25 101.3

90

= 10 = = 9.0 102

1000

= 1.0

. 3

= 1.187 = 1.845 105 /

3

. (3.1 3)

[9.0102 (10)(1.187)]

= = = 5.79104

1.845105

. 3.1 2 = .

. (3.1 2)

= = (1.0)(9.0102 ) = 0.090 2

2 102

= ( ) = (1.3)(1.187)(0.090) ( ) = 6.944

2 2

= .

17. Molecular Transport of a Property with Variable Diffusivity. A property is being

transported through a fluid at steady state through a constant cross-sectional area. At

point 1 the concentration 1 is 2.78 x 10-2 at point 2 at a distance of 2.0 m away. The

diffusivity depends on concentration as follows.

= + = 0.150 + 1.65

a. Derive the integrated equation for the flux in terms of 1 and 2. Then

calculate the flux.

b. Calculate at z = 1.0 m

Solution:

= = ( + )

2 2

= ( + )

1 1

2 2

(2 1 ) = [ ] = (1 2 ) + (12 22 )

2 2

1

.

( ) + ( )

=

.

2 = 2.0 1 = 1.0 = 0.150 = 1.65 1 = 2.78 102 2 = 1.5102

1.65

0.150(2.78102 1.5102 ) + 2 [(2.78102 )2 (1.50102 )2 ]

=

2.0 1.0

= . /

18. Minimum Fluidization and Expansion of Fluid Bed. Particles having size of 0.10

mm, a shape factor of 0.86, and a density of 1200 kg/m 3 are to be fluidized using air at

25oC and 207.65 kPa abs pressures. The void fraction at minimum fluidizing conditions

is 0.43. The bed diameter is 0.60 m and the bed contains 350 kg of solids.

a. Calculate the minimum height of the fluidized bed.

b. Calculate the pressure drop at the minimum fluidizing conditions.

c. Calculate the minimum velocity for fluidization.

d. Using 4.0 times the minimum velocity estimate the porosity of the bed.

Given:

0.10

= = 0.00010 = 0.86 = 1200

1000 3

= 2.0265 105 25 = 0.43

. 3 = 2.374 = 1.845105 = 0.6

3

.

= (0.6)2 = 0.2827 2 350

4

350

= = 0.2917 3

1200/3

0.29173

1 = 0 1 = = 1.032

0.28272

2 = 2 = = 0.43

1 1 2 1.032 1 1.43

= , =

2 1 2 1

= .

= (1 )( )

= .

.

2

1.75 (, ) 150(1 ) 3 ( )

3 + 3 (, ) =0

2 2

2

1.75 (, ) 150(1 0.43) 0.00013 (2.374)(1200 9.3)9.81

+ (, ) =0

0.86(0.43)2 0.862 0.433 (1.84105 )2

, = 0.05628

(0.001)( )(2.374)

, = 0.05628 = =

1.845105

= . /

. 4

= 4(0.004374) = 0.01750 /

3

= 1

1

(0.43)2

= 0.004374 = 1

1 0,43

1 = 0.03136 /

= 0.01750

3 3

0.01750 = 1 = 0.03136

1 1

= 0.57

1 = 0.57

(0.57)3

= 0.03136 = 0.01351

1 0.57

2 = 0.60

(0.603 )

= 0.03136 = 0.01693

1 0.60

3 = 0.604

(0.604)3

= 0.03136 = 0.01745

1 0.604

= .

19. Minimum Fluidization Velocity Using a Liquid. A tower having a diameter of 0.1524

m is being fluidized with the water at 20.2 oC. The uniform spherical beads in the tower

bed have a diameter of 4.42 mm and a density of 1603 kg/m 3. Estimate the minimum

fluidizing velocity and compare with the experimental value of 0.02307 of Wilhelm and

Kwauk(W5).

