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De

epartme
entofEElectricaalEngin
neeringg
ELEEG2101
1LLabM
Manual

Revvision1.0
0

Sprring2010
0

TableofContents


SafetyInstructions. 3
Lab1:IntroductiontoCircuits 6
Lab2:DCPowerSupplies,Resistors,andDigitalMultimeters 10
Lab3:VoltageDividerandMeterLoads 15
Lab4:MeasuringResistanceUsingtheWheatstoneBridgeCircuit 20
Lab5:NodeVoltageandMeshCurrentMethods 23
Lab6:SuperpositionandTheveninEquivalent. 26
Lab7:PeriodicSignalsandOscilloscopeMeasurementTechniques. 31
Lab8:OperationalAmplifier.. 36
Lab9:Capacitors,Inductors,andResponseofFirstOrderRLandRCCircuits 43
Lab10:NaturalandStepResponseofRLCCircuits 52
AppendixI:IdentificationofEquipmentwithExplanations. 60
AppendixII:IntroductiontoPSPICE.. 68
AppendixIII:UsingDCPowerSupply,Resistors,andDigitalMultimeter 82
AppendixIV:UsingOscilliscopeandFunctiongenerator. 96
AppendixV:PeriodicalSignalsandOscilliscopeMeasurementTechniques. 109



SafetyInstructions/Considerations

Pleasemakesurethatyoureadthroughthissafetyinstructioncarefullybeforeyouconduct
anyexperiment!

Whydoelectricalaccidentsoccur?
Fatalelectricshockisonecauseofdeathatresearchanddevelopmentfacilities.Themost
likelyvictimofanelectricalaccidentissomeonethatevenhasalotofexperiencewithelectrical
equipment and is very familiar with the specific equipment being used. In addition, unlike
many other industrial accidents, electrical accidents often happen to professional and
supervisory staff. Many people have experienced some type of electric shock. Survival of a
mildshockisdangerouslymisleading.Unfortunately,survivalofanelectricshock,evenifminor,
oftenresultsinunreasonableexpectationsforfuturesurvival.
Proper grounding and circuit breakers provide protection even if an internal fault exists.
Thegreatestdangerfromequipmentoccurswhenitsprotectiveenclosureisviolated,whenitis
improperlyinstalled,orwhenitisdamagedduringuse.
When a person (YOU) come in contact with an energized circuit the damage depends on
many things including but not limited to age, perspiration level, and physical condition. For
thesereasonsashockfrom50Vmaybeasdangerousasashockfrom5,000V.Forexampleifa
person(YOU)hasalotofperspiration,thebodymayhaveaslittleas1,000ohmsofresistance.
Oncecontacttoanenergizedwireismade,theresistancedecreases.Thisistheresultofthe
fluid in the body acting as the conductor. So it is important to stay alert even with lower
voltages.
Aperson(YOU)mustalsobecarefulwithjewelry.Ifaringwitharesistanceof0.5ohms
becomes lodged across 5 volts, the current through the ring will be 10A!!! The power
dissipated(heat)intheringwillbe50Watts.Thiswillcauseserverburns.

Whatdoeselectricshockdotothehumanbody?
Voltagedetermineshowmuchcurrentwillflowthroughabodyresistancepath.Currentis
thekillingfactorinelectricalshock.Resistanceofthecurrentpathwilldeterminethecurrent
levelthatpassesthroughthebody.Thepathwaythatthecurrenttakescansignificantlyaffect
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theimpactoftheshock.Threebasictypesofinjuryresultfromelectriccurrentrunningthrough
thebody:shocktothenervoussystem,tissueburns,andmechanicalinjury.
Thefollowingstatementsapplytothepersonofaveragephysicalcondition.
1to8mA:
1.Sensationofshock.
2.Individualcanletgoatwill.
8to15mA:
1.Painfulshock.
2.Individualmuscularcontrolisnotlost(letgo).
15to20mA:
1.Painfulshock.
2.Individualmuscularcontrolofadjacentmusclesislost.
20to100mA:
1.Painfulshock.
2.Severemuscularcontractions(cantletgo).
3.Breathingisdifficult.
100to200mA:
1.Ventricularfibrillation.
2.Lossofconsciousness.
3.Electricalcurrentholdsvictimtocircuitaslongascurrentflows.
4.Unlessnormalheartbeatisrestored,withalargeDC(orAC)pulseofcurrent,death
mayresult.
5.Fibrillationthresholdcanrangefrom1ampdependingonthedurationoftheshock
andthepersonsphysicalcondition.
Greaterthan200mA:
1.Severeburns.
2.Muscularcontractionssevereenoughtocausechestmusclestoclamptheheartand
stopitthroughoutthedurationofshock.
3.Theheartmaybetooweaktorestartwhenthecurrentflowstops.

Circuitbreakersandfusesaredesignedtoprotectcircuitsandequipmentand,ingeneral,
are rated far in excess of the amount of current necessary to cause fatal electric shock.
Whereas overcurrent devices are designed to protect equipment, they provide little or no
protectionforpeople.

Lab1:IntroductiontoCircuits

Objectives
Inthislaboratoryexercise,youwilllearnhowtoidentifythecommonequipmentsthatwill
beusedthroughoutthesemester.YoualsolearnhowtousethePSPICEsoftwareforsimulating
circuits. In addition, you will learn safety guidelines of the equipments by power capabilities
andcommonmistakes.

Materials
Oscilloscope, DC Power Supply, Function Generator, Digital Multimeter, Breadboard, RC box,
Computer,andPSPICEsimulationsoftware

Reference
1. CircuitILabManual:Safetyinstructions
2. CircuitILabManualAppendixI:IdentificationofEquipmentwithExplanations
3. CircuitILabManualAppendixII:IntroductiontoPSPICE
4. ElectricCircuits,Nilsson&Riedel,2008,Chapters3.6and3.7

PreLaboratoryAssignment
1. ReadReference1tounderstandlabsafetyissuesbeforeyoucometothelab
2. ReadReference2tofamiliarizeyouwiththeequipmentsusedinthissemester
3. Read Reference 3 to familiarize you with the basic operation of PSPICE simulation
software

LaboratoryAssignment
Today,youhaveidentifiedthemajorequipmentsincludingoscilloscope,DCPowersupply,
function generator, digital multimeter, breadboard, and RC box that you will be used
frequently.Youhavealsolearnedaboutthesafetyconcernsthatallelectricalengineersshould
know.Inadditiontothephysicalaspectsofthelab,PSPICEhasbeenpresentedasasimulation
toolthatelectricalengineersusebeforesteppingintothelab.Inalmostallcases,engineersdo

most of their work and have a good idea of the results expected before performing an
experiment.Thiscrucialconceptisthedifferencebetweenengineeringandtrialanderror.
Now, you will need complete theexercises outlined below to demonstrate your new
knowledgeofPSPICE.
Problem1(30points)
SimulatethecircuitasshowninFigure1bythefollowingsteps:
(1)Completeabiaspointanalysisonthecircuit;
(2)Sweeptheinputvoltagefrom10Vto100Vatincrementsof10V;
(3)PlotV1versusV2andV1versusV3.

R1

28

R2 V2 R3

V3
16 60
80Vdc V1
R4 R5
30 10

0

Figure1:Thefirstcircuittobesimulated

Problem2(30points)
SimulatethecircuitasshowninFigure2bythefollowingsteps:
(1)Completeabiaspointanalysisonthecircuit;
(2)Sweeptheinputvoltagefrom10Vto100Vatincrementsof10V;
(3)PlotV1versusV2andV1versusV3;
(4)ComparethetwocurvesobtainedinProblem2withthetwocurvesobtainedinProblem
1,whatconclusioncanyoudraw?(Hint:ReadReference4tofindtheanswer)
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R1

28

R2 R3 R4
V2 V3

16 18 6
V1
80Vdc R5
30

0

Figure2:Thesecondcircuittobesimulated

Problem3(40points)
SimulatethecircuitasshowninFigure3bythefollowingsteps:
(1)Completeabiaspointanalysisonthecircuit;
(2)SweepthevalueofR4tofindwhenthecurrentgoingthroughR5iszero.(Hint:Youcan
firstchoosealargerangeofthevalueofR4tofindtheapproximatevaluerangeandthen
graduallyrefinethesweeprangetofindthefinalvalue.
(3)UsetheresultyoufindtocomparetheratiosR1/R2andR3/R4,whatconclusioncanyou
getinto?(Hint:ReadReference4tofindtheanswer)

R1 R2

24k 12k

R5
1k

R3 R4

18k 18k

V1

10Vdc 0

Figure3:Thethirdcircuittobesimulated

PleaserememberthatyouneedshowyourresultstotheTAbeforeyouleave.Pleaseinclude
the necessary steps (schematic drawing, simulation results, plots, etc) leading to the final
answerinyourfinalreport.

Lab2:DCPowerSupplies,Resistors,andDigitalMultiMeters

Objectives
Inthislaboratory,youwillconstructanactualcircuitbasedonacircuitschematicandtest
itssimplebehavior.YouwillgaintheknowledgeofusingaDCpowersupply,resistorsanda
digital multimeter (DMM) for testing the circuit. You will also carry on currentvoltage (IV)
relationshipmeasurementforthissimplecircuit.

Materials
DCPowerSupply,Breadboard,Resistors(1K,10K,22K,47K),DigitalMultimeter

Reference
1. CircuitILabManualAppendixIII:UsingDCPowerSupply,Resistors,andDigital Multi
meter
2. ElectricCircuits,Nilsson&Riedel,2008,Chapter2.4
3. ElectricCircuits,Nilsson&Riedel,2008,Chapters4.2and4.5

PreLaboratoryAssignment
1. Read Reference 1 to farmilarize you with using DC power supply, resistors, and digital
multimeter(DMM)
2. ReadReferences2and3tolearnthebasicknowledgeofcircuitanalysistechniques
Problem1(30points)


Figure1:AssignedCircuit

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Figure1givesacircuitschematicwhichwillbeusedtoconstructanactualcircuitinLab2.
Please keep in mind that we have a standard process which needs to be done before we
construct an actual circuit. We can use PSPICE to perform bias simulation. Based on such a
simulation, an analytical treatment is required next. In areas of research, analysis and
simulationgohandinhand.Inalmostallcases,analysisisdonefirstasameansoflayingsound
groundwork and supplying an expectation of intended results. The art of simulation then
provides an intermediary glance of real world operation and it can also illuminate unseen
pitfalls from analysis. In the end, both simulation and analysis are necessary and they can
corroborateeachothertoprovidestrongervalidityoftheresults.Ifanalysisandsimulationdo
notcloselymatcheachother,thenanerrorofsomesortis,issuspectwhetherbyassumption
or oversight.. In engineering, this process is done all the time before actually building and
testinganykindofsystemordevice.
FortheanalyticaltreatmentofthecircuitshownasinFigure1,pleaseusenodalormesh
circuitanalysistechniquetodeterminethefollowingquantities:
(1)Checkvoltagedropacrossalltheresistors
(2)CheckcurrentsI1andI2inthetwoloops
(3)Findthepowerdeliveredandthepoweradsorbedinthecircuit
Afterhavingdonethese,pleasecompleteTable1below,notingthattheformulafor%Erroris
asfollows
|Simulated Value Calculated Value|
%Error 100
Calculated Value
Table1
SimulatedValues CalculatedValues %Error
VR1
VR2
VR3
VR4
I1
I2

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PowerDelivered
PowerAbsorbed

Please answer the following questions in your report: do the simulated values match up
withyourcalculatedvalues?Ifnot,why?Explainthereasonsindetails.Asalludedtoearlier,
this analysis and simulation need to be completed before you start building and testing the
actualcircuit.

Problem2(30points)
Pleasefirstreadthroughtheentirelabandthendothetaskandanswerquestionsbelow:
(1) Draw both the schematic diagram and a sketch of the power supply setup for the
following:
a.)+/5V b.)+/6V c.)+12V d.)8V
(2)Whatarethecolorcodesfora1k,10kand20kresistors?
a)1k=______________________________________________________
b)10k=_____________________________________________________
c)20k=_____________________________________________________
(3)Whatarethevaluesofresistorswiththefollowingcolorcodes(pleasegiveunits)?
a)REDREDYELLOW
b)BROWNBLACKBROWN
c)GREENBLUEVIOLET
(4)Whatmaximumcurrentcana1k,0.25Wresistorhandle?
(5)Whatmaximumcurrentcana47k,0.25Wresistorhandle?
(6)Whatmaximumvoltagecana10k,0.25Wresistorhandle?
(7)Whatmaximumvoltagecana22k,0.25Wresistorhandle?
Problem3(40points)
In real world applications, we usually describe the characteristics of one electrical
component(seeFigure2aandnotethedefinitionofpassivesignconvention)describedbya
table(orcurve)ofcurrentversusvoltagerelationship.InFigure2b,wepresentonecircuitwith

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twovoltagesourcesandoneresistorconnectedinseries.VoltagesourceV2andresistorR1in
thedashlineboxformonecomponentandwewillsimulateandmeasureitscurrentvoltage
characteristics.


Figure2Assignedcircuits(Left,a:Aschematicofoneelectricalcomponent;Right,b:Thereal
circuittobesimulated)
PleaseusePSPICEtosimulatethecircuitshowninFigure2b.SweepthevoltagesourceV1
and plot the curves of V1 versus I when voltage source V2 equals to 2.5V and 5V. Please
answerthefollowingquestions.IfthepowerratingforR1is0.25W,whatistherangeofV1to
sweepwhenvoltagesourceV2equalsto2.5Vand5V?(Doyouthinkthatyoucanconstructthe
circuitasshowninFigure2dashlineboxifthecurrentvoltagecurveisgiven?)

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LaboratoryAssignment
Problem1(50points)
Now that you have an expectation of how the circuit in Figure 1 should behave (from
previoussimulationandanalysis)aswellasfullknowledgeofthephysicalequipmentwewillbe
using, it is time to produce some results. For each of the resistors chosen for building the
circuit,beginbymeasuringtheactualresistanceusingtheDMM.Createatabletoshowthe
nominalresistancevalues,theactualmeasuredvalues,andthepercenterror.Afterassembling
the circuit in Figure 1 on a breadboard, apply power to the circuit and make all voltage and
currentmeasurementsindicatedinTable1(usingmeasuredVandIforthePowercalculations).
Createyourowntablewiththeadditionofameasuredvaluescolumnandtakethe%Errorto
be the error between the calculated value and the measured value. Be sure to comment on
yourresults.Aretheyasyouexpectedthemtobe?Whatcouldbeanysourcesoferror?Next,
pleaseanswerthefollowingquestionsinyourfinalreport.
(1)WhatisthemostpositivevoltagethattheHM7042cansupply?Pleasesketchthesetup.
(2)WhatisthemostnegativevoltagethattheHM7042cansupply?Pleasesketchthesetup.
(3)Whatisthelargest+/voltagethattheHM7042cansupply?Pleasesketchthesetup.
(4)Withthecircuitstillassembledandthepoweroff,remeasuretheresistanceacrossR2.
Isthisvaluethesameasbefore?Pleaseexplainyourfinding.

Problem2(50points)
ConstructacircuitshowinFigure2bonthebreadboard.UseDMMasacurrentmeterand
insert it to the proper position so that you can perform currentvoltage measurement by
sweeping V1 and reading the output of power supply and DMM simultaneously. Generate a
table to record your measurement results for V2 is equal to 2.5 V and 0 V. Compare your
measurementresultswithyoursimulationresultsandexplainwhytheyaredifferent.Listas
many as possible of the reasons that might cause errors for the measurements and briefly
describehowyoucorrectthemintheexperiment.(Forexample,theDMMcurrentreadingis
notZEROeventhoughthereisnocurrentgoingthroughthecircuit.)

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Lab3:VoltageDividerandMeterLoadsofDigitalMultiMeter

Objectives
Inthislaboratory,youwillstudytheimpactsofexternalloadstotheoutputofavoltage
dividercircuit.Youwillalsostudytodesignasimplecircuittomeasuretheinternalresistance
ofadigitalmultimeterundervoltagemeasurementandcurrentmeasurementmodes.

Materials
DCPowerSupply,DigitalMultimeter,Resistors(100,1k,10k,100k,1M),Breadboard,RCbox

Reference
1. ElectricCircuits,Nilsson&Riedel,2008,Chapter3.3

PreLaboratoryAssignment
Problem1(50points)
At timesespecially in electronic circuitsdeveloping, more than one voltage level from a
singlevoltagesupplyisnecessary.Onewayofdoingthisisbyusingavoltagedividercircuit.
Considering a circuit shown in Figure 1, voltage sourceV , resistorsR andR form one
standardvoltagedividercircuitandvoltageoutputismeasuredacrossthetwoterminalsofR .

