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Technical Manual

Polybutylene PB -
The complete piping system
for heating, hot and cold
water, chilled water and
compressed air systems INSTAFLEX

P aten
t pend
ing

INSTAFLEX
Technical Manual
6th Edition November 2004

GEORGE FISCHER
Piping Systems

GEORGE FISCHER 
George Fischer Company Profile
Inventiveness and enterprise, a metal processing machines; and
thirst for knowledge and a sound finally, plant engineering and
understanding of his craft, these were construction, which is concerned
characteristics of Johann Conrad with solving process engineering
Fischer, who began producing cast problems in the chemical industry,
steel in crucibles in a former herb mill plastics production and processing,
in Schaffhausen in 1802. This was food production and casting.
the beginning of a new era of iron
processing on the European continent George Fischer is a company which
as well as the cornerstone of a large has earned a worldwide reputation
industrial enterprise now operating through the high technological
worldwide. standard of its products and their
outstanding quality. The applied
Actual industrial production began engineering know-how which
in the second half of the last century George Fischer has acquired and
with the development of malleable keeps up-to-date via its extensive
iron foundries in Schaffhausen and consulting activities, is utilized for
Singen, as well as the large steel the benefit of users in the design of
foundry in Schaffhausen. The first products for maximum practicality
diversification into areas other than and ease of installation.
casting occurred in the 1920s, when
the largest engineering factory in A whole series of innovative new
Schaffhausen was incorporated developments, such as a bead and
into the George Fischer Works. This crevice free fusion jointing system,
factory manufactured copying lathes or a secondary containment piping
and subsequently fully automatic system, highlight the pioneering role
turning machines. played by George Fischer in the field
of piping systems.
A major step towards diversification
into other materials was taken some Plant engineers in particular
45 years ago. The diversity and appreciate the product consistency
especially the aggressiveness of and accuracy of tolerances,
media conveyed in pipelines led to maintained over many years.
the extension of the product range in
the early fifties to include fittings and Products from George Fischer
valves made of high-grade plastics. bearing the trademark have
become a byword with professionals
George Fischer now employs a work- and cover a large part of the
force of over 14,000 in numerous range of metal and plastic products
factories in Europe and elsewhere. necessary for pipeline construction
in industry, building services and
Its activities are combined in four communal supply networks.
divisions: the automotive products,
which handle a wide range of
materials and focus mainly on the
automotive and power engineering
sectors; metal and plastic piping
systems with the increasingly
important measurement and control
technology; manufacturing
technology, with the emphasis on
automated and system-integrated

 GEORGE FISCHER
George Fischer Piping Sy-
stems,
Schaffhausen.

George Fischer Distribution


Centre Coventry (DCC)

GEORGE FISCHER 
Introduction
The technical data given in This manual contains all the essential
this publication are for gene-
ral information purposes only
information on the George Fischer
and is liable to change. They plastic piping system INSTAFLEX
imply no warranty of whate- for use in commercial, industrial
ver kind. Please consult our and domestic hot and cold water
General Conditions of Supply. installations.

It has been written for use in the UK


market taking into account current
standards and regulations. Since
these are under regular review
the reader should ensure that their
application complies with the current
legislation.

The manual has been subdivided


into three main sections:

general,
materials,
technical.

The general section at the


beginning of the manual is an
introduction to hot and cold water,
potable water distribution in
domestic, industrial and commercial
installations as well as plastic
materials technology.

In the materials section the


plastic polybutylene (PB) and other
materials used in the system are
discussed.

In the technical section you will find


all the essential data for planning,
processing, installing and operating.

 GEORGE FISCHER
Overview
Company Profile
Introduction/Overview/Table of Contents
List of abbreviations

General Information 1

Technical Regulations (Standards etc.) 2

Chemical Resistance
3

INSTAFLEX System Technology


4

Dimensional Information
5

Expansion & Contraction


6

Flow Characteristics
7
INSTAFLEX Jointing
8

GEORGE FISCHER 
Contents
The INSTAFLEX System Philosophy 1 .02
What is INSTAFLEX? 1 .03
What is Polybutylene? 1 .04
Why polybutylene (PB)? 1 .05 - 1 .09
Comparison between different materials and jointing techniques 1 .10
Plastics and the environment 1 .11 - 1 .14
History of Polybutylene 1 .15
Characteristics of Polybutylene 1 .16 - 1 .17
Application range for INSTAFLEX pipe & fittings 1 .18 - 1 .19

Standards and Regulations 2.02


Tests and Quality Assurance 2.03
Legionella-proof Operation 2.04
Hygiene Standards 2.04
Fire Protection 2.05
Noise Protection 2.06
Insulation of Water Pipes 2.07
Heat loss from INSTAFLEX 2.07
Surface temperature of INSTAFLEX pipe 2.07
Insulation of Hot Water Pipes 2.08
Trace Heating 2.09
Heaters for Potable Water 2.09
Flushing Potable Water Pipes 2.10
Disinfection of Potable Water Systems 2.10
Pipework Additives 2.10
Approvals in Europe 2.11

Chemical Resistance 3.02

INSTAFLEX system technology 4.02


Multistorey Installations 4.03
Pipe Layout 4.03
Individual Pipeline 4.03
Continuous Pipeline 4.03
Ring Main 4.04
T-piece Branching 4.04
Continuous Pipeline with Circulation 4.04
Pipe Layout for Large Flow Rates 4.05
Pipe Layout in Screed Floors 4.05- 4.06
Pipe Layout in the Masonry (Recessed Mounting) 4.07
Pipe Layout in Dry lined & Partition Walls 4.08
Frostproof Pipe Laying 4.09
Curvature Radius 4.10

Comparison of pipe dimensions 5.02


z Dimension installation method 5.03 - 5.04
Application examples 5.05 - 5.07
Conclusions for practical use 5.08
Fitting combinations 5.09 - 5.15

 GEORGE FISCHER
Contents (contd.)
Expansion & Contraction 6.01
Introduction 6.02
Change in length 6.03
Allowing for expansion or contraction 6.04 - 6.07
Bracket spacing 6.08 - 6.12

Flow Characteristics 7.01


Determining Pressure Loss in Piping Systems Using the
INSTAFLEX Calculation Method
2.1 Determining Pipe Diameter 7.02
2.2 Manifold Distribution 7.03
2.3 Distribution Mains 7.05
2.4 Entire Installation 7.05
Blank INSTAFLEX Pressure Loss Table 7.06
British Method and Data
Calculation example based on C.I.B.S.E. 7.07
Excerpts from the C.I.B.S.E. guidelines 7.09
Simultaneous demand peak flow tables 7.10
Pressure loss and flow velocity tables 7.11 - 7.13
Equivalent pipe length tables 7.14
Flushing Times for Dead Legs 7.15
Terms, Symbols and Units 7.16 - 7.17