Given:

4.42

= = 0.0044 = 1.00()

1000

= 1603 20.2

3

. 2

= 997.5 = 1.00103

3

Solution:

1

2

0.04083 ( ) 2

, = [(33.7) + ]

2

1

2

0.048(0.00442)3 (997.5)(1603 997.5)(9.81) 2

, = [(3.7) + ]

(1.0103 )2

= 114.6

=

(0.0042)( )(997.5)

114.6 =

1.0103

= . /

The value predicted is 0.02599 while the experimental value is 0.020307

Thus, the predicted value is slightly higher than the experimental value.

20. Pressure with Two Liquids, Hg and Water. An open test tube at 293 K is filled at

the bottom with 12.1 cm of Hg and 5.6 cm of water is placed above the Hg. Calculate the

pressure at the bottom of the test tube if the atmospheric pressure is 756 mm Hg. Use a

density of 13.55 g/cm3 for Hg and 0.998 g/cm3 for water. Give the answer in terms of

dyn/cm2, psia, and KN/m2. See Appendix A.1 for Conversion factors.

Solution:

10 2

=1 2

1 = 1

2

2 = 1 + = 1 1 + 2 2 +

13.5955 980

2 = [(5.6) (0.998 3 ) + (12.1 ) (13.55 3 ) + (75.6) ( )] ( )

3 2

2 = 1.175 106 = . /

2 2

. 1 8

1 = 6.8947 104

2

1.175106

2 = 2 = .

6.8947104

2

106

(1.175 ) 1.175105

2

2 = = = . /

2

2

10

2

PART II: HEAT TRANSFER

21. Chilling Frozen Meat. Cold air at -28.90C and 1 atm is recirculated at a velocity of

0.61 m/s over the exposed top flat surface of a piece of frozen meat. The sides and bottom

of this rectangular slab of meat are insulated and the top surface is 254mm by 254mm

square. If the surface of the metal is at -6.70C, predict the average heat-transfer coefficient

that either Eq.(4.6.2) or (4.6-3) can be used, depending on the NRE L.

Given:

V= 0.61m/s Appendix A.3 for air at -17.80C

P=1 atm = 1.379kg/m3 k= 0.0225W/m-k

L=0.254m Npr= 0.720 = 1.62x10-5 kg/m-s

Solution:

+ 28.90 + (6.70 )

= = = 17.80

2 2

0.61 1.379

(0.254)( )( 3 )

, = = 5 = 1.319104

1.6210

Using Eq. 4.6-2

1

0.5 3

= (0.664)(, )( )

0.0225

1

= (0.664)(1.319104 )0.5 (0.720)3

0.254

= 6.05

3

a surface temperature of 21.10C is placed on an open shelf in a refrigerator at 4.4 0C.

Calculate the heat loss by natural convection, neglecting radiation. As an approximation,

the simplified equation for vertical planes can be used with L replaced by the radius of the

sphere (M1). For a more accurate correlation, see (S2).

Given:

Tw= 21.10C Tb= 4.40C

D=0.102 m R= 0.051m

Plate correlation

= = 21.10 4.40 = 16.70 = 16.7

3 = (0.051)3 (16.7) = 2.22103

Thus, use Table 4.7-2

= 1.37 ( )

1

16.7 4 5.828

= 1.37 ( ) = 2

0.051

= 4 2 = 4(0.05)2 = 0.03268 2

5.2828

= = ( 2 ) (0.032682 )(16.7)

= 3.181

23. Effect of Convective Coefficients on Heat Loss in Double window. Repeat

Problem 5 for heat loss in double window. However, include a convective coefficient of

h=11.35 W/m2K on the outside surface of one side of the window and an h of 11.35 on

the other side surface. Also calculate the overall U.

Given:

= 0.9141.83 = 1.6732

= = 11.35

2

= = = 0.00635

= = 0.869

= 0.026

= 27.8

Solution:

1 1

= = = 0.052663 =

(11.35)(1.673)

0.00635

= = = 0.00436 =

(0.869)(1.673)

0.00635

= = = 0.004368

(0.026)(1.673)

= 0.260046

. (4.3 12)

27.8

= = = .