R1

V1

R2 RL

Figure1:Acircuitofvoltagedivider
ThevoltageoutputforthevoltagedividerwithoutexternalloadR is

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R (1)
V V
R R
Since the ratio in equation (1) is always less than 1.0, the output voltage V is always less
than the source voltage V1. Consider that a resistorR is connected in parallel withR , as
showninFigure1.TheresistorR actsasaloadonthevoltagedividercircuit.Aloadofany
circuitconsistsofoneormorecircuitelementsthatdrawpowerfromthecircuit.Withtheload
R connected,theexpressionfortheoutputvoltagebecomes
R (2)
V V
R R
Where
R R (3)
R
R R
SubstitutingEq.(3)intoEq.(2)yields
R (3)
V V
R 1 R R R
AssumingV 5.5V,R 10R ,pleaseanswerthefollowingquestions.
(1) WhatistheoutputvoltageVifthereisnoexternalloadconnected?
(2) Please calculate the output voltageVfor a list value ofR andR and finish the table
below:
R 100 R 1k R 10k R 100k R 1M
R 100
R 1k
R 10k
R 100k
R 1M
(3) For the case thatR 10kand no load is connected, if bothR andR have a
toleranceof 5%and 10%,pleasefindthemaximumandminimumvalueofoutput
voltageVandfillthefollowingtable.
maximum minimum
5%

16

10%

Problem2(50points)
WhenDMMisusedtomeasurethevoltageandcurrent,theusershouldbeawareofthata
DMM has internal resistance. This resistance might have significant impacts to the
measurement results and introduce large errors. In principle, for voltage measurement, in
ordertochangethecircuitaslittleaspossible,theinternalresistanceofthevoltmeterisvery
high.Thisallowsalmostallofthecurrenttoflowthroughtheresistorbeingmeasuredjustasit
hadbeenbeforethevoltmeterwasputinparallel.Iftheresistancebeingmeasuredisgreater
than 10% of the voltmeter's internal resistance, the measurement will not reflect the actual
voltage. The internal resistance of the voltmeter used in this lab is about 10 M. When an
ammeter is put in series with a resistor by breaking the circuit and reclosing it with the
ammeterprobes,itislikeputtingaresistanceinserieswiththeresistorbeingmeasured.Justas
withthevoltagemeasurement,thischangestheequivalentresistanceinthecircuitandcould
significantlyaffectthecurrentmeasurement.Inordertochangethecircuitaslittleaspossible,
theinternalresistanceoftheammeterisrelativelysmall.Thiskeepsthevoltagedropacross
theammeterverylowandallowsthevoltageacrosstheresistorbeingmeasuredtostaynearly
the same as it was before the ammeter was put in series. Again, the 10% rule should be
observed; if the ammeter resistance is greater than 10% of the value of the resistor being
measured, the measurement will not be the actual current. The internal resistance of the
ammeter used in this lab varies with the RANGE setting. The resistance drops as the range
valueincreases.OnaRANGEof.2,theinternalresistanceis1K.
R1 In this experiment, you will need to design a simple
circuit to measure the internal resistance of a Digital
Multimeter(DMM)undervoltagemetermodeaswellas
V1
R2
undercurrentmetermode(OnaRANGEof.2).Acircuit
shown in left can be used for the DMM internal
resistancemeasurement,whereV isthevoltagesource,
R is the bias resistor andR represents the internal
0
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resistorofDMMtobemeasured.V andR havetobechosenfortwodifferentmeasurements


asR can change from M to k when a DMM works under voltage meter mode or current
metermode.WhenDMMworksunderthevoltagemetermode,thevoltageacrossR canbe
directlyreadfromDMM.ThisvoltageisnotnecessarilyequaltoV ifthevaluesofR andR
are comparable. Using equation (1) and plugging in the values ofV andR ,R can be
calculated. When DMM works under the current meter mode, the current going throughR
canalsobedirectlyreadfromDMM.UsingOhmslaw,thetotalresistanceofR andR canbe
calculated. Certainly,R can be directly measured using a DMM under resistance mode and
thenR can be calculated. Apparently, there are many other ways to measure the internal
resistanceofaDMM.Youcandesignyourowncircuitstoperformthemeasurement.Inthis
prelab,
(1) Pleaseprovidethedetaileddesignandexplainhowthiscircuitisusedfortheinternal
resistancemeasurement.
(2) Clearly explain how to choose the values of voltage source and resistors used in the
circuitsandsequentialstepstoperformthemeasurements.Onefactorthatyouwantto
keep in mind is that how you can obtain the maximum accuracy with the given
componentsandinstruments.
PleaserememberthatyouneedshowyourdesigntotheTAtogetpermissiontocarryonthe
actualmeasurement.

LaboratoryAssignment
Problem1(50points)
(1) Construct the circuit shown in Figure 1 and measure the voltageVacrossR using a
DMM.RecordallthevaluesofR ,R andR duringthemeasurementsandgeneratea
tabletopresentyourresults.
(2) ProvideanewdrawingofthecircuittoincludetheeffectofDMMinternalresistance.
Compare the measurement results with your calculated results and discuss where the
errors are from.For example, you can consider the nonideal voltage source with
internalresistor,thetoleranceoftheresistorsusedinthecircuitsortheimpactofDMM
internalresistance..

18


Problem2(50points)
(1) PerformtheinternalresistancemeasurementforaDMMasyoudesignedintheprelab
andrecordallvaluesmeasuredintheexperiment.Listthemeasuredinternalresistance
forbothvoltagemetermodeandcurrentmetermode.
(2) Discusstheaccuracyofyourmeasurementresultsandwheretheerrormightbefrom.

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Lab4:MeasuringResistanceUsingtheWheatstoneBridgeCircuit

Objectives
Inthislab,youwillgainsomeexperiencestodesignandconstructacircuitmimickingthe
function of a Wheatstone bridge to carry on resistance measurement. You will gain an
understanding of the impacts of internal resistance of a current meter for the measurement
accuracy.YouwillalsogainsomeexperiencesusingRCboxasahighprecisionvariableresistor.

Materials
DCPowerSupply,DigitalMultimeter,Resistors(100,1k,10k,100k,1M),RCbox,Breadboard

Reference
1. ElectricCircuits,Nilsson&Riedel,2008,Chapter3.6
2. AppendixI:IdentificationofEquipmentwithExplanations(RCboxpart)

Introduction

R1 R2

V1 R4

R3
Rx

0

Figure1.Aschematicdrawingofawheatstonebridge(R3isavariableresistorandRxisthe
resistortobemeasured)
Manydifferentcircuitconfigurationsareusedtomeasureresistance.UsingaDigitalMulti
meter (DMM) might be the most straightforward one and has been used for many times in
previous labs. This time we will focus on another one, the Wheatstone bridge. The

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Wheatstonebridgecircuitisusedtopreciselymeasureresistancesofmediumvalues,i.e.,inthe
rangeof1to1M.Incommericalmodelsofthewheatstonebridge,accuraciesontheorder
of0.1%arepossible.AschematicdrawingofabridgecircuitisgiveninFigure1.Thebridge
circuitconsistsoffourresistors(R1,R2,R3,Rx),aDCvoltagesourceV1,andadetector(ahighly
sensitivecurrentmeter,representedasoneequivalentresistorR4).TheresistanceofR3canbe
varied. For accurate measurement, the DC voltage source has to be a highly stable battery.
The detector is generally a dArsonval movement in the microamp range and is called a
galvanometer.
To find the value of Rx, we adjust the variable resistor R3 until there is no current in the
galvanometer(R4).Wethencalculatetheunknownresistorfromthesimpleexpression
R
R R (1)
R
Equation (1) indicates that the voltage across the resistor R4 is zero. For more detailed
destrciptionsoftheWheatstroneBridge,youcanreadReference1.
Another modified measurement method is provided here, which does not require the
resistanceofR1andR2aslongastheyarestable.Themeasurementprocedureisasfollowing:
(1) ConstructthecircuitasshowninFigure1andadjustR3sothatthecurrentreadingonR4
iszero,andthenwritedowntheresistanceofR3asRa
(2) SwitchresistorsR3andRxandrepeatthestep(1)andwritedownthenewresistanceof
R3asRb
(3) CalculatetheresistanceofRxbytwomeasurementresultsusingequation.

R R R (2)

PreLaboratoryAssignment
Problem1
(1) Basedontheabovementionedmeasurementprocedure,deriveequation(2)(10points)
(2) Theminimalcurrentcanbemeasuredbythecurrentmeter(sensitivity)andtheinternal
resistance of the current meter can play an important role for the measurement
accuracy. Using the following values for the components given in Figure 1, perform
PSPICE simulation (or directly calculate using the circuit analysis technique learned on

21

CircuitIclass)toobtaintheresistanceofR3givencurrentandresistantceofR4inTable
1andcompleteTable1.(30points)
V1=10V,R1=R2=Rx=1k
Table1
CurrentgoingthroughR4(Apositivecurrentindicatesthatcurrentflowsfromleft
toright)
10A 10A 1A 1A 0.1A 0.1A
R3(R4=1k)
R3(R4=10)

(3) Assumingthesensitivityofacurrentmeteris10A,usingthecircuitshowninFigure1
pleasedesignyourowncircuittomeasureoneresistorwithresistancearound1kas
accurate as possible. In you design, provide a list of selected values for every single
componentandexplainwhyyouwanttochosethosevalues.Pleasetaketheinternal
resistanceofcurrentmeter(measuredinpreviouslab)andthepowerratingofresistors
intoaccountinyourdesign.(40points)
(4) Whatisthemaximumerrorforyourdesign?(10points)

LaboratoryAssignment
Problem1
(1) ShowyourprelabassignmenttoTAbeforeyoustartthelab;
(2) Pick resistors that you need to construct the measurement circuit and measure them
usingDMMandrecordtheirresistance;(10points)
(3) Constructthecircuitandperformthemeasurement;(30points)
(4) Calculate the resistance and compare this value with the measurement result using
DMMinstep(2)(20points)
(5) Pick another 500 k resistor and perform the same measurement, calculate and
comparetheresultwiththeDMMmeasurementresult(40points)

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Lab5:NodeVoltageandMeshCurrentMethods
Objectives
Inthislab,youwillpracticeandcomparetwocircuitanalysistechniques(nodevoltageand
meshcurrentmethods)byperformingPSPICEsimulationandconstructingtherealcircuits.

Materials
DCPowerSupply,DigitalMultimeter,Resistors(1k,2.2k,4.7k),RCbox,Breadboard

Reference
1. ElectricCircuits,Nilsson&Riedel,2008,Chapters4.2and4.5

PreLaboratoryAssignment
Problem1


Figure1.Circuittobesimulated
The circuit shown Figure 1 will be used in this lab to study the Node Voltage and Mesh
Current analysis techniques. The definition of each mesh current is given in the figure. For
future convenience, the node voltage will be represented as Vx, where x represents one
nodefromalistofnodessuchasA,B,C,D,E,F,G,H.
(1) Choose the ground node and write down two sets of symbolic equations leading to
solvethecircuitusingNodevoltageandMeshcurrentmethods.Explainwhichmethod
ispreferredtouseforcalculations.(20points)

23

(2) UsePSPICEtosimulatethecircuitshowinFigure1usingbiaspointmode.Whatarethe
values of the mesh currentsI ,I , andI . Use mesh current to calculate the branch
currentsofR andR andcomparethemwiththedirectlycalculatedsimulationresults.
In Schematic drawing program, turn on the Bias voltage display and Bias current
displaysothatyoucancopythecircuitandthesimulationresultstoyourprelabreport.
(20points)
(3) ReplacethewireconnectingnodesEandFwitharesistorR 1k,choosetheground
nodeandwritedowntwosetsofsymbolicequationsleadingtosolvethecircuitusing
NodevoltageandMeshcurrentmethods,andexplainwhichmethodispreferredinthis
case.(15points)
(4) UsePSPICEtosimulatethenewcircuitgiveninstep(3).Usemeshcurrenttocalculate
thebranchcurrentofR andR andcompareitwiththedirectlycalculatedsimulation
results.Copythecircuitandthesimulationresultstoyourprelabreport.Comparethe
new node voltage with the node voltage obtained in step (2) and generate a table to
summarizetheresults.(15points)
(5) Basedonthecircuitdescribedinstep(3),furtherreplacethewireconnectingnodesG
andHwitharesistorR 2.2k,choosethegroundnodeandwritedowntwosetsof
symbolic equations leading to solve the circuit using Node voltage and Mesh current
methods,andexplainwhichmethodispreferredinthiscase.(15points)
(6) UsePSPICEtosimulatethenewcircuitgiveninstep(5).Usemeshcurrenttocalculate
thebranchcurrentofR andR andcompareitwiththedirectlycalculatedsimulation
results.Comparethenewnodevoltagewiththenodevoltageobtainedinstep(4)and
generateatabletosummarizetheresults.(15points)

LaboratoryAssignment
Problem1
(1) ConstructthecircuitshowninFigure1.UseDMMtomeasuretheactualresistanceand
voltageoutputfromthepowersupplyandlisttheminyourreport.Measuretheactual
node voltages for all the nodes and generate a table to compare them with the
simulation results. Based on the measured node voltages, calculate the mesh current

24

andthebranchcurrentofR andR .gGenerateatabletocompareyourresultswith


thesimulationresults.(25points)
(2) Constructthenewcircuitbasedonthedescriptionofstep(3)intheprelabassignment.
IncludethemeasuredresistanceR inyourreport.Measuretheactualnodevoltages
for all the nodes and generate a table to compare them with the simulation results.
Based on the measured node voltage, calculate the mesh current and the branch
current ofR and R . Generate a table to compare your results with the simulation
results.(25points)
(3) Constructthenewcircuitbasedonthedescriptionofstep(5)intheprelabassignment.
Include the measured resistanceR in your report. Measure the actual node voltages
for all the nodes and generate a table to compare them with the simulation results.
Based on the measured node voltage, calculate the mesh current and the branch
current ofR and R . Generate a table to compare your results with the simulation
results.(25points)
(4) Sofar,allthemeshcurrentsaremeasuredindirectly.Actually,directmeasurementof
mesh current can be preformed as follows. First, change the DMM to current
measurement mode. In the previous lab, you already did the measurement for the
internalresistanceofaDMM.ConnecttheDMMinserieswiththeresistorofRCbox.
ReplaceR bytheconnectedDMMandRCbox,adjusttheresistanceofRCboxsothat
thesumofDMMresistanceandRCboxresistanceequalstotheresistanceofR .Then,
you can directly read the mesh currentI from DMM. Write down the reading of the
currentandcompareitwiththeindirectmeasurementresults.(25points)

25

Lab6:SuperpositionandTheveninEquivalent

Objectives
Inthislab,youwilllearnthesuperpositionprincipleandTheveninstheorembyphysically
constructingcircuitsandtestingtheirbehavior. Youwillgainanunderstandingofthepower
andsimplicityfromthesuperpositionprincipleandTheveninstheoremtoelectricalengineers.

Material:
DCPowerSupply,DigitalMultimeter,Breadboard,Resistors(10K,22K,4.7K,1K,2.2K,800)

Reference
1. ElectricCircuits,Nilsson&Riedel,2008,Chapters4.104.13
2. AppendixII:IntroductiontoPSPICE

PreLaboratoryAssignment:
Problem1(30points)
BuildthecircuitshownbelowinFigure1inPSPICE,andthenanswerthequestionsbelow.


Figure1.Circuittobesimulated
(1) Build the circuit shown in Figure 1 and simulate the circuit using Bias Point Analysis.
Showontheschematicthevoltagesandcurrents.

26

(2)Simulatethecircuitfrom0to10ms.PlotthecurrentacrossR1,R2,andR3,andaddthe
waveformstoyourprelabreport.(ReferReference2fortransientsimulationtechnique
usingPSPICE)
(3) Calculate the currents I1 , I2 , and I3 shown in Figure 1, using either nodal or mesh
analysistechnique.
(4)CompareyourcalculatedresultsofI1,I2,andI3withthePSPICEresults.Calculatethe%
error.
(5) Remove the lower voltage source and replace it with a short circuit and solve the
currentsinstep(3)againanddenotethemasI1,I2,andI3.
(6)Removetheuppervoltagesourceandreplaceitwithashortcircuitandagainsolvethe
currentsinstep(3)anddenotethemasI1,I2,andI3.
(7) Combine (add) the solutions of steps (5) and (6) to find the currents I1 , I2 , and I3.
ComparethisresultwiththePSPICEresultscalculatedinstep(3).Calculatethe%error.
Problem2(25points)
BuildthecircuitshownbelowinFigure2inPSPICE,andthenanswerthequestionsbelow.


Figure2:TheveninCircuitExample
(1)SimulatethecircuitshowninFigure2usingPSPICEfrom0to10ms,andplotthecurrent
and voltage across the 800 load. Add the waveforms in your prelab report. (Hint
Rememberthevoltage,andcurrentshowedindifferentaxis.)
(2)Calculatethevoltagedrop,andcurrentacrossthe800loadusingeithernodalormesh
analysistechnique.
(3)Comparetheresultsfromsteps(2)and(3).Findthe%error.

27

Problem3(25points)
BuildthecircuitshowninFigure3inPSPICE,andanswerthequestionsbelow.


Figure3:Circuit#3.
(1)SimulatethecircuitshowninFigure3from0to10ms.Fromthesimulation,determine
the Thevenin equivalent voltage and resistance with respect to terminals A and B.
(HintRerunthecircuitwithamodificationtofindtheshortcircuitcurrent.)
(2) Calculate the Thevinins equivalent voltage and resistance with respect to terminals A
andB
(3)Comparetheresultsfromsteps(1)and(2).Findthe%error.
Problem4(20points)
Addthe800loadtoyourTheveninequivalentcircuitasshownbelowinFigure4.Buildthe
circuitinPSPICE,andanswerthequestionsbelow.


Figure4:Circuit#4.

