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COY.RESPONDENCE

 

TO

FLIP-FLOP

 

NODE

~

 

VRFF

BIT

LINE

,

(a)

 

1

I

I

(b)

 

w

 

10

100

1000

 

CELL

CURRENT

ICELL

(MICROAMPERES)

Fig. 3, (a,)Schematical cross section of the device region T~/T~h.ving a, buried layer only under tk,e
Fig.
3,
(a,)Schematical cross section of the device region T~/T~h.ving
a, buried
layer only under tk,e emitter region
P,. Thus .Dit.wia,lscries
resistsmce~ become
effective in the co~lector of T,
and
in
tbe
base of l’~, (b) Equivalent
circuit of
the region shownm
(a,)and measured
wrote current versus cell current.
I
\
I
I
1000
I
1.
~a~R,;E\xO
:
/
\
\ADELAV-’
,
\
\
\.
100
‘A
“\
,
READ \
/
.i ‘
O-’--%-.
>L
DELAY
i
‘u
1
I
--A
lo~’?
0.1
12
5
10
100
(MlCft0i4MpEREs)
1 CELL
Fig,
4,
Read and write del~ys versus Quiescent cell current.
Writ.
delay curve
(.) f.rconstant
current suDply and (b) for.onsLnnt
voltage suuply.

Fig. 4 shows read and write delays versus cell current. The different write delay curves a and b aredue to different power supply conditions.

233

curve

b

the

write

speed

limit

of

s

30

ns

is reached

at

much

smaller

quiescent

cell

current.

In

an

actual

array,

the

current

withdrawal

 

from

the

other

cells

is

harmless

as

these

would

keep

their

information

even

under

total

power

off

for

much

longer

times

than

the

write

time,l

 

The

read

performance

is

not

noticeably

affected

by

the

self-

powering

because

of

the

much

smaller

read

time

period.

The

read

delay

was

measured

as

in

footnotel

( 100-mV

output

sig-

nal)

but

with

smaller

load

capacitance

(s

6 pF)

simulating

the

load

of

32

of such

smaller

cells

on

a

column

of

32

X

32-bit

array.

 
 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

 

The

authors wish to thank P. Gansauge, K,

Kroell,

and F.

Seidenschwann

for

their

excellent

work

in

developing

the

process.

 

On the Transient

Response

 

of Emitter

Followers

 
 

ARPAD

BARNA

 

Afr.sfracf-Trsnsient

 

response

of emitter

followers

is

analyzed

incorporating

the

effects

of collector-base

and

load

capacitances,

gain-bandwidth

product,

excess delay,

arrd

base,

collector,

and

load

resistances.

Basic

considerations

 

pertaining

to

transient

response

and

instabilities

are

discussed,

and

numerical

results

are

given

for

a wide

range

of circuit

parameters.

 

1, INTRODUCTION

One of the basic circuit configurations in present day high- speed circuits is the emitter follower. In addition to its use as

a buffer, it also forms the basis for current-mode logic circuits.

In these and many other applications, transient response and stability are of paramount importance. Spontaneous oscillations in emitter followers are rarely acceptable, and ringing during the transitions in a current-mode switching circuit can lead to significant deterioration of performance. In order to account for all phenomena, it is usually necessary to include effects that

are outside the emitter follower itself, such as feedback

from

other stages via power supply, stray capacitances,

and,

in

integrated circuits, also viasubstrate and isolation capacitances. If all such effects are considered, it is possible—at least in principle—-to obtain the exact transient response. As more effects

are taken into account, however, more variables result and tradeoff considerations become more difficult. Thus, there is

some merit in restricting attention to a few major phenomena in order to attain an understanding of the gross features. The approach followed here uses a simple model to demon- strate the effects of various components on the transient re- sponse. It will be seen that the source resistance and the load capacitance can increase the overshoot and ringing in the step function response to over 70 percent. Although the model

Curve a is valid for a constant current individually sup- plied to the cell. However, in a large array with a large number

 

1

Rc

of cells supplied in parallel by

a constant

current, the power

supply for the individual cell being written appears nearly as

 

J-

1’

Cc

a constant voltage (current can be withdrawn from other

 

%

cells). This condition was simulated by a capacitor

at

Z

(Fig.

 

tsEy

yn

 

1).

With

this

capacitor,

the

much

better

performance

ac-

cording to curve b was measuted.

This

is

due to

an internal

 

powering

(self-powering)

of

the

cell.

It

is clear from the inset

 

1’$””’

of

Fig.

3(b)

that

the

initial

write

current

Iw

will

 

cause

a

voltage

drop

at resistor l?.,

so that the base potential

 

of

T,,

+

T,

moves

down.

This,

with

constant

supply

voltage,

causes

 

Fig.

1.

Emitter- fcdlowercimuit.

 

the

cell

current

to

increase

and

so

does

the

write

current.

 

Thus an internal feedback mechanism turns on until the

Man”soript

received october

17, 1972; revised November 15, 1972.

saturation ‘of

TC hrnlts the currents. This

explains why with

The a,uthm is with the Hewlett-Packard

Laboratories,

Palo Alto, Calif.

——

f.

—.

b--q”

-4=.-J”

–-IV

Q+’

IL--l”

x

234

——

I v

--p---l”

iR(t)i

r,

Q

Q

._.

-L.

_Q

27rfTre re

Fig. 2.

f%dl-si~nal

tm,nsiatormodelused

in the circuit

of Fig.

1,

%

50

20

10

  • m I

2TfTD=

0.5

0

Fig. 3,

Overshoot and ringing in percenta with C.

=

Oand RL

=

co.

%

1o11

m D=O
5

50

20

10

>@

~v,’+

,0

@

~

.

~,o

0

IEEE JOURNAL

OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, JUNE

1973

D=O

50

“/.

20

10

5

w

Parameters: (Rc[Rg, 27rfTRgcc)

*O?’

+$’.,

*O

$

@

&

a

*,O

~

,,

QQ’ *

&

,>

0,1

0.2

0.5

I

2

5

2mfTRgCL

(a)

10

2rrfTRgCi

(b)

0.1 0.2 0,5 1 2 5 10 27TfTRgCL (c) ---&i: ——, Fig. 5. Overshoot snd ringing
0.1
0.2
0,5
1
2
5
10
27TfTRgCL
(c)
---&i:
——,
Fig.
5.
Overshoot
snd
ringing in Dercents with
RL
=
cc
and
with
R./RO and
2rfTRoC, as f)arameters
(a,)
(a)
D
=
O, (b)
2,T@
= 0,5,and (c)2+D
=
1.
-J-lJ!”
ceptable.1 In what follows, the overshoot and ringing of the
small-signal step function response is examined as a function
of various circuit parameters.
11, ‘rHE CIRCUIT
The
emitter-follower
circuit
used
for
the
computation
of
transients is shown in Fig. 1 and its small-signal transistor model
in Fig. 2. It is assumed that the transistor operates in its forward
active region and that its ohmic base resistance is included in R,,
its ohmic collector resistance in R., and its collector-to-base
capacitance
in
Co. An
h~~ >>
1 is assumed;
emitter resistance
~,
=
nkT/qI~d., where 1~~, is the de emitter current and
1 <
n < 2. Parameters governing the speed of the transistor are
represented by gaimbandwidth
llroduct ~~ and excess delay D.
When the excess delay can be neglected, collector current i, is
not delayed and diffusion capacitance Cd = 1/(2rrj’~r@). When
excess delay
D
#
O, Cdis reduced to result in a constant j“r.z In
real high-frequency transistors 2rrj’~D~ 0.5, while the limit@g
case of 27r~~D= 1 implies a pure delay and results in Cd = O.
III.
TRATWIENTR~SPO~SE
The small-signal transient response for a step function input
was computed numerically in the time domain for various
combinations
of parameters.s In the simplest case when C.
=
27rfTRgCL
I v
O and
R,,
=
m (current source),
the transient is determined
(c)
by
R,,
C,,
f,,
and D.
The
results, depicted
in
Fig.
3, show
Fig.4.
Ovemhoot and ringing in percent,
with C,
=
Oand with R.
/Rg w
IMrmn.
u---[’
that
for
a given
f.
the overshoot
and ringing increase with
et.,.
(a) D
= O,(b)
2,TfrD
=
0.5, and
(o) 2wfTD
=
1.
increasing
R,,
CL, and
D,
Thus,
it
is desirable
to
minimize
.EL-J”
does not account for instabilities (oscillations),
a circuit
that
1While the, 10 pm-cent number is arbitrary,
the principle is ana,logow to wttinz
x
has this much
ringing can become
unstable
with
very
little
a phase rmmgm ?n a feedback system.
z The
convent,mml measurement of gain bandwidth Dmduct fT is assumed hem,
external feedback,
Thus,
in
order
to keep
the
circuit
safe
in which the, current amplification is multiplied hy the frequency of the mea,mre-
from oscillations,
it
is desirable to
set a limit—say
10 per-
ment which ISmuch less than
fT.
3The cmnmt ations used modified Euler method with Ii PCAD, Fortm.n IV,
cent—on the amount of overshoot and ringing that is ac-
and Algol pmgra,ms