INSTAFLEX Jointing 8.01


Compression jointing 8.02
Fusion Jointing 8.03 - 8.48
Electrofusion Jointing 8.49 - 8.57
Cutting & joining INSTAFLEX sleeve 8.58 - 8.60
Cutting & preparing INSTAFLEX carrier 8.61
Handling & storage instructions for INSTAFLEX 8.62
COSHU Regulations for cleaning fluid 8.63 - 8.66
Safety considerations for machinery 8.67 - 8.72
Operational tests & ordinary maintenance 8.73
Common faults in fusion jointing 8.74 - 8.81
INSTAFLEX Installation Quick Reference Guide 8.82

GEORGE FISCHER 
Abbreviations
The following is a list of abbreviations
used in this catalogue:

ABS Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene
ASA American Standards Association
BSP British Standard Pipe (Thread)
CSM Chlorine Sulphonyl Polyethylene
(e.g. Hypalon)
CR Chloroprene Rubber (e.g. Neoprene*)
DIN Deutsche Industrie Normen (German Industrial
Standards)
DN Nominal Bore (of pipe)
EPDM Ethylene Propylene Rubber
FPM Fluorine Rubber (e.g. Viton*)
g Weight in grammes
GP Carton (Gross Pack)
GRP Unsaturated Polyester resin glass-fibre
reinforced
IIR Butyl Rubber
ISO International Standardisation Organisation
kg Weight in kilogrammes
NBR Nitrile Rubber
NP Nominal Pressure
NR Natural Rubber
PB Polybutylene
PE Polyethylene
POM Polyoxymethylene (e.g. Kematal**)
PP Polypropylene
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene (e.g. Teflon*)
PVDF Polyvinyliden Fluoride
PVC-C Chlorinated Polyvinylchloride
PVC-U Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride
R Taper Thread
Rp Parallel Thread
SP Standard Pack
* Duponts registered trade name
** ICIs registered trade name

 GEORGE FISCHER
INSTAFLEX

The modern versatile piping system

A full range of pipe and fittings makes the INSTAFLEX system highly versatile.

Allowing prefabrication and being


lightweight make the installation of an
INSTAFLEX system highly cost effective.

GEORGE FISCHER 
INSTAFLEX the plastic piping
system for complete services
installations in one material

The efficient distribution of services in buildings is a


demanding undertaking. The plastic piping system INSTAFLEX
from George Fischer meets these high requirements.

Suitable for:
Application Temp Working pressure
Heating systems 82C 7bar
Hot water services 65C 10bar
Cold water services 10C 16bar
Chilled water systems 5C 16bar
Compressed Air 20C 16bar

Above figures based on 50 year lifespan and safety factor of 1 .5.

10 GEORGE FISCHER
General Information
Page

The INSTAFLEX System Philosophy 1 .02


What is INSTAFLEX? 1 .03
What is Polybutylene? 1 .04 1
Why polybutylene (PB)? 1 .05 - 1 .09
Comparison between different materials and jointing techniques 1 .10
Plastics and the environment 1 .11 - 1 .14
History of Polybutylene 1 .15
Characteristics of Polybutylene 1 .16 - 1 .17
Application range for INSTAFLEX pipe & fittings 1 .18 - 1 .19

GEORGE FISCHER 1 .0


The INSTAFLEX system philosophy
We offer various solutions for the It incorporates the experience
optimal installation of pipework George Fischer has gained from
systems, but the designer and the many years of active participation
installer have the final say. in various national and international
This manual is intended for both standards and professional
designers and installers and associations. Our own accredited
offers guidelines for the design testing facilities and close co-
and installation of the INSTAFLEX operation with the pipe and raw
pipework system. George Fischer's materials manufacturers validates the
extensive knowledge in pipework contents of this manual.
installations as well as in the
manufacturing of plastic piping This manual in conjunction with the
systems is the background for this current product range forms the basis
manual. required for system layout.

1 .0 GEORGE FISCHER


What is INSTAFLEX?
The versatile pressure piping
system for building services

For use on:

Hot & cold water services 1


Heating systems

Chilled water
Pipe & fittings 16 -110mm
Compressed airlines
Pipe-in-sleeve

The INSTAFLEX system has been Accessories & jointing

designed for use as a complete equipment


building services piping system which Valves
provides a solution to the problems
faced by traditional materials Jointing & installation
namely: The INSTAFLEX system utalises three
complimentary jointing techniques:
No corrosion socket fusion
No encrustation/limescale electrofusion

compression fittings
No noise emmission
Long service life Each of which have advantages
depending on the installation in
High flexibility question. Most installation tend to
incorporate more than one type of
Fast assembly jointing method.
Lightweight Due to the flexibility of the system and
the material's lightweight significant
Launched in 1980 into mainland savings can be made on installation
Europe and into the UK in 1995 time and costs.
this system has provided installers
and designers with a flexible system Technical advice & support
which meets the stringent demands George Fischer's expertise and
of modern building design and technical knowledge in the piping
construction. system field is recognised worldwide.
In order to assist designers and
Material installers in the optimum use of the
Manufactured from polybutylene INSTAFLEX system the following
(PB), a high performance plastics support is available :
material, which was specifically
developed for use in piping systems On-site support & advice
for potable water. Its inherent Design take-offs
charachertistics make it ideal for Certificated jointing training
this purpose and for other building courses
services applications. Technical support
CAD
Range Custom products
A full range of pipe and fittings are
available with adaptors to join onto
other piping system components.

GEORGE FISCHER 1 .0


What is Polybutylene (PB)?
Polybutylene is a thermoplastic from Flexibility, even at low temperatures,
the polyolefine family. It is a semi-cry- high thermal stability make polybuty-
stalline material. Its density is in the lene a modern material. Not only for
range of other thermoplastics such hot and coldwater distribution but
as PE or PP. It has good mechanical also in
properties and chemical resistance industrial applications and com-
making polybutylene an important pressed air.
material for piping systems.
George Fischer are able to supply
PB is created by polymerizing butyle- metric socket and electro fusion pipe,
ne (C4H8) and is, therefore, an ecolo- fittings and valves as well as mechan-
gicaly safe hydrocarbon product. ical joints in the following size range.

The material which we use, may be socket fusion 16mm - 110mm o.d.
used with foodstuffs due to its safe electro fusion 16mm - 110mm o.d.
stabilizing agent. The fittings and
pipes are odourless and tasteless
as well as physiologically safe. It
is perfect for use in drinking water
installations.

Like PE and PP, PB belongs to the


group of co-valent materials, whose
surfaces do not swell and are not
soluable. Solvent cementing is,
therefore, not possible without special
surface treatment. PB is, however,
easily fused. Compression, socket The physical values shown in the table below
fusion and electrofusion jointing can are to be treated as guide values.
be used.