28

(1) Build the circuit shown in Figure 4 and simulate the circuit using Bias Point Analysis.
Showontheschematicthevoltageandcurrentacrossthe800load.
(2)Calculatethevoltagedropandcurrentacrossthe800load.
(3)Comparetheresultsfrom(1)and(2).Findthe%error.

LaboratoryAssignment
Problem1(50points)
Fortheillustrationofsuperposition,simplygothroughthefollowingstepsatyourlabstation.
(1)ConstructthecircuitshowninFigure1ofthePreLabandmeasurethecurrentsI1,I2,
andI3.
(2)Removetheuppervoltagesource.Thesecanbedonewithoutdestroyingyourcurrent
circuit setupBy simply turning your voltage supply off or setting it to 0 V. Again, re
measurethebranchcurrentsandlabelthemasI1,I2,andI3.
(3)Keeptheuppervoltageandremovethelowervoltagesource.Remeasurethebranch
currentsandlabelthemasI1,I2,andI3.
(4)Addthebranchcurrentsfromsteps(2)and(3).Doesthisequalthebranchcurrentsyou
measuredinstep(1)inthisproblem?Calculatethe%error.
(5)Constructatabletoeasilycomparesallthebranchcurrents,i.e.,thePSPICEsimulated
values,yourcalculatedvalues,andyourmeasuredvalues.Calculatea%errorforyour
measured values and the calculated ones. Do your results validate the principle of
superposition?
Problem2(50points)
FortheTheveninTheorysectionofthelab,gothroughthefollowingstepsatyourlabstation.
(1)Withthepowersupplyturnedoff,constructthecircuitfromFigure2.Thiscircuitwillbe
usedtostudyThevenin'stheorem.
(2)Withtheoutputvoltageofthepowersupplysetto20volts,measuretheopencircuit
voltagebetweenterminalsAandBwiththeDMM.Recallthattheopencircuitvoltageis
withtheloadremoved.Whatisthesignificanceofthisvoltage?
(3)Theshortcircuitcurrent(theloadresistancegoestozero)betweenterminalsAandB
can be obtained by simply connecting an ammeter across terminals AB. The positive

29

terminaloftheammetershouldbeconnectedtoterminalA.Checktheoutputvoltage
ofthepowersupplyandsetitto20V.Recordthevalueoftheshortcircuitcurrentthat
existsbetweenterminalsAandB.
(4)Onthebasisofthedatarecordedinsteps2and3,derivetheTheveninequivalentcircuit.
Comparethisexperimentallyderivedcircuitwiththeone derivedbycircuitanalysisin
theprelab.

30

Lab7:PeriodicSignalsandOscilloscopeMeasurementTechniques

Objectives
Inthislaboratoryexercise,youwillbecomefamiliarwiththefunctionoftheOscilloscopeby
practicing simple operational examples. You will gain an understanding of Oscilloscope
fundamentalsbysomekeymenuoperationshighlightedasasolidstartingpoint.Youwillalso
learn tooperate a Function Generator as a signal source, and learn to view it on the
Oscilloscope. You will gain a deeper understanding of different types of periodic signals in
termsofclassificationandpropertiesandyouwillbeabletoproduceagivenperiodicsignal
withafunctiongeneratorandaccuratelymeasurethesignalspropertieswithanOscilloscope.

Materials
Oscilloscope,FunctionGenerator,Breadboard,Resistors(1K,47K,10K,22K),Capacitor(4.7F)

Reference
1. AppendixII:IntroductiontoPSPICE
2. AppendixIV:UseOscilliscopeandFunctiongenerator
3. AppendixV:PeriodicalSignalsandOscilliscopeMeasurementTechniques

PreLaboratoryAssignment
Problem1
Please read References 2 and 3 carefully toobtain the knowledge using oscilliscope and
function generator for periodical signal generation and measurement as preparation for
implementingtheiroperationsstepbystepinthelab.
Problem2
First,drawthecircuitshowninFigure1intheschematicwindow.Notethatasinusoidal
voltagesourceisusedastheinput.PleaserefertoReference1regardinghowtodoatransient
orACanalysisusingPSPICE.

31


Figure1:AssignedCircuit
AfterfinishingthePSPICEsimulation,completethefollowingtasks:
(1)Plotboththeinputvoltageandthevoltageacrossthe22kresistorinonefigure.
(2) Simulate the circuit in Figure 1 using a 500Hz square wave input signal. Plot both the
inputvoltageandthevoltageacrossthe22kresistorinonefigure.(Hint:Changethe
sinusoidal voltage source at the input to a square wave signal. The part name of the
voltage source is Vpulse. Set V1=0, V2=5, TD=0, TR=1ns, TF=1ns, PW=1ms, and
PER=2ms.)
(3)SimulatethecircuitinFigure1usinga500Hztriangularwaveinputsignal.Plotboththe
inputvoltageandthevoltageacrossthe22kresistorinonefigure.(Hint:Changethe
sinusoidalvoltagesourceattheinputtoatriangularwavesignal.Thepartnameofthe
voltage source is Vpulse. Set V1=0, V2=5, TD=0, TR=2ms, TF=1ns, PW=1ns, and
PER=2ms.)
(4)Dothethreefiguresoftheinputvoltagesandvoltagesacrossthe22kresistorlookas
expectedusingdifferentinputsignals?ExplainYesorNoindetails.

32


Figure2:AssignedCircuit#2

Problem3

ChangethefrequencyofV1inFigure1to1kHzasshowninFigure2andperformthefollowing
simulations:

(1) Simulatethecircuitandplotonlytwoperiodsofyourwaveform.Determinefromthe
graph the peaktopeak and 0topeak voltage across the 22k resistance. Show the
waveformmarkingthepositivepeakandperiod.(HintInthecircuitschematicwindow,
use voltage probe on top of the 22k resistance. Then in PSPICE output waveform or

PSPICEA/Dwindow,selectthetrace optionfromthemenusatthetop.Thenclick

onthebutton, ,whichmovesthecursortothepositivepeakofthewaveform.Next,

clickonthebutton, ,whichmarksthepointofthepeak.Thisshowsboththexandy

axis.Clickon, ,tomovethecursortothepointthatspecifiesoneperiod,andthen

clickon, ,tomarkthepointofthepeak)
(2)Measurethephasedifferencebetweenthevoltagewaveformacrossthe22kresistor
withrespecttotheinputvoltage waveform.Onthesamegraph,showboththeinput
voltagewaveformandthevoltagewaveformacrossthe22kresistance(output).

33

Figure3:AssignedCircuit#3

AnswerthenextfewquestionsbasedonthecircuitshowninFigure3.Noticethatthereisthe
additionofthecapacitorinthecircuit.

(1) Simulate the circuit and plot only two periods in your waveform. Determine from the
graph the peaktopeak and magnitude of the voltage across the 22k resistor. Show
thewaveformwhilemarkingthepositivepeakandperiod.
(2)Measurethephasedifferencebetweenthevoltagewaveformacrossthe22kresistor
withrespecttotheinputvoltage waveform.Onthesamegraph,showboththeinput
voltagewaveformandthevoltagewaveformacrossthe22kresistance(output).

LaboratoryAssignment
Problem1
PleasegothroughstepbystepinstructionsinReferences.2and3andmakesurethatyou
cananswerallthequestionslistedintheinstructions.TalkwithTAfirsttogetpermissionand
thenmoveforwardtoworkonthefollowingProblems2and3.
Problem2(50points)
(1)BuildthecircuitshowninFigure1onabreadboardinthelab.
(2)Applya500Hzsinusoidalsignalwith5Vppmagnitudetotheinputofthecircuit.Obtain
the waveform of the input signal and the voltage across the 22k resistor using the
scope.Savethewaveformandturnitinasapartofyourlabreport.Pleasecomparethis
resultwithyourPSPICEsimulationobtainedintheprelab.

34

(3)Applya500Hzsquaresignalwith5Vppmagnitudetotheinputofthecircuit.Obtainthe
waveformoftheinputsignalandthevoltageacrossthe22kresistorusingthescope.
Savethewaveformandturnitinaspartofyourlabreport.Pleasecomparethisresult
withyourPSPICEsimulationobtainedintheprelab.
(4)Applya500Hztriangularsignalwith5Vppmagnitudetotheinputofthecircuit.Obtain
the waveform of the input signal and the voltage across the 22k resistor using the
scope.Savethewaveformandturnitinasapartofyourlabreport.Pleasecomparethis
resultwithyourPSPICEsimulationobtainedintheprelab.
(5)Summarizewhetheryouractualwaveformslookveryclosetothesimulatedwaveforms
generatedfromPSPICE.
Problem3(50points)
(1)BuildthecircuitshowninFigure2onabreadboardinthelab.
(2)Applya1000Hzsinusoidalsignalwith5Vppmagnitudetotheinputofthecircuit.Obtain
twoperiodsoftheinputwaveformandthevoltagewaveformacrossthe22kresistor
usingthescope.Alsousingthescope,measuretheVpp,V0p,andfrequencyofboth
waveforms.Againusingthescope,measurethephasedifference.Savethewaveforms
and turn them in as a part of your lab report. Please compare this result with your
PSPICEsimulationobtainedintheprelab.(Atablewouldbestronglyrecommendedto
showthecomparisionresulthere.)
(3)BuildthecircuitshowninFigure3onabreadboardinthelab.
(4)Applya1000Hzsinusoidalsignalwith5Vppmagnitudetotheinputofthecircuit.Obtain
twoperiodsoftheinputwaveformandthevoltagewaveformacrossthe22kresistor
usingthescope.Alsousingthescope,measuretheVpp,V0p,andfrequencyofboth
waveforms.Againusingthescope,measurethephasedifference.Savethewaveforms
and turn them in as a part of your lab report. Please compare this result with your
PSPICE simulation obtained in the prelab as well as your theoretical calculation of
phase.(Atablewouldbestronglyrecommendedtoshowthecomparisonresulthere.)
(5)Whatdoestheminus()signmeaninthephase?
(6)WhatdoyouthinkcausingthephasedifferenceinCircuit#3showninFigure3?

35

36

Lab8:OperationalAmplifier

Objectives
Inthislab,youwillpracticebuildingrealoperationalamplifiercomponentsassuchinverting,
summing, and noninverting circuits. You will also practice using the knowledge learned in
CircuitItoanalyzethecircuitsandmakingcomparisonwiththePSPICEsimulationresults.

Materials:
Oscilloscope, Function Generator, Breadboard, Resistors (1K, 4.7k, 10K, 22K, 47K), RC box,
A741OpAMP

Reference
1. ElectricCircuits,Nilsson&Riedel,2008,Chapter5.15.5

PreLaboratoryAssignment
Problem1(20points)
R1

100k

R2 uA741 4 Vn
2 V- 1 Vp Vn
- OS1
22k V1 V2
6
V3 OUT 15Vdc -15Vdc
1Vdc 3 5
+ 7 OS2
U1 V+
Vp
0 0
0
0

Figure1.Circuit#1
First, construct the circuit shown in Figure 1 in PSPICE. The operational amplifier U1 in the
PSPICE simulation is uA741, a very commonly used operational amplifier in the market. In
Figure 1, the voltage sources (V1 and V2) are not physiclly shown connected to operational

37

amplifierU1spositive/negativepowersupplyterminals.However,sincetwonetlabelsVp
andVnareused,the15VdcisindeedconnectedwithU1spositivepowersupplyterminal
andthe15VdcisindeedconnectedwithU1snegativepowersupplyterminal.Thiswayof
drawingmakestheschematiceasytoread.Then,dothetasksbelow:
(1) CalculatetheoutputvoltageforthesixvaluesofV3:0.4,2.0,3.5,0.6,1.6,and2.4V.
(2) PerformthebiassimulationforthesixvaluesofV3instep(1)andcomparetheresults.
(3) WhatisthevoltageofinvertinginputforthevaluesofV3instep(1)iftheoperational
amplifier is ideal? What are the simulation results? Can you estimate the gain of the
operationalamplifierbasedonthesimulationresults?
(4) SpecifytherangeofV3requiredtoaviodamplifiersaturation.Performthesimulation
andfindtherangeandcomparethatrangewithyourtheoriticalcalculation.
Problem2(20points)
R1

100k
4

R2 uA741 Vn
2 1 Vp Vn
V-

- OS1
22k V1 V2
V3 6
VOFF = 500mV OUT 15Vdc -15Vdc
VAMPL = 200mV 3 5
FREQ = 1kHz + 7 OS2
U1 V+
Vp
0 0
0
0

Figure2Circuit#2
First,changetheDCsourceshowninFigure1toanACsourceasshowninFigure2andperform
thetransientanalysisfor10ms.Then,dothetasksbelow:
(1) Plottheoutputandtheinputinthesamedrawingandexplainyoursimlulationresults
basedonyourunderstandingofOP.
(2) ChangetheVOFFto500mVandredothesimultion.Plottheoutputandtheinputinthe
samedrawing.ExplainyoursimulationresultsbasedonyourunderstandingofOP.

38

(3) ChangeVOFF=2VandVAMP=1Vandredothesimulation.Plottheoutputandtheinput
inthesamedrawing.Explainyoursimulationresults.
Problem3(20points)
R1

100k

R2 uA741 4 Vn
2 V- 1 Vp Vn
- OS1
22k V1 V2
6
R3 OUT 15Vdc -15Vdc
0 3 5
+ 7 OS2
22k U1 V+
V3 Vp
1Vdc R4 0 0
100k

0

Figure3Circuit#2First,constructthecircuitshowninFigure3inPSPICE.Thendothetasks
below:
(1) CalculatetheoutputvoltageforthesixvaluesofV3:0.4,2.0,3.5,0.6,1.6,and2.4V.
(2) PerformthebiassimulationforthesixvaluesofV3instep(1)andcomparetheresults.
(3) WhatisthevoltageofinvertinginputforthevaluesofV3instep(1)iftheoperational
amplifierisideal?Whatarethesimulationresults?
(4) SpecifytherangeofV3requiredtoaviodamplifiersaturation.Performthesimulation
andfindtherangeandcomparethatrangewithyourtheoreticalcalculation.
Problem4(20points)

39

Vs

4
uA741 Vn
2 1

V-
R4 - OS1 R2 R1
47k 6
OUT
3 5
C 22k 100k
A + 7 OS2
R5 U2 V+
Vp

4
R6 uA741 Vn
4.7k D 2 1

V-
- OS1
22k
6
0 OUT E
Vs Vn 3 5
+ 7 OS2
V+
4

uA741 U1
2 1 R3 Vp
V-

R8 - OS1
100k
100k 6
OUT
3 5
B + 7 OS2 0
U3 V+
Vp
R7
10k Vp Vn Vs

V1 V2 V3
15Vdc -15Vdc 5Vdc
0

0 0 0

Figure4:Circuit#4
First, construct the circuit shown in Figure 4 in PSPICE. Use a fixed value of resistor to
replace the variable resistor R8 for your following simulation otherwise the resistance of R8
usedinthesimulationwillbeonly50%asshowninthedrawing.Thendothefollowingtasks:
(1) CalculatethevoltageoutputatNodeEforthefivevaluesofR8:20k,40k,60k,80k,100k.
WhatisthefunctionofoperationalamplifersU2andU3?
(2) PerformthesimulationandlisttheoutputatNodeEforthefivevaluesofR8:20k,40k,
60k,80k,100k.ArethevoltagesofNodeDandBalwayssame?
(3) Whatisthefunctionofthiscircuit?

40

Problem5(20points)

Vs

uA741 4 Vn
2 V- 1
R4 - OS1 R2 R1
47k 6
OUT
3 5
C 22k 100k
A + 7 OS2
R5 U2 V+
Vp
4.7k uA741 4 Vn
2 V- 1
- OS1
6
0 R6 OUT E
D 3 5
+ 7 OS2
22k U1 V+
R3 Vp
Vs Vn 100k
uA741 4
2 V- 1
R8 - OS1 0
100k 6
OUT
3 5 Vp Vn Vs
B + 7 OS2
U3 V+
Vp V1 V2 V3
R7 15Vdc -15Vdc 5Vdc
10k

0 0 0 0

Figure5:Circuit#5
First,constructthecircuitshowninFigure5inPSPICE.Then,dothefollowingtasks:
(1) CalculatethevoltageoutputatNodeEforthefivevaluesofR8:20k,40k,60k,80k,100k.
WhatisthefunctionofoperationalamplifersU2andU3?
(2) PerformthesimulationandlisttheoutputatNodeEforthefivevaluesofR8:20k,40k,
60k,80k,100k.ArethevoltagesofNodeDandBalwayssame?
(3) Whatisthefunctionofthiscircuit?

41

Please make sure that you include all the schematic drawings of the circuits in your prelab
report.