CORRESPONDENCE

235

these parameters. Unfortunately,

R,

is

always

at

least

as

a multiplexer, where dynamic offset elimination can be imple-

large as the ohmic base resistance and C,, cannot be reduced

mented between multiplexer

.41s0, significant cost sav-

below external stray capacitances. When the overshoot

and

ings can be realized from a reduced number of potentiometer

ringing resulting for a set of R,, C~,, f~, and D are not ac-

adjustments required both at time of manufacture and during

ceptable, other means of improvement

have to be investigated.

field maintenance. Solutions to the remaining technical, per-

When

R,, can be made comparable

to

or

smaller than R,,

formance, and implementation problems are discussed later.

significant improvements result, as shown in Fig. 4. These are, however, not applicable when the de emitter current is sup-

DIFFERENTIAL

AMPLIFIER

OPERATION

plied by a current source and l?. has to remain large. In

such

The differential zero-correction

amplifier circuit is shown in

cases two additional methods of improving the transient re- sponse are available. One of these inserts between the emitter and ground a. series RC network. Unfortunately, the capaci- tances required (typically 10–100 pF) are not practical in

integrated circuits.4 The other method

utilizes C.

and R.

for

the improvement of the transient response as shown in Fig. 5.

When C.

O, R.

has no effect

on the transient,

otherwise

= increasing C. and R.

reduce the magnitude of overshoot

and

ringing.

It

should

be

noted

that

the

reduction

in

overshoot

and

ringing is accompanied by an increase in rise time, which is not computed here. Thus, if fast rise time is of importance, the designer has to aim at a reasonable, rather than minimum, overshoot and ringing.

4 This method is discussed in

A. Barna,, Ilig&Spe.d

Ptdw

Circuits.

New

York:

Wiley-lnterscience,

1970.

 

A Differential

Zero-Correction

Amplifier

 

RICHARD

C.

JAEGER

AND GEORGE’

A.

HELLWARTH

 

a offset voltage with time and temperature

Abstract—The

maintenance

of

constant

is

one

equivalent

of the

most

input

difficult

problems in direct-coupled amplifiers. An improved zero-correction

 

technique

is used

to realize

a differential

 

amplifier

with

a very

low

input

offset voltage.

Direct-coupled

amplifiers

have

as

one

of

their

 

most

dif-

ficult

performo.nce

problems

the

maintenance

 

of

a

constant

 

input

offset

voltage

and

offset

current

over

periods

 

of

time

and

changing

temperatures.

Goldberg

 

[1],

[2]

accomplished

 

control

of

de

amplifier

input

drift

by

a periodically

operated

switch

or modulator

at

the

input

of

an

amplifier,

 

an

auxiliary

at-coupled

amplifier,

and

a

demodulator

switch

and

filter.

This

produced

a

de

correction

signal

reinserted

into

the

amplifier’s

input,

Prinz

[3]

and

others

later

proposed

 

operat-

 

ing

switches

synchronously

between

the

cycles

 

of

a

multi-

plexer

or

analog-to-digital

converter

such

as

found

in

a

data

acquisition

system.

With

this

technique,

the

switches

and

demodulation

filter

of

Goldberg

are

altered

into

a

measure-

 

and-hold

circuit,

The

circuit

measures

the

magnitude

of

the

input

offset

with

the

amplifier

input

short ed

by

a

switch.

 

The

correction

voltage

is

held

and

inserted

at

the

amplifier

inpwt

during

the

normal

operation

of

the

amp] ifier.

Offner

[4]

applied

a

drift

correction

signal to

an inner stage

of

a

multistage amplifier.

The techniques have various practical or implementation problems. The Goldberg technique produces carrier-frequency noise from the switches and has a slow recovery from overload. Other methods suffer from errors in the sample-and-hold cir- cuit or from feedback instability during the correction cycle. In general, the techniques have not been applied to high- perforrnance de amplifiers with full differential input capa- bility.

Since rapid

technological

advances

have

occurred

in inte-

grated

circuit

amplifiers and

components,

the need

for

zero

stabilization has subsided somewhat. Howeverj a need still exists to provide the highest possible performance for data acquisition applications. In many data acquisition applications, an amplifier and analog-to-digital converter are operated from

Manuscript rweived September !3,1972; revised January 12, 1973

The a,uthors are with the IBM Corporation, Boca Raton, F].,

Fig. 1. The circuit operates with a sequence of two switch- controlled intervals. Amplifier operation begins with initiation of the error storage cycle by opening switches S6–S9 and clos- ing switches S1–S5, During this interval, the difference of the amplifier’s equivalent input offset voltages is amplified by the first amplifier A and stored by the sample-and-hold circuitry formed by capacitor C and amplifier K. The ~mplification cycle is later initiated by opening switches S1–S5 and closing switches

S6-S9

allowing normal amplification

of the input voltages W

and V2. The correction voltage, stored on capacitor C, is also applied to the amplifier through the output of tmplifier K and cancels the output voltage components caused by the amplifier offset voltages. Injection of this correction voltage allows the normal amplification of the input voltages without errors being intro- duced by the offset voltages. Application of the correction voltage to an input point after

the first stage or stages of the amplifier allows the error voltage stored by the sample-and-hold to be relatively large compared

to the case where the error voltage is applied

directly to the

input

of

the first stage.

Equivalent

input errors cans?d by

sample-and-hold circuit inaccuracies arc significantly reduced. Examination of the offset formulas given in Fig. 1 yields the desirable amplifier gains. Amplifier B should have very high gain to reduce the corrected offset m much as possible. Ampli-

fier A gain should be chosen to yield a large value of Vc com- mensurate with amplifier capabilities, and the nmplifier must

operate in its linear region when the overall feedback

loop is

opened, The closed-loop gain G of amplifier K is chosen near

unity so as not to negate the advantages of applying the cor- rection voltage after the first stage of the amplifier, Key to the realization of the differential zero-correction amplifier is the ability to operate the amplifier consisting of

stages A and B of Fig. 1 with

unity common-mode gain but

with full open-loop differential gain. Note that only a single correction voltage is required to provide zero correction for the amplifier.

AMPLIFIER

STABIIJZATION

Each mode of amplitkr operation has two feedback loops

that must be stable. The required conditions are obtained by studying the common-mode and differential-mode gain equa-

tions for

each cycle, The results are given in Table 1. Using

Bode or iYyquist techniques, frequency compensation networks may be determined that yield amplifier stability.

PRACTICAL ~ EALIZATION

Fig, 2 shows one implementation of the differential zcro- correction amplifier using bipolar transistors in the input, stage and 741-type operational amplifiers elsewhere. Several changes

are included in the amplifier of Fig. 2. During the correction cycle, it is not necessary to C1OSCthe feedback loop to the center of the resistor string formed by R1 and R2 thus saving a switch and precision resistor. The collectors of the input pre- amplifiers are cross coupled to provide full differential correc- tion to the amplifier and to retain the balance necessary for good common-mode rejection ratio. Error correction is injected, as a current, to taps on the collector resistors of the differential transistor preamplifiers. The switches S1–S9 are implemented

using low ‘{on” resistance MOS field-effect

transistors.

.4 pair

of

junction field-effect transistors, a capacitor, and a MOSFET form the sample-and-hold circuit, If the additional open-loop gain provided by the preaml]lifiers is not necessary, they may be omitted. The correction signal can then be injected directly into the cross-coupled offset adjustment ports of the opera- tional amplifiers [6].

—— –“/

b--+

J+--J”

W“*

-~,.”

!“

IL_!,”