Properties of Polybutylene

Property PB
Unit
Density 0.93 g/cm3
Melt flow index MFI @90/5 0.4 g/@0 min
Yield strength 17 N/mm2 Testing
speed
Elongation at fracture >125 % @25 mm/min

Bending-creep modulus (@ min.) 800 N/mm2


Impact strength 23 C no failure mJ/mm2
Impact strength 20 C 40 mJ/mm2
Crystalline fusion temperature 0.013 C
Coefficient of linear expansion 0.13 mm/mC
Thermal conductivity at 20 C 0.22 W/m . K
Surface resistance 0.007
W
Normal working temperature range -15 to 95 C

1 .0 GEORGE FISCHER


At George Fischer every
plastic is used to the
Why polybutylene (PB)?
best of its potential. Why did George Fischer choose the
plastic, polybutylene (PB) as a pipe
material for INSTAFLEX potable water
installations?
PP
Crosslinked polyethylene PEX was 1
the first plastic to be used successfully
in Europe for hot and cold water
installations.
also started using this material PVC-C
in 1982. PE

With the development of


Polybutylene PB 4137 by Shell
in collaboration with George Fischer,
the market had a new, modern pipe
material.

Both materials combine the following


characteristics, required for water
services installations:

high heat resistance,


good stress resistance,
high impact strength,
PB
low creep behaviour,
high flexibility.

PEX and PB are both suitable as


pipe materials for compression
jointing. In addition, PB, a polyolefine
PEX
thermoplastic, is excellent for fusion
jointing of pipes and fittings.

Polybutylene's strength and versatility also make it


suitable for:
Hot & cold water services Compressed air systems
70C, 10bar pressure based on a 20C, 15bar pressure based on a
design life of 50 years for continuous design life of 50 years with a safety
use with a safety factor of 1 .5 factor of 2.

Heating systems High temperature drainage


85C, 10bar pressure based on a 95C, low pressure, high life expect-
design life of 50 years for intermittent ancy.
use, with a safety factor of 1 .5
Fan coil units Two pipe systems
Chilled water systems Where temperatures may fluctuate
Down to -5C, 10bar pressure based from below 0C in the summer (cool-
on a design life of 50 years for ing) up to 85C in winter (heating)
continuous use with a safety factor of at10bar pressure based on 50 years
1 .5. life expectancy, with a safety factor
of 1 .5

GEORGE FISCHER 1 .0


Why PB?
A comparison of PB and other plastics

Density
PB 0.93
PEX 0.94

(kg/dm3)
g/cm3
= Rho
The density of a body PP-R 0.90
is the ratio of its mass m PVC-C 1 .55
to its volume V. H2O
= m Water 1 .00
V Steel 7.85
Copper 8.89

Thermal conductivity
PB 0.22
= Lambda
PEX 0.41
W/mK

Thermal conductivity can PP-R 0.24


be defined as the energy PVC-C 0.14
transmissability of a material,
in relation to the difference Water 0.58
between the pipe inner and
pipe outer temperatures and Steel 42 to 53
the pipe wall thickness. Copper 407.10

100

Pipe length 90
10 m
Temp.-Difference 50 C

= Alpha
Expansion & contraction a

The heat expansion PB 0.13 65


coefficient refers to the PEX 0.20
difference in length,
mm/mK

measured in mm, of a 1m PP-R 0.18


rod after heating it by1K.
PVC-C 0.08
40
Steel 0.012
Copper 0.018
Note: 1K (Kelvin) = 1C Stainless Steel 0.026

9
6

St Cu PB PEX PP-R PVC-C


PE

1 .0 GEORGE FISCHER


The E-modulus is the Expansion loop comparison
ratio of stress to strain in
the elastic range of the LBS
material. Although the coefficient of
expansion for PB is not the lowest expansion
due to the material's flexibility (i.e. L
it's modulus of elasticity is by far
the lowest), the ability to cater for
any expansion or contraction is 1
most favourable
10m
Using a typical example, with
values

Temp difference t =
50C
Pipe diameter d = 40mm
Determining the expansion Pipe length = 10m
loop according to
CEN/TC. 155/WG 5 The expansion of L of the different Therefore, under the same
C for: materials is as follows:
PB 10 conditions the expansion leg
PEX 12 required for the different materials
PE 27 PB L = 65mm would be as follows:
PVC-C 34 PEX L = 100mm
PP-R 30
Steel 94 PVC-C L = 40mm Material Expansion leg LBS
Cu 54 PP - R L = 90mm
Stl.Steel 61
Steel L = 6mm PB 510
Copper L = 9mm PEX 760
Stl. Steel L = 9mm PVC-C 1360
PP-R 1800
using the formula Steel 1450
LBS = C x L x d Cu 1030
Stl. Steel 1150
where LBS = expansion loop leg
L = primary pipe As can be seen from the above the
expansion expansion leg required for PB is
d = outside dia.. of pipe considerably less than all the other
C = factor materials.

Creep behaviour
Creep is the extension of a Creep behaviour is an important PEX
material in relation to time
factor in plastic construction. It must
under constant load and 20
constant temperature. be given special consideration with
Creep %

jointing and fastening techniques.


It can be seen from the adjacent
graph that with a creep test, where a
weight is hung from a piece of PB its 10
creep is slower than PEX PB
Tensile strength 8 MPa (8 Nmm2)
Temp. 20 C
10-3 100 103
Time in hours
GEORGE FISCHER 1 .0
Minimum breaking strength 100
90
80
The minimum breaking strength is 70
60

= Sigma/Break given as the hoop stress . 50

Hoop stress in MPa


40

Comparison of minimum breaking 30

The hoop stress in the pipe strengths of PB, PEX, PP-R, PVC-C, ap- 20
wall is the result of internal
pressure. If this pressure is plying to a material life expectancy PB PVC-C

continuous the pipe will of one year at different temperatures. 10


fracture with time 9
8 PEX
7

Safety against breakage 6


5
due to stress from internal 4 PP
pressure is given with the 3
relationship between pipe
wall stress to hoop stress. 2

1 MPa = 1 N/mm 2

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Temperature in C

Long-term behaviour of pipes at 70C


Long-term Behaviour
The long-term behaviour is the 50

relationship between the hoop 40

stress, the temperature and the life 30

expectancy of a material. 20

Allowable permanent internal


Hoop stress in MPa

pressure in bar:
10
PB
PVC-
P perm = 20 s 6R 9
PEX
8
7
Hoop stress(d-s) SF on a service
is based 6

life of 50 years and a constant 5


4
PP
operating temperature of 70 C,
without considering the safety factor 3
Pperm Internal pressure for:
s Pipe wall thickness

} {
d Pipe outer- PB 7.5 2

PEX R 5.3
MPa

SF Safety factor

R Minimum breaking PP-R 3.1 1
0.9
strength (R = Rupture) PVC-C 7.5 0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.1 1 10 102 103 104 105 106

Time in hours
50 years

1 .0 GEORGE FISCHER


In reference to the 70C Comparision of flow characteristics Because at any given size the wall
curve with a service life of The pipe wall thickness is determined thickness of PB pipe is less than the
50 years and safety factor by the hoop stress, the pipe outer dia- other materials the flow velocity and
included, on page 1 .18
meter and the allowable operating pressure drop will be best.
Comparison of potable wa- pressure at 20C.
ter pipes used in domestic
installations.
Example for pipes 40mm o.d., with DVGW/SVGW approval
1
Pipe Material PB PEX PP-R PVC-C

