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88 Management Insight

ROLE OF MOTIVATION IN HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY


S.K. Srivastava* & Kailash Chandra Barmola**

ABSTRACT
This paper explores the role of motivation in higher productivity. There is a general believe that man
has the natural tendency to be lazy with regards to work and he is being forced by circumstances to
work. According to some scientists, motivation is a need and organization is making great use of every
facility in human works to achieve motivation. Productivity means the rate of power to produce, but
productivity from the management or economic point of view is the ratio of what is produced to what is
required to produce it. This study is therefore designed to find out the link between the extent to which
various motivation strategies encourage the workers to improve their job commitment and increase
their productive capacity. It is examined through the origin and evolution of related studies. On the
other hand, it also offers information relative to the influences perceived and detected in these
developments. This paper presents totally, a concepts based findings. These data allow us to offer an
approximated picture of the motivation in higher productivity. Research suggests that individuals are
motivated to perform well when the work is meaningful and individuals believe they have
responsibility for the outcomes of their assigned tasks. It is recommended that, an organizational
movement should be away from the current merit pay reward system to an organizational structure
that promotes challenges and accomplishments, creates organizational learning opportunities, utilizes
group incentives as well as individual incentives, rethinks job design, uses positive reinforcement and
promotes healthy work environments.

INTRODUCTION resulting to low productivity. Low


Psychologists are intrigued by human productivity is a problem that thrives in
motivation and many of the motivational many societies particularly in the
theories developed in the last century are developing countries irrespective of
applicable today. Use of the theories has constant efforts. A lot of money, energy
enabled us to understand the link between and time are wasted, which if properly
motivation and job satisfaction, utilized will yield higher productivity and
productivity, leadership styles and as such greater wealth for the societies
personal characteristics. There is a general involved. Man is the factor that utilizes
believe that man has the natural tendency other resources available within the
to be lazy with regards to work and he is society for the production of goods and
being forced by circumstances to work. services in order to satisfy individual
This idea about man still continues to needs. Thus, when human resources are
create problems for the development minimally utilized and a maximum output
process of the society in the face of is realized, it leads to the realization of the
abundant human and material resources goals of the systems associated with these

* Professor of Psychology, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar


** Research Scholar, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar

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Role of Motivation in Higher Productivity 89

productive activities. The extent to which important responsibilities of everyone


these human resources are utilized according to some scientists, motivation is
effectively depends on a number of factors, a need and organization is making great
among which are the skills which they use of every facility in human works to
possess, their level of knowledge and how achieve motivation. In todays disposal in
much they can capitalize. order to gain the planned purposes and
The behavioral scientists have organization, besides physiological needs,
primarily attested that increased output is other needs meanwhile the human
a function of the level of human welfare. resources play an important role such as
This concept outstrips attention being opinions, insights and security should be
focused on machines alone because at the in todays competitive world, human
heart of the enterprise and its entire resources guarantee provided for the
structure, the human resource enabled workers because highly motivated human
with skill, experience, attitudes and the maintenance and survival every
intelligence is the most significant in factor organization, resources are playing the
combination of wealth creation and main role in development of today, one of
production process. Organizations, no the main concerning of managers is having
matter their nature, always aim at every developed country, highly motivated
achieving their corporate goals; otherwise, human resources, productivity is the
the survival of such enterprise will be more studies of Honari (2006) showed that
of a dream than a reality. The success of motivation the maximum using of physical
any organization is often measured by the and human resources in a evokes effort
degree of its productivity. Although, this and dynamicity in every organization way
can however be said to be independent on that it causes the improvement in prices,
the attitude and morale of the workers in market, and there is a significant
form of their level of job commitment. No relationship between the job opportunities
company can therefore afford to ignore any and commonwealth. In the other words,
of the many factors that may contribute to motivated factors such as welfare, wage,
the boosting of the commitment levels of work condition productivity of human
its workers, which is motivation. In all resources is another aspect of and nature
productive activities, the basic elements of work with increasing the degree of
and factors include land, capital, labour quality and quantity of products which are
and the entrepreneur. The labourers and as a result of productivity of personnel. If
the entrepreneurs are human and as such human is both the purpose and agent of
very important in any productive enough amount of wage and satisfaction
enterprise. They utilize the other factors and degree of developing, motivated
for the realization for the goal of the factors should be identified and motivation
enterprise. It can then be adduced that have positive relationship. The effects of
human beings play a very important role the reasons of some behaviors of some
within any system and in particular human resources the environmental
industrial organizations. For this reason, factors which effect of the degree of such
they should be given a high consideration as why dose human work? Why do some
so that they can contribute effectively and employees motivation, lower or higher,
efficiently during productive activities. must be investigated and dislike their
jobs? Why are some people active?
Finding the answers of these Cntrolled to accomplish the needed
questions, in fact, is the key. One of the motivation in employees.

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MOTIVATION: A simple definition of as a set of energetic forces that originate


motivation is that which makes people put both within as well as beyond an
real effort and energy into what they do. individuals being, to initiate work-related
Any discussion of motivation should begin behavior, and to determine its form,
with the definition of its subject matter. direction, intensity and duration. Other
One may expect the motivational theories motivational theorists also operationalize
to be the perfect place to look for a motivation as the direction, effort and
generally agreed upon definition. The persistence of behavior, including Clark
inquisitive reader will find, however, that (1998), Ford (1992), Locke and Latham
the field of motivation is characterized by (1990), Madsen (1961).
an abundance of different theoretical THEORY OF MOTIVATION :
frameworks and models that make it Psychologists have been exploring how to
difficult, if not impossible, to identify motivate employees since early in the last
similarities and differences. Kanfer (1990) century and a lot of knowledge on human
surveyed over 30 theories specific to work motivation has been developed and widely
motivation; and recently, Clark (1998) applied. It should be noted that job
reviewed over 40 research-based theories satisfaction is closely associated with
of motivation. However, the number of motivation and some important
proposed definitions by far surpasses the motivational theories are described below.
number of theories. For example,
Kleinginna and Kleinginna (1981) listed 98 1. Roethlisberger and Dickson (1939)
definitions of motivation from which they Classic Study on Worker Performance: The
synthesized their own physiological unusual level of attention from managers
definition with emphasis on process- and researchers motivated workers to high
restrictive, vector and phenomenological performance because it fulfilled the
aspects. The large number of different workers previously unmet social needs.
operational definitions can lead to He concluded that performance feedback
different conclusion about the and pay-for-performance were the specific
phenomenon of interest (Kazdin, 1998). conditions that increased and maintained
Most workers in the field of motivation the high levels of performance. The
define motivation in their own terms. As a fulfillment of social needs is not needed to
result, individual research efforts overlap explain the performance changes.
only little. Although viewing a particular 2. Maslow Needs Hierarchy Theory
phenomenon from many different (1954): To formulate a positive theory of
perspectives may not be a drawback by motivation, humans have innate
itself, in the case of motivation research hierarchical needs, lower-order needs
the point can be made that much of the (e.g., air, water, food and shelter) dominate
research effort has not resulted in an human behavior until they are satisfied.
increased understanding of motivated Unmet needs create psychological tension
behavior. Within the work motivation that energizes and motivates behavior that
literature we can find some general will fill those needs? No practical tools
definitions. For example, Vroom (1964) predict and control behavior? People dont
proposed that the concept of motivation inherently dislike work. People exercise
has to do with the choices made by self direction and self control. Human
persons or lower organisms among beings learn to accept and seek
alternative forms of voluntary activity. responsibility. Managements methods of
Pinder (1998) views the motivation to work organization and control need to recheck,

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Role of Motivation in Higher Productivity 91

establish short-term and long-term goals, performance. Reduce situation that may
provide frequent feedback on progress; lead to inequity.
assessment and changes of goals, appraise 4. Locke and Latham Theory of Goal
results. Setting and Task Performance (1990):
2. Skinner Behavior Analysis (1953): Explain why some people work harder
To predict and control behavior persons than others or perform better than others
history and current environment. Behavior independently of their ability and
is function of environmental contingencies knowledge. Human action is directed by
of reinforcement, establishing operations conscious goals and intentions. Goals
such as deprivation or satiation. influence peoples choice of task and task
Establishing operations and past performance. Goals are the basis for
consequences determine the direction, motivation and direct behavior, provide
effort, and persistence of behavior. Vroom guidelines. Two conditions must be met
expectancy theory (1964) explains work before goals can positively influence
behavior (not the control of it). Person performance: First, person must be aware
must believe that there is a relation of goal and know what must be
between performance and valued accomplished. Second individual must
outcomes (Instrumentality). People must accept the goal as something worth willing
see a relationship between how hard they to work. Goals have to be accepted (basic
try and quality of performance premise). Goals should be difficult and
(Expectancy). The perceived outcomes, specific. Goal setting and feedback of hard
valence, instrumentality and expectancy goals lead to greater effort and persistence
generate a force to exert different levels of than easy goals, assuming that goals are
effort in performance. Establish a accepted.
contingent relationship between 5. Ford Motivational Systems Theory
performance and desired consequences. (1992): Motivation plays a major role in
3. Adams Equity Theory (1965): Predict producing variability and change in
affect, motivation, and behavior based on behavior patterns. Motivation is a function
exchange processes social control. of goals, emotions, and personal agency
Explanation of dissatisfaction and low beliefs. Motivation initiates and maintains
morale, internal perceptions of work activity until the goal directing the episode
environment causes people to form beliefs is attained. Principles for motivating
and attitudes; these cognitions, in turn, humans that can alter problematic
instigate and direct various work related motivational patterns and promote the
behaviors (Pinder, 1998). Motivation is a development should be used in more
function of how a person sees self in adaptive pattern.
comparison to other people. Feelings of
inequity cause tension, which person will MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING
become motivated to reduce. The greater THE PRODUCTIVITY
the inequity, the greater the tension and 1. Intrinsic/Extrinscic Motivation:
the greater the motivation to reduce it. Recently reported a study where intrinsic
How hard a person is willing to work is a motivation strengthened the relationship
function of comparisons to the effort of between prosocial motivation and
theirs. Based on the result of the employee outcomes such as persistence,
comparison a person may either work productivity and performance. Grant
harder, less hard, or maintain claims that employees experience

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prosocial motivation as more autonomous our past experiences that we can


when intrinsic motivation is high because successfully perform in some
intrinsically motivated employees feel that environments and not so successful in
performing well is beneficial to their own others. Behavior analysis postulates that
self-selected goals, as they enjoy their the ultimate sources of our behavior,
work and value the outcome of helping including verbal statements such as
others. Drawing on concepts from beliefs, wishes, or desires, can ultimately
research on prosocial personality, be traced to the consequences of our
prosocial motivation should be pleasure- behavior in (past and) current
based rather than pressure-based, environments. Cognitions are nothing
because employees feel volition, autonomy more than our ability to describe
and free choice in their efforts to benefit particular reinforcement contingencies of
others by way of in-role and extra-role our own behavior based on our own past
work performance when prosocial experiences (Mawhinney & Mawhinney,
motivation is accompanied by intrinsic 1982).
motivation. When intrinsic motivation is 3. Environment: Recent models of work
low, however, employees will experience motivation are addressing the role of the
prosocial motivation as more controlled environment as one determinant of
because they do not enjoy their work or behavior. For example, Keller (1999)
benefiting others through their work. performance factors model includes
Then, prosocial motivation will be better antecedents and consequences as
characterised as pressure-based and influences on performance. Locke and
involving ought representations, and Lathams (1990) goal setting theory
possibly result in stress and role overload centers around goals as antecedents and
and other psychological costs that may feedback as consequences of performance.
impede or diminish any positive effects on This focus on empirical events makes goal
work performance. Extrinsic motivation is setting theory one of the more practical
also important in performce of workers. cognitive theories of motivation that exists
Extrinsic motivation like pay, wages, today. In summary, conceptualizing
bonus and other incentives play a motivation as an internal construct places
significant role in productivity of woekers. the causes of behavior inside the person.
The environment provides the backdrop
2. Cognition: Cognitive theories of
against which motivational mechanisms
motivation, on the other hand, suggest
and processes determine appropriate
that our experiences generate internal
courses of action. These internal events
cognitions (such as desires and beliefs).
are difficult to observe and measure which
These cognitions, in turn, determine
can lead to a number of independent
current performance (e.g., Clark, 1998;
models of the causes of behavior.
Ford, 1992; Maslow, 1954; Vroom, 1964).
Furthermore, when behavior or
However, the question arises: Where do
performance does not meet societal or
cognitions come from? They are the results
work standards, we tend to assume that
of past interactions with our environment.
something is wrong with the person,
For these cognitions to be useful, they
rather than looking for deficits in the
must relate to the persons environment.
persons environment. Behavior analysis
We call people whose cognitions are not
attempts to explain behavior and
related to their environment, maladjusted,
performance by understanding the context
neurotic, or schizophrenic. We learn from
in which it occurs.

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Role of Motivation in Higher Productivity 93

MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY commitment. An overwhelming amount of


It is a truism that employees are an energy is expended in trying to get people
organizations most valuable assets. This to do what we want them to do. We all have
highlights the importance of a task to motivate ourselves to do what we
understanding the theory and application think we should do. It is widely believed
of motivation to manage human resources that when a worker is highly motivated,
(Amar, 2004). One then wonders what the this goes a long way in improving
basic prerequisites of workers organizational productivity, effectiveness
productivity are. Although this question and efficiency. Against this background it
cannot be answered with a definite is necessary to look for a way through
statement, but among other factors, which the morale of workers can be
motivation is important for enhancing level improved which will at the end, enhance
of job commitment of workers, which job commitment with an improvement on
invariably leads to a higher productivity of the standard of living of people, and
the workers. It is then necessary for increase in wealth of individuals and
motivation of the workers in organization development of the society. This study is
to be enhanced in order to increase therefore designed to find out the link
productivity. Productivity literarily means between the extent to which various
the rate of power to produce, but motivation strategies encourages the
productivity from the management or workers to improve their job commitment
economic point of view is the ratio of what and increase their productive capacity.
is produced to what is required to produce The relationship between motivation
it. Usually, this ratio is in the form of an and productivity is more substantial than
average; expressing the total output of simply a psychological connection.
some category of goods divided by the total
(A) Gender Differences: It is found in
input of, say labour or raw material. In
research that women were mainly
principle, any input can be used as the
motivated by other factors in the
denominator of the productivity ratio. One
workplace not by job role itself and had
can speak of the productivity of land,
fewer primary needs met at work. Women
labour, capital or sub-categories of any of
were also more dissatisfied in their job
these factors of production. Simply put,
than men.
productivity is the act of producing or
bringing into being commodities of great (B) Age Differences: The research
value or adding to the wealth of the world. indicated that the older generation was
It can be used to measure the index of more productive than their younger
growth, efficiency, economic standard etc. colleagues. However, research in other
On the other hand, motivation is a word fields has suggested that research
that is rather cumbersome to define in a productivity declines with age (Over, 1982;
meaningful manner. Adams and Jacobson Over, 1988), and that there is a negative
(1964) suggest that motivation deals with association between age and scientific
all the conditions that are responsible for productivity and creativity (Cole, 1979).
variation in the intensity, quality and (C) Caring Responsibilities: It is
direction of behaviour. From an investigated in that those with no
organization point of view, motivation dependants spent more hours on work,
deals with everything that a manager and consequently had higher counts than
knows or can use to influence the direction their colleagues with caring
and rate of individuals behaviour towards responsibilities. Those with dependants

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were far less interested in work for its own improve productivity among workers.
sake, had less satisfaction from working as 1. Promote Challenges and
output was less important and felt less Accomplishments: Specific and challenging
need of work in order to succeed. goals can lead to higher levels of
(D) Hours Spent on Work: The results performance, productivity, and creativity
of researches clearly indicate that those which in turn is linked with an overall
that spent more hours on work were stronger commitment to the organization
mostly those that were motivated by their (Perry, Mesch, & Paarlberg, 2006). We
job role, and had greater job satisfaction propose developing challenging goals and
than those spending less time on work timelines together with employees. By
(either because they were not motivated by setting goals, employees obtain a clear
their job role or because their job role did strategy for their own professional
not permit it). development, which creates greater
(E) Sources of Motivation: It is satisfaction and motivation (Ambrose &
indicated in research that the majority of Kulik, 1999). Goals should be challenging
workers are primarily motivated by their but also attainable. Complex and abstract
job role rather than workplace or extra- goals may lead to decreased work
workplace factors. Interestingly, those that performance and negatively impact
were motivated by factors external to employee morale. Accomplishing goals
workplace had lower job satisfaction. that challenge employee creativity and
Perhaps not surprisingly, those that were problem-solving skills can improve
primarily motivated by the job role had a performance, enhance employee self-
higher output than those with other confidence, and improve job satisfaction
sources of motivation. The research also which can out weigh a one-time monetary
showed that having ones primary needs award (Perry, Mesch, & Paarlberg, 2006).
met at work was key to job satisfaction and Goal setting should be followed by regular
the higher the job satisfaction level, the and thorough feedback given by
higher the output. supervisors on employees goal
achievements.
MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES TO 2. Create Organizational Learning
ENCOURAGE PRODUCTIVITY Opportunities: Goal setting should be
Pay-for-performance incentives are challenging and achievable, goals can also
often utilized in the private sector to promote learning opportunities.
encourage competition among and within Organizations can integrate learning
team, but such a model may not be directly opportunities through setting goals that
applicable to the public sector, as allow employees to engage in problem-
resources are often tighter, and money solving and knowledge acquisition. We
may not be the primary source of have found that merit pay and pay-for-
motivation for those with an ethos of performance systems yield little positive
public service. Research suggests that results on employee performance or
individuals are motivated to perform well learning opportunities, yet a system of
when the work is meaningful and progressively giving employees more
individuals believe they have complex tasks can stimulate employee
responsibility for the outcomes of their learning and consistently improve
assigned tasks. It is recommended employee performance. Organizational
following suggestions which may help to learning opportunities can also challenge

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Role of Motivation in Higher Productivity 95

an employee to think more expansively performance, yet motivating factors such


about their own personal goals (Perry, as job design and positive reinforcement
Mesch, & Paarlberg, 2006). has improved employee performance
3. Utilize Group Incentives as Well as (Perry, Mesch, & Paarlberg, 2006). It is
Individual Incentives: Organizational strongly suggested, using positive
learning and employee personal growth reinforcement as a key tool for motivation.
are impacted by the incentives offered in The latest research about motivation in the
the work environment. It is recommended, public sector has shown that traditional
implementing a variety of awards such as approaches, such as incentive pay
team awards, individual recognition based systems, do not lead to more motivation or
on extraordinary performance, and better performance on the job.
rewards for all employees for their 6. Promote a Healthy Work
achieved goals. In order to strengthen Environment: Organizational practices that
teamwork, praise employees for motivate employees and improve
performance that benefits the team. performance may be ineffective if little
Awarding only a few people with rewards attention is paid to the working
might be counterproductive. According to environment. It is recommend, eliminating
Bob Behn, some hard working employees dissatisfactory work conditions. Create an
might feel treated unfairly and lose their environment which your employees feel is
work spirit or develop resentments to other fair and safe. Install motivators such as
employees and the team (Behn, 2000). acknowledgment, responsibility, and
4. Rethink Job Design: Incentives are learning opportunity to improve the
just one method used to promote employees performance. There are two
motivation in the work environment, elements, crucial for motivated workers:
another method is job design. It is advised, the absence of dissatisfaction about the
implementing a job design in an work environment and salary, which
organization in which employees rotate job creates a neutral attitude towards work,
positions (if possible), gain more followed by motivators to generate
responsibility over their work and extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.
resources, and engage in trainings and Contingent upon above suggestions,
organizational learning opportunities. success requires a comprehensive strategy
Research has shown that job design is a implemented thoughtfully. By working
central element in motivation. Employees together, it can build a highly motivated
work better if they are involved in the and empowered team of talented, top-
organizations decision-making process, performing professionals.
and if they have control over their own
professional development (Ambrose & CURRENT STUDIES ON MOTIVATION AND
Kulik, 1999). Jobs designed with a sense of PRODUCTIVITY
challenge and task significance can Few current studies related to
facilitate a sense of meaningfulness, motivation and productivity are mentioned
leading to better work performance and here. Uwe and Hartwig (2000) have
personal growth in the work setting (Perry, examined the effects of a psychologically
Mesch, & Paarlberg, 2006). based management system on work
5. Use Positive Reinforcement: There is motivation and productivity. It is
little research showing a significant concluded that PPM (Participative
relationship between merit-pay and Productivity Management) helps to

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increase productivity mainly by increasing judgment components of work motivation:


task and goal clarity, and that increases in expectancy judgments, utility judgments,
productivity can only be reached reliably and progress judgments. Second, affective
when no competing system of performance experience may also affect these
appraisal exists besides PPM. Wright behavioral outcomes directly. Patterson, et
(2002) has examined the role of work al. (2004) examined the organizational
context in work motivation: A public sector climate and company productivity: The
application of goal and social cognitive role of employee affect and employee level.
theories. The findings of a covariance An overall analysis showed that company
(LISREL) analysis of state government productivity was more strongly correlated
employee survey data suggested a few with those aspects of climate that had
minor modifications to this model, the stronger satisfaction loadings. A second
results indicated that the theoretical prediction, that managers perceptions of
framework can identify specific leverage climate would be more closely linked to
points that can increase work motivation company productivity than would those of
and, therefore, productivity in the public non-managers, was not supported.
sector. Mehta, et al. (2003) studied the However, managers assessments of most
leadership style, motivation and aspects of their companys climate were
performance in international marketing significantly more positive than those of
channels: An empirical investigation of the non-managers. Kuvaas (2006) has studied
USA, Finland and Poland. More work performance, affective commitment
specifically, in administering a firms and work motivation: The roles of pay
marketing channels, participative, administration and pay level. The key
supportive and directive leadership styles findings are that base pay level, but not
may be effective in eliciting channel bonus level, was positively related to both
partners to exert higher levels of self-reported work performance and
motivation, which, in turn, may be affective unit commitment, and that these
associated with higher levels of relationships were partly mediated by
performance. The linkages among intrinsic motivation. Furthermore,
leadership styles, motivation, and moderation analyses revealed that the
performance are empirically examined on relationships between bonus level and the
data drawn from a sample of automobile outcome variables were not affected by
distributors in the USA, Finland and type of pay plan.
Poland. Miao and Evans (2007) studied the
Seo, et al. (2004) studied the role of impact of salesperson motivation on role
affective experience in work motivation. perceptions and job performance: A
Based on psychological and cognitive and affective perspective.
neurobiological theories of core affective Empirical results from a survey of
experience, we identify a set of direct and salespeople indicate that, compared to the
indirect paths through which affective global motivation constructs, the cognitive
feelings at work affect three dimensions of and affective representation of I/E
behavioral outcomes: direction, intensity, (intrinsic and extrinsic) motivation
and persistence. First, affective experience provides a more robust description of the
may influence these behavioral outcomes salesperson motivation-role perceptions-
indirectly by affecting goal level and goal performance relationship. Ellerslie and
commitment, as well as three key Oppenheim (2008) examined the effect of

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Role of Motivation in Higher Productivity 97

motivation on publication productivity of Kuvaas and Dysvik (2009) studied the


UK. Findings demonstrate significant perceived investment in employee
differences in motivational levels and development, intrinsic motivation and
publication counts by age, gender, caring work performance.
responsibilities and hours spent on Intrinsic motivation was found to
research. The paper concludes that those moderate the relationship between
likely to produce more publications were perceived investment in employee
older males without responsibilities who development and organisational
did 6-15 hours research per week. Dysvik citizenship behaviour. The form of the
and Bard (2008) examined the relationship moderation revealed a positive
between perceived training opportunities, relationship only for employees with high
work motivation and employee outcomes.
levels of intrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivation was found to
moderate the relationship between Parkin, et al. (2009) examined the
perceived training opportunities and motivation among construction workers in
organizational citizenship behaviors. The Turkey. As a result it is suggested that
form of the moderation revealed a positive workers on Turkish construction sites are
relationship for those with high intrinsic managed in a way which limits their
motivation. In sum, the variables included opportunities to fulfill higher level needs,
as predictors in our study explained and in order to increase worker
13 per cent of the variance in task motivation, and therefore productivity, the
performance, 19 per cent of the variance management of such workers should move
in organizational citizenship behavior and away from control through external means
24 per cent of the variance in turnover and towards control through internal and
intention. cultural forces. Baek, et al. (2010) have
investigated the influences of core self-
Mason, et al. (2008) studied
evaluations, job autonomy and intrinsic
motivation and perceived productivity at a
motivation on in-role job performance. The
merged higher education institution. The
results suggest that employees perceived
results reflect that there is a positive
higher in-role job performance when they
relationship between motivation and
had higher core self-evaluations and
perceived productivity at the specific
intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation
organization under investigation
partially mediated the relationship
indicating an increase or decrease in
between core self-evaluations and job
motivation is accompanied by a
performance, and it also fully mediated the
corresponding increase or decrease in
perceived productivity. Ibadan and Obioha relationship from job autonomy to job
(2009) examined the role of motivation in performance. Masoud and Camal (2010)
enhancing job commitment in Nigeria studied the effect of motivation on the
industries: A case study of energy foods productivity of the employees of sport
company limited. It can then be adduced departments of Ardabil province. It is
that human beings play a very important concluded that there is a significant and
role within any system and in particular positive relationship between the
industrial organizations. For this reason, motivation and the environmental factors
they should be given a high consideration and the degree of productivity of
so that they can contribute effectively and employees of sport departments of Ardabil
efficiently during productive activities. province.

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98 Management Insight

CONCLUSIONS Behn, R. D. (2000). Performance, People and


Pay. Kennedy school of government, Harvard
From this study it is obvious that most university. Remarks prepared for the Colorado
workers in the industry are not satisfied state government managers annual business
and motivated in their jobs, especially conference Breckenridge, Colorado
those in the junior cadre. Significant Brethower, D. M. (1995). Specifying a human
relationship was found between performance technology knowledge base.
motivation and job commitment on one Performance Improvement Quarterly, 8(2),
hand, and satisfaction with job and job 17-39
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Part1-Diagnosing and solving motivation
that individuals are motivated to perform problems. Performance Improvement, 37(8),
well when the work is meaningful and 39-47
individuals believe they have Cole, S. (1979). Age and scientific
responsibility for the outcomes of their performance. The American Journal of
assigned tasks. It is recommended that, an Sociology, 84(4), 958-977
organizational movement should be away Cole, J. (1971). Measuring the quality of
from the current merit pay reward system sociological research: Problems in the use of
to an organizational structure that the science citation index. The American
Sociologist, 6(5), 23-29
promotes challenges and
Dysvik, A. and Bard, K. (2008). The
accomplishments, creates organizational relationship between perceived training
learning opportunities, utilizes group opportunities, work motivation and employee
incentives as well as individual incentives, outcomes. International Journal of Training
rethinks job design, uses positive and Development, 12(3), 138-157
reinforcement and promotes healthy work Ellerslie, S. and Oppenheim, C. (2008). The
environments. effect of motivation on publication productivity
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