0.260046

Using . (4.3 13)

= =

1 1

= =

(1.673)(0.260046)

= . = .

24. Heat-Transfer Area and Use of Log Mean Temperature Difference. A reaction

mixture having cpm= 2.85 kJ/kgK is flowing at a rate of 7260 kg/h and is to be cooled from

377.6 K to 344.3 K. Cooling water at 288.8 K is available and the flow rate is 4536 kg/h.

the overall Uo is 623 W/m2K.

a. For counterflow, calculate the outlet water temperature and the area Ao of the

exchanger.

b. Repeat for concurrent flow

Given:

= 2.85 (2 ) = 4.181 = 653

2

= 720 = 4536 /

1 = 377.6 2 = 344.3 2 = 288.8 1 =?

Solution:

a. Countercurrent flow

(

7260 2.85

= 1 2 ) = ( ) (377.6 344.3) = 689010

4536 4.181

= = (1 2 ) = ( ) (1 288.8) = 689,010

= .

. (4.5 27)

2 = 344.3 288.8 = 55.5

1 = 377.6 325.2 = 52.4

(2 1 ) 55.5 52.4

= = = 53.9

55.5

ln (2 ) ln ( )

1 52.4

. (4.5 26)

689,010103

= = 653 2 ( )(53.9) =

3600

= .

b. Concurrent flow

1 = 377.6 2 = 344.3 1 = 288.8 2 = 325.2

1 = 377.6 288.8 = 88.8

2 = 344.3 325.2 = 19.1

88.8 19.1

= = 45.35

88.8

ln (19.1 )

(689010103 )

= 653( )(45.35) =

3600

= .

25. Loses by Natural Convection from a Cylinder. A vertical 76.2 mm in diameter and

121.9 mm high is maintained at 397.1 K at its surface. It loses heat by natural convection

to air at 294.3 K. Heat loss neglecting radiation losses. Use the simplified equations of

Table 4.7-2 and those equations for the lowest range of NGr, Npr. The equivalent L to use

for the top flat surface is 0.9 times the diameter.

Given:

= 294.3 = 397.1 = 0.0762 = 0.1219

= (397.1 294.3) = 102.8

Solution:

= = (0.0762) = 0.02918 2

2

= = (0.0762)2 = 0.004560 2

4 4

= 0.9(0.0762) = 0.06858

1 1

4 102.8 4

= 1.32 ( ) = 1.32 ( ) = 8.213 2

0.06858

1 1

4 102.8 4

= 1.37 ( ) = 1.37 ( ) = 7.383 2

0.06858

= = (8.213 ) (0.0045602 )(102.8) = 3.850

2

= = (7.383 ) (0.029182 )(102.8) = 22.147

2

= + = 3.850 + 22.147

= .

26. Insulation in a Cold Room. Calculate the heat loss per m2 of surface area for a

temporary insulating wall of a food cold storage room where the outside temperature is

299.9 K and the inside temperature 276.5 K. The wall is composed of 25.4 mm of cork

board having k of 0.0433 W/mK. 4.1.1

Given:

1 = 299.9 2 = 276.5

25.4

2 1 = = 0.0254

1000

= 0.0433

Solution:

. (4.1 10)

= ( 2 )

2 1 1

0.0433

= (299.9 276.5)

0.0254

= .

27. Natural Convection in Enclosed Horizontal Space. Repeat Example 4.7-3 for the

case where the two plates are horizontal and the bottom plate is hotter than the upper

plate. Compare the results.

Given:

1 = 394.3 2 = 366.5

= 0.030 = 0.4 = 0.03219

From example 4.7-3,

, = 2.372104

= = (0.061)( , )1/3

0.03219

= (0.061)(2.372104 )13

0.030

= 1.881

2

= (0.60.4) = 0.242

= = 1.881 (0.242 )(394.3 366.5)

2

= 12.54

28. Removal of Heat from Bath. Repeat problem 2 but for a cooling coil is made of 308

stainless steel having an average thermal conductivity of 15.23 W/mK.