Pipe dimension d 40 x 3.7 5.5 6.7 4.5 mm

Pipe inner diameter 32.6 29.0 26.6 31 .0 mm

Pipe inner surface area 834 660 555 754 mm2

Nominal pressure PN 16 PN 20 PN 20 PN 25

v = Velocity
Flow velocity at
= 2.0 l/s 2.4 3.0 3.6 2.7 m/s
Pressure drop at
= 2.0 l/s 18.4 32.5 49.5 23.6 mbar/m

GEORGE FISCHER 1 .0


Jointing Techniques
The basis for selecting a jointing me-
thod for plastic pipes are the physical
characteristics of the various materi-
als, e.g.:
type of plastic
creep behavior
brittleness
stability
flexibility
Jointing Technique PB PEX PP-R PVC-C


Compression

Fusion


Solvent Cement


Electrofusion


Advantages & disadvantages of each method:
Compression jointing
Advantages Solvent jointing
No power supply required Advantages
Easily made in-situ No power supply required
No specialist tools
Disadvantages
Disadvantages Solvents need careful flush-
Fittings generally more costly ing
Not suitable for larger pipe Solvent fumes
sizes Drying Time
Jointing time
Electrofusion
Fusion jointing Advantages
Advantages Easily made in-situ
Jointing time fast
No solvents used Disadvantages
Flushing requirements re- Power source required
duced
Disadvantages
Power source required


1 .10 GEORGE FISCHER
Plastics and the Environment
Using plastics means saving energy

Plastics represent only 4 % of the crude All working processes require energy
oil consumption in Europe. But as we all (heat, pressure, motor-driven).
know, crude oil reserves are limited. We Manufacturing plastics requires less 1
must already rely on raw materials which energy than manufacturing metals. To
can be renewed or expand our use of manufacture 1 litre 3 of material, the
alternative energy sources. This is often amount of energy required is shown in
referred to as re-usable raw materials. the chart below

Plastic, e.g.. polyolefine (PE/PP/PB)


Steel
Copper
Aluminium

0 5 10 15
(Kilograms oil-equivalent/litre material)

A Plastic's Second Life


Recycling

Plastics only represent 4 % of crude oil At George Fischer production waste is


consumption, but it is realistic to assume ground (regranulated) and returned to
that the energy value of plastic must be the manufacturing of products, which
utilized. have lower requirements for quality
and hygiene than pipes and fittings. For
There are two recycling possibilities: instance, hand levers for valves, actuator
re-use, create new products, housings, etc.
incineration, create thermal energy.
Materials considered recyclable are
In the re-using method, plastic waste is mainly thermoplastics, such as PE, PP, PB,
returned to its original state via various PVC, PVC-C.
processes, such as hydrolysis, pyrolysis, PEX, crosslinked polyethylene, cannot be
regranulation. recycled.

Recoverable heat energy of different materials


PE/PP/PB 44000 kJ/Kg
Heating Oil 44000 kJ/Kg
Coal 29000 kJ/Kg
PVC-U/PVC-C 19000 kJ/Kg
Paper 16800 kJ/Kg
Wood 16000 kJ/Kg
Household waste 8000 kJ/Kg
Metals 0 kJ/Kg

GEORGE FISCHER 1 .11


Recycling Possibilities
From production to end consumption
Tar
Coal

Crude oil/gas Refinery products

Production
Chemi- industry
cal
raw mate-

Granules

Powder
Secondary New
raw materials materi-

Granules

Powder
Granulate
Processing
industry
Using energy Preparation
Long-distance (e.g. wash,
energy/electricity crushing)

heating gas Special operations Finished pro-


ducts
Pyrolysis (simple fittings)

Refuse
power
plant
Agriculture
Industry
Sort re-usable Business
plastics

Mixed Households
plastic waste

Waste
dump

1 .12 GEORGE FISCHER


Ecological Analysis
Environmental analyses for determining Pressure loss per storey
the environmental pollution produced 1800mbar
by a product, process or from a Supply pressure 4bar
service provides important information.
To be able to make a comprehensive The emission data determined for soil,
statement, it is important to include water and air pollution were converted 1
all the aspects which influence the into dimensionaless values.
product, process through its entire life The material with the lowest amount of
cycle. total pollution emissions was evaluated
with the factor 1 and the other
Plastic and metal pipework systems materials correspondingly higher.
were analysed from the obtaining
of the raw material, via material
and component production, to
final installation, with regard to the Soil Pollution Characteristics
environmental effect. 45.0
44.0
VENOB
Comparative consideration A simplified, undistorted interpretation
standardised as regards the of the data relevant to the environment 40.0
results. can only be obtained by the VENOB
VENOB is a development
process.
35.0
from the Technical Univer-
sity of Berlin, by Professor The VENOB process ensures that the
Dr.Kufer and colleagues large amount of recorded emission 30.0
data from soil, water and oil
pollution studies can be included
and the results can be compared. 25.0
The pollution levels are recorded
as independent, dimensionless
characteristics. The emissions which 20.0
occur simultaneously for all pipework
systems are taken into account in the
15.0
process.
12.0
Pipeline systems made of the 10.0
following materials were subjected to
environmental analysis:
PB Polybutylene
PEX x linked polyethylene 4.0
PP-R Polypropylene random PB
copolymer
Plastics Cu St
PVC-C Polyvinyl chloride, post
chlorinated
Cu Copper Water Pollution Characteristics
St. Galvanised steel
4.4
The pipeline systems shown were
judged according to the following 3.5
boundary conditions:
3.0
Drinking water installation
according to DIN 1988 Part 3
Block of flats with 16 individual 2.0
flats
Central hot water supply,
Insulation according to HeizAn
1V
PB

Plastics Cu St

GEORGE FISCHER 1 .13


Air Pollution Characteristics Total Energy Characteristics
18.0
4.4
17.0
16.0
-15.0
14.0 -3.0
13.0
12.0
11 .0
10.0
9.0
8.0
PB
7.0
6.0 Plastics Cu St

4.0
First, a comparative environmental
3.0
analysis for plastics and metal systems
2.0 was carried out by the VENOB
PB process. The environmental analysis
corresponds to the ideas of the
Plastics Cu St
German Federal Environmental Ministry
for producing and balancing the
The soil, water and air pollution relevant data.
determined show higher values for The result clearly shows greater
the metal systems (Cu & St) than for environmental pollution from metal
plastics. pipework compared to plastics. There
Soil, water and air pollution are, are also differences between the
however, only part of a comparative plastic pipework systems.
ecological analysis. The energy
equivalent values and the installation The use of pipeline systems made of
weights also have to be considered. plastics, above all of the materials PB
These two points of view were again (polybutylene) therefore represents an
related to the complete installation of environmentally friendly solution.
the block of flats.
The environmental analysis was carried
out and the VENOB process was
Installation Weight developed in the Plastics Department
Characteristics of the Technical University of Berlin,
7.0 by Professor Dr Helmut Kufer and
colleagues.

