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Properties of self-compacting concrete prepared with coarse

and fine recycled concrete aggregates

S.C. Kou, C.S. Poon


In this study, the fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) using recycled
concrete aggregate as both coarse and fine aggregates were evaluated. Three series of SCC mixtures
were prepared with 100% coarse recycled aggregates, and different levels of fine recycled aggregates
were used to replace river sand. The cement content was kept constant for all concrete mixtures. The
SCC mixtures were prepared with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% fine recycled aggregates, the corresponding
water-to-binder ratios (W/B) were 0.53 and 0.44 for the SCC mixtures in Series I and II, respectively.
The SCC mixtures in Series III were prepared with 100% recycled concrete aggregates (both coarse
and fine) but three different W/B ratios of 0.44, 0.40 and 0.35 were used. Different tests covering
fresh, hardened and durability properties of these SCC mixtures were executed. The results indicate
that the properties of the SCCs made from river sand and crushed fine recycled aggregates showed
only slight differences. The feasibility of utilizing fine and coarse recycled aggregates with rejected fly
ash and Class F fly ash for self-compacting concrete has been demonstrated.

Recycled aggregate; Self-compacting concrete; Mechanical properties; Sustainability

Innovations and Developments in Concrete Materials and Construction ...

edited by Ravindra K. Dhir, P. C. Hewlett, Laszlo J. Csetenyi

Page 1 of 25

Influence of Recycled Aggregate on Interfacial Transition Zone, Strength,

Chloride Penetration and Carbonation of Concrete

Article History
Submitted: 27 April 2001 Accepted: 02 July 2002-Published: 15 September 2003

Publication Data
ISSN (print): 0899-1561- ISSN (online): 1943-5533-Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers

Nobuaki Otsuki, M.ASCE1; Shin-ichi Miyazato2; and Wanchai Yodsudjai3

Professor, Dept. of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku,
Tokyo152-8552, Japan.2Lecturer, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 O-ogigaoka, Nonoichi-
machi, Ishikawa-gun, Ishikawa-ken, 921-8501, Japan. -3Graduate Student, Dept. of International Development
Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo152-8552, Japan.

This study is conducted (1) to examine the influence of recycled aggregate on interfacial transition zone (ITZ), strength,
chloride penetration, and carbonation of concrete, and (2) to propose a method for improving strength, chloride
penetration, and carbonation resistances of concrete using recycled aggregates. Five types of recycled aggregate, and four
levels of water-binder ratio are used in this study. The recycled aggregate concrete is evaluated according to compressive
strength, tensile strength, chloride penetration depth, and carbonation depth. The characteristics of ITZs in recycled
aggregate concrete are also measured and used to explain the influence of recycled aggregate on the mentioned
properties. Additionally, the double-mixing method for improving strength, chloride penetration, and carbonation resistances
of recycled aggregate concrete is evaluated in this study.


ASCE Subject Headings: Recycling, Concrete aggregates, Chlorides, Carbonation

Keywords: civil engineering, recycling, concrete, aggregation, chlorine compounds, carbon compounds, mechanical

Page 2 of 25
On the modulus of elasticity and strain capacity of Self-Compacting
Concrete incorporating rubber aggregates

A. Turatsinze a,
M. Garros a, b, c


Cement-based materials suffer from low tensile strength and poor strain capacity. They are brittle and
highly sensitive to cracking, notably to shrinkage cracking, which is particularly detrimental for large
surface areas. This paper focuses on the properties of a Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) incorporating
rubber aggregates, obtained by grinding end-of-life tyres, as a partial replacement for natural
aggregates. Results show that the new cementitious material goes against some governing principles
of mechanical behaviour of ordinary cement-based concrete. In particular, the modulus of elasticity of
rubberized SCC is reduced and its variation with rubber aggregate content does not obey the
conventional empirical relationship of modulus of elasticity with compressive strength. The strain
capacity of SCC was quantified through flexural bending tests, which demonstrated that strain
capacity increased when rubber aggregates were incorporated in concrete. This response is
interpreted as a result of the ability of rubber aggregates to reduce the stress singularity at the first
crack tips running into the rubber/cementmatrix interface, a mechanism slowing the cracking
kinetics and delaying macrocrack localization. In such conditions, rubberized SCC is expected to be
suitable when resistance to the cracking due to imposed deformation is a priority. This type of
composite with low modulus of elasticity is also suitable for Controlled Modulus Columns (CMC)
foundations, the ultimate solution for improving very soft soils subjected to settlement or stability
problems caused by insufficient bearing capacity.

Incidentally, the use of rubber aggregates in SCC provides an opportunity to recycle non-reusable end-
of-life tyres.

Self-Compacting Concrete; Rubber aggregate; Modulus of elasticity; Compressive
strength; Strain capacity;
Cracking resistance; Controlled modulus columns; Recycling; Clean environment

Properties of self-compacting concrete prepared with coarse recycled

concrete aggregate

Zoran Jure Grdic Gordana A. Toplicic-Curcic Iva M. Despotovic Nenad S. Ristic

Page 3 of 25

Self-compacting concrete has significant environmental advantages in comparison to the vibrated

concrete: absence of noise and vibrations during installing provides a healthier working environment.
In the paper the potential for usage of coarse recycled aggregate obtained from crushed concrete for
making of self-compacting concrete was researched, additionally emphasizing its ecological value. On
the other hand the issue of the waste disposal sites created by the demolition of old structures is
solved. In the experiment, three types of concrete mixtures were made, where the percentage of
substitution of coarse aggregate by the recycled aggregated was 0%, 50% and 100%. In the process
of mixing, equal consistence of all concrete mixtures was achieved. The obtained results indicate that
the properties of these concretes have only a slight difference, and that the recycled coarse aggregate
can successfully be used for making of self-compacting concrete.

Self-compacting concrete; Recycled aggregate; Compressive strength; Tensile strength; Water-

Durable fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete

V. Corinaldesi, G. Moriconi,


In order to produce thin precast elements, a self-compacting concrete was prepared. When
manufacturing these elements, homogenously dispersed steel fibers instead of ordinary steel-
reinforcing mesh were added to the concrete mixture at a dosage of 10% by mass of cement. An
adequate concrete strength class was achieved with a water to cement ratio of 0.40. Compression and
flexure tests were carried out to assess the safety of these thin concrete elements. Moreover,
serviceability aspects were taken into consideration. Firstly, drying shrinkage tests were carried out in
order to evaluate the contribution of steel fibers in counteracting the high concrete strains due to a
low aggregatecement ratio. Secondly, the resistance to freezing and thawing cycles was investigated
on concrete specimens in some cases superficially treated with a hydrophobic agent. Lastly, both
carbonation and chloride penetration tests were carried out to assess durability behavior of this
concrete mixture.

Durability; Fiber reinforcement; Self-compacting concrete

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Title: Self-Compacting Concrete: What Is New?

Author(s): M. Collepardi- Publication: Special Publication Volume: 217

Keywords: bleeding; fly ash; ground fly ash; recycled aggregate; self-compacting concrete;
silica fume; superplasticizer- Date: 9/1/2003

The paper summarizes the results on flowing and cohesive superplasticized mixtures studied
and placed in the 1970's and 1980's with properties very close to those of Self-Compacting
Concretes (SCCs) presently considered to be the most advanced cementitious material.
Case histories (from Hong Kong, New York, and Trieste, Italy) concerning placing of
superplasticized self-levelling concrete without any vibration at all, published in the 1980's,
are re-examined to compare them with the present SCCs. In particular, the paper deals with
the ingredients of these mixtures (superplasticizer, cement, fly ash, ground limestone, silica
fume, etc.) by examining their specific role in determining the main properties of these
concretes, such as fluidity, on the one hand, and resistance to segregation, on the other.
Some interesting new materials, such as ground fly ash or powder from recycled
aggregates, appear to be very promising for manufacturing SCC in agreement with the
requirements needed for sustainable progress.

DOI: 10.14359/12902

Properties of HPC with recycled aggregates

Tsung-Yueh Tu Yuen-Yuen Chen , Chao-Lung Hwang

a, b a


The utilization of recycled aggregates can minimize environmental impact and slow the huge
consumption of natural resources used for concrete applications. However, recycled aggregates are
not suitable for use in the production of High Performance Concrete (HPC) due to their relatively high

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absorption capacity, unstable properties and recycled aggregates' weaker strength. Such
inadequacies can be overcome through carefully examining the characteristics of recycled aggregates
and then adopting proper mixture proportions. In this paper, recycled aggregates generated from
demolished-construction wastes were examined and the Densified Mixture Design Algorithm (DMDA)
was applied in the design of HPC. Results show that HPC specimens containing recycled aggregates
can be designed to have a slump of more than 180 mm and a slump-flow larger than 550 mm.
However, HPC specimens with high amounts of recycled aggregates and cement added lose their
high-flowing and self-consolidating characteristics after 1 h due to their greater water absorption.
Local standards of durability were satisfied at the age of 91 days both by concrete resistivity and
chloride ion penetration.

Keywords: Recycled aggregates; HPC; Durability

Title: The Role of Recycled Aggregates in Self-Compacting Concrete

Author(s): V. Corinaldesi and G. Moriconi

Publication: Special Publication Volume: 221

Issue:Appears on pages(s): 941-958

Keywords: mineral additions; recycled-aggregate concrete; rheological behavior; self-compacting


Date: 5/1/2004

The development of self-compacting concrete is considered as a milestone achievement in concrete
technology due to several advantages. In order to be self-compactable the fresh concrete must show high
fluidity besides good cohesiveness. For the purpose of evaluating these properties, several concrete
mixtures were prepared with a water to cement ratio of 0.45 in the presence of an acrylic based
superplasticizer at a dosage ranging from 1% to 2% by weight of very fine material fraction (passing the
sieve ASTM n 100 of 150 m). Either limestone powder or fly ash or recycled aggregate powder (that is a
powder obtained from the rubble recycling process) were used as mineral addition, in order to assure
adequate rheological properties, in terms of cohesiveness, in the self-compacting concretes. Preliminary
rheological tests were carried out on cement pastes containing these mineral additions. In some cases,
recycled instead of natural aggregate was used by subtituting either the coarse or the fine aggregate
fraction. The fresh concrete properties were evaluated through the slump flow, the L-box test and
segregation resistance. Compressive strength was measured on hardened concretes at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days
of wet curing.

Page 6 of 25
DOI: 10.14359/13300

The role of industrial by-products in self-compacting concrete

V. Corinaldesi ,
G. Moriconi 1,


The development of self-compacting concrete is considered as a milestone achievement in concrete

technology due to several advantages. In order to be self-compactable the fresh concrete must show
high fluidity besides good cohesiveness. For the purpose of evaluating these properties, several
concrete mixtures were prepared with a water to cement ratio of 0.45 in the presence of an acrylic-
based superplasticizer at a dosage ranging from 1% to 2% by weight of very fine material fraction
(maximum 150 m). Either limestone powder or fly ash or recycled aggregate powder (that is a
powder obtained from the rubble recycling process) were used as mineral addition, in order to assure
adequate rheological properties, in terms of cohesiveness, in the self-compacting concretes.
Preliminary rheological tests were carried out on cement pastes containing these mineral additions. In
some cases, recycled instead of natural aggregate was used by substituting either the coarse or the
fine aggregate fraction. The fresh concrete properties were evaluated through slump flow, L-box test
and segregation resistance. Compressive strength of concrete was determined at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days
of wet curing. Results obtained showed that an optimization of self-compacting concrete mixture
seems to be achievable by the simultaneous use of rubble powder and coarse recycled aggregate with
improved fresh concrete performance and unchanged concrete mechanical strength.


Three mineral additions for SCC were used: limestone powder, fly ash, recycled aggregate powder.
Recycled instead of virgin aggregate was used replacing either coarse or fine aggregate fraction.
Rheological characterization was carried out on cement pastes and fresh concrete.

Fly ash; Recycled aggregate; Rheology; Rubble powder; Self-compacting concrete

Page 7 of 25
Performance of self-compacting concrete containing fly ash

J.M. Khatib ,


The influence of including fly ash (FA) on the properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is
investigated. Portland cement (PC) was partially replaced with 080% FA. The water to binder ratio
was maintained at 0.36 for all mixes. Properties included workability, compressive strength, ultrasonic
pulse velocity (V), absorption and shrinkage. The results indicate that high volume FA can be used in
SCC to produce high strength and low shrinkage. Replacing 40% of PC with FA resulted in a strength of
more than 65 N/mm2at 56 days. High absorption values are obtained with increasing amount of FA,
however, all FA concrete exhibits absorption of less than 2%. There is a systematic reduction in
shrinkage as the FA content increases and at 80% FA content, the shrinkage at 56 days reduced by
two third compared with the control. A linear relationship exists between the 56 day shrinkage and FA
content. Increasing the admixture content beyond a certain level leads to a reduction in strength and
increase in absorption. The correlation between strength and absorption indicates that there is sharp
decrease in strength as absorption increases from 1 to 2%. After 2% absorption, the strength reduces
at a much slower rate.

Fly ash;
Self-compacting concrete;

Effect of waste marble dust content as filler on properties of self-

compacting concrete

lker Bekir Topu , Turhan Bilir Tayfun Uygunolu

a a b


Day by day, the amount of the marble dust (MD) as a waste material is significantly of increasing in
Turkey. Therefore, the utilization of the waste MD in self-compacting concrete (SCC), as filler material,
is the main objective of this study. Besides, the MD is used directly without attempting any additional
process. Thus, this would be another advantage for this objective. For this purpose, MD has replaced

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binder of SCC at certain contents of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg/m3. After then, slump-flow
test, L-box test and V-funnel test are conducted on fresh concrete. Furthermore, compressive strength,
flexural strength, ultrasonic velocity, porosity and compactness are determined at the end of 28 days
for the hardened concrete specimens. The effect of waste MD usage as filler material on capillarity
properties of SCC is also investigated. According to the test results, it is concluded that the workability
of fresh SCC has not been affected up to 200 kg/m3 MD content. However, the mechanical properties
of hardened SCC have decreased by using MD, especially just above 200 kg/m3 content.

Keywords: Waste material; Marble dust; Self-compacting concrete; Filler material

Experimental investigation of some fresh and hardened properties of

rubberized self-compacting concrete

lker Bekir Topu, Turhan Bilir,


In this study, the usage of ground elastic wastes such as rubber in SCC is investigated. Rubber has
replaced aggregates at the contents of 60, 120 and 180 kg/m3 in SCC by weight. Four different mixture
proportions have been prepared. Moreover, 24 series have been produced by using six different
viscosity agents in both SCC and rubberized self-compacted concrete (RSCC). By using these agents,
it is attempted to see the effects of them on the properties of RSCC. Fly ash (FA) is used as filler
material. The slumpflow, V-funnel, compressive strength, high temperature and freezingthawing
resistances of RSCC have been compared to the properties of ordinary SCC. At the end, it is observed
that increase in RA content leads to increase in fresh properties of RSCC such as workability because
of the existence of viscosity agents in mixtures. It decreases the hardened properties such as
compressive strength and durability. However, the different viscosity agents can provide appropriate
results for RSCC containing the same rubber aggregate (RA) content and the hardened properties of
RSCC are better than the properties of ordinary concrete even if they are lower than the ones of SCC.

Page 9 of 25
Composites; Concrete; Elastomers and rubber

A study on the properties of fresh self-consolidating glass concrete


Her-Yung Wang , Wen-Liang Huang



The Taiwanese production of TFTLCD front-panels comprises a global share of 43%, the highest
production rate in the world. Inevitably, a large amount of waste is produced in the fabrication
process. How to deal with waste LCD glass is an important work. In this study, the water-to-binder
ratios were 0.28, 0.32, and 0.36, and four kinds of sand replaced by glass were used at volume with
replacement ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. Fly ash, blast furnace slag and superplasticizer were
added and blended by means of a simple SCC mixing design method. The objective is to recycle waste
LCD glasses in SCC. Results showed that the slump flow of self-compacting glass concrete (SCGC)
increased with higher glass sand replacement. This is mainly because waste LCD glass is hydrophobic,
an increase in efficient water content resulting content. V-funnel testing and U-test indicated that,
when the glass sand replacement increases, the time required to flow and pass through the space
between the steel bars increases, mainly because the unit weight is reduced. The air content and unit
weight would be raised with glass sand contents decreasing. Hence, the partial replacement of sand
by waste LCD glass can meet JAPAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL EGINEERS (JSCE) SCC R2 property standards.

Waste LCD glass;
Self-compacting glass concrete (SCGC);
Fresh property

Effect of mineral admixtures on properties of self-compacting concrete

Mucteba Uysal- Kemalettin Yilmaz

Page 10 of 25

In this study, the benefits of limestone powder (LP), basalt powder (BP) and marble powder (MP) as
partial replacement of Portland cement are established. Furthermore, LP, BP and MP are used directly
without attempting any additional processing in the production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). The
water to binder ratio is maintained at 0.33 for all mixtures. The examined properties include
workability, air content, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and static and dynamic
elastic moduli. Workability of the fresh concrete is determined by using both the slump-flow test and
the L-box test. The results show that it is possible to successfully utilize waste LP, BP and MP as
mineral admixtures in producing SCC. Due to its observed mechanical advantages, the employment of
waste mineral admixtures improved the economical feasibility of SCC production on a unit strength

Self-compacting concrete; Mineral admixtures; Workability; Compressive strength

The utilization of recycled concrete aggregate to produce controlled

low-strength materials without using Portland cement

Sasha Achtemichuk, -Justin Hubbard, -Richard Sluce,- Medhat H. Shehata ,


This paper reports the results of an experimental study that investigated the feasibility of using fine
and coarse recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) with slag or fly ash to produce Controlled Low-Strength
Materials (CLSM). The main objective was to produce CLSM using only recycled and by-product
materials without the need to add Portland cement. In addition to the hydraulic activity of slag and
high-calcium fly ash (HCFA), their pozzolanic reaction was activated by the alkalis and calcium
hydroxide present in the residual paste of the RCA. Preliminary tests showed mixtures with slag to
have 7-day compressive strengths 70% higher than mixtures with fly ash.

Two types of CLSM with slag were investigated in further detail: one with fine and the other with
fine/coarse RCA. The results showed that the developed CLSMs are suitable for a wide range of
applications particularly those requiring structural support and fast hardening.

Recycled concrete aggregate; Slag; Alkalis; Residual paste; Controlled low-strength materials

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nfluence of Fly Ash as Cement Replacement on the Properties of Recycled
Aggregate Concrete

Article History
Submitted: 23 May 2005-Accepted: 19 March 2007-Published: 01 September 2007

Publication Data
ISSN (print): 0899-1561-ISSN (online): 1943-5533-Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers

Shi Cong Kou1; Chi Sun Poon2; and Dixon Chan3

Research Associate, Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hum Hom, Kowloon,
Hong Kong.

Professor, Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hum Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Research Associate, Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hum Hom, Kowloon,
Hong Kong. E-mail:

The use of high percentages of recycled aggregates in concrete would usually worsen the concrete properties. This paper
tries to address the deficiency of the use of recycled aggregates by systematically presenting results on the influence of
incorporating Class F fly ash on concrete properties. In this study, two series of concrete mixtures were prepared with
water-to-binder (W/B) ratios of 0.45 and 0.55. The recycled aggregate was used as 0, 20, 50, and 100% by weight
replacements of natural aggregate. In addition, fly ash was used as 0, 25, and 35% by weight replacements of cement. The
results showed that the compressive strengths, tensile strengths, and static modulus of elasticity values of the concrete at
all ages decreased as the recycled aggregate and the fly ash contents increased. Further, an increase in the recycled
aggregate content decreased the resistance to chloride ion penetration and increased the drying shrinkage and creep of
concrete. Nevertheless, the use of fly ash as a substitute for cement improved the resistance to chloride ion penetration
and decreased the drying shrinkage and creep of the recycled aggregate concrete. The results showed that one of the
practical ways to utilize a high percentage of recycled aggregate in structural concrete is by incorporating 2535% of fly
ash as some of the drawbacks induced by the use of recycled aggregates in concrete could be minimized.


ASCE Subject Headings: Fly ash, Strength, Shrinkage, Creep, Aggregates, Recycling

Read More:

Title: Sustainable Development and Durability of Self-Compacting Concretes

Author(s): L Coppola, T. Cerulli, and D. Salvioni

Page 12 of 25
Publication: Special Publication-Volume: 221

Issue: Appears on pages(s): 29-50

Keywords: : bond strength; calcareous filler; chloride diffusion; durability; gas permeability; interfacial
transition zone; plastic settlement; plastic shrinkage; self-compacting concretes; sustainable development

Date: 5/1/2004

Self-compacting concretes (SCC) represent a move toward a sustainable material since they encourage the
use of waste and recycled materials. The high volume of very fine powder necessary to achieve
deformability and passing ability properties, in fact, permits SCC to consume large amount of fly-ash, very
fine particles generated by the re-cycling of demolished concrete structures, and huge amount of
calcareous filler avail-able from the marble quarries. Moreover SCC turn out to be materials with an
extended durability with respect to conventional concretes. Since fresh properties of self-compacting
concretes (SCC) are significantly different from those of conventional concretes (CC) durability can be
significantly improved when a SCC is used due to a modification of the microstructure of the interfacial
transition zone between aggregates and cement matrix. This paper presents results of an experimental
study carried out to evaluate changes in microstructure of interfacial transition zone (itz) and of bulk
paste for both SCC and CC. Data on the influence of the calcareous filler, a fundamental ingredients to
achieve self-compactability, on the hydration process of cement are also presented. Data indicate that the
decrease in internal bleeding, when self-compacting concrete is used, seems to favour the formation of a
stronger transition zone characterized by a less porous structure and with a limited amount of
microcracking responsible for higher compressive strength values for SCC with respect CC. No differences
were detected by EDAX analysis in the chemical nature of itz with respect the bulk matrix both for SCC
and CC. Finally, observations of the cement hydration by analysis of the temperature pro-file vs time seem
to indicate the calcareous grains promote formation of heterogeneous nucleation responsible for the
increased crystallinity of ettringite, for a shorter normally dormant period and, hence, for higher strength
values at early ages, when the calcareous filler is used.

DOI: 10.14359/13245

Durability of self-consolidating concrete using waste LCD glass

Her-Yung Wang , ,
Wen-Liang Huang

Page 13 of 25

This study investigates the properties of self-compacting glass concrete (SCGC), where liquid
crystal glass sand (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) is used in place of aggregates. The results indicate
that the slump flow of self-compacting glass concrete (SCGC) increases with higher glass sand
content. Additionally, replacing 20% of the aggregates yields the highest compressive and
flexural strengths. Self-compacting glass concrete has the highest ultrasonic pulse velocity. After
56 days, the electric resistivity is higher than 20 k cm. Finally, when the volume of glass is
increased to 30%, the amount of chloride ion penetration is reduced and the durability of the
self-compacting glass concrete is improved.

Waste LCD glass;
Self-compacting glass concrete (SCGC);

Predicting Performance of Self-Compacting Concrete

Mixtures Using Artificial Neural Networks

Document Name: 98-M43

Author(s): Moncef Nehdi, Hassan El Chabib, and M. Hesham El Naggar
Publication: Materials Journal
Volume: 98
Issue: 5
Pages: 394-401
Keywords: compressive strength; models; self-compacting concrete; slump flow
Date: September 1, 2001
DOI: 10.14359/10729

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is highly workable concrete that can flow through congested
structural elements under its own weight and adequately fill voids without segregation and
excessive bleeding. Because of its complex mixture proportions, research on SCC has been
highly empirical, and no models with reliable predictive capabilities for its behavior have
been developed. Thus, its rheological and mechanical properties are often described using
traditional regression analysis and statistical methods. The absence of a theoretical
relationship between mixture proportioning and measured engineering properties is

Page 14 of 25
overcome by subjectively assuming certain empirical relationships based on limited
experimental data, which are not applicable for conditions located outside the experimental
domain, or when different materials are used. This paper demonstrates that artificial neural
networks (ANN) can be used to predict the performance of SCC mixtures effectively.
Inspired by the internal operation of the human brain, the ANN method has learning, self-
organizing and auto-improving capabilities. Thus, it can capture complex interactions
among input/output variables in a system without any prior knowledge of the nature of
these interactions, and without having to explicitly assume a model form. Indeed, such a
model form is generated by the data points themselves. This paper describes the database
assembled, the architecture of the network selected, and the training process of the ANN
model used. Initial tests show that the ANN method can accurately predict the slump flow,
filling capacity, segregation, and compressive strength test results of SCC mixtures. A model
for the acceptance/rejection of SCC mixtures based on knowledge of their mixture
proportions is proposed and may be used after sufficient development of a more
comprehensive database on an industrial scale for the proportioning of SCC with tailor-
made properties.

Page 15 of 25
Fire resistance of self-compacting concrete, SCC
B. Persson


This article outlines laboratory and full-scale studies on fire resistance of SCC. For
this purpose 40 pre-stressed columns and 140 cylinders of concrete were subjected
to compressive loading at high temperature. The SCC included water-binder ratios,
w/b, between 0.40 and 0.70 and large amount limestone powder. Comparison was
done with vibrated concrete, VC, with the same w/b. Mix proportions were chosen as
regards tunnel concrete (w/b=0.40), prefabricated concrete (w/b=0.55) and
concrete for production of dwelling houses (w/b=0.70). The waterpowder ratio, w/p
varied between 0.28 and 0.70. The fullscale behaviour showed extensive fire
spalling for water-cured concrete at w/p<0.40 and for air-cured concrete at
w/p<0.35. One way of avoiding the fire spalling was to introduce polypropylene
fibres, PPF, in the mix proportions, which was chosen to be very effective. The
laboratory results on small cylinders indicated similar material behaviour of SCC and
VC at high temperature when spalling did not occur. The project was performed

The cause and influence of self-cementing properties of fine recycled

concrete aggregates on the properties of unbound sub-base

Chi-Sun Poon ,
, X.C. Qiao, Dixon Chan


The use of coarse recycled concrete aggregates (CRCA) in conjunction with fine recycled concrete
aggregates (FRCA) as sub-base materials has been widely studied. Although research results indicate
that it is feasible to employ both CRCA and FRCA as granular sub-base, the influence of the
unhydrated cement in the adhered mortar of the RCA on the properties of the sub-base materials has
not been thoroughly studied. Generally, it is known that the strength of the sub-base materials
prepared with RCA increases over time. However, this mechanism, known as the self-cementing

Page 16 of 25
properties, is not well understood and is believed to be governed by the properties of the fine portion
of the RCA (<5 mm). This paper presents an investigation on the cause of the self-cementing
properties by measuring X-ray diffraction patterns, pH values, compressive strength and permeability
of various size fractions of the FRCA obtained from a commercially operated construction and
demolition waste recycling plant. Their influence on the overall sub-base materials was determined.
The results indicate that the size fractions of <0.15 and 0.30.6 mm (active fractions) were most likely
to be the principal cause of the self-cementing properties of the FRCA. However, the effects on the
properties of the overall RCA sub-base materials were minimal if the total quantity of the active
fractions was limited to a threshold by weight of the total fine aggregate.

Fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete produced

with manufactured sand

Prakash Nanthagopalan a, ,
Manu Santhanam b


Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is extensively applied in many construction projects due to its
excellent fresh and hardened concrete properties. In recent years, manufactured sand (Msand)
produced by crushing rock deposits is being identified as a suitable alternative source for river sand in
concrete. The main objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using Msand in SCC. In this
process, an attempt was made to understand the influence of paste volume and w/p ratio (water to
powder ratio) on the properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) using Msand. The powder and
aggregate combinations were optimised by using the particle packing approach, which involves the
selection of combinations having maximum packing density. The chemical admixtures
(superplasticisers, viscosity modifying agent) were optimised based on simple empirical tests. Fresh
concrete tests such as slump flow, T500 and J-ring were performed on SCC; hardened concrete tests
were limited to compressive strength. From the results, it was observed that relatively higher paste
volume is essential to achieve the required flow for SCC using Msand, as compared to river sand. Low
and medium strength (2560 MPa) SCCs were achieved by using Msand based on the approach
adopted in the study. Results showed that it is possible to successfully utilise manufactured sand in
producing SCC.

Page 17 of 25
Manufactured sand; -Self-compacting concrete;Packing density;Paste volume

Development of Cost-Effective Self-Consolidating

Concrete Incorporating Fly Ash, Slag Cement, or
Viscosity-Modifying Admixtures

Name: 100-M48
Mohamed Lachemi, Khandaker M. A. Hossain, Vasilios Lambros, and Nabil
Author(s): Bouzoubaa
Publication: Materials Journal
Volume: 100
Issue: 5
Pages: 419-425
admixture; bleeding; concrete; consolidation; segregation; slump; strength;
Keywords: viscosity.
Date: September 1, 2003
DOI: 10.14359/12818

Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in the fresh state is known for its excellent deformability,
high resistance to segregation, and use, without applying vibration, in congested reinforced
concrete structures characterized by difficult casting conditions. Such a concrete can be
obtained by incorporating either mineral admixtures such as fly ash (FA) and slag cement or
viscosity-modifying admixtures (VMAs). The use of VMAs has proved very effective in
stabilizing the rheology of SCC. Commercial VMA currently available in the market is costly
and increases the price of such a concrete. Research to produce an economical SCC with
desired properties was conducted over the last few years with the use of mineral admixtures
or use and development of a cost- effective VMA. This paper presents the comparative
performance of SCCs manufactured with FA, slag cement, and various VMAs based on fresh
and mechanical properties and also on cost. Twenty-one concrete mixtures were
investigated. FA SCC mixtures had cement replacement of 40, 50, and 60%, while slag
cement SCC mixtures had 50, 60, and 70% replacement. The water-cementitious material
ratios (w/cm) ranged from 0.35 to 0.45. Three different VMAs including Welan gum (WM),
a commercial one named COM, and a new saccharide-based VMA named A were used in
VMA SCC mixtures with w/cm of 0.45. Tests were carried out on all mixtures to obtain fresh
properties such as viscosity and stability as well as mechanical properties such as
compressive strength. The influence of percentages of FA or slag cement, w/cm, dosage of

Page 18 of 25
high-range water-reducing admixture, dosages of air-entraining agent, and types of VMA on
the properties of SCC were critically reviewed. The results showed that an economical SCC
with desired properties could be successfully developed by incorporating FA, slag cement, or
VMA. Three different economical mixtures were identified from FA, slag cement, and VMA-
based SCC satisfying the targeted strength of 35 MPa. These mixtures included FA with 50%
replacement, slag cement with 60% replacement, and a mixture with new VMA A with a
w/cm of 0.45. It was found that these SCC could replace the control concrete and could be
more economical (30 to 40% in case of FA and slag cement). The new VMA A was found to
develop a SCC with better fresh and hardened properties and at significantly lower cost
compared with its commercial counter partsCOM and WM. Although the VMA SCC with
new A-VMA was slightly costlier than those with FA and slag cement, it was more resistant
to segregation and had higher early strength development.

Concrete made with recycled tire rubber: Effect of alkaline activation

and silica fume addition

Fernando Pelisser a, ,
Nilomar Zavarise , Tiago Arent Longo , Adriano Michael Bernardin
a a a, b


The present work deals with the investigation of the potential use of recycled tire rubbers in cement
matrices. This facilitates the development of concrete with a lesser environmental impact. Thus, it
contributes to developing construction in a sustainable way. Concrete formulations were produced
with the replacement of 10% sand aggregate by recycled tire rubber using conventional rubber and
rubber modified with alkaline activation and silica fume addition to improve the mechanical
properties. The water/cement ratio (or composition) and the testing age were used as additional
variables. The concrete characterization was performed by testing the compressive strength, elastic
modulus, density and microstructure (SEM). The recycled tire rubber proved to be an excellent
aggregate to use in the concrete. It was observed that its compressive strength was reduced by only
14% (28 days), in comparison to the conventional concrete, reaching 48 MPa for the mixture with
higher resistance. The concrete compositions were found to be lighter and a reduced interface was
observed between the rubber and cement matrix after the chemical treatment. The rubberized
concrete can support construction sustainability, minimize the consumption of natural resources by
using an industrial residue and produce a material with special features.

Keywords: Recycling; Tire rubber; Concrete; Silica fume; Alkaline activation

Page 19 of 25
Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold
bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-
compacting concrete
Mehmet Gesolu ,
, Erhan Gneyisi, Swara Fuad Mahmood, Hatice znur z, Kasm


Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product from iron industry, was recycled as
artificial coarse aggregate through cold bonding pelletization process. The artificial slag aggregates
(ASA) replaced partially the natural coarse aggregates in production of self-compacting concrete
(SCC). Moreover, as being one of the most widely used mineral admixtures in concrete industry, fly
ash (FA) was incorporated as a part of total binder content to impart desired fluidity to SCCs. A total of
six concrete mixtures having various ASA replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) were
designed with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32. Fresh properties of self-compacting concretes
(SCC) were observed through slump flow time, flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, and L-box filling
height ratio. Compressive strength of hardened SCCs was also determined at 28 days of curing. It was
observed that increasing the replacement level of ASA resulted in decrease in the amount of
superplasticizer to achieve a constant slump flow diameter. Moreover, passing ability and viscosity of
SCC's enhanced with increasing the amount of ASA in the concrete. The maximum compressive
strength was achieved for the SCC having 60% ASA replacement.


Artificial slag aggregates (ASA) were produced via cold bonding pelletization technique. Natural
coarse aggregates were replaced with ASA in making self compacting concrete (SCC). Fresh
properties of SCC were evaluated in terms of flowability, viscosity and passing ability. ASA was
proved to be suitable for utilization in production of SCC. SCC characteristics appeared to improve
as ASA was used.

Self compacting concrete;
Cold-bonded slag aggregate;
Fresh properties

Page 20 of 25
High-Strength Self-Compacting Concrete Exposed to Fire Test

Article History
Submitted: 14 June 2005-Accepted: 17 October 2005-Published: 01 December 2006

Publication Data
ISSN (print): 0899-1561-ISSN (online): 1943-5533-Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers

A. Noumow1; H. Carr2; A. Daoud3; and H. Toutanji4

Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Cergy-Pontoise, 5, Mail Gay Lussac, Neuville sur Oise, F-95031
Cergy-Pontoise, France (corresponding author). E-mail:

Associate Professor, LaSAGeC, Alle du Parc Montaury F-64 600, France.

Associate Professor, LaSAGeC, Alle du Parc Montaury F-64 600, France.

Professor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Alabama, Hunstville, AL.

Results are presented from experimental work on the high-temperature behavior of conventional vibrated high-strength
concrete and self-compacting high-strength concrete. Concrete cylindrical specimens and prismatic specimens were
subjected to a low heating rate of 0.5C/min (up to 400C ) and a high heating rate according to International

Standard Organization 834 fire curve (up to 600C ). The experimental results show that the residual mechanical
properties in reference to initial mechanical properties of self-compacting high-strength concretes were similar to that of
conventional high-strength concrete. The risk of spalling for self-compacting high-strength concrete was greater than that of
conventional high-strength concrete. As for the conventional vibrated high-strength concrete, the use of polypropylene fiber
improved the thermal stability of self-compacting high-strength concrete. Adding polypropylene fiber modified thermal
gradient (in consequence thermal stresses) in the tested concrete specimens during the heatingcooling cycles. This may
contribute to explaining the difference in thermal stability.


ASCE Subject Headings: High strength concretes, Compaction, Temperature, Fires, Mechanical properties, Thermal

Page 21 of 25
Production of low cost self compacting concrete using bagasse ash

Tayyeb Akram,
Shazim Ali Memon ,
Humayun Obaid
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Self compacting concrete (SCC) is a development of conventional concrete, in which the use of
vibrator for compaction is no more required. This property of self compacting concrete has made its
use more attractive all over the world. But its initial higher supply cost over conventional concrete,
has hindered its application to general construction. Therefore, for producing low cost SCC, it is
prudent to look at the alternates to help reducing the SSC cost. This research is aimed at evaluating
the usage of bagasse ash as viscosity modifying agent in SCC, and to study the relative costs of the
materials used in SCC.

In this research, the main variables are the proportion of bagasse ash, dosage of superplasticizer for
flowability and water/binder ratio. The parameters kept constant are the amount of cement and water

Page 22 of 25
Test results substantiate the feasibility to develop low cost self compacting concrete using bagasse
ash. In the fresh state of concrete, the different mixes of concrete have slump flow in the range of
333 mm to 815 mm, L-box ratio ranging from 0 to 1 and flow time ranging from 1.8 s to no flow
(stucked). Out of twenty five different mixes, five mixes were found to satisfy the requirements
suggested by European federation of national trade associations representing producers and
applicators of specialist building products (EFNARC) guide for making self compacting concrete. The
compressive strengths developed by the self compacting concrete mixes with bagasse ash at 28 days
were comparable to the control concrete. Cost analysis showed that the cost of ingredients of specific
self compacting concrete mix is 35.63% less than that of control concrete, both having compressive
strength above 34 MPa.

Self compacting concrete; Sugarcane; Bagasse; Bagasse ash; Compressive strength

study of sorptivity of selfcompacting concrete with mineral


Luiz Antonio Pereira de Oliveiraa, Joo Paulo de Castro Gomesb & Cristiana Nadir Gonilho

pages 215-220

Publishing models and article dates explained

Received: 2 Nov 2005Accepted: 6 Jan 2006Published online: 14 Oct 2010Article

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This work presents the results of a comparative study of the sorptivity, accomplished in mixtures of selfcompacting concrete with
different types of additives and a normal concrete compacted by vibration. The selfcompacting concrete mixtures present slump
flow of 650 50 mm and have the same cement contents. In the selfcompacting mixtures, were used as additives, fly ash,

Page 23 of 25
silica fume, hydraulic lime and a mixture of fly ash and hydraulic lime. A modified carboxylates superplasticiser was used to
obtain a specific workability. The capillary absorption was carried out at 7, 14 and 28 days of age, through a methodology
described in the work. The results permit to conclude that the used additives propitiate the selfcompacting concrete. In terms of
capillary absorption, the mixtures with fly ash have a better performance.

capillarity, fly ash, hydraulic lime, water absorption, selfcompacting concrete, silica fume,sorptivity

Development of Statistical Models for Mixture

Design of High-Volume Fly Ash Self-Consolidating

Name: 101-M33
Author(s): R. Patel, K. M. A. Hossain, M. Shehata, N. Bouzoubaa, and M. Lachemi
Publication: Materials Journal
Volume: 101
Issue: 4
Pages: 294-302
Keywords: concrete; durability; fly ash
Date: July 1, 2004
DOI: 10.14359/13363

Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in the fresh state is known for its excellent
deformability, high resistance to segregation, and use, without applying vibration, in
congested reinforced concrete structures characterized by difficult casting conditions.
Such concrete can be obtained by incorporating either mineral admixtures such as fly
ash (FA) or viscosity-modifying admixtures (VMA). The use of VMA has proved very
effective in stabilizing the rheology of SCC, and recent researches are focused on the
development of new, cheaper VMAs compared with currently available, costly
commercial ones. Research to produce an economical SCC with desired properties
was conducted over the last few years with the use of FA. In the present study, 21
statistically balanced concrete mixtures were investigated to minimize the use of
high-range water-reducing admixtures (HRWRA) and to optimize the use of fly ash in
SCC. The minimum use of HRWRA and optimum use of FA were desired in this
study. Four independent variables such as total binder content (350 to 450 kg/m3),
percentage of FA as cement replacement (30 to 60% by mass), percentage of HRWRA
(0.1 to 0.6% by solid mass), and water-binder ratio w/b (0.33 to 0.45) were used for
the design of SCC mixtures. The fresh concrete properties were determined from
slump flow, V-funnel flow, filling capacity, bleeding, air content, and segregation

Page 24 of 25
tests. The mechanical properties and durability characteristics of SCC such as
compressive strength, freezing-and-thawing resistance, rapid chloride permeability,
surface scaling resistance, and drying shrinkage were determined to evaluate the
performance of SCC. Four statistical models to predict the slump flow, 1- and 28-day
compressive strength, and the rapid chloride permeability of SCC were developed and
their performances were validated. The models can be used as economical tools for
the optimized design of FA SCC mixtures with desired properties in practical

Page 25 of 25