Solution:

1

= (15.23 )( )( )

1.73073

= 8.80

1 2 8.80(0.0838)(80 40)

= =

2 1 0.01665 0.0104

= . = ,

29. Radiation to a Tube from a Large Enclosure. Repeat Example 4.10-1 but use the

slightly more accurate Eq. (4.10-5) with two different emissivities. .

Given:

1 = = (0.0254)(0.61) = 0.048682

1 = 588 2 = 1,088

2 2 = 12 = 0.60 1 1 = 0.46

Using 4.9-5

= 1 ( 1 14 1214 )

((0.058682 )(5.676108 )(0.46(58804 0.60(1,088 4 ))

= 2,171 2,410

30. Hardening of a Steel Sphere. To harden a steel sphere having a diameter of 50.8

mm, it is heated to 1,033K and then dunked into a large water bath at 300K. Determine

the time for the center of the sphere to reach 366.5K. The surface coefficient can be

assumed as 710 W/m2-K. k= 45 W/m-K, and = 0.0325 m2/h.

Given:

0.0508

1 = = 0.0254 0 = 1,033 1 = 300 = 366.5

2

45 0.03252

= = = =0

1

Solution:

45

= = = 2.495

1 710(0.0254)

1 300 366.5

= = 0.0907

1 0 300 1,033

0.03252

()

= 2.25 = 2 =

1 (0.0254)2

= 0.045

31. Chilling Slab of Beef. Repeat Example 5.5-1, where the slab of beef is cooled to

100C at the center but use air of 00C at a lower value h= 22.7 W/m2-k.

Given:

1.334107 2 0.498

= 22.7 2 = = 1 = 0.1015

Solution:

0.498

= = = 0.216

1

22.7 0.1015

2

1 0100

= = = 0.625

1 0 037.80

1.334107 2

( ) ()

= 0.92 = 2 =

1 (0.1015)2

4

= 7.10510 19.4

32. Time to Freeze a Slab of Meat. Repeat Example 5.5-2 using the same conditions

except that a plate or contact freezer is used where the surface coefficient can be

assumed as h= 142 W/m2-k.

Given:

1.038 1,057 251.2103

= 142 2 = 0.0635 = = 244.3 = =

1 3

Solution:

2

= ( + )

1 2 8

251.2103 1,057

(0.0635)2

3 0.0635

= + 1.038

270.40 244.30 2(142 2 ) 8( )

= 7,213 2.00

33. Heat Transfer with a Liquid Metal. The liquid metal bismuth at a flow rate of 2.00

kg/s enters a tube having an inside diameter of 35 mm at 425 oC and is heated to 430oC

in the tube. The tube wall is maintained at temperature of 25 oC above the liquid bulk

temperature. Calculate the tube length required. The physical properties are as follows

(H1): k = 15.6 W/mK, cp = 149 J/kgK, = 1.34 x 10-3 Pas.

Given:

35 2.0

= = 0.035 = 1 = 425 2 = 430

1000

= 15.6 = 149 = 1.34103

Solution:

2

= = (0.035)2 = 9.621104 2

4 4

2.0 2.079103

= = =

9.63104 2

0.035(2.079103 )

= = = 5.430104

1.34103

149(1.34103 )

= = = 0.01280

15.6

= (0.625)( )0.40

= = (5.430104 )(0.01280)

15.6 0.40

= (0.625)((5.430104 )(0.01280))

0.035

1490

= = ( ) = (3817)(25)

= 0.01561 2 = = (0.035)()

= .

34. Temperature Rise in Heating Wire. A current of 250 A is passing through a stainless

steel wire having a diameter of 5.08 mm. the wire is 2.44 m long and has a resistance of

0.0843 . The outer surface is held constant at 427.6K. The thermal conductivity is k=

22.5 W/mK. Calculate the center-line temperature at steady state.

Given:

= 0.00508 = 2.44 = 22.5 = 427.6

0.00508

= = = 0.0843 = 200

2 2

Solution :

() = 2 = (250)2 (0.0843)

2 0.005082

() = ( ) = ( ) (2.44)

4 4

() ()

0.005082

(250)2 (0.0843) = ( ) (2.44)

4

= 10.65107 2

2 (10.65107 )(0.00508)2

= + = + 427.6

4 (4)(22.5)(4)

= .