LaboratoryAssignment


Figure 6: A picture of A741 operational amplifier (Left) and schematic of top view for pin
assignment(Right)
Inthislab,wewillbeusingA741operationalamplifierwith8pindualinlinepackaging
(DIP).ThepictureandthepinassignmentareshowninFigure6.Wewillonlyusepin2,3,4,6,
and7.Makesurethatyouconnectthepinsproperlybeforeyouconductanymeasurement.
Problem1(20points)
ConstructthecircuitshowninFigure1inthelab.Thendothetasksbelow:
(1) UseDMMtomeasuretheoutputvoltageforthesixvaluesofV3:0.4,2.0,3.5,0.6,1.6,
and2.4Vandcomparethemeasurementswithyoursimulationresults.
(2) UseDMMtomeasurethevoltageofinvertinginputforthesixvaluesofV3instep(1)
andcomparethemeasurementswithyoursimulationresults.Whatconclusioncanyou
get?
(3) Change the voltage of V3 and simutaneously measure the output to determine the
voltagerangewithoutamplifiersaturation.Compareyourresultswithyoursimulation
results.
Problem2(20points)
ChangetheDCsourceshowninFigure1toanACsourceasshowninFigure2inthelab.Thedo
thefollowlingtasks:
(1) Use oscilliscope to measure both source and operational amplifier output by two
channels.Adjustthesettingtoshowtwoperiodsofwaveform.Savethewaveformand
includeitinyourlabreport.ExplainyourresultsbasedonyourunderstandingofOP.

42

(2) Change the VOFF to 500mV and redo the measurement. Save the waveform and
includeitinyourlabreport.ExplainyourresultsbasedonyourunderstandingofOP.
(3) Change VOFF=2V and VAMP=1V and redo the measurement. Save the waveform and
includeitinyourlabreport.Explainyourmeasurementresults?
Problem3(20points)
ConstructthecircuitshowninFigure3inthelab.Thendothefollowingtasks:
(1) UseDMMtomeasuretheoutputvoltageforthesixvaluesofV3:0.4,2.0,3.5,0.6,1.6,
and2.4Vandcomparethemeasurmentswithyoursimulationresults.
(2) UseDMMtomeasurethevoltageofinvertinginputforthesixvaluesofV3instep(1)
andcomparethemeasurementswithyoursimulationresults.Whatconclusioncanyou
get?
(3) Change the voltage of V3 and simutaneously measure the output to determine the
voltagerangewithoutamplifiersaturation.Compareyourresultswithyoursimulation
results.
Problem4(20points)
ConstructthecircuitshowninFigure4usingRCboxresistorasR8inthelab.Thendothe
followingtasks:
(1) MeasurthevoltageatnodesA,B,C,D,EforthefivevaluesofR8:20k,40k,60k,80k,
100kandlisttheresultsinatable.
(2) ComparethemeasuredvoltageofnodeEwiththesimulatedvoltageofnodeEand
calculatethepercenterror.
Problem5(20points)
ConstructthecircuitshowninFigure5usingRCboxresistorasR8.Thendothefollowingtasks:
(1) MeasurthevoltageatnodesA,B,C,D,EforthefivevaluesofR8:20k,40k,60k,80k,
100kandlisttheresultsinatable.
(2) ComparethemeasuredvoltageofnodeEwiththesimulatedvoltageofnodeEand
calculatethepercenterror.

43

Lab9:Capacitors,InductorsandResponseofFirstOrderRLandRCCircuits

Objectives
Inthislab,youwillgainanunderstandingoftheoperationandequationsthatgovernthe
behavior of capacitors and inductors. You will also construct some simple circuits using
capacitorsandinductorstoviewtheiroperations.

Materials
Oscilloscope,FunctionGenerator,Breadboard,RCBox,Inductor(47mH),Resistor(470)

Reference
1. ElectricCircuits,Nilsson&Riedel,2008,Chapters6.16.2
2. ElectricCircuits,Nilsson&Riedel,2008,Chapters7.17.4

PreLaboratoryAssignment
Problem1(20points)
BuildthecircuitbelowshowninFigure1inPSPICE,andthencompletethesubsequentsteps.
R1

470 1

V1
VOFF = 0V 47mH
VAMPL = 3V L1
FREQ = 10kHz
2

0

Figure1:Circuit#1
(1)SimulatetheabovecircuitinPSPICEfrom0to2ms.(Ittakes0.5mstostablizesignals).
Determinefromthegraphthevoltagedropacrosstheoutputinductor(L ).Savethe
waveformsandaddittoyourprelabreport.

44

(2)AssumingthewaveformofthevoltagedropacrossL isv V cost,determinethe


amplitute(V ,inVolt)andtheradianfrequency(,inrad/sec)fromthewaveform.
(3)Plotthewaveformv forthevoltageacrossR inPSPICE.Savethewaveformandaddit
toyourprelabreport.(HintTomeasurethevoltagedropacrosstheR ,youneedto
add a differential probe. The differential probe can be found near the top of the

schematicwindownexttothevoltageproberadiobutton.Itssymbolis .Youneed
selectthedifferentialproberadiobuttonanddifferentialprobeacrosstheresistanceas
showninFigure2below:

R1

470
V+ V-
Figure2:DifferentialProbe
(4)AssumingthewaveformofthevoltagedropacrossR isv V sint,determinethe
amplitute(V ,inVolt)andtheradianfrequency(,inrad/sec)fromthewaveform.

(5)Applyequationv L tofindthecalculatedV ,andthencompareitwith

PSPICEsimulatedV foundinstep(2)andcomputethepercenterror.
Problem2(20points)
BuildthecircuitbelowshowninFigure3inPSPICE,andthencompletethesubsequentsteps.
R1

470 1

V1 = -2V V1
V2 = 2V 47mH
TD = 0 L1
TR = 1ns
TF = 1ns 2
PW = 5us
PER = 10us
0

Figure3:Circuit#2

45

(1)SimulatetheabovecircuitinPSPICEfrom0to3ms.(Ittakes0.5mstostablizesignals.)
Thesectionofthewaveformfrom23mswillbesimilartothewaveformseenfromthe
scope.Zoominthissectiontoshowoneperiodofwaveformsofv andv .Savethe
waveformsandaddthemtoyourprelabreport.
(2) What aredv (the rise) anddt(the run) for the voltage acrossR in one period of
waveform?

(3)Calculate ,compareitwiththepeakvoltageV ofthewaveformforthevoltage

v acrossL ,andthenfindthepercenterror.
Problem3(20points)
BuildthecircuitbelowshowninFigure4inPSPICE,andthencompletethesubsequentsteps.
R1

470 1

V1 = 0V V1
V2 = 2V 47mH
TD = 0 L1
TR = 1ns
TF = 1ns 2
PW = 0.5ms
PER = 1ms
0

Figure4:Circuit#3
(1)SimulatetheabovecircuitinPSPICEfrom03msandsavethewaveformofv andadd
ittoyourprelabreport.
(2) The inductor and resistor in Figure 4 forms one firstorder RL circuit.What is the time
constantforthisRLcircuit?
(3)ConsideroneperiodofstimulussignalshowninFigure4.Whenvoltagerisesfrom0Vto
2V and it holds more than 5 times of, the waveform ofv can be treated as step
response. Calculate the step response of the circuit shown in Figure 4 and compare it
withthesimulatedwaveformfrom00.5ms.Whatistheinitialvoltageandwhatisthe

46

final voltage? Measure the time constant from the PSPICE simulation result and
compareitwiththecalculatedresultinstep(2)
(4) When the voltage drops from 2V to 0V, the waveform ofv can be treated as the
naturalresponsewiththeinitialconditiondeterminedbytheendofwaveformobtained
in step (3). Calculate the natural response of the circuit and compare it with the
simulated waveform from 0.51.0 ms. What is the initial voltage and what is the final
voltageusedinyourcalculation?
Problem4(20points)
BuildthecircuitbelowshowninFigure5inPSPICE,andthencompletethesubsequentsteps.
R1

1k

V1
VOFF = 0 C1
VAMPL = 4V 0.1uF
FREQ = 10kHz

0

Figure5:Circuit#4
(1) Simulate the above circuit in PSPICE from 0 to 2 ms. Determine from the graph the
voltagedropacrosstheoutputcapacitor(C ).Savethewaveformsandaddittoyour
prelabreport.
(2)AssumingthewaveformofthevoltagedropacrossC isv V sint,determinethe
amplitute(V ,inVolt)andtheradianfrequency(,inrad/sec)fromthewaveform.
(3)Plotthewaveformv forthevoltageacrossR inPSPICE.Savethewaveformandaddit
toyourprelabreport.
(4)AssumingthewaveformofthevoltagedropacrossR isv V cost,determinethe
amplitute(V ,inVolt)andtheradianfrequency(,inrad/sec)fromthewaveform.

(5)CalculateC ,comparethecalcuatedamplitutewith ,andgivethepercenterror.

47

Problem5(20points)
BuildthecircuitbelowshowninFigure6inPSPICE,andthencompletethesubsequentsteps.
(1)SimulatethecircuitinPSPICEfrom0to3 ms.(Ittakes0.5msto stablizesignals.)The
section of the waveform from 23 ms will be similar to the waveform seen from the
scope.Zoominthissectiontoshowoneperiodofwaveformsofv andv .Savethe
waveformsandaddthemtoyourprelabreport.
(2) What aredv (the rise) anddt(the run) for the voltage acrossC in one period of
waveform?

(3) CalculateC and compare it with the peak current calculated by of the

waveformforthevoltagev acrossR andfindthepercenterror.


R1

1k

V1 = -2V V1
V2 = 2V C1
TD = 0 0.1uF
TR = 1ns
TF = 1ns
PW = 5us
PER = 10us
0

Figure6:Circuit#5
Problem6(20points)
BuildthecircuitbelowshowninFigure7inPSPICE,andthencompletethesubsequentsteps.

48

R1

1k

V1 = 0V V1
V2 = 2V C1
TD = 0 0.1uF
TR = 1ns
TF = 1ns
PW = 0.5ms
PER = 1ms
0

Figure7:Circuit#6
(1)SimulatetheabovecircuitinPSPICEfrom03ms,savethewaveformofv ,andadditto
yourprelabreport.
(2)ThecapacitorandresistorinFigure7formsonefirstorderRCcircuit.Whatisthetime
constantforthisRLcircuit?
(3)ConsideroneperiodofstimulussignalshowninFigure7.Whenthevoltagerisesfrom
0Vto2Vanditholdsmorethan5timesof,thewaveformofv canbetreatedasstep
response. Calculate the step response of the circuit shown in Figure 7 and compare it
withthesimulatedwaveformfrom00.5ms.Whatistheinitialvoltageandwhatisthe
finalvoltage?MeasurethetimeconstantfromthePSPICEsimulationresultandcompare
itwiththecalculatedresultinstep(2)
(4) When the voltage V1 drops from 2V to 0V, the waveform ofv can be treated as the
naturalresponsewiththeinitialconditiondeterminedbytheendofwaveformobtained
in 3). Calculate the natural response of the circuit and compare it with the simulated
waveformfrom0.51.0ms.Whatistheinitialvoltageandwhatisthefinalvoltageused
inyourcalculation?

LaboratoryAssignment
Problem1(20points)

49

Constructthecircuit,asseenfromFigure1intheprelabandsetthesignalgeneratorproperly.
Thendothefollowingtasks:
(1) Measurev V costto determine the amplitute (V , in Volt) and the radian
frequency(,inrad/sec)fromthewaveform.Printv andaddittoyourlabreport.
(2) Measurev V sint,todeterminetheamplitute(V ,inVolt).Printv andaddit
toyourlabreport.

(3) Applyequationv L tofindthecalculatedV ,andthencompareitwith

measuredV instep(2)andgivethepercenterror
Problem2(20points)
Usethecircuitconstructedinproblem1andchangethestimulationsourcetotheoneshownin
Figure3.Thendothefollowingtasks:
(1) Adjustthescopesothatonlyoneperiodofv isshownandsaveitforyourreport.
(2) The waveform ofv should look like a triangle wave. Adjust the vertical sensitivity of
theoscilloscopesothatthetrianglewaveisaslargeaspossiblebutstillcompletelyon
thescreen.Thedefinitationsofdv (therise)anddt(therun)forthevoltageacross
R areshowninFigure8.Finddv anddt.
(3) Measurethewaveformforthevoltagev acrossL andsaveitforyourreport.

(4) Basedonthemeasurementresults,calculate ,compareitwiththepeakvoltage

V ofthewaveformforthevoltagev acrossL andfindthepercenterror.


Figure8:SchematicofwaveformtofindRise/Runofaresistor

50

Problem3(20points)
Usethecircuitconstructedinproblem1andchangethestimulationsourcetotheoneshownin
Figure4.Thendothefollowingtasks:
(1) Measurethewaveformofv andadditforyourreport.
(2) Write down the expressions of step response and natural response based on your
measuredwaveform.Markdowntheparametersextractedfromthewaveformforthe
expressionsandexplainbrieflyhowyougettheresults.
Problem4(20points)
Constructthecircuit,asseenfromFigure5intheprelabandsetthesignalgeneratorproperly.
Thedothefollowingtasks:
(1) Measure v V sint, and determine the amplitute (V , in Volt) and the radian
frequency(,inrad/sec)fromthewaveform.Printv andaddittoyourlabreport.
(2) Measurev V cost,anddeterminetheamplitute(V ,inVolt).Printv andadd
ittoyourlabreport.

(3) CalculateC andcomparethecalcuatedamplitutewith andgivethepercent

error.
Problem5(20points)
Usethecircuitconstructedinproblem4andchangethestimulationsourcetotheoneshownin
Figure6.Thendothefollowingtasks:
(1) Adjustthescopesothatonlyoneperiodofv isshownandsaveitforyourreport.
(2) Thewaveformofv shouldlooklikeatrianglewave.Adjusttheverticalsensitivityofthe
oscilloscope so that the triangle wave is as large as possible but still complete on the
screen.Finddv anddt.
(3) Measurethewaveformforthevoltagev acrossR andsaveitforyourreport.

(4) Basedonthemeasurementresults,CalculateC ,compareitwiththepeakcurrent

calculated by of the waveform for the voltagev acrossR , and find the percent

error.
Problem6(20points)

51

Usethecircuitconstructedinproblem4andchangethestimulationsourcetotheoneshownin
Figure7.
(1) Measurethewaveformofv andsaveitforyourreport.
(2) Write down the expressions of step response and natural response based on your
measuredwaveform.Markdowntheparametersextractedfromthewaveformforthe
expressionsandexplainbrieflyhowyougettheresults.

52

Lab10:NaturalandStepResponseofRLCCircuits

Objectives
In this lab, you will gain an understanding of the natural response and step response of
parallel RLC circuits and series RLC circuits. You will also practice designing and constructing
circuits to observe the response for over damped, under damped, and critically damped
conditions.

Materials
Oscilloscope, Function Generator, Breadboard, RC Box, Inductor (10mH, 47mH), resistors and
capacitors

Reference
1. ElectricCircuits,Nilsson&Riedel,2008,Chapters8.18.4

PreLaboratoryAssignment:
Problem1(75points)

I1 = I1 L1
I2 = R1 C1
TD =
TR =
TF =
PW = 1
PER =


Figure1
ThecircuitshowninFigure1willbeusedtostudythenaturalandresponseofaparallelRLC
circuit.Inthislab,youwillneedtoselectthecomponentswithpropervaluessothatresponse
foroverdamped,underdamped,andcriticallydampedcanallbeobserved.

(1)Assumethattheavailableinductorsare10mHand47mH,theavailablecapacitorsare
0.047F,0.1F,0.22F,0.47F,1F,andtheresistancecanbevariedfrom1to1

53

MbyusingtheRCbox,findtheresistancetogetcircuitcriticallydampedandfinish
Table 1. (Hint: Neper frequency 12RC and Resonant radian frequency
1LC. For critically damped, . Therefore, the critically damped condition is

R L4C. WhenRis larger thanR , the circuit is under damped while when Ris
smallerthanR ,thecircuitisoverdamped.)
Table1

L=10mH

C(F) R () (rad/s) 1(s) /10(Hz)

0.047

0.1

0.22

0.47

L=47mH

C(F) R () (rad/s) 1(s) /10(Hz)

0.047

0.1

0.22

0.47

Pleasenotethattheroleof1/inaRLCcircuitissimilarto(timeconstant)inaRLorRCcircuit.
Whena50%dutycyclesquarewaveisusedasthestimulus,thepulsewidthhastobelonger
thanfivetimesoftostabilizethesignal.Theitem/10inTable1givesaroughestimation
ofselectingthefrequencyofstimulussignal.

(2)BasedonthecalculationresultsinTable1,chooseR,L,andCwithappropriatevaluesso
thatthecircuitisoverdamped.

54

R=__________, L=__________, C=__________


Calculate, , s , s andfinishTable2.
Table2

12RC 1LC s s



Thefrequencyofstimulussignalshouldbelessthan s /10.
Chooseyourstimulussignalfrequencyf=________________

R1

V1 = V1 L1
V2 = C1
TD =
TR =
TF =
PW = 1
PER =


Figure2
Sincethesignalgeneratorisavoltagesource,wewillsimulatethecircuitshowninFigure2
fortheconveniencesothatwecancomparethesimulationresultsandexperimentalresults.
(Thevoltagesourceandtheresistorinseriesareequivalenttoacurrentsourceandaresistorin
parallel by using source transformation). Use V1=0V, V2=2V, TD=0, TR=1ns, TF=1ns, choose
yourownPWandPERbasedonthepredeterminedf,usetheR,L,andCvalueschosenforover
dampedtoperformPSPICEsimulation.
MeasurethewaveformacrossR1andsaveitforyourprelabreport.Howdoyouinterpret
thewaveformusingtheconceptsofstepresponseandnaturalresponse?

(3)BasedonthecalculationresultsinTable1,chooseR,L,andCwithappropriatevaluesso
thatthecircuitisunderdamped.
R=__________, L=__________, C=__________

55

Calculate, , s , s andfinishTable3.
Table3

12RC 1LC s s



Thefrequencyofstimulussignalshouldbelessthan/10.
Chooseyourstimulussignalfrequencyf=________________
Use V1=0V, V2=2V, TD=0, TR=1ns, TF=1ns, choose your own PW and PER based on the
predetermined f to perform PSPICE simulation, use the R, L, and C values chosen for under
dampedtoperformPSPICEsimulationforthecircuitshowninFigure2.
MeasurethewaveformacrossR1andsaveitforyourprelabreport.Howdoyouinterpret
thewaveformusingtheconceptsofstepresponseandnaturalresponse?

(4)BasedonthecalculationresultsinTable1,chooseR,L,andCwithappropriatevaluesso
thatthecircuitiscriticallydamped.
R=__________, L=__________, C=__________
Calculate:_____________Thefrequencyofstimulussignalshouldbelessthan/10.
Chooseyourstimulussignalfrequencyf=________________
Use V1=0V, V2=2V, TD=0, TR=1ns, TF=1ns, choose your own PW and PER based on the
predeterminedftoperformPSPICEsimulation,usetheR,L,andCvalueschosenforcritically
dampedtoperformPSPICEsimulationforthecircuitshowninFigure2.
MeasurethewaveformacrossR1andsaveitforyourprelabreport.Howdoyouinterpret
thewaveformusingtheconceptsofstepresponseandnaturalresponse?

56

Problem2(75points)

R1
L1
1 2

V1 = V1
V2 =
TD = C1
TR =
TF =
PW =
PER =

Figure3
ThecircuitshowninFigure3willbeusedtostudythenaturalandresponseofaseriesRLC
circuit.Inthislab,youwillneedtoselectthecomponentswithpropervaluessothatresponse
foroverdamped,underdamped,andcriticallydampedcanallbeobserved.
(1)Assumethattheavailableinductorsare10mHand47mH,theavailablecapacitorsare
0.047F,0.1F,0.22F,0.47F,1F,andtheresistancecanbevariedfrom1to1Mby
usingtheRCbox,findtheresistancetogetcircuitcriticallydampedandfinishTable4.(Hint:
Neperfrequency R2LandResonantradianfrequency 1LC.Forcriticallydamped,

.Therefore,thecriticallydampedconditionisR 4LC.WhenRislargerthanR ,
thecircuitisoverdampedwhilewhenRissmallerthanR ,thecircuitisunderdamped.)
Table4

L=10mH

C(F) R () (rad/s) 1(s) /10(Hz)

0.047

0.1

0.22

0.47

57

L=47mH

C(F) R () (rad/s) 1(s) /10(Hz)

0.047

0.1

0.22

0.47

Pleasenotethattheroleof1/inaRLCcircuitissimilarto(timeconstant)inaRLorRCcircuit.
Whena50%dutycyclesquarewaveisusedasthestimulus,thepulsewidthhastobelonger
thanfivetimesoftostabilizesignals.Theitem/10inTable4givesaroughestimationof
selectingthefrequencyofstimulussignal.

(2) Based on the calculation results in Table 4, choose R, L, and C with appropriate values so
thatthecircuitisoverdamped.
R=__________, L=__________, C=__________
Calculate, , s , s andfinishTable5
Table5

R2L 1LC s s



Thefrequencyofstimulussignalshouldbelessthan s /10.
Chooseyourstimulussignalfrequencyf=________________
Use V1=0V, V2=2V, TD=0, TR=1ns, TF=1ns, choose your own PW and PER based on the
predetermined f, use the R, L, and C values chosen for over damped to perform PSPICE
simulation.
MeasurethewaveformacrossR1andsaveitforyourprelabreport.Howdoyouinterpretthe
waveformusingtheconceptsofstepresponseandnaturalresponse?

58

(3)Basedonthecalculationresultsintable4,chooseR,L,andCwithappropriatevaluessothat
thecircuitisunderdamped.
R=__________, L=__________, C=__________
Calculate, , s , s andfinishTable6
Table6

R2L 1LC s s



Thefrequencyofstimulussignalshouldbelessthan s /10.
Chooseyourstimulussignalfrequencyf=________________
Use V1=0V, V2=2V, TD=0, TR=1ns, TF=1ns, choose your own PW and PER based on the
predetermined f, use the R, L, and C values chosen for under damped to perform PSPICE
simulation.
MeasurethewaveformacrossR1andsaveitforyourprelabreport.Howdoyouinterpretthe
waveformusingtheconceptsofstepresponseandnaturalresponse?

(4) Based on the calculation results in Table 4, choose R, L, and C with appropriate values so
thatthecircuitiscriticallydamped.
R=__________, L=__________, C=__________
Calculate:_____________Thefrequencyofstimulussignalshouldbelessthan/10.
Chooseyourstimulussignalfrequencyf=________________
Use V1=0V, V2=2V, TD=0, TR=1ns, TF=1ns, choose your own PW and PER based on the
predeterminedftoperformPSPICEsimulation,usetheR,L,andCvalueschosenforcritically
dampedtoperformPSPICEsimulationforthecircuitshowninFigure3.
MeasurethewaveformacrossR1andsaveitforyourprelabreport.Howdoyouinterpretthe
waveformusingtheconceptsofstepresponseandnaturalresponse?

59

LaboratoryAssignment
Problem1(50points)
(1) Construct the circuit shown in Figure 2 based on your design in Prelab problem 1 to
obtainthe waveformfortheconditionsofoverdamped,underdamped,andcritically
damped.Designthesignalgeneratortohave50internalresistance,andmakesure
thatyoutakeitintoaccountwhenyouconstructthecircuit.
(2) Save all the waveforms for your lab report, and compare them with your simulation
results.(Whatarethereasonstocausethedifference?)Listtheactualresistanceused
toobtainthosewaveforms.
(3) Explainhowyouobtrainthecriticallydampedwaveformduringtheexperiment?Save
the waveforms of a few critical steps leading you to obtain the critically damped
waveformandprovideabriefexplanation.

Problem2(50points)
(1) Construct the circuit shown in Figure 3 based on your design in Prelab problem 2 to
obtainthe waveformfortheconditionsofoverdamped,underdamped,andcritically
damped.Designthesignalgeneratortohave50internalresistance,andmakesure
thatyoutakeitintoaccountwhenyouconstructthecircuits.
(2) Save all the waveforms for your lab report, and compare them with your simulation
results.(Whatarethereasonstocausethedifference?)Listtheactualresistanceused
toobtainthosewaveforms.
(3) Explain how you obtain the critically damped waveform during the experiment? Save
the waveforms of a few critical steps leading you to obtain the critically damped
waveformandprovideabriefexplanation.

60

AppendixI:IdentificationofEquipmentwithExplanations

1.DigitalOscilloscope


Figure1:ViewofanOscilloscope
Justasthebrushisanextensionofapaintershand,oramicroscopeisanextensionofa
microbiologistseye,theoscilloscope(Oscope)servesastheeyesofanelectricalengineer.All
thesignalsofthecircuit,nomatteratwhatpointtherein,canbeviewedandmeasuredbythis
extraordinary piece of equipment by first attaching the Oscopes probe/s. However, simply
physicallyconnectingtheprobedoesnotguaranteeanaccurateorreasonableviewofwhats
goingoninthecircuit.Indeed,thereisanarttocapturingasignaland/orkeepingitstableon
theOscopesdisplay.Somuchso,thatafuturelabwillbededicatedtoitsfunctionindetails.
For now, an example of what an Oscope looks like is shown in Figure 1. We will be using a
digital Oscope in this lab. However, no matter whether the Oscope is analog or digital, all
scopeshaveanoutputscreen,acertainnumberofconnectingprobes(orchannels),dialsthat
control the vertical and horizontal spacing (voltage and time, respectively), and triggering
controls for syncing to (or capturing) a signal. Once these principlesare known, it is just a
matterofadaptingtospecificfunctionalityorthebellsandwhistlesofdifferentOscopes.

2.DCPowersupply

61

Incircuitschematics,manytimesthereisasymbolicsourceofsomekind,i.e.,anelement
that supplies energy to the circuit. We can describe our source as being a power or signal
source.Thereareanumberofclassificationsofsignals,i.e.,deterministic/random,causal/non
causal,periodic/aperiodic,AC/DC,analog/discrete,tonameafew.Togointodetailsonthese
classificationswouldnotbeappropriatehere,butdont worry,youllhavenumerouscourses
laterinthecurriculumthatwillspecifically,sufficiently(andpainfully)dealwiththistopic.For
now,whatpertainstousistheequipmentthatwehaveandthatwewillusethroughoutthe
semestertophysicallysupplyenergy,whetherasaconstantsourceorperiodicsignalofsome
kind.
If the source represents a constant voltage (or current) supply, then we have what is
commonlyknownasanindependentDCvoltage/currentsupply.Thesesourcesassociatedwith
supplying power to a circuit are called power supplies. What differentiates a good power
supplyfromanotsogoodpowersupply,istheabilityforthatsupplytoholdaconstantvalue
regardlessofwhatisgoingoninthecircuit,aswellastheamountofpoweritisabletosupply.
TheDCpowersupplythatwewillbeusinginlabisshowninFigure2.

Figure2:DCPowerSupply(courtesyofHAMEG)
Althoughoursupplyisnotknownashighpowersupply,itcandeliverenoughpowertocreate
burnsandsevereshock.Sopaycloseattentioninthesafetysectionforthisdevice.Noticethis
equipmentprovidesthreeseparatesources,onefixed,andtwothatarevariable.Theycanbe
combined in series as well as produce +/ supply voltages. This is only a glimpse of the
excitementwehavetolookforwardtoinsubsequentlabs.

62

3.Functiongenerator

Figure3:FunctionGenerator(CourtesyofHAMEG)
Now,ifthesourcerepresentsatypeofperiodicsignal(repeatingwaveform),thenwecan
physicallycreatethiswithwhatscalledafunctiongenerator.Wewillalsodevoteafuturelab
toitsdetailedoperation.Fornow,letsobservethat
we can create, or generate, a number of different
periodic signals, or functions. A pulse wave, a
trianglewave,asquarewave,asawtoothwave,and
of course everybodys favorite, a sinusoidal wave.
Figure 3 shows what a typical function generator
lookslikeandtheonewewillbeusinginclass.Some
function generators can also be programmed for a
userdefined waveform and some can also create
Figure4:DigitalMultimeter(Courtesy
modulatedwaves,i.e.,AM,likeonyourradio.
ofFluke)
4.DigitalMultimeter
Besides the Oscope, there is another measurement device called a multimeter. Figure 4
shows what a multimeter looks like. A multimeter can measure quantity values such as
resistance (Ohms), capacitance (Farads), inductance (Henrys), DC voltage (Volts), DC current
(Amps).ACvoltagesandcurrentscanalsobemeasured.HoweverforAC,thereareanumber
ofdifferentwaystoexpressaquantity.ThephysicalunitsarestillinVoltsorAmps,butsince
thesignalisAC,themeasurementcanbeintermsofpeaktopeak,0topeak,orrmsquantities.

63

Furtherexplanationsoftheseterms,aswellasthedifferentmethodstomeasurevoltagesor
currents, will be taught as a future lab. Multimeters are more convenient and quick to use
thanOscopes,butareofcoursemorelimitedintheircapability.Forthisreason,lotsofmulti
meters are portable and no electrical engineer should be without one, whether testing a
battery,continuity,ortroubleshootingacircuitorpowergrid.Theyarerelativelyinexpensive
comparedtotheOscope.

5.Breadboard
For simple circuits thatwe will be constructing for this semester and beyond, wewill use
whats called a breadboard. A breadboard is a solderless, reusable prototyping board that is
usedtobuildandtestcircuits.ObservewhatatypicalbreadboardlookslikeinFigure5.


Figure5:Breadboard
Wecanseemanytinyholesonthesurface,butwecantseeiswhatisbeneaththesurface.
Below are tiny metal rails (usually copper) that connect some of the holes together, either

64

vertically or horizontally. If you look closely at Figure 5 you can see board actually made of
severalsections.Todemonstratetheusageandtheinternalconnectionoftheboardwewill
focusonlyonesection.
Thefiguretotheleftshowsthelayoutoftheinterconnectedholes.This
layout is designed to assist the designer in connecting component ends
together to form single node, i.e., instead of tying 3 resistors together, we
can push them in 3 different holes that are connected on the breadboard.
Remember care must be taken because components can easily be shorted
causingdevicedamageorpoorlyfunctioningcircuits.Whatisashortyouask!
Ashortisaconnectionthatexistsbetweencomponents.Thiscanbeagood
thingorabadthing.Onexamplewhereitisbadisiftwosidesofaresistorare
plugged into two holes that are on the same node. In this situation, no
current will flow through the resistor since there exists a path of zero
resistance, or what is called a short for the current to flow through. This
situation has, for all practical purposes, eliminated the resistor from the circuit, which could
causeotherdevicestobedamaged.
Rows or columns that are connected together are commonly known as buses. A power
busisonethatmakespowerconvenientlyavailableforthewholeboard.Onefinalthoughtis
tonotethatthesetypesofbreadboards,becauseoftheconnectingmetalrailsunderneath,do
havepowerlimitationsandalsoaddatinycapacitancetothecircuitmakingthemunsuitable
forhighpowerorhighfrequencyapplications.

6.Circuitelements
Up until now, weve identified equipment that is used to measure or supply circuits. We
havenoteventalkedaboutanyelementsthatareactuallyinacircuit.Thatisuntilnow.Figure
6belowshowssometypicalcircuitelements.

65


Figure6:Resistors,Capacitors,andInductors(groupedrighttoleft)
Atypicalcircuitelementcaneitherbepassiveoractive.Wewillbetalkingaboutpassive
elements,i.e.,elementsthatdonotrequireapowersupplytoproperlyfunction.Resistorsare
passive elements that relate voltage and current by Ohms law. The way they relate voltage
and current (the slope) determines the resistance value (in Ohms). Resistors, as opposed to
capacitors and inductors, purely dissipate power usually in the form of heat (capacitors and
inductorsareenergystoringelements).Aquestionshouldarise,howmuchheat?Well,that
isdependentontheresistorspowercapabilities.Mostofourresistorsareratedata1/4Watt,
andexceedingthatpowerisnotagoodideaaswillbeseeninthesafetysection.Capacitors
and inductors have similar specifications, but are laden with additional considerations that
determinehowtheyarespecificallymade,i.e.,material.Polarityandfrequencymayplayarole
intheseelementsoperations.

7.RCbox
Forcircuitelementvendors,itisnoteconomicaltomanufactureandstockelementswithall
different kind of values. Normally, they are made for a series of values and the any needed
value can be obtained by combine several elements in series or parallel. For our circuit lab,
often time we have a need to use either a resistor or a capacitor which is not a standard
product.ARCboxistheequipmenttobeusedtosubstitutearesistororacapacitorinacircuit
witharbitraryvalue.ApictureofaRCboxisgiveninFigure7.

66


Figure7:Resistancecapacitancesubstituter(CourtesyofIETLABS)

67

AppendixII:IntroductiontoPSPICE

Theobjectiveofthispartofthelabexperimentdealswithlearningthefundamentalsofthe
computeraidedcircuitsimulationusingPspice.Pspiceisacomputeraidedcircuitanalysistool
thatisusedforvariousanaloganddigitalcircuits.Inthislab,wewillconcentrateonDCanalysis.
Laterexperimentsinthesemesterdealswithtimeandfrequencydomainanalysis.
GettingStartedwithPspice:
First,logonthecomputerworkstationsinfrontofyoubyusingyouruarkemailloginIDand

password.Then,findtheprogramlinkbyfirstclickingonthe menu>Programs>
Orcad16.0>CaptureCIS.SelectAllegroPCBLibrarianXLandclickOKinthepopupdialogue
boxtostarttheprogram.Next,youshouldseeawindowpopopenthatlookssomethinglike
Figure1.


Figure1:ORCADCaptureScreenshot

Next,clickonthisicon orclickFile>New>Project.Thiswillcreateanewprojectfile.You
willnoticeanewwindowpopupliketheoneinFigure2shownbelow.

68


Figure2:NewProjectWindow
Then,typeanamefortheproject(Forexample,Lab1_Prelab)andselectthedirectorytosave
the project. You must select the Analog or Mixed A/D and then click OK. If you did
everythingcorrectly,thewindowshownbelowwillpopup:


Now, select Create a blank project and then click OK. Upon following that step, a new
windowwillpopupthatiscalledtheschematicwindow,shownbelowinFigure3.Thisisthe
windowwhereyoucandrawyourcircuitschematic.

69


Figure3:SchematicWindow
AsyoucanseefromFigure3,therearedifferenttypesofradiobuttonsontherighthandside
of the window, which specify different sets of commands. For example, the second radio

button from the top is the place part command, the third radio button is the place

wirecommand,andtheninthradiobutton istheplacegroundcommand.Also,onthetop

of the window you will notice the radio buttons for voltage , current , watts , and

differentialvoltage probes.
DrawingaCircuitSchematicintheSchematicWindow:
WewillbelearninghowtodrawasimplecircuitgivenbytheschematicinFigure4.

70

R1 R3

1k 10k

V1
10Vdc R2 R4
47k 47k

0

Figure4:SimpleCircuitExample
AddingaLibrary:

InordertoplacetheappropriatePSPICEpart,weneedclickonthe radiobutton(placepart)
on the right hand side of the window (we can also place part by doing the following Place >
Part).Ifthisstepwasdonecorrectly,thewindowshownbelowwillpopup:


NextclickonAddLibraryinordertofindthelibrarythathastheappropriatepartweneed
forthecircuitschematic.Todothat,selectthefirstlibraryfile,andthenpressCtrl+Awhich
willhighlightallthelibraryfiles.Then,pressopen,andthenpresscancel.Nowyouareready
tobuildthecircuitontheschematicwindow.
BuildingtheCircuit:
71

ThecircuitshowninFigure4???requiressixcomponents,whichare:
1)VoltageSource
2)FourResistors
3)Ground
Toplacethevoltagesources

1)Clickonthe radiobutton(orfromthePlacemenu,choosePart)todisplaythePlacePart
dialogbox.
2) Add the library for the parts you need to place: Click the Add Library button, Select
SOURCE.OLB(fromthePSpicelibrary)andclickOpen.
Note: There are two sets of library files supplied with Capture and PSpice. The standard
schematicpartlibrariesarefoundinthedirectory\TOOLS\CAPTURE\LIBRARY.Thepartlibraries
that are designed for simulation with PSpice are found in the subdirectory
\TOOLS\CAPTURE\LIBRARY\PSPICE.IntheParttextbox,typeVDC.
3)ClickOK.
4)Movethepointertothecorrectpositionontheschematicpageandclicktoplacethepart.
5)RightclickandchooseEndModetostopplacingparts.
Toplacetheresistors

1)Clickonthe radiobuttontodisplaythePlacePartdialogbox.
2)Addthelibraryfortheresistorsyouneedtoplace:ClicktheAddLibrarybutton,Select
ANALOG.OLB(fromthePSpicelibrary)andclickOpen.
3)Followsimilarstepsasdescribedforthesourcetoplacetheresistors(R).
Note: To rotate the part so the arrows are pointing in the correct direction, place the part,
selectit,thenpressRoneormoretimestorotatetheparttothedesiredorientation.
Toplacethezerogroundpart

1)Toplacethegroundparts(0),clicktheGNDbutton displaythePlaceGrounddialogbox.
2) Add the library for the parts you need to place: Click the Add Library button, Select
SOURCE.OLB(fromthePSpicelibrary)andclickOpen.

72

3)Placethe0groundpartfromSOURCE.OLB.Youmustusethe0(zero)groundpartfromthe
SOURCE.OLBpartlibrary.Youcanuseanyothergroundpartonlyifyouchangeitsnameto0
(zero).
Toplacethewires

Click on the radio button to add wires and connect the voltage source, resistors, and
groundtogether.
Tochangethevalues
Next,weneedtochangethevalueoftheV1to10V.Todothis,doubleclickonthe0Vdc
andanewwindowwillpopupasshownbelow.Typein10VdcinthevalueboxandclickOK.
You can also change the value of the voltage source by doing the following steps: Select the
voltagesource>Rightclick>Editproperties>ChangethevalueoftheDCcolumnfrom0Vdc
to10Vdc>Apply>ClosethepropertyEditorwindow.Followthesamestepsforchangingthe
valueoftheresistors.Adialogueboxtoeditthedisplaypropertiesisgiveninbelow.


SimulatingtheCircuit:
Oncethecircuitisbuiltintheschematicwindow,itstimetosimulatethecircuit.Inthefirstlab,
wewillconcentrateonDCanalysis.TosimulatethecircuitweneedtoclickonPspice(Menuon
top)>NewSimulationProfile>Typeinanameforyoursimulation>ClickonCreate.Thenthe
SimulationSettingwindowwillpopup.

73


BiasPoint:
SelectfromtheAnalysistype:dropdownmenuBiasPoint. ThenclickOK. Next,press

therunradiobutton onthetopoftheschematicwindow.Anewwindowpopsupthatis
calledthePspicesimulator,orPspiceA/Dshownbelow.

74


Now, go back to the schematic window and click and radio buttons on the top of
thewindow,whichwillshowthevoltages,currents,andwattsateachnodeofyourcircuit.So
atthispoint,yourschematicwillnowlooklikethefigureinthefollowing.


75

DCSweep:
Next, we will do the DC sweep analysis on our circuit. So, in order to do that you need to
changetheAnalysistype:fromBiasPointtoDCSweep.Todothatyouneedtoclickon

the radio button next to the run radio button or you can do the following Pspice > Edit
SimulationProfile.Then,selecttheAnalysistype:toDCSweep.Inthislab,wearegoingto
sweepthevoltagesourceV1andseehowthesweepaffectsthevoltageacrosstheresistor
R4(whichistheoutputvoltageofthecircuit).So,setuptheSimulationSettingswindowas
shownbelow,andthenclickOK.


Then,presstherunradiobutton onthetopoftheschematicwindow.Anewwindowpops
up,whichisthePspicesimulatororPspiceA/D.

Next,gobacktotheschematicwindow,unselectthe and radiobuttons,andplace


thevoltageprobeatnongroundsideofR4,andyourschematicshouldnowlooklikethefigure
showntothebelow.Next,gobacktothePspicesimulatororPspiceA/Dandlookatthegraph.
Yourgraphshouldlooklikethegraphshownbelowifdonecorrectly.

76


ParametricSweep:
Resistancecannotbesweptinthesimilarwayaswehavedoneforvoltagesweep.Inorderto
doso,wehavetouseparametricsweep.
1) Doubleclick the value (47k) of part R4 to display the Display Properties dialog box, In the
Valuetextbox,replace47kwith{Rval}andthenclickOK.

77

PSpice interprets text in curly braces as an expression that evaluates to a numerical


value.Thisexampleusesthesimplestformofanexpressionaconstant.ThevalueofR4
willtakeonthevalueoftheRvalparameter,whateveritmaybe.

2)Clickonthe radiobuttontodisplaythePlacePartdialogbox,intheParttextbox,type
PARAM(fromthePSpicelibrarySPECIAL.OLB),thenclickOK,placeonePARAMpartinanyopen
areaontheschematicpage.
3)DoubleclickthePARAMparttodisplaythePartsspreadsheet,thenclickNewColumn.Inthe
Nametextbox,enterRval(nocurlybraces),thenclickOK.Thiscreatesanewpropertyforthe
PARAMpart,asshownbythenewcolumnlabeledRvalinthespreadsheet.
4)ClickinthecellbelowtheRvalcolumnandenter10kastheinitialvalueoftheparametric
sweep;Whilethiscellisstillselected,clickDisplay.IntheDisplayFormatframe,selectName
andValue,thenclickOK.ClickApplytoupdateallthechangestothe PARAMpart.Closethe
Partsspreadsheet.
5)FromtheFilemenu,chooseSavetosavethedesign.
6)FromthePspicemenu,selectEditSimulationProfileandchangesweepvariabletoGlobal
parameterandotherparametersasshowninbelow.

Then, press the run radio button on the top of the schematic window. The simulation
resultisshowninbelow.

78

Transientanalysis

Takealookatthecircuitshowninbelow,whichshouldlookfamiliartoyoubynow.


Figure:???

79

Now, draw the circuit shown in Figure ??? in the schematic window. Note that instead of
insertingaDCsource,weareinsertingasinusoidalvoltagesourceattheinput.Thenameofthe
sinusoidalvoltagesourcepartisVsin.
TRANSIENTANALYSIS
OnceyouaredonedrawingthecircuitinPSPICE,clickonPSPICE>NewSimulationProfile>
Typeinaname.ThensetupthesimulationsettingswindowasshowninFigure2:


Figure2:SimulationSettingsWindow
ClickOKandrunthesimulation.Ifyourcircuitisworkingproperly,itwillshowthe
followingmessageonthePSPICEoutputwindoworPSPICEA/D:
Readingandcheckingcircuit
Circuitreadinandchecked,noerrors
CalculatingbiaspointforTransientAnalysis
Biaspointcalculated
TransientAnalysis
TransientAnalysisfinished

80

Simulationcomplete

81

AppendixIII:UsingDCPowerSupply,Resistors,andDigitalMultiMeter
PartI:DCPowerSupply

Ingeneral,aDCpowersupplysimplysourcesaconstantvoltagetoacircuit.Specifically,wewill

look at the operation of the Hameg 7042 Triple power supply. The Hameg 7042 consists of

threeindependentpowersupplies.AroughsketchisshowninFigure2.Youshouldidentifythe

plugsmarked1,2,3,etc.onyourpowersupply.

Figure2:FrontpaneloftheHameg7042TriplePowerSupply???Figure1

Thetwooutsidepowersuppliesarevariablesupplies;thatis,theycanbesetbytheoperatorat

anyvoltagelevelfrom032Vandcanoutputamaximumof2A.Themiddlepowersupplyis

alsovariablefrom05.5V;howeveritiscapableofproducing5A.Thesesuppliesarethereal

world equivalent of the voltage source circuit symbol commonly used in schematics (drawn

directlyabovethem).

Operationofthepowersupplyisrelativelysimple.Someofthemajorfeaturestonotearethe

following:

Displays: The three variable sources have LED displays which indicate what voltage level is

beingsourcedalongwithcurrentinAmps.

82

Course/Fine knobs: Turning these knobs adjusts the voltage level of the respective supply.

Coursechangesthevaluesdrastically,finechangesthelevelsteadily.

OutputOn:Thisbuttonisessentiallyaswitch,whichturnsthepowersuppliesonoroff.When

youhaveeverythinghookedup,besuretoturnonthesupplies!

Electronic Fuse: This is a safety feature that will turn off the supply when there is a surge in

currentexceedingthepowercapability.

Overcurrent Indicator: When too much current is being drawn from the supply, the red light

willturnon.Ifthishappens,TURNTHEOUTPUTOFF!

The three independent supplies can be arranged to establish many different types of DC

sources.Wewillnowgooveranumberofexamplesthatarecommonlyseenandshowhowto

hookupasourcethatmatchesthatofacircuitschematic.

Example 1: Figure 3 shown below illustrates a simple 032V variable voltage source and its

powersupplycounterpartthatyouwillconnect.Thediagramontheleftisthecircuitsymbol

whereastheoneontherightistheactualpowersupplyhookup.

Figure3:Variable032VVoltageSourceFigure2???

83

Byconvention,theredleadisconnectedtothepositiveandtheblackleadtothenegative.This

merely serves as an identifier. By turning the coarse or fine knobs, this configuration can

generate032V.Note:BesurethattheOUTPUTONbuttonistrulyon,andthatyoudonthave

theredandblackleadstouchingorevenclosetoeachothertouching.

Figure4:Variable5.5VVoltageSourceFigure3???

Thenextexampleconsistsofa5.5Vvariablesupply.ObservetheconnectionsinFigure4.Note

thatthissupplyisthemiddlesupplyshowninFigure2andcanbeusedtosourcemorecurrent

thentheothersources(upto5A).Thissourceonlyhasacoarsevariableknobavailable.

84

Figure5:37.5VVoltageSourceFigure4???

Thenextexampleconsistsofa37.5Vvoltagesource.Toobtain25Vfromoursupply,wemust

hookuptwosourcesinseries.ThecircuitschematicanditsequivalentareshowninFigure5.

Makesuretoalwaysconnectthepositiveterminalofonesupplytothenegativeterminalofthe

other.Neverconnectpositiveandnegativeterminalsofthesamesupplytogether.Thiswill

causeashortcircuitandcreateasafetyhazard!

Example4:

Sometimes,applicationscallforapowersupplythathasbothpositiveandnegativevoltage

levels.Thisisaccomplishedbymovingtheground,orthe0referencepoint.

Figure6:5VVoltageSource???Figure5

Letsstartasimple5Vvoltagesource.The5Vvoltagesourceisconnectedalmostthesameas

the+5Vsourceexcepttheoutputsaretakenfromtheoppositeterminals.Thisdoesntchange

theactualvoltagepresent;itonlymovesthegroundor0Vreferencepoint.Inthiscase,ground

hasbeenmovedfrom0V(thenegativeterminal)to5V(thepositiveterminal).Thepositive

outputisnowthenegativeterminal,whichis5Vlessthanthepositiveterminal,givingusa

85

5V source. Refer to Figure 6 for an accurate visual representation. A voltage source with

voltagelevelsonbothsidesofgroundcanbeconstructedusingtwopowersupplies.

Example5:

Sometimes there is a configuration where ground is between two voltage sources. Refer to

Figure7.Noticethatwehaveaccessto20Vonbothsidesofground,providinguswith+/20V.

ThistypeofconfigurationisverycommonforsupplyingpowertoICchips,especiallyamplifiers.

Figure7:20VVoltageSourceFigure6???

PartII:Resistors

Resistorsaredevicesthroughwhichcurrentflows,creatingavoltagedropbetweentwopoints.

Resistanceisexpressedinunitscalledohms,orsymbolically.ResistorsrelyonOhmsLaw,

whichstatesthatthevoltagedropacrosstwopointsofaconductorisheldinproportiontothe

currentflowingthroughit.Ormathematicallyspeaking,

V IR (1)

where V represents the voltage, I represents the current in amperes, and R represents the

resistance.Noticethisidealequationexhibitslinearbehavior,i.e.,theresistanceisaconstant

slopeorratioofvoltagetocurrent.

86

Figure8:ExampleofaCommonResistorFigure7???

The resistors that we will be using in the lab are made of carbon composite material. An

exampleofthistypeisshowninFigure8.Theresistancevaluecanbedeterminedbyevaluating

thecolorcodeonthatparticularresistor.Resistorsthathave5%toleranceorgreaterhavefour

colorbands.Thebandattheendoftheresistorsignifiesthemostsignificantdigit(A)followed

bythedigit(B),thenexttolastistheexponent(C),andthelastbandsignifiesthetolerance(D).

So,thevalueoftheresistance(R)is,

R A B 10

In a similar manner, resistors that have 1% tolerance or less have five color bands instead of

fourcolorbands.Therefore,thevalueofthisresistanceis,

R A B C 10

Nowthatweknowwhateachbandrepresents,weneedtoknowwhichcolorcorrespondsto

whatdigit.Thecolorcodeisasfollows:

BLACK 0 GREEN 5
BROWN 1 BLUE 6
RED 2 VIOLET 7
ORANGE 3 GREY 8
YELLOW 4 WHITE 9

87

Thecolorbandsforthetolerancebandare:

NOBAND20%
SILVER10%
GOLD05%

Figure9pictorialdescriptionoftheprocesstoevaluatetheresistancevaluefromitscolorcodes.

Figure9:PictorialResistanceValueGuide(courtesyofwww.armory.com)Figre8???

PowerRating:

One very important piece of information about resistors in general is the power rating. Just

because a resistor has a value that fits nicely into Ohms Law, doesnt mean it will operate

underOhmsLawforallvaluesofvoltageorcurrent.AresistorwillfollowOhmslawbasedon

thepowerdissipationcapabilityoftheresistor.TheresistorsinthelabareratedatWatts.If

88

thisratingisexceeded,theresistorswillstartburningasindicatedbysmoke.Asanexample,

considerthefollowing:

A1kresistorratedat.25Wattsinthelabcanonlyhandle0.0158A,or15.8mA,byknowing

that

P V I I R (2)

Therefore,


P 0.25
I 0.0158A
R 1000

89

PartIII:DigitalMultimeter

Atthispoint,wehavelearnedhowtosetupvariouspowersupplyconfigurationsandknowthe

powercapabilitiesoftheresistorswewillbeusingalongwithhowtoreadtheirvalues(without

relyingonthevaluemarkedonthebinwegetthemfrom).Wearealmostreadytoconstruct

ourcircuit.However,weneedtoknowhowtomeasuretheactualvalueswhenourcircuitisin

operation.Todothis,weneedtobefamiliarwithapieceofequipmentknownasthedigital

multimeter.

A digital multimeter (DMM) can be a very useful and accurate instrument when it is used

correctly. The purpose of this section of the lab is to teach proper measurement techniques.

This section will also show some common errors made and explain how the DMM actually

changesthecircuitundertest.Attheendofthislabyoushouldbeabletocorrectlymeasure

resistance,DCvoltage,andDCcurrent.

MeterLoading:

BeforewestartusingtheDMM,theoperatorshouldbeawareofthebasicprinciplesofhow

theDMMworksforbothvoltageandcurrentreadings.

Voltmeters:

Whenvoltmeterprobesareputacrossaresistorinacircuit,itislikeputtingalargeresistance

in parallel with the resistor being measured. This changes the equivalent resistance in the

circuitandcouldsignificantlyaffectthevoltagemeasurement.Inordertochangethecircuitas

littleaspossible,theinternalresistanceofthevoltmeterisveryhigh.Thisallowsalmostallof

the current to flow through the resistor being measured just as it had been before the

voltmeter was put in parallel. If the resistance being measured is greater than 10% of the

90

voltmeter's internal resistance, the measurement will not reflect the actual voltage. The

internalresistanceofthevoltmeterusedinthislabisabout10M.

Ammeters:

Whenanammeterisputinserieswitharesistorbybreakingthecircuitandreclosingitwith

theammeterprobes,itislikeputtingaresistanceinserieswiththeresistorbeingmeasured.

Justaswiththevoltagemeasurement,thischangestheequivalentresistanceinthecircuitand

could significantly affect the current measurement. In order to change the circuit as little as

possible,theinternalresistanceoftheammeterisrelativelysmall.Thiskeepsthevoltagedrop

across the ammeter low and allows the voltage across the resistor being measured to stay

nearlythesameasitwasbeforetheammeterwasputinseries.Again,the10%ruleshouldbe

observed; if the ammeter resistance is greater than 10% of the value of the resistor being

measured, the measurement will not be the actual current. The internal resistance of the

ammeterusedinthislabvarieswiththeRANGEsetting.Theresistancedropsastherangevalue

increases.OnaRANGEof.2,theinternalresistanceis1K.Onarangeof20A,theresistanceis

0.1.

ImportantThingstoRemember:

Internalmeterresistancesshouldhaveminimalimpactonthecircuitbeingmeasured.

Voltmeterinternalresistanceishighbecausethemeterisputinparallelwiththecircuit.

Ammeterinternalresistancevarieswiththerangesettingandgoesinserieswiththecircuit.

CommonErrors:

Measuringresistanceswhiletheyareconnectedtootherresistancesinthebreadboard.

Measuringresistanceswithyourbodytouchingtheprobes.

91

Tryingtomeasurecurrentthesamewayyoumeasureresistanceandvoltage.

Finally,wearenowadequatelypreparedtomakethefollowingmeasurementswithourDMM.

ResistanceMeasurement:

TosetuptheDMMforaresistancemeasurement,dothefollowingsteps:

1.Insertthetestleadsintothepropersocketsofthemultimeter:BlacktoCom,RedtoV/.

2.SettheDMMtobyturningthedialtothesetting.Note:Makesureyoudonothavethe

leadsonalivecircuit.

Next,tomakearesistancemeasurement,followthesesteps:

1.Touchtheendsoftheprobestotheendsofa10Kresistor.Makesurenothingbuttheprobes

touchtheresistorends.

2.TheresistancevalueshouldbedisplayedontheDMM.Youcanmeasureresistancesfrom.1

to50M.

VoltageMeasurement:

TosetuptheDMMforaDCvoltagemeasurement,dothefollowingsteps:

1. Insert the test leads into the proper sockets of the multimeter: Black to Common, Red to

V/K.

2.SettheDMMtoVormVbyturningtherotaryswitchtotheVormVposition,respectively.

Next,tomakeavoltagemeasurement,followthesesteps:

1.Tomeasurethevoltageacrossaresistorsimplyputtheprobesoneachendoftheresistor

andreadthevaluefromthedisplay.Itisbestpracticetoconnectthegroundorcommonlead

first,thenthepositivevoltageprobe.

92

2. The voltage should be displayed on the DMM. The mV position will measure values

from.1mVto600mVandtheVpositionwillmeasure1mVto1000V.

CurrentMeasurement:

Figure10:AmmeterSetup(CourtesyofFluke)Figure9???

The current measurement is a little different and a bit trickier. Notice that for a voltage

measurement,yourprobeswereinparallelwiththeresistor.Foracurrentmeasurement,the

probesmustbeinserieswiththeresistor.TosetuptheDMMforacurrentmeasurement,do

thefollowingsteps,referringtoFigure10:

1.InsertthetestleadsintothepropersocketsoftheDMM:BlacktoCommon,Redto10Aor

400mAsocket.

2. Set the DMM to mA of A by turning the rotary switch to the mA or A position. For DC

measurements,presstheYELLOWbutton.Forappropriatesettings,notethatthemAposition

hastherangeof.01mAto400mAandtheApositionffrom.001Ato10A.TheRedleadmustbe

93

in the appropriate corresponding socket as well. This implies that you have some reasonable

estimatedknowledgeofhowmuchcurrentyouareexpectingtomeasure.

Next,tomakeacurrentmeasurementonthebreadboard,dothefollowing,referringtoFigure

11asaphysicalexample:

1. Makesurepowertothecircuitisturnedoff.Unplugonelegoftheresistorthroughwhich

youwanttomeasurethecurrent.Thisisknownasbreakingthecircuit.

2. Insert the "unplugged" leg into an unused row on the breadboard, leaving the other leg

attachedtothecircuit.

3.PuttheredleadoftheDMMwherethe"unplugged"legusedtobe.

4.Puttheblackleadintotherowwherethe"unplugged"legisnowsothattheDMM"bridges

the gap." The probes are now in series with the resistor, or can be seen as completing the

circuit.

5. Turnthecircuitpowerbackon.Notethepassivesignconvention. Ifcurrentflowsintothe

Red lead, apositive sign is given. If current flows into the Black lead,or common, a negative

signisgiven.

94

Figure11:ExampleCurrentMeasurementFigure10???

95

AppendixIV:UsingOscilliscopeandFunctiongenerator

1.Oscilloscope


Figure1:TheDigitalTektronixTDS2012BOscilloscope
Introduction
An Oscilloscope is a measurement device that displays a graph of an electrical signal. A
graphofawaveformdisplayedonanoscilloscopeconveysessentiallythesameinformationas
agraphofawaveformonpaper.Theoscilloscopehoweverhastheadvantageofdisplayingthe
waveforminrealtime.Inaddition,theoscilloscopecanbeadjustedtodisplaythewaveformin
a number of ways, i.e., scaling x and y axes, locking onto certain voltage levels, and showing
multiple waveforms simultaneously. Although we will be using a digital Oscope, the basic
physicaloperationofananalogOscopeisworthnoting.TheanalogOscopeworksbyfiringan
electrongunontothebackofaCRTpanel.Thepanelisilluminatedwheretheelectronbeam
hits.Thegunsweepshorizontallyfromthewidthofthescreenfromlefttorightinacertain
amountoftime.Asthevoltageofthesignalbeingmeasuredchangeswithtime,thevertical
position of the beam also correspondingly changes. While it is advisable to learn the theory
behind an instrument such as an oscilloscope, it is not necessary to be an expert on its
operationinordertobeabletomakesomebasicmeasurements.
All oscilloscopes have the same basic functional controls: a screen output, Vertical Input,
andHorizontalInput.Mostmanufacturersconformtoasimilarcontrollayoutthathasevolved
96

overyearsoflabuse;however,eachparticularoscilloscopemodelisstillalittledifferentfrom
theothers.Thisappendixwillfamiliarizeyouwiththefunctionsingeneralandthecontrolsof
thedigitalTEKTRONIXTDS2012Binparticular,asshowninFigure1.
DisplayScreenandControls
Thedisplayscreenisusedtodisplaythewaveforms.Whenturnedon,thescreenismarked
withgridsquarestoallowbothverticalandhorizontalmeasurementstobemade.Thescreen
caneasilyandquicklybeadjustedforbetterviewingofthedisplay.


Figure2:ControlButtonsforMenuOperation
As you read through the following functional descriptions, find these controls on your
oscilloscope.Asyoufindthesecontrols,markthemwiththecorrespondingnumberasdepicted
inFigure2.
ON/OFFPowerSwitchMainpoweroftheoscilloscope.Noreferencenumberonfigure.
LocatedontopofOscope.

97

Display Screen Displays the waveforms. Grid squares are 1cm x 1cm. No reference
numberondiagram.
____ Cursor Control Displays measurement cursors, horizontal or vertical, for
accuratelymeasuringtimeandvoltagedisplacementrespectively.
____GeneralPurpose KnobDependingonthelastmenuitemselected,thegeneral
purposeknobselectsvariousoperationssuchasscrollingthroughoptions.
____ AutoRange Similar to Autoset. In straightforward cases, this automatically
detectsandselectsanappropriatevoltageandtimescaleandpositionsthesignal.
____ Save/Recall Displays the menu for saving and recalling waveforms and front
panelsetups.
____PrintCanbeusedtoprintorquicklysavewaveformstoafile.
____MeasureDisplaystheautomatedmeasurementmenu.Usercanselectavariety
andmultiplemeasurementsformultiplesignals
____ Help This help function will display a detailed help file for the given menu
functionthatislastactive.VeryusefulforlearninganycontrolontheOscope.
____AutosetAutomaticallyadjustsinstrumentcontrolstoobtainausabledisplay.
____ Ref Menu This menu allows you to recall and display saved waveforms called
referencewaveforms.
____ Utility Displays options such as: system status, I/O, system calibration, and
diagnosticmenus.
____ Display This control defines how the Oscope displays waveforms, and can
changetheoverallappearanceofthewaveform,i.e.,contrast.
____DefaultSetupQuicklyrestoresmostcontrolstofactorysetupasshipped
____AcquireThiscontrolshowtheOscopeacquireswaveformdata,i.e.,
sample,peakdetect,oraveraging(whichreducesnoise)
____Run/StopStartsandstopsacquisition
____SingleSeqThisbuttonacquiresasinglewaveformthenstops.
____USBFLASHPORTUsedtostoreandprintWaveforms.InsertaFlashDrivehere.

98

AfteryouhaveidentifiedtheabovecontrolsonyourOscopeandmarkedthemwiththeir
corresponding numbers shown in Figure 2, turn on your Oscope using the ON/OFF button
locatedonthetopoftheOscope.Afterafewmomentsofwarmingup,answerthefollowing
questionsbasedonwhatyouseefromthescreen.
Q1.
a)Howmanyhorizontalgridsquaresarethere?
b)Howmanyverticalsquares?
c)Whatquantitydoesthehorizontaldirectionrepresent?
d)Whatquantitydoestheverticaldirectionrepresent?
e)Eachhatchmarkrepresentswhatportionofafulldivision?
VerticalInput
Theverticalinput,alsocalledthesignalorvoltageinput,controlstheverticalpositionofthe
signal displayed. You can identify the vertical input section by finding the knobs that control
Volts/Divandalsothecoaxialinputs.


Figure3:VerticalControls

99

As you read through the following functional descriptions, find these controls on your
oscilloscope.Onceagainasyoufindthesecontrols,markthemwiththecorrespondingnumber
asseeninFigure3.
____CoaxialConnectorsProvidesapathintotheoscilloscopeforthesignalyouwant
to measure. Oscilloscopes typically have 1 to 4 input channels. If there is more than
one input, the channels will be labeled as Channel l, Channel 2, etc. Each channel
provides an independent signal path into the oscilloscope. If there is more than one
channeltheoscilloscopecanusuallydisplayallthechannelsatonetimesotheusercan
lookatmorethanonesignal.
____CH1MenuandCH2MenuAssignsinstrumentcontroltotheselectedchannel
indicatedinthedisplay.Fromhereyoualsohavethechoicetoselectsignalparameters.
____MATHMENUDisplaysthemenuchoicesforthemathoperationsandactivates
themathwaveform.
____POSITIONKnobsMovestherespectivewaveformvertically.
____ Volts/Div Knobs Adjusts the voltage per division scaling for each channel
accordingly.
AfteryouhaveidentifiedtheabovecontrolsonyourOscopeandmarkedthemwiththeir
correspondingnumbersshowninFigure3,takeamomentandfamiliarizeyourselfwiththese
controls.NotethatCH1andCH2havethesamefeaturesthatworkindependentofeachother;
as such, be sure to identify which 'CH' is highlighted or active when using the Oscope. For
eitherchannelCH1orCH2(notMathsignal),usetheVolts/Divknobandanswerthefollowing
questions.
Q2.
a)Whatisthelargestvoltageperdivisionthatyourscopecandisplay?
b)Whatisthesmallestvoltageperdivisionthatyourscopecandisplay?
c)Onthemaximumsetting,howmuchvoltagedoestheentirescreenrepresent?

100

HorizontalInput


Figure4:HorizontalControls
This section can also be called the Time Base section. The controls in this section
determinethehorizontalscreenscale(time).Thetriggeringdeterminesthevoltagelevelofthe
incoming signal at which the oscilloscope will begin to display the signal. The subtleties of
triggering will be discussed in more depth in later lab procedure. As you read through the
following functional descriptions, find these controls on your oscilloscope. As you find these
controlsmarkthemwiththecorrespondingnumberasseeninFigure4.
____Positionmovesthewaveformhorizontally.
____HorizontalMenuDisplaysthemenuchoicesforthehorizontalsystem.
____ Set To Zero Automatically displays the signal such that the '0' time is in the
middle of the screen. Notice the white arrow on top of the display and how it moves
withthehorizontalpositionknob.
____Second/DivAdjuststhehorizontalscale,ortimescaleforallwaveforms.
____ External Trigger Connector used for triggering purposes, not important for the
timebeing.

101

AfteryouhaveidentifiedtheabovecontrolsonyourOscopeandmarkedthemwiththeir
correspondingnumbersshowninFigure4,takeamomentandfamiliarizeyourselfwiththese
controls.NotethatCH1andCH2arenotindependentlycontrolledbythehorizontalcontrols,
i.e.,changingthetimescaleaffectsbothchannelsequally.UsetheSec/Divknobandanswer
thefollowingquestions:
Q3.
a)Whatistheminimumtimeperdivisionthattheoscilloscopecandisplay?
b)Whatisthemaximumtimeperdivisionthattheoscilloscopecandisplay?
c)Onthemaximumsetting,howmuchtimedoestheentirescreenrepresent?
Probes
Oscilloscopeprobesconductthesignalfromitssourcetotheoscilloscope.Allprobeshave
a probe tip, ground clip, and coaxial cable with a connector. We will learn more about the
electricalimpedanceoftheprobesinalaterlab.Asthenameimplies,aprobeistheactualtool
thatprobesinsidethecircuitatanypoint.Fornow,thereareafewbasicprinciplestoknow
aboutoscilloscopeprobes.First,theprobetipisthepartthatattachestothecircuitwherethe
signal is to be monitored. Secondly, the ground clip connects to ground, or reference point,
andshouldbeconnectedascloseaspossibletothesourceofthesignal.
Signals


Figure5:ExampleSquareWaveonOScope

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Eventhoughyouhavenotbeenintroducedatthispointtodifferentwaveforms,theonly
meaningfulwayoflookingatasignalontheOscopeisbyviewingantimevaryingsignal.So
withoutdiscussingsignalsthemselves,thefocushereistosimplyviewasignalontheOscope.
Thefollowingprocedurewillwalkyouthroughtheoscilloscopesetupandletyouviewasignal
onthescreen.
1.InstalltheprobeonCH1.ConnecttheprobetiptoPROBECOMPandtheprobeground
to the ground symbol on the front panel. This constantly outputs a 5V, 1 KHz square
wave.
2. Set the VOLTS/DIV to 1 V/Div. Use the vertical POSITION knob to center the waveform
verticallyonscreen.
3.SettheSEC/DIVto250s.
4.Checkthatasquarewavesignalofaboutfivedivisionsinamplitudeisonscreen.
5. Check that one period of the square wave probecompensation signal is about four
horizontaldivisionsonscreen.
6. Check that the horizontal POSITION knob positions the signal left and right on screen
whenrotated.
7.PressCH1MenutoremoveCH1fromthedisplay.
8.PressCH2MenuandmovetheprobetotheCH2input.
9.Repeatsteps2through6forChannel2.
It is important to note that any changes made to the display settings do not in any way
change the actual signal. After following the above procedure, you should see something on
yourscreenlikeFigure5.
Keep the signal displayed on the screen for the next section. Next, answer the following
questions:
Q4.Adjustthefollowingcontrolsandnotewhateffectstheyhaveonthesignaldisplay:
a)SEC/DIV
b)VOLTS/DIV
c)VerticalPositionknob
d)HorizontalPositionknob

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Q5. Change the coupling from DC to AC. By using CH 1 Menu and selecting Coupling in Main
menu,changecouplingfromDCtoACbyusingSidemenu.Whathappenedtothesignaldisplay?
Whydoyouthinkthishappened?
SavingaWaveformtoaFileonyourComputer
You can save images or data files of the results displayed on the oscilloscope to the
computerconnectedtotheequipmentonyourbench.Youcanlatertransferthefiletoyour
ownprivatemediasuchasaUSBflashdrive,oremailittoyourself,touseinyourlabreport.
Therearetwooptionswhensavingyourdata.Youcaneithersaveitasanimageorasdata
points.Whensavinganimage,ascreenshotoftheoscilloscopedisplayissavedasachosenthe
image type. Saving as a JPEG file is recommended for good image quality and small file size.
Whensavingdata,theprogramsavesthedataina.csv(comaseparatedvalues)filethatcanbe
accessedusinganyspreadsheetprogramsuchasMicrosoftExcel.
Tosaveawaveformasanimagefile,usethesamesquarewavesignalonthedisplayand
workthroughthefollowingsteps.YoumayrefertoFigure6asavisualaidforwhatthefinal
outputshouldlooklike.


Figure6:SavinganOscilloscopeWaveformasanImageFile
1.OpenOpenChoiceDesktopfromthedesktop.
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2. Once the program opens, you will be prompted to select the instrument,choose the
USBdevice.
3.Tostoreascreencaptureclickonthescreencapturetab.
4.NowclickonGetScreen.Thisshoulddisplaythescopescreenshotonyourwindow.
5.ClicktheSaveAsbutton,specifyapath,filename,andimagetype(JPEG).ClickOKwhen
done.
Alternatively, to save the waveform as a collection of data points, do the following steps
whilereferringtoFigure9onthenextpageasavisualaidforthefinalresults:
1.OpenOpenChoiceDesktopfromthedesktop.
2. Once the program opens, you will be promoted to select theinstrument,choose the
USBdevice.
3.Tostoreawaveformcapture,clickontheWaveformDataCapturetab.
4.SelectthetargetedchannelbyclickingontheSelectChannelsbutton.
5.NowclickontheGetDatabutton.Thisshoulddisplaythescopescreenonyourwindow.
6.ClicktheSaveAsbutton,specifyapathandfilename,andthenclickOK.


Figure7:SavinganOscilloscopeWaveformasaDataFile

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Savingthewaveformasacollectionofdatapointsallowsaccesstotheactualvaluesofthe
samples of the waveform. For display purposes, you will have to create your own graph by
means of another software program such as Excel. However, the real power of having the
actual samples of the waveform is the ability to run data analysis from a myriad of software
programs,i.e.,Matlab.
SavingaCopydirectlytoaUSBFlashDrive(optional)
The TEKTRONIX TDS 2012B is equipped with a USB flash drive port for saving digitized
waveforms.TheUSBflashdriveprovidesmassstorageforanunlimitednumberofoscilloscope
setups. Using the same square wave signal on the display, work through the following
procedure for saving a waveform while being careful not to format your flash drive when
connectingtothescope:
1.InsertFlashDriveintoUSBportonfrontpanelofOscope
2.PresstheSave/Recallbutton
3.Ontherighthandsideofthedisplay,pressthebuttoncorrespondingwiththemenuoption
ActionuntilSaveImageishighlighted.
4.Ontherighthandsideofthedisplay,pressthebuttoncorrespondingwiththemenuoption
FileFormatuntilJPEGishighlighted.
5.Ontherighthandsideofthedisplay,pressthebuttoncorrespondingwiththemenuoption
SaveTEKxxxx.jpg,wherexxxxarethenumericalincrementstowhichwaveformyouaresaving
tothefile.
Asaquickalternative,onceyouhaveyourdesiredfileformatselected,inthiscaseJPEG,go
backtostep3andgototheSaveAllselectionundertheActionmenu.Then,underthePRINT
Button option, press the corresponding button until Saves Image To File is highlighted. From
nowon,wheneveryouhaveawaveformupwithwhatevermenuormeasurementsdisplayed
onthescreen,pressingthePrintbuttonwillautomaticallysavethescreenshottoafileonyour
flashdrive(doesnotoverwrite,automaticallycreatesnewfilename).

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2.FunctionGenerator
Introduction
Function generators are devices that generate various types of periodic signals such as
squarewaves,sinewaves,trianglewavesandsawtoothwaves.Thefrequency,amplitude,and
DCoffsetofthesesignalscanbeadjustedwithinawiderangeofvalues.Ourfunctiongenerator,
shownbelowinFigure8,canalsobeusedtogeneratearbitrarywaveforms,differenttypesof
noise(whiteorpink),andalsoamplitudemodulated(AM)signals.Afunctiongeneratoristhe
reallifeequivalentofatheoreticalsignalsourceinacircuitschematic.


Figure8:ProgrammableFunctionGeneratorHM8131(courtesyofHAMEG)
AsseenfromFigure8,whenyoupowerupthefunctiongenerator,thereisadefaultsetting
that produces a freerunning, 10 Vpp, 1 kHz, 0 offset sinusoidal signal. The output is
automatically turned off though. For basic operation, the user should be able to manipulate
these parameters with ease (Voltage level, Frequency, Offset, and type of signal). To do this,
letstakeacloserlookatthefrontpanelofourfunctiongeneratorshowninFigure9.


Figure9:HM8131frontpanelcontrols(courtesyofHAMEG)

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Noticethenumbersthatcorrespondtothefollowingoperationsorfunctions
1.LCDdisplaywith2linesof20characterseach
2.Triggerinput
3.Menuselectionpushbutton
4.Memorycardslot
5.Pushbuttonsformenucontrol
6.Menubackspacepushbutton
7.Offsetindicator
8.Pushbuttonsformenucontrol
9.Incrementalrotationalcontrol
10.Keyboard
11.Escapepushbutton,erasesaninput
12.50output{BNC)
13.Pushbuttonforswitchingtheoutputon/off
14.Mainswitch
TheoperationoftheHM8131willbepredominantlyviathedisplayedmenus(1).Choosing
menuoptionsareselectedbythemenucontrolbuttons(5).Theparametersareeithersetusing
thekeyboard(10)ortheincrementalcontrolknob(9).Onceturnedon(14),connectaBNCplug
totheoutput(12).TheBNCconnectorisusedtofeedthesignaltothecircuitortothescope.
Eventhoughconnected,theoutputisnotnecessarilyon.Toswitchtheoutputoffandon,use
the button indicated by output (13). To facilitate your learning of the function generator,
connectthefunctiongeneratordirectlytotheOscopeandfindthedefaultsignal.Fromhere,
gothroughthemenuoptions(3)tofamiliarizeyourselfwiththechoices.Dontselectoptions
that you are not sure of what they do. Remember you can always move back by (6) or (11).
Onceyouhavescrolledthroughthenumerousmenus,performthefollowingfunctions.
Q6.ShowontheOscopeasinewaveat1.25kHzand5Vpp.
Q7.ShowontheOscopeasquarewaveat10.5kHz,2.5Vp,and1Voffset.MakesureyourO
scopeissettoDCcouplingsotheoffsetisshown.Whatdoestheoffsetdo?

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AppendixV:PeriodicSignals

1.Introduction
Periodicsignalsarewaveformpatternsthatrepeatoverandoveronaregulartimeinterval.
Three common types of signals, sinusoids, square waves, and triangle waves are shown in
Figures1,2,and3respectively.

Figure1:ASinusoidalPeriodicSignal Figure2:ASquarePeriodicSignal

Figure3:ATriangularPeriodicSignal

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PropertiesofSignals
Thebasicpropertiesofasignalareamplitudeandperiod,orfrequency.
Amplitude (V): Amplitude is a
vertical (voltage) measurement.
There are a few different ways to
express the amplitude of a signal.
Forinstance,themaximumvalueof
aperiodicwaveformmeasuredfrom
0 to its peak is often referred to as
V . A second way to reference
amplitude is from peak to peak
(V . ). For the square wave in the Figure4:IllustrationofSignalProperties
Figure 2, V 2.5 V , and
V . 5 V.
Period(T):Periodisahorizontal(time)measurement.Thetimeintervalbetweenany
repeated points on a waveform is called its period. A capital T is used to symbolize
period.Theperiodmaybemeasuredfrompeaktopeak,zerocrossingtozerocrossing,
oranyotherconvenientreferencepoint.
Frequency (f): Frequency is also a time based measurement and is defined by the
number of times a waveform pattern repeats (or cycles) per a second. Frequency is
commonly measured in Hertz (Hz) and is simply calculated by the relationshipf
1T (Hz).Frequencycanalsobeexpressedbytheunitsrad/sec,andisrelatedtoHzby
2f (rad/sec).
Onceagain,lookingatthetwosignalsinFigure4,youseeatriangularandasquarewave.
Thetwosignalshavedifferentamplitudesbuttheexactsameperiod.Thesquarewavehasits
period measured from one zero crossing to the next. The triangular wave has its period
measuredfromonemaximumvaluetothenext.Noticethateitherwayisvalidandequivalent.
DC offset: Another property of a periodic signal is the DC offset. This is the vertical
distance(involts)betweentheaveragevalueofthesignaland0volts.

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Ausefulmeasurementthatissimilartotheaveragevalueistherootmeansquare,orrms
value.Asignalsrmsvalueisalsoanotherwayofexpressingamplitude.Inasinusoidalsignal,
thermsvalueiscalculatedbyV V 2
Phase:Thefinalpropertyofperiodicsignalswewillstudyisphaseshift.Phaseshiftis
the distance between reference points on two separate waveforms. This is usually
measuredindegrees.Inasinewave,oneperiod(T)is360.
Thephasedifferencebetweentwowaveshavingthesameperiodiscalculatedby:
Displacement Between Waves
360
Period
For the signals in Figure 6, the displacement between the two signals is approximately 2
squaresandtheperiodis7squares,sousingtheaboveequationwefindthephaseshifttobe
approximately102.

Figure5:IllustrationofDCoffset Figure6:IllustrationofPhaseShift

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PartII:OscilloscopeMeasurementTechniques

Introduction
Before we begin with basic oscilloscope measurement techniques, lets identify what we
havelearnedthatservesasaprerequisitetothistask.Wecancategorizethreekeyelements:
characteristics of periodic signals, function generator operation, and familiarization with
oscilloscopecontrols.Thislabprocedurebringsthesethreethingstogether.Youwilllearnhow
tousetheoscilloscopetomakemagnitude,frequency,andphasemeasurements.Inaddition,
youwillbeintroducedtothetriggeringsectionoftheoscilloscopeinmoredetail.

MagnitudeMeasurements
There are two different ways to make magnitude measurements, namely, manually or
automatically.Themanualmethodismostimportantinthatitdemonstratestrueknowledge
oftheOscopeaswellasenablestheusertomakeaccuratejudgmentcallswhenthesignal
exhibits low signaltonoise ratios (SNR), i.e., the signal is noticeably corrupted by spurious
noise.Theautomaticmethoddealswithscopesthathaveabuiltincapabilityofmakingsignal
measurementsinrealtime.Notallscopeshavethisfunction,asitisnotanecessity,andblind
reliance on this function can lead to inaccurate measurements. The automatic method is
convenientwhenasignalislockedinandisveryclean,i.e.,nonoticeablenoisepresent.
Formanuallydeterminingthemagnitudeofthesignal,wegobackourobservationinour
previouslabofsquaresonthedisplay.Noticethe"bigsquares"areconsideredonedivision,
whilethehatchmarksrepresent0.2divisions.Theworddivisionisexactlywhatismeantby
theVolts/DivknobonyourOscope.Eachbigsquare,ordivision,isgivenavoltagevalueset
by the Volts/Div knob. For example, if the Oscope is set at 5V/div, then the height of each
squarewouldbe5Vandthedistancebetweeneachhatchwouldbe1V.
Whenmeasuringtheamplitudeofasignal,itisimportanttoadjustthedisplaysothesignal
takesupasmuchverticalspaceaspossible.Theoscilloscopeiscalibratedforfullscalevertical
deflection." That is, the oscilloscope gives a better measurement when the signal takes up
mostoftheverticalspace.Thistechniquealso givesmaximumresolutionforcountinghatch
marks.

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Letsworkthroughthefollowingexampletosetupandmeasurea0.8V . sinusoidalsignal.
1.TurnontheOscopeandpressCH1MENU
2.SettheCouplingmenuoptiontoGroundandusetheverticalpositionknobtocenter
thetraceonthescreen.Thisisyourzeroreferencepoint.
3.ChangetheCouplingmenuoptiontoAC.Thisoptionremovesanyoffsetwhichmay
bepresentinthesignal.Offsetwillbeexplainedlaterinthelab.
4.Connectthe50outputofthefunctiongeneratortoCH1oftheOscope.(Thisdoes
notusetheprobes.)
5.Setthefunctiongeneratortooutputasinusoidat1KHz.Youshouldseesomekindof
signalonthescreenunlessyourVolts/Divsettingiswayofffromtheactualamplitude
ofthesignal.
6. Set your Volts/Div scale at 200 mV/div and your Sec/Div time scale to a reasonable
valuesuchas250s/div.
7.Adjusttheamplitudeonthefunctiongeneratorsuchthatthepeaktopeakvoltageof
thesinusoidalsignaltakesupexactly4divisionsonthedisplay.Thisisourdesired0.8
V . (from4div*200mV/div=0.8V . ).Youshouldhavesomethingthatlookslike
Figure10.
Todisplayanautomaticmeasurement,simplypushtheMeasurebuttonfollowedbyoneof
themeasurementoptionsinthesidemenu.ThisshouldgiveyouthesidemenuasinFigure10.
MakesuretheSourceissettoCH1andtheTypeissettoPkPk.PushtheMeasurebuttononce
more and you will then see the realtime value of your signal to be 800 mV. Changing the
amplitudeonthefunctiongeneratorwillautomaticallychangethemeasurementonthescope.
Note that you can choose any number of measurement types by scrolling through the Type
option.Nowyoucananswerthefollowingquestion.
Q1Setupa1KHzsinusoidalsignalwithamagnitudeof6Vppandsavethewaveformtoa
file.
a)WhatshouldtheVolts/Divsettingbetodisplaythelargestsignalwithoutgoingoffthe
edgeofthescreen?
b)Atthissetting,howmanyverticaldivisionsshouldthesignaltakeup?

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Figure10:MagnitudeMeasurements Figure11:TimingMeasurements

TimingMeasurements
Following the same procedure as in the magnitude measurements section, reobtain the
original 0.8 V . , 1 KHz sinusoidal signal back on the Oscope. When taking timing
measurements, it is always important to adjust the display so that signal takes up as much
horizontal space as possible. That is, a period measurement taken from a display of slightly
morethan1periodisbetterthanonetakenfromadisplayof2ormoreperiods.
Workthroughthefollowingexampletomeasuretheperiodofasinusoidalsignal:
1.AftersettingtheOscopeandfunctiongeneratortoviewa0.8V . ,1KHzsinusoidal
signal,youshouldsee2periodsofthesignalonthescreen.(250s/divtimescale)
2.Thenumberofdivisionsfrom"zerocrossing"to"zerocrossing"shouldbe4.
3.TheperiodisthenT=4Divisions*250s/div=1msec.
4. The frequency F = 1/T = 1/(1 msec) = 1 KHz, as expected. Check to see if you have
somethinglikeFigure11.
The automatic measurement method is nearly identical to the previous section. Push the
Measurebuttonfollowedbyoneofthemeasurementoptionsinthesidemenu.Onceagain,
thisshouldgiveyouthesidemenuinFigure11.MakesuretheSourceissettoCH1andthe
Type is set to Freq. Push the Measure button once more and you will then see the realtime
value of your signal to be approximately 1 KHz. Changing the frequency on the function
generatorwillautomaticallychangethemeasurementonthescope.Youmaynoticethatthe

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automaticfrequencymeasurementtendstovacillateabit.Thisiscommon.Frequencystability
andfrequencydriftarereal,nontrivialissues.Nowyoucananswerthefollowingquestion.
Q2Setupa1.5KHzsinusoidalsignalwithamagnitudeof6V . .AdjusttheOscilloscopeto
thebestdisplayfortakingameasurementoftheperiod.
a)Whatistheperiodofthesignal?
b)Fromthemeasuredperiod,calculatethefrequency.
c)Howdoesthisfrequencycomparetothedisplayedfrequencyonthefunctiongenerator?
(a%Errorcalculationwouldbeinorderhere)
d)Saveyourwaveformtoafile.Labeltheperiodonthewaveform.

PhaseMeasurements
Two signals may have the same amplitude and frequency but still be different from each
otherbecauseofdifferingphases.Phasedescribeswhentheperiodofonesignalstartsintime
relative to another signal, or another point in time. The phase difference, or phase shift,
between two signals is usually expressed in degrees, with one entire period being set to 360
degrees.Thismakesperfectsenseforaperiodicsignal,thatis,360degreeslateryouareback
towhereyoustarted(1period).

Triggering
Just as a trigger on a gun sets into motion a seemingly instant reaction, a trigger on an
oscilloscopessetsintomotionaseeminglyinstantcapture.Triggeringdetermineswhatvoltage
level on the signal the oscilloscope will lock on to." It is used to synchronize the signal so it
doesn't"movearound"onthedisplay.Theactualvoltagelevelthatisbeingusedtotriggercan
beseenasanarrowmarkerontherighthandsideofthesignalframe.Youmayhavealready
noticedthisinFigs.10,11.Thatarrow,whichindicatesthetriggeringvoltagelevel,caneasilybe
adjustedupordownbytheTriggerLevelcontrolknob.
Lets take a closer look at some basic options for triggering and what they mean. As a
startingpoint,setupthesignaldescribedinQ2.Next,pushtheTrigMenubuttontoshowthe
sidemenuonthedisplay.ChangetheoptionModetoNormal.Nowadjustthetriggerlevelsuch
thatitisjustaboveorbelowthemax.ormin.signallevelrespectively.Whatdoyouobserve

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happens?Youshouldobservethatthelastgoodcaptureisfrozenonthescreen,indicatedbyit
beingshaded.The Oscopeisnolongercapturingasignal, becausethesignaldoesnotreach
the trigger level to set off a capture. Therefore, the Normal Mode displays waveforms only
when the Oscope detects the trigger condition and displays older waveforms until the
oscilloscopereplacesthemwithnewones.NowpresstheForceTrigbuttonandobservewhat
happens. You should notice that the waveform jumps to a different location on the screen.
This is a result of forcing the trigger to take a single snapshot of the signal at that specific
moment in time. The position of the signal is likely to change from one forced trigger to the
next.Toquicklygetbacktoareasonabletriggerlevel,presstheSetto50%buttonandobserve
where the trigger levellands. You should note that the Set to 50% intuitively sets the trigger
leveltobeapproximatelyhalfwaybetweentheminimumandmaximumvoltagelevels.
Usingthesamesignal,letschangetheModetoAuto.Ifthetriggerlevelisat50%,nothing
seemstohappen.Onceagain,letsmovethetriggerlevelsuchthatitisjustaboveorbelowthe
max.ormin.signallevelrespectively.Whatdoyouobservethistime?Althoughthewaveform
is still active and being captured, you should see the waveform racing across the screen and
unsynchronized. Therefore, the Auto Mode forces the Oscope to trigger when it does not
detectatriggerwithinacertainamountoftime.

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