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.4
2.0

PB

Plastics Cu St

1 .14 GEORGE FISCHER


The History of Polybutylene (PB)
In the early 1970s, a polybutylene was firm, Whitron Corp., developed a
brought on the market by the Hls polybutylene called Whitron 4121 .
Chemischen Werken under the name of Shell took over this product. In 1978
Vestolen BT 8000. George Fischer tested polybutylene for
The material was intended for the use in potable water distribution. Various
conveyance of hot media in piping stabilizers were tested. Long-term tests 1
systems. were carried out with the stabilizer 4137,
At this time George Fischer had also which met our requirements. Since 1987
prepared a fitting programme of George Fischer have been using the
Vestolen BT 8000. Many domestic material polybutylene 4137 by Shell for
and industrial systems constructed INSTAFLEX potable water piping systems.
with this material are still operating
satisfactorily today. In 1973, production
of polybutylene was terminated at Hls
due to the oil crisis and other reasons.
Independent of Hls, another

The Material Polybutylene (PB) 4137


Polybutylene is a thermoplastic from the minimal creep (advantageous for
polyolefine family. It is a semi-crystalline compression jointing)
material. Its density is in the range of resistance to hot water
other thermoplastics such as PE or PP. high resistance to stress cracking
It has good mechanical properties, stabilization against UV damage
chemical resistance and its especially anti-algae pigmentation
high temperature behaviour, makes it an high flexibility even at low
important material for piping systems. temperatures
PB is created by polymerizing low brittleness fracture temperature
butylene (C4H8) and is, therefore, an high impact strength
ecologically favourable hydrocarbon high abrasion resistance
product. easy to use
due to high thermal stability, small
The material type 4137, which we use, pipe wall thicknesses. Therefore, large
is permitted according to food laws due pipe inner diameter, leading to better
to its stabilizing agent. The fittings and pipe hydraulics
pipes are odourless and tasteless as lightweight
well as physiologically safe. It is perfect
for use in drinking water installations.

Like PE and PP, PB belongs to the group


of covalent materials, whose surfaces do
not swell and are not soluble. Solvent
cementing is, therefore, not possible
without special surface treatment. PB
is, however, easily fused. Compression,
socket fusion and electrofusion jointing
can be used.

Flexibility, even at low temperatures, plus


high thermal stability make polybutylene
a modern material. Not only for potable
water distribution but also in industrial
applications.

Polybutylene, the universal plastic for


compression and fusion jointing offers:
longevity and dimensional stability

GEORGE FISCHER 1 .15


Characteristics of Polybutylene
Mechanical and physical properties
Properties Value Unit Standard
Density 0.93 g/cm 3
DIN 53479
Melt temperature 122128 C DTA
Vicat softening point 113 C DIN 53735
Glass transition point 18 C ASTM D-746
Fusion heat 100 kJ/kg DSC
Thermal conductivity 0.22 W/mK DIN 52612
Thermal expansion coefficient 0.13 mm/mK DIN 53752
Modulus of elasticity 350 MPa DIN 53457
Shore hardness 53 D-Scale ISO 8608
Impact resistance 40 (0 C) kJ/m2 DIN 53453
Ultimate elongation 125 % DIN 53457
Tensile strength 33 MPa DIN 53455
Yield stress 17 MPa DIN 53455

The ultimate elongation indicates The melt temperature is the


at what percentage of elongation a temperature range in which a material
material will tear. will change from a solid to a liquid state.

The modulus of elasticity represents Fusion heat is the heat required to


the stress-strain relationship in the elastic convert 1 kg of a material from the solid
range of a material. to the liquid state at melting temperature.

The impact resistance indicates the Thermal conductivity represents the


amount of energy needed to break or energy transmission within a material
deform a sample by letting a pendulum depending on the temperature and the
of known kinetic energy collide against surface.
it.
The thermal expansion coefficient
The Shore hardness is the hardness of a indicates in millimetres the change in
material; the smaller the given value, the length of a 1m rod with 1C temperature
softer the material is. change.
Values 3039 = leathery
4060 = medium - hard The yield stress is the point at which
the slope of the stress-strain curve
The Vicat softening point indicates at first reaches zero when a material is
what temperature a test stylus with an constricted.
area of 1 mm2 and a load of
10 N will penetrate a materialby 1mm. The tensile strength is the greatest
At glass transition point, a material is at amount of force a material can absorb
its hardest and most brittle state and has before breaking.
the highest mechanical properties. When
the temperature increases, the material
becomes softer and more elastic, but
also loses stability.
The density of a body is the ratio of its
mass m to its volume V.

Melt flow index This single point


measurement characterizes the flow of
molten material under certain conditions
of pressure and temperature. It gives an
indication of the material's processing
properties.

1 .16 GEORGE FISCHER


Chemical Resistance
(see also Section 6)
The chemical resistance of polybutylene
is similar to that of other polyolefine
plastics, such as PE and PP, although
certain differences do exist.
1
resistant to acids, alkalines,
weak solvents

not resistant to oxidizing acids,


halogens

UV-Resistance
Compared to colourless plastics,
polybutylene is more resistant to UV
radiation due to its grey pigmentation.
Long-term exposure to UV radiation in
Curacao showed no material damage to
polybutylene pipes left unprotected over
a period of two months.
WRAS Approval
It is not necessary to protect the pipes Tests carried out in accordance with
against UV light when they have been the requirements of BS 6920 : Suitability
laid inside a building. of non-metallic products for use in
contact with water intended for human
consumption with regard to their effect
on the quality of the water.

To be acceptable, a material must be


shown to give satisfactory results in tests
designed to determine that there is:

(a) no taste imparted to the water.


(b) no change in the appearance of
the water.
(c) no growth of micro-organisms in the
water in contact with the materials
or on the surface of the material.
(d) no release of substances into the
Fire Protection water that may be of concern to
Pipes made of polybutylene belong public health.
1)
KTW recommendations: to Flammability Class IV. 2 (normal (e) no release of metals into the water.
Hygienic evaluation of plas- flammability) in the VKF classification and
tics and other non-metallic
materials for use in potable are, therefore, permitted.
water systems in the frame-
work of the Food and Con- Hygienic Considerations
sumer Products Act;1 . and Shell has proven the absolute safety of
2. Report ff.; BGesundhBL polybutylene 4137, regarding hygiene
20 (1977), Vol.1, pg.10ff.
Plastics in the Food Indus- for potable water pipes. The DVGM
try, Recommendations of research centre in the Engler-Bunte-
the Federal Department of Institute at the University of Karlsruhe
Health: by R. Frank and H. has certified that polybutylene meets the
Mhlschlegel, Carl Heyman- KTW recommendations1) of the German
ns Verlag KG, Kln, Berlin,
Bonn, Mnchen. Federal Department of Health.

GEORGE FISCHER 1 .17


Application Range of INSTAFLEX PB Pipes
and Fittings
INSTAFLEX is used in installations for The necessary operating criteria re-
hot and cold water pipes, heating quired for each country are not only
and chilled water systems and com- fulfilled, but exceeded.
pressed airlines

Application Range of INSTAFLEX PB Pipes16 and 20mm o.d.


PN 25

30
Continuous operating pressure in bar

20

10
Life expectancy with SF = 1 .5

0
2 5 10 20 25 30 40 50
Years

Application Range of INSTAFLEX PB Pipes 25 to 110mm o.d.


30
PN 16
Continuous operating pressure in bar

20

10

Life expectancy with SF = 1 .5

0
2 5 10 20 25 30 40 50
Years

1 .18 GEORGE FISCHER


Temperature/Pressure rating Example
The George Fischer INSTAFLEX system
is manufactured from polybutylene What is the maximum pressure for a
which is a thermoplastic material. As 110mm pipe carrying water at 70C
the name thermoplastic suggests, it is with a working life of 50 years
affected by temperature. When the
temperature of the liquid in the pipeline s = for 110mm INSTAFLEX pipe is 10mm
rises the material will soften and its 1
SF = 1 .5
ability to withstand pressure reduces
correspondingly. To calculate the d = 7.5 MPa taken from long term
pressure rating at any given temperature regression curve opposite.
the well known "vessel" formula is
SF for non-dangerous used in conjunction with the long term x 20 x s
regression curves of the material. P=
liquids = 1 .5 SF x (d-s)
SF for dangerous
liquids =2.0 x 20 x s
P= 7.5 x 20 x10
SF x (d-s) P=
1 .5 x (110-10)
or x 20 x s
SF =
Design life 50 years. P x (d-s)
P = 10 bar
Safety Factor 1 .5 where P = pressure in bar
= hoop stress of material at
any given temp. in M Pa
s = pipe wall thickness in mm
d = pipe o.d. in mm
SF = safety factor

26 Temperature/Pressure chart

24

22 16 & 20mm o.d. pipe

20
maximum allowable pressure rating in bar

18

16

14 25 & 110mm o.d. pipe

12

10

4
Note:
Size 16 & 20mm is 2
25 bar
25 to 110mm is 0
16 bar. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Temperature in C

GEORGE FISCHER 1 .19


1 .20 GEORGE FISCHER
Technical Regulations
Page

Standards and Regulations 2.02


Tests and Quality Assurance 2.03
Legionella-proof Operation 2.04
Hygiene Standards 2.04
Fire Protection 2.05
Noise Protection 2.06 2
Insulation of Services 2.07
Heat loss from INSTAFLEX 2.07
Surface temperature of INSTAFLEX pipe 2.07
Insulation of Hot Water Pipes 2.08
Trace Heating 2.09
Heaters for Potable Water 2.09
Flushing Potable Water Pipes 2.10
Disinfection of Potable Water Systems 2.10
Pipework Additives 2.10
Approvals in Europe 2.11

GEORGE FISCHER 2.0


Standards and Regulati-
ons
The standards and regulations specific BS 7291 Thermoplastic pipes
to each country are the Bible of the Class S and associated fittings
Water Installation Specialist. for hot and cold water
for domestic purposes
The actual standards for water and heating, chilled
installations are intended for both water and compressed
mechanical services designers and also air installations in
for manufacturers. This is to ensure they buildings
comply with the requirements for parts Part 1: General
and for materials. requirements
Part 2: Specifications
Until uniform European Technical for polybutylene (PB)
Regulations for Water Installation pipes and associated
are established, the specific country's fittings.
Recognized Technical Guidelines are
valid. UK Water Fittings Scheme Listing

Technical Regulations for Water Germany DVGW


Installation are in: DIN 1988 (TRWI)
DIN 4109 Noise protection in
UK Water Byelaws & buildings
British Standards DIN 4102 Behaviour of construction
BS & WRAS materials in fire
HeizAnlV Heating installation
Germany DVGW regulation
DIN 1988 (TRWI)
Switzerland SVGW
Switzerland SVGW W3 Guidelines for the
Guidelines W3 installation of water
systems
Austria Standard in preparation SIA 181 Noise protection in
based on DIN 1988 residential buildings

With these regulations in mind, the legal


requirements for hygienic and technical
suitability of parts and materials have
to be met. For the purposes of product
identification, the manufacturer is
required to label his products and the
installer is required to use only clearly
marked products.

For the construction of water systems, the


following standards and regulations must
be considered:

United Kingdom BS & WRAS


BS 5955 Specification for the
Pt 8 installation of thermo-
plastic pipes and
associated fittings
for use in domestic hot
and cold water
services and heating
systems.

2.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Tests and Quality Assurance
SKZ Southern Germany Quality assurance has top priority at Under ISO and DIN standards as
Plastics Center, George Fischer! well as existing test guidelines, the
Wrzburg
manufacturer is obliged to continuously
Standard guidelines on internal evaluate the product through prescribed
and external tests, are set out in the tests, throughout the production
requirements for quality assurance of process. This is in accordance with
pipes, fittings and other piping system George Fischer's Quality Assurance
accessories. Manual, and is supported by periodic
The objective of the tests, besides external monitoring conducted by the 2
checking dimensional accuracy, is to SKZ and others. This continuous and
determine and monitor quality, which will stringent in-house supervision is the
guarantee safe operation over a period basis of George Fischer's quality control
of 50 years. procedure.

The hygienic suitability of pipes and Test Guidelines:


components for the conveyance of DVGW Worksheet W 532/I
the foodstuff, drinking water, is Worksheet W 534 E
independently tested in accordance with SVGW Construction and test
the appropriate standards. Only pipes regulations
and fittings which have been successfully W/TPW 129
tested and monitored for quality by VGW NORM B 5155
recognized, independent testing centres Guideline W 38
may carry the seal of approval. KIWA Criteria 44
DIN 16968 and 16969 Pipes of
INSTAFLEX pipes and fittings are tested Polybutylene (PB)
and monitored for quality by the KTW Recommendations by the
accredited tests centres in the relevant Federal Department of Health
countries. The proof of suitability is (BGes. BL. Jg. 1977, 1 . and 2.
based on a service life of 50 years, Mitt. ff.)
with reference to the specific country's BS/ Approval to British Standard
operating requirements (see 2.04). WRAS BS6920 and BS7291

GEORGE FISCHER 2.0


Legionella-proof Operation
Legionella are bacteria, which are increases of up to 85C are possible at
naturally present in many environments. this pressure (duration: approx. 1 hour
They multiply rapidly in hot water systems per week). Alternatively operating
where the temperature range is between temperatures may be maintained at
30 to 50C. Experiments have shown that 70C without compromising safety as
the material of the piping system has no long as the operating pressure does
specific influence, which means, there not exceed 10 bar.
is no discernible difference between
copper, steel, galvanized steel and INSTAFLEX layouts enables thermal
plastic*. disinfection, thus preventing
legionella bacteria from accumulating
The operating conditions, specified
by the DVGW, permit INSTAFLEX hot *) Dr. K. Seidel, Berlin: The Occurrence
water installations to be operated in and Significance of Legionella; 6.
such a way as to prohibit the growth Seminar of the DVGW 1988 New
of legionella. The INSTAFLEX ring main Technologies in Potable Water Supply;
makes it possible, via pumped circulation gwf 129 (1988), Vol. 2, pg. 105.
with a corresponding hydraulic switching
system, to maintain an operating
temperature of 60C at 10 bar up to the
outlet.
In addition, periodic temperature

Hygienic Standards
For UK the Food and Consumer Products Act;
INSTAFLEX pipes have been proven 1st and 2nd Report ff.; BGesundhBL 20
hygienically sound; they are equally (1977), Vol. 1, pg. 10 ff.
suited for use in hot and cold water
systems. By WRAS according to BS6920 Plastics in the Food Industry,
suitability of non-metallic products for Recommendations by the Federal
use in contact with water intended for Department of Health; by R. Frank and
human consumption with regards to their H. Mhlschlegel, Carl Heymanns Verlag
effects on the quality of water. KG, Kln, Berlin, Bonn, Mnchen.

For Germany LMBG


The DVGW research centre in the Food and Consumer Products Act of 15.
Engler-Bunte Institute at the University 8.1974; BGesundhBL Part 1, pg. 1945 ff.
of Karlsruhe has certified that
INSTAFLEX PB pipes meet the KTW For Austria
recommendations of the German Federal According to Decision ZI. IV-445.850/2-
Department of Health. 6/86 of the Federal Department of
Health and Environmental Protection
INSTAFLEX is certified as being a suitable as well as the Report kl.1399/6-87 of
material for use as a consumer product the Environmental Protection Institute,
in accordance with the Food and Corporation for Public Rights.
Consumer Products Act.

KTW recommend.
Hygienic evaluation of plastics and other
non-metallic materials for use in potable
water systems within the guidelines of

2.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Fire Protection
Wherever INSTAFLEX pipe passes
through a fire resistant wall it must
be sleeved in a suitable intumescent
material.

This recommendation is in accordance


with Building Regulations sub section
10/AD B3
2
Class D Materials
In order to obtain a high product
performance classification, Building
Regulations sub section 10/AD B3
recommends that materials in these
areas be protected by 'Class D'
insulation or lining.

Burning Behaviour
When exposed to an open fire,
polybutylene will burn brightly and will
continue to burn after the source of fire
is removed. The fire gases and smoke
will smell similar to wax or paraffin. It
produces low smoke emmissions. When
the fire is extinguished, it will smell similar
to a blown-out candle.

Polybutylene has no harmful toxic or


corrosive bi-products of combustion since
there are no halogens in its molecular
structure.

GEORGE FISCHER 2.0


Noise Protection
Providing noise protection in water Furthermore, if the wall to which pipes
services is best achieved by careful (supply or drainage), fittings or sanitary
planning and design. This is the most equipment are to be connected to is
effective method, least susceptible to adjacent to a room which needs to
faulty installation and is cost effective. be protected from noise, then this wall
The arrangement of the rooms is should have a surface density of 220
important to optimise acoustics and kg/m2 , in the absence of more suitable
the corresponding layout of sanitary information.
equipment, fittings and pipes can
compliment this.

If the wall on which pipework (supply


or drainage) or sanitary fittings are to
be connected to is adjacent to a room
which needs to be protected from
noise, then this wall should be con-
structed from a suitable sound absorb-
ant material

For sound conduction through solids, the


sound insulation of the material is an
important criteria. This is in relation to
the density and the modulus of elasticity
of the material.
In plastic pipes, the sound insulation
is high, which is why INSTAFLEX
polybutylene pipes are excellent for
noise prevention in water installations.

Sound velocity in materials


Density E-Modulus Sound velocity
kg/dm3 N/mm2 m/s

Copper 7.20 110 000 3900

PB 0.93 350 620

PVC-C 1 .56 3 500 2350

PEX 0.95 600 800

Soft rubber 0.90 90 320

2.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Insulation of Services
All pipe services must be insulated in temperature of all sizes of tube and
accordance with the current standards can be used to determine the insulation
of thermal efficiency as governed by the thickness
project specification
It is recommended that closed cell
INSTAFLEX has a very high sound and flexible insulation is considered , such as
thermal insulation property and therefore Armaflex for example, to permit
careful consideration must be given pre-insulation prior to installation to gain
to the insulation thickness to gain the the maximum advantage of flexibility of 2
maximum advantage from its use. the pipework during erection.

The following charts indicate both


the thermal heat loss and surface

Heat loss from INSTAFLEX pipe


(Watts per metre)

Temp. Difference Pipe size (mm)


C 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 75 90 110

10 4 5 7 9 11 13 15 18 20 23
15 7 8 11 13 16 20 23 26 30 34
20 9 11 14 17 21 26 31 35 40 46
25 11 14 18 22 26 33 38 44 50 57
30 13 16 21 26 32 39 46 53 60 69
35 16 19 25 31 37 48 54 61 70 80
40 18 22 28 35 42 52 61 70 80 92
45 20 25 32 39 48 59 69 79 90 103
50 22 27 35 44 53 65 77 88 100 115
55 25 30 39 48 58 72 84 97 110 126
60 27 33 42 52 63 78 92 105 120 128
65 29 35 46 57 69 85 99 114 130 149
70 31 38 49 61 74 91 107 123 140 161

Surface temperature of INSTAFLEX pipe


(Based on ambient temperature of surrounding air 20C)

Fluid temp. Pipe size (mm)


C 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 75 90 110

6 9 10 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 14
8 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15
10 12 13 12 13 13 13 14 15 15 15
12 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 16
60 51 49 51 49 48 47 44 42 40 38
62 53 51 53 51 49 48 45 43 41 39
70 59 57 59 57 55 54 49 47 45 43
80 67 64 67 64 61 60 55 53 50 47
82 68 66 69 66 63 62 58 54 51 48

GEORGE FISCHER 2.0


Insulation of Hot Water Pipes

Multistorey distributors for pipe-in-sleeve


hot water systems 16 and 20 mm o.d.)
need not be insulated , as long as it is
not used for secondary circulation.

Pipe Protective sleeve

Need not be insulated

2.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Trace Heating Insulation Aluminium
Self-regulating trace heaters whose Adhesive
surface temperature does not exceed Tape
65C may be used with INSTAFLEX
pipes. The trace heating limits the water Trace Heater
temperature to 60C.
For better heat transmission the trace
heating should be attached as flatly
as possible along its entire length of
the pipe by means of wide aluminium Power Source 2
adhesive tape. For pipes with carriers,
The installation instructions of the manufacturer
the strip heater must be attached to the
should also be observed.
carrier and not between the pipe and
the carrier.

Pipe

Carrier

Trace
Heating

Insulation

Heaters for Potable Water


The maximum temperatures compatible To protect pipe and joints, temperature
with constant operation of the system can controllers or safety temperature limiters
be found in the operating requirements. must be used to ensure that at no time
or location will the water temperature
Continuous flow heaters which heat exceed 95C .
water as it passes through a specific For hydraulically controlled devices, the
length of pipe have been tested and shut-off mechanism must ensure that the
approved for use with INSTAFLEX pipes. pressure can never exceed 10 bar with
They should be thermostatically not booster heating effects.
hydraulically controlled, this is because
with hydraulically controlled devices
there is a danger of overheating from
uncontrolled boosted heating.

Hot water heaters should be located as


near as possible to the hot water output.
The length of the pipe from the heater
essentially determines the flushing time for
the dead leg to each outlet.

GEORGE FISCHER 2.0


Flushing Water Pipes it does not corrode, no solvents, fluxes
or cutting oils are used. The assembly
Water pipes must be flushed thoroughly methods employed are clean using only
to remove any rust, shavings, cutting oil compression or fusion joints.
residue and fluxing agents.
The pipes should be flushed with drinking A flushing of the system must nevertheless
water in an intermittent air-water mixture be carried out for hygienic reasons. This
under pressure. is easily achieved by filling the system
Due to corrosion reasons this type of with drinking water and opening the
flushing is mandatory for metal pipes. drainage valve to thoroughly rinse the
pipework system.
With INSTAFLEX there is no need for
this costly flushing procedure, because

Disinfection of Potable Water Systems


The consequences of drinking water being Possible Disinfectants
contaminated with pathogenic germs Sodium hypochlorite NaOCl
could be so serious that it is essential that Hydrogen peroxide H2O2
such risks are avoided. Potassium permanganate KMnO4
Chlorine Cl2
Correct disinfection of potable water
systems is an important step in ensuring The disinfection of pipes can be carried
that the strict microbiological standards in out with or without the water circulating
the potable water regulations are met. but the disinfectant solution must remain
Disinfectants are hazardous materials in the pipework system for no less than
for health and the environment. Their 12 hours. If the pressure test is done
use must be carefully planned taking with water containing disinfectant, the
into consideration industrial safety and increased pressure forces the solution
environmentally safe disposal after use. into the pores and crevices of the
pipework achieving a more effective
result.
Lfd. Description Permissible Limit value calculated Reaction products
Nr.

Addition after
preparation
as Limit value
after prep.
calculated
as
The pipes must be rinsed thoroughly
mg/l mg/l mg/l after disinfection. Before putting the
1 Chlorine 1 .2 0.3 free 0.01 Trihalogen system into operation, it must be made


Sodium-,
Calcium-,
chlorine methane certain that the disinfectants present
Magnesium-, in the drinking water do not exceed
hypochlorite
Bleach acceptable concentrations.
2 Chlorodioxide 0.4 0.2 CIO2 0.2 Chlorite

3 Ozone 10 0.05 O 3 0.01 Trihalogen


Guidelines for the Disinfection of Potable
methane Water according to EG Guidelines from

July 15, 1980.

Pipework Additives
Its is a standard requirement for additives suitability with polybutylene
to be used in all closed circuit piping
systems. At the time of printing this manual
we have received no information on
With INSTAFLEX no treatment is required, products which should not be used with
however, the other elements of the INSTAFLEX.
installation will require protection with a
commercially available inhibitor. Due to
the extensive range of products available
we would recommend that if a technical
specification sheet on the product is sent
to our Coventry sales office (address
on the back cover) we shall advise the
10
2.010 GEORGE FISCHER
Approvals in Europe

Keuringsinstituut
voor waterleidingartikelen
Kiwa nv

2




DVGW
 
Deutscher Verein des Gas-
und Wasserfaches e. V.

 
sterreichische Vereinigung
fr das Gas- und Wasserfach


 

SVGW
Schweiz. Verein des Gas-
und Wasserfaches
SSIGE
Socit Suisse de lindustrie
du Gaz et des Eaux

SOCOTEC
DIRECTION TECHNIQUE
Dpartement des
Equipements Techniques

The comprehensive INSTAFLEX


approvals in the respective countries
include: AGREMENT TECHNISCHE
TECHNIQUE GOEDKEURING
compression joints from 16 to 63mm AVEC MET
o.d. inclusive,
Sddeutsches CERTIFICATION CERTIFIKAAT

socket fusion joints from 16 to 63mm


Kunststoffzentrum
o.d. inclusive, Officially recognized test
as well as system accessories. institute
for plastics

GEORGE FISCHER 11
2.011
12
2.012 GEORGE FISCHER
Chemical Resistance List
for Polybutylene (PB) Page

General 3.02
Classification 3.02
Pipe Joints 3.02
Sealing Materials 3.02
Metallic Materials 3.03

GEORGE FISCHER 3.0


General Pipe Joints
The Chemical Resistance List is only in- Fusion Joints
tended as a guide. Changes in the com- In the case of PB, fusion joints have prac-
position of the medium or special wor- tically the same chemical resistance as
king conditions could lead to deviations. the pipe material. However, for media
If there is any doubt, it is advisable to which could cause stress cracking, the
test the behaviour of the material under fusion joints can be susceptable to in-
the specific operating conditions. creased residual stresses.
No guarantees can be given regarding
the information contained in this manual. Flange and Threaded Unions
The data is based on the information For flange and threaded union connec-
available at the time of printing. tions, the material of the sealing element
It will occasionally be revised in the light must be considered.
of subsequent research and experience.

Classification Sealing Materials


The customary classifications, resistant, The life expectancy of sealing materials
conditionally resistant and not recom- can differ greatly from that of the pipe
mended are depicted by the signs +, O material determined by the operating
and repectively . This makes presenta- conditions and stress involved.
tion and application easier. These classi-
fications are defined as follows: Material:
EPDM
Resistant: + Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber
The material is not significantly affected
by the medium within the acceptable Good ozone and weather resistance,
operational limits of pressure and tempe- potable water quality. Especially suitable
rature. for aggressive media. Not
recommended for oils and fats. Tem-
Conditionally resistant: O perature, 90 C constant, 120 C short-
The medium can be aggressive to the term.
materials or causes swelling. Restric-
tions must be made regarding pressure NBR
and/or temperature, taking the expected Nitrile-Rubber
service life into account. The service life
can be noticeably reduced. Further con- Good resistance to oils and gasoline.
sultation with George Fischer is recom- Temperature, 90 C constant, 120 C
mended. short-term.

Not recommended:
The material cannot be used with the
medium, or only under special conditi-
ons.

Chemical Resistance Lists


Can be made available upon request
or visit www.georgefischer.co.uk

3.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Metallic Materials
The metallic materials mostly used in IN- These materials correspond to the re-
STAFLEX systems are: quirements for potable water installations
according to DVGW and SVGW Guide-
Brass (Ms) lines.
according to DIN 17660
in the quality For other, non-domestic potable wa-
CuZn 39 Pb 3 ter systems, the use of these materi-
and als should be checked.
CuZn 39 Pb 2

Bronze
according to DIN 1705 3
G-CuSn 5 Zn Pb

Stainless Steel
according to DIN 17455
12 NiCr 18/8

GEORGE FISCHER 3.0


3.0 GEORGE FISCHER
System Technology
Page

INSTAFLEX system technology 4.02


Multistorey Installations 4.03
Pipe Layout 4.03
Individual Pipeline 4.03
Continuous Pipeline 4.03
Ring Main 4.04
T-piece Branching 4.04
Continuous Pipeline with Circulation 4.04
Pipe Layout for Large Flow Rates 4.05
Pipe Layout in Screed Floors 4.05- 4.06
Pipe Layout in the Masonry (Recessed Mounting) 4.07
Pipe Layout in Dry lined & Partition Walls 4.08 4
Frostproof Pipