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Master Ingegneria

g g del Petrolio 2006-2007


G R O U P

Stage Subject

Techniques of artificial lift for viscous oil


San Donato Milanese October the 22nd-23rd 2007

Author Company Tutors


g Stefano Mazzone
Ing. g Roberto Fanciulli
Ing.
Ing. Salvatore Pilone

University Tutor
Prof. Ing. Francesca Verga
Division Exploration & Production
Dept. SPEO/COMP
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P

Artificial lift techniques for viscous oils

Summaryy
9Description of traditional systems of artificial lift ( piston type
pumps, jet pumps, rod pumps, progressive cavity pumps, electric
submersible pumps)

9High viscosity effects on Electric Submersible Pumps (ESP)


performance
9Comparison between Progressive Cavity Pump (PCP) and ESP
performances in presence of heavy / viscous oils
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
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Medium Heavy Oil


25> API > 18 100 cPP > > 10 cP
P
mobile at reservoir conditions

Extra Heavy y Oil


20> API > 7 10 000 cP > > 100 cP
mobile at reservoir conditions

Tar Sands
T S d and d Bitumen
Bit
12> API > 7 > 10 000 cP
non mobile at reservoir conditions
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P

Artificial lift techniques Systems overview

Description
p of traditional systems
y of artificial
lift
Piston pumps
Jet Pumps
Rod Pumps
Progressive Cavity Pumps - PCP
Electric submersible pumps - ESP
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
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Hydraulic piston pumps


There are two types of piston pumps

The open power fluid system (OPF) allows the


exhausted power fluid to mix with the produced fluid

The
The closed power fluid system (CPF) keeps the
power fluid separated from the produced fluid

Disadvantages
Di d t Advantages
Ad t
low capacity high pressure head
power fluid solid control good efficiency
essential depth up to 17.000 feet
(to avoid excessive wear) resists to high temperatures
(300 -500F)
Master Ingegneria
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H d
Hydraulic
li Jet
J t pumps

The Jet ppump p has no moving gp


parts. Power fluid ((water,, crude oil or
diluent) at high pressure is supplied to the nozzle which converts the
pressure head into a high velocity jet reducing the pressure in the
throat and so entraining the production fluid.
fluid The two fluids mix
together in the throat, recover pressure in the diffuser and proceed
upwards.

Advantages
no moving gpparts ((low wear))
suitable for low quality production fluids
suitable for gassy wells
resists to high temperatures
Disadvantages
g suction p
high pressure ((to avoid cavitation))
high input horse power due to low efficiency (up to 30%)
possible emulsion former
Master Ingegneria
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Rod Pumps
Tubing
The p pumping
p g capacity
p y of these devices depends
p on
stroke length, pumping speed, volumetric efficiency Connection
w/tubing
(i.e. the percentage of pumps volume effectively
filled by new fluid)
fluid).

Plunger
Advantages
economic
resists to high temperatures
efficiency range from 50% to 60%
Traveling
valve
Disadvantages
g Barrel
unsuitable for deviated wells
seal wear Cage
Standing
g
low depth (10,000 ft) valve

Ball & seat


Master Ingegneria
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Progressive Cavity Pumps


A PCP is a positive displacement pump made up of a helical rotor
which rotates inside a double internal helical stator
stator. It can be driven
from surface by rotating rods or by a bottom hole electric motor via
a gear reducer (max speed 500 rpm)

Advantages
high efficiency (50%-70%)
(50% 70%)
suited for high viscous and/or abrasive fluids
reduced emulsion for no pulsating motion
works at high temperatures up to (300 F)
Disadvantages
low capacity (max speed 500 rpm)
suitable mostly for shallow wells (5000 ft) if rod driven
low ability to handle free gas (low efficiency)
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P

Electrical Submersible pumps


Submersible pumps are multi-staged centrifugal pumps.
Each stage consists of a rotating impeller and a stationary diffuser.
The impeller imparts kinetic energy and some pressure head to the fluid
The diffuser converts some of the fluid kinetic energy into pressure head
and directs it to the next stage.
Stage after stage the total head required is obtained.

Advantages Disadvantages
high capacity depth limitations due to input
horsepower limitation
good efficiency for high rates
50% for BFPD>1000 sensitivityy to high
g
temperatures
good head
gas locking problems
less than volumetric pumps
Master Ingegneria
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Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
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ESPs typical curves


Rev. A Minimum Casing Size 6.625 inches OD Check Clearances Fluid Specific Gravity 1.00
F
Feet B.E.P. H Eff
Hp
Q = 5511
H = 2833.84
P = 173.95
6,000 600 60%
E = 66.12

5,000 500 50%

4,000 400 40%

3,000 300 30%

2,000 200 20%

1,000 100 10%

0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000


Capacity - Barrels per Day
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P

Artificial lift techniques

Summary
9Description of traditional systems of artificial lift ( piston type
pumps, jet pumps, rod pumps, progressive cavity pumps, electric
submersible pumps)

9High viscosity effects on electric submersible pumps (ESP)


performance
9Comparison between progressive cavity pump and ESP
performances in presence of heavy / viscous oils ( 8-20 API)
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P

Whats the problem?


ESPs performance is always evaluated
pumping water

At moderate to high viscosity ESPs


performance is affected by:
increase of break horse power
head and capacity reduction
efficiency losses
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P

Current correction methods

Affinity
Affi it laws
l for
f rotational
t ti l speed
d correction
ti
(applicable to inviscid fluids)

For viscosity correction :


Hydraulic Institute charts,
Stepanoff,
S ff
Turzo etc..
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P

Hydraulic Institute (1955)

9Tests based on single


g stageg pumps
p p handling g viscous oils.
9 Equations used for corrections, when water performances are known :

BEP (Qw,Hw) Fluid viscosity

vis = Cw Hvis = ChHw Qvis = CqQw

H vis Q vis
BHPvis =
vis 3960
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P

Turzo et al (2000)
Turzo proposed the use of correlations
instead of Hydraulic institute charts:

Cq = 3
1 4.032710 q 1.72410 q
*
( ) 4 * 2

C = 1 3.307510 q + 2.887510 (q )
2 * 4 * 2

Ch1 = 1 3.68 10 q 4.36 10 (q )


3 * 5 * 2

Ch2 = 1 4.472310 q 4.1810 (q )


3 * 5 * 2

Ch3 = 1 7.007610 q 1.4110 (q )


3 * 5 * 2

Ch4 = 1 9.0110 q 1.3110 (q )


3 * 5 * 2
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
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Stepanoff (1957)
Stepanoffs
S ff experiments
i showed
h d that
h at constant rotational
i l speed
d N the
h
specific speed Ns (defined at the best efficiency point) remains constant
either pumping viscous oil or water :

3/ 2
N q 1/ 2
N q 1/ 2
q oil H oil
Ns =
oil bep
=
wbep
= = ( )1.5

q w H w
Cq C H
3/ 4
H oil bep H w3bep
/4
Master Ingegneria
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Defining a Reynolds number-like


as indipendent variable

N qbep
oil

Rstepanoff =
w
H bep oil

Stepanoff proposed the following


correction chart for head, capacity
and efficiency at the B.E.P. :
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P

Artificial lift techniques

Summary
9Description of traditional systems of artificial lift ( piston type
pumps, jet pumps, rod pumps, progressive cavity pumps, electric
submersible pumps)

9High viscosity effects on electric submersible pumps (ESP)


performance
9Comparison between progressive cavity pump and ESP
performances in presence of heavy / viscous oils ( 8-20 API)
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P

Comparison between
water design and oil design of an ESP for a viscous oil
((8 Api,
p 336 cp p at T = 100C)) :

Required parameters : Head = 782 feet Capacity = 3336 RB/day

Pumpss characteristics
Pump
Water
Water design
design Oil design
Oil design
Size : 5,13 Size : 5.13
Efficiency at the required point : 73% Efficiency at the required point : 15.9%
N b off stages
Number t : 31 Number of stages : 87
BHP required : 26.1 BHP required : 119.8
Frequency : 50 Hz q
Frequency y : 50 Hz
Master Ingegneria
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Water design ( = 1 cp)


Performances
f ((31 stages))

1400

1200
Water
1000
Required
q p
point
800
H (feet)

600

400

200

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Q (RB/day)
(RB/d )
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
G R O U P

Oil design ( = 336 cp)

Performances (87 stages)


Water
4000
Turzo
3500
Stepanoff
3000 Edvocia
2500 Required point
H (feet)

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Q (RB/day)
(RB/d )
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
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Excel sheet linking to Prosper


Qwbep (RB/d) 60Hz Hwbep (ft) 60Hz (cp) n (rpm) (sp. gr.) Cq Ch Qobep Hobep
Link to Prosper
4053.700 37.100 317.000 2897.981 0.962 0.718 0.802 2425.491 640.412
stages Q req H req
31 3335 0
3335.0 783.0
783 0 STEPANOFF Water
a e pe
performance
o a ce
Pump Manufacturer Pump Name Size Cq Ch Qobep Hobep
CENTRILIFT E127 5.13 0.711 0.796 2401.034 636.100

EDVOCIA

0,6*Hwbep 0.8*Hwbep Hwbep 1.2*Hwbep Cq Ceff Ch1 Ch2 Stepanoff


32.7 29.7 25.8 20.7 0.688 0.231 0.835 0.811
Ch3 Ch4 qcorrette hcorrette
0 758
0.758 0.694
0 694 1394 900
1394.900 846 325
846.325 Edvocia
1859.867 747.545
2324.833 605.459
2789.800 444.731
Turzo
coefficients Q (RB/d) H (ft) Qmax 60 Hz RB/ Hz TURZO
5.750E+01 0.000 1237.853 7200 50
-6.316E-03 315.789 1192.006
2.073E-06 631.579 1154.819
-6.431E-10 947.368 1122.691
6.093E-14 1263.158 1092.576
-2.259E-18 1578.947 1061.940
1894.737 1028.717
2210.526 991.262
2526.316 948.304
2842.105 898.905 w ater
3157.895 842.409 Stepanoff
Performances Edvocia
3473.684 778.398 1500 Turzo
3789.474 706.651 required point
4105 263
4105.263 627 089
627.089
4421.053 539.741
4736.842 444.687
5052.632 342.022
5368.421 231.803
5684.211 114.009 1000
6000.000 -11.508
H (feet)

500

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
Q (RB/day)
Master Ingegneria
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ESPCPs performances operating viscous oil


Master Ingegneria
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Rod driven PCPs performances operating viscous oil


Master Ingegneria
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Comparison between ESP and ESPCP


( = 336 cp)

ESP ESPCP

BHP required : 119.8 BHP required : 23.0

Efficiency : 15.9% Efficiency : 68.5%


Master Ingegneria
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Conclusions
9 Both ESPs and PCPs are suitable to handle high
viscous oils

9 PCPs are q
quite insensitive to oil viscosity
y showing
g
no reduction in head, capacity.

9 ESPs do loose head, capacity and efficiency


performances requiring heavy oversizing.
However this low efficiency ends up in heating
the produced oil hence reducing its viscosity.
Master Ingegneria
g g del Petrolio 2006-2007
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Future developments for ESPs in viscous oils


Master Ingegneria
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Future technologies to operate viscous oil