PART III: MASS TRANSER

]

35. Equimolar Counterdiffusion of a Binary Gas Mixture. Helium and nitrogen gas are

contained in a conduit 5 mm in diameter and 0.1 m long at 298 K and a uniform constant

pressure of 1.0 atm abs. The partial pressure of He at one end of the tube is 0.060 atm

and 0.020 atm at the other end. The diffusivity can be obtained from Table 6.2-1.

Calculate the following for the steady-state equimolar counterdiffusion.

a. Flux of He in kgmol/scm2

b. Flux of N2

c. Partial Pressure of He at a point 0.05 m from either end.

Given:

0.687104 2

= ( 6.2 1) 2 21 = 0.1

Solution:

. . (6.1 13)

(1 2 ) (0.687104 )(0.060 0.020)

= =

(2 1 ) (82.06103 )(298)(0.10)

= .

.

=

= .

. = 0.05

6

(0.687104 )(0.060 )

= 1.12410 =

(82.06103 )(298)(0.05)

= .

36. Mass Transfer from a Napthalene Sphere to Air. Mass transfer is occurring from a

sphere of naphthalene having a radius of 10 mm. the sphere is in a large volume of still

air at 52.6oC and 1 atm abs pressure. The vapor pressure of naphthalene at 52.6oC is 1.0

mmHg. The diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 0 oC is 5.16 x 10-6m2/s. Calculate the rate

of evaporation of naphthalene from the surface in kgmol/sm 2. [Note: the diffusivity can

be corrected for temperature using the temperature-correction factor of the Fuller et al.

Eq (6.2-25).]

Given:

1

1 = = 1.316103 2 = 0 = 52.6 = 325.6

760

6

2

= 5.1610 52.6 1

Solution:

2 1

=

ln (2 )

1

1 = 1 (1.316103 ) = 0.9987

2 = 1

1 0.9987

= = 0.993

1

ln (0.9987)

1.75

325.6 1.75 2

= 5.16106 ( ) = 7.024106

273

(1 2 ) (7.02106 )(1.0132105 )(1.316103 0)(1.0132105 )

1 = =

1 (8314)(325.6)(0.010)(0.9993)(1.0132105 )

= .

37. Diffusion of Methane Through Helium. A gas of CH4 and He is contained in a tube

at 101.32 kPa pressure and 298 K. At one point the partial pressure of methane is

pA1=60.79 kPa and at a point 0.02 m distance away, pA2=20.26 kPa. If the total pressure

is constant throughout the tube, calculate the flux of CH4 (methane) at steady-state for

equimolar counterdiffusion.

Given:

= 101.32 = 298 1 = 60.79 2 = 20.26

2 1 = 0.020

Solution:

2

(4 ) = 0.675104 ( 6.2 1)

(3 )

= 8314 ( . 1 1)

( )

. (6.1 13)

(1 2 ) (0.675104 )(60.79 20.26)103

= =

(2 1 ) 8314(298)(0.020)

= . ( )

38. Diffusion Through Membranes in Series. Nitrogen gas at 2.0 atm and 30oC is

diffusing through a membrane of nylon 1.0 mm thick and polyethylene 8.0 mm thick in

series. The partial pressure at the other side of the two films is 0 atm. Assuming no other

resistances, calculate the flux NA at steady state.

Given:

2 = 303 1 = 2 2 = 0 1 = 0.001 2 = 0.008

6.5 1

1 = 0.0152(1012 ) 2 = 1.52(1012 )

Solution:

1 2 2

= =

0.001 0.008

22.414 ( 1 + 2 ) 22.414 ( 12 + 1.521012 )

1 2 0.015210

= .

39. Loss from a Tube of Neoprene. Hydrogen gas at 2.0 atm and 27oC is flowing in a

neoprene tube 3.0 mm inside diameter and 11, outside diameter. Calculate the leakage

of H2 through a tube 1.0 m long kgmol H2/s at steady state.

Given:

11.0 3.0

2 = = 0.0055 1 = = 0.0015

21000 21000

= 1 = 300 1 = 2.0 2 = 0

6.5 1

9

2

= 0.18010 = 0.053

Solution:

1 =

22.414 1

2

= (1 2 ) (

(6.5 5)(6.5 4)

)

ln (2 )

1

(1 2 )2

=

22.414 ln (2 )

1

0.18109 (0.053)(2.0)(2)(1)

=

0.0055

22.414 ln ( )

0.0015

= .

40. Time to Completely Evaporate a Sphere. A drop of liquid toluene is kept at a uniform

temperature of 25.9oC and is suspended in air by a fine wire. The initial radius r1=2.00

mm. The vapor pressure of toluene is 866 kg/m3.

a. Derive Eq.(6.2-34) to predict the time tF for the drop to evaporate completely in

a large volume of still air.

b. Calculate the time in seconds for complete evaporation

Solution:

1 2

(1) 2 = 1 =

41 1

4 3

(2) =

3

4 3

(3) = = 3

4 2

(4) = 3

1

(5) 2

= 2

=

4 4

1 5

1 2

(6) = =

4 2

1 2 0

(7) =

0 1

=

( )

.

2

= 0.086104 6.2 1 = 866 3

2

1 = = 0.002 = 298.9 = 92.13

1000

1 = 3.84103 2 = 0 1 = 0.9748105 2 = 1.0132105

1 + 2 (0.9748 + 1.01325)105

= = = 0.994105

2 2

866(0.0022 )(8314)(298.9)(0.994105 )

=

2(92.13)(0.086104 )(1.01325103 )(3.84103 )

=

41. Numerical Method for Steady-State Diffusion. Using the results from Example 6.6-

1, calculate the total diffusion rate in the solid using the bottom nodes and paths of C 2,2

to C3,2 , C2,3 to C3,3, and so on. Compare with the other diffusion rates in example 6.6-1

Solution:

=

Writing Eq. 6.6-5

(1) 1

= ((2,2 3,2 ) + (2,3 3,3 ) + (2,4 3,4 ))

2

1

= 1.00109 ((3.47 2.72) + (4.24 3.06) + (4.41 3.16)) (103 )

2

12

= 2.5510 /

Ammonia gas is diffusing through N2 under steady state conditions with N2 nondiffusing

since it is insoluble in one boundary. The total presuure is 1.013 x 105 Pa and at the other

point 20 mm away it is 6.666 x 103 Pa. The DAB for the mixture at 1.013 x 105 Pa and 298

K is 2.30 x 10-5 m2/s.

a. Calculate the flux of NH3 in kgmol/sm2

b. Do the same as (a) but assume N2 also diffuses; i.e., both boundaries are

permeable to both gases and the flux is equimolar counterdiffusion. In which

case is the flux greater?

Given:

= 1.013 105 = 298 1 = 1.333 104 2 = 6.666103

2 1 = 20 = 0.020 = 2.30105 2 /

Solution:

. 3 () 2 ()

2 1

=

ln (2 )

1

1 = 1 = 10.132104 1.333104 = 8.799104

2 = 2 = 10.132104 0.666104 = 9.466104

9.466104 8.799104

= = 9.128 104

9.466104

ln ( )

8.799104

= ( 2 )

(2 1 ) 1

(2.30105 )(10.13104 )(1.333 0.666)104

=

8314(298)(0.020)(9.128104 )

= 3.44106

2

.

= = =

(2 1 ) (8314)(298)(0.020)

= 3.10106

2

The flux is greater than case (a)

counterdiffusion ion is occurring at steady state in a tube 0.11 m long containing N 2 and

CO gases at a total pressure of 1.0 atm abs. The partial pressure of N 2 is 80 mmHg at

one end 10mm at the other end. Predict the DAB by the method of Fuller et al.

a. Calculate the flux in kgmol/sm2 at 298 K for N2

b. Repeat at 473 K. Does the flux increase?

c. Repeat at 298 K but for a total pressure of 3.0 atm abs. The partial pressure of

N2 remains at 80 and 10 mmHg, as in part (a). Does the flux change?

Given:

2 1 = 0.11 = 1.0 = 298

80 10

1 (2 ) = = 0.1052 2 = = 0.0132

760 760

Solution:

= 28.0 = 28.0

6.2 2

1 1

= 17.9 3 = 17.93 = 2.61

1 1

= 18.9 3 = 18.93 = 2.66

1 1

1 1 2 1 1 2

(1107 )(1.75 ) ( + ) (1107 )(298)1.75 (28 + 28)

= =

1 1 2 1(2.61 + 2.66)2

( +

3 3)

= .

.

(1 2 ) 2.05105 (0.1052 0.0132)

= = =

(2 1 ) 82.06103 (298)(0.11)

= .

. 200 (473)

473 1.75 4.60105 2

5

= 2.0510 ( ) =

298

4.60105 (0.1052 0.0132)

=

(82.06103 )(473)(0.11)

= .

. = 3 298

1

5 5

2

= 2.0510 ( ) = 0.68310

3

0.683105 (0.1052 0.0132)

=

82.06103 (298)(0.11)

= .

through a thin film of water (B) 2.0 mm thick at 283 K. the concentration of HCl at point

1 at one boundary of the film is 12.0 wt % HCl (density 1=1060.7 kg/m3), and at the

other boundary at point 2 it is 6.0wt % HCl (density 2=1030.7 kg/m3) thye diffusion

coefficient of |HCl in water is 2.5 x 10-9 m2/s. assuming steady state and one boundary

impermeable to water, calculate the flux HCl in kgmol/sm2.

Given:

2

= 2.5109 2 1 = 0.002 %(1 ) = 12.0% %(2 ) = 6 %

1 = 1060.7 3 2 = 1030.3 () = 36.47 (2 ) = 18

3

Solution:

: 100

12.0

1 = 36.47 = 0.0632

12.0 88.0

36.47 + 18

1 = 1 0.0632 = 0.9386

100

1 = = 19.18

5.21

6.0

2 = 36.47 = 0.0355

6 88

36.47 + 18

2 = 1 0.0355 = 0.9694

100

2 = = 18.60

5.385

. (6.3 4)

2 1 0.9694 + 0.9386

= = = 0.953

ln (2 ) 0.9694

ln (0.9386)

1

. (6.3 2)

1 2 1060.7 1030.3

1 + 2 + 18.60

= = 19.18 = 55.4

2 2 3

. (6.3 3)

(1 2 ) (2.5109 )(55.4)(0.0632 0.030655)

= =

(2 1 ) (0.002)(0.953)

= .

45. Diffusion of Uric Acid in Protein Solution and Binding. Uric acid (A) at 37oC is

diffusing in an aqueous solution of proteins (P) containing 8.2 percent protein/100 mL

solution. Uric acid binds to the proteins for every 3.0 g mol of total acid present in solution.

The diffusivity DAB of uric acid in water is 1.21 x 10-5- cm2/s and Dp = 0.091 x 10-5 cm2/s.

a. Assuming no binding, predict the ratio DAP/DAB due only to blockage effects.

b. Assuming blockage plus binding effects, predict the ratio DAP/DAB due only to

blockage effects

c. Predict the flus in g uric acid/scm2 for a concentration of acid of 0.05 g/L at

point (1) and 0 g/L at point (2) a distance 1.5 m away.

Given:

2 2

= 1.2105 = 8.2 = 0.091105

100

Solution:

.

8.2 1 100

= = 82.0 3

1000 1000 1

. (6.4 2)

= (1 1.81103 ) = ( (1 1.81103 82.0)) = ( 0.8516)

= .

. . (6.4 4)

% %

= [ (1 1.81103 ) ( ) + ( )]

100 100

66.66 33.33

= [1.21105 (0.8516) ( ) + ((0.081105 ) ( ))]

100 100

= .

0.7172

= = . = .

1.21

. . (6.4 3)

(1 2 )

=

2 1

0.05

(0.7172105 ) ( 0)

= 1000

1.5104

= .

the enzyme urease in dilute solution water at 298 K using the modified Polson equation

and compare the result with the experimental value in table 6.4-1.

Solution:

6.4 1 = 482, 700 = 298

11

m2

DAB exp = 4.01x10

s

. 2 = 0.8937103 (298)

. (6.4 1)

(9.401015 )()

= 1

()( )3

(9.401015 )(298)

= 1 = .

(0.8937103 )(482,600)3

47. Relation Between Diffusivity and Permeability. The gas hydrogen is diffusing

through a sheet of vulcanized rubber 20 mm thick at 25oC. The partial pressure of H2

inside 1.5 atm and 0 outside. Using the data from Table 6.5-1, calculate the following.

a. The diffusivity DAB from the permeability PM and solubility S and compare

with the value in Table 6.5-1.

b. The flux NA of H2 at steady state.

Solution:

2

= 0.85109 = 0.040 3

. (6.5 9)

= ; =

0.03421010

= = .

0.040

. . (6.5 8)

(1 2 )

= ; 1 = 1.5 2 = 0

22.414(2 1 )

0.3421010 (1.50)

=

22.414(0.020)

= .

48. Diffusion of CO2 through Rubber. A flat plug 30 mm thick having an area of 4.0 x

10-4 m2 and made of vulcanized rubber used for closing an opening in a container. The

gas CO2 at 25oC and 2.0 atm pressure is inside the container. Calculate the total leakage

or diffusion of CO2 through the plug to the outside in kgmol/CO2/s at steady state. Assume

that the partial pressure of CO2. The diffusivity is 0.11 x10-9 m2/s.

Given:

30

= = 0.030 = 4.0104 2 = 25 1 = 2.0

1000

9

2

= 0.90 = 0.1110

Solution:

1 0.90(2.0)

1 = = = 8.031102 3

22.44 22.44

(1 2 )

=

=

2 1

(410 )(0.1110 )(8.031102 )

4 9

=

= .

0.030

49. Estimation of Diffusivity of Methanol in H2O. The diffusivity of dilute methanol in

water has been determined experimentally to be 1.26 x 10 -9m2/s at 288 K.

a. Estimate the diffusivity at 293 K using the Wilke-Chang Equation.

b. Estimate the diffusivity at 293 K by correcting the experimental value at 288 K

to 293 K (Hint: Do this by using the relationship DAB T/B).

Given:

= 293 3 () 2 () = 18

. 2 = 1.005103

Solution:

3

= (0.0148) + 4(0.0037) + (0.0074) = 0.0370

1

16

( )2 (293)

= 1.17310 = 2.6

0.6

.

1

1.173106 (2.618)2 (293)

=

(1.005103 )(0.0370)0.6

= .

3

. = 288 . 2 = 1.140410

9

293 1.1404

= 1.2610 ( )( ) = .

288 1.005

50. Estimation of Diffusivity of a Binary Gas. For a mixture of ethanol (CH3CH2OH)

vapor and methane (CH4), predict the diffusivity using the methanol of Fuller et al.

a. At 1.0132 x 105 Pa and 298 and 373 K

b. At 2.20265 x 105 Pa and 298 K

Given:

= 4 = 16 = 3 2 = 46.1 = 298 = 1.0

Solution:

1 1

1 1 2 1 1 2

(1107 )(1.75 ) ( +

) (1107 )(2981.75 ) (16.04 + 46.1)

= =

1 1 2 1 1 2

( +

3 3) 1.0 (24.423 + 50.363 )

.

= . ( )

1.75

373

= (1.43105 ) ( ) = . ( )

298

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1

1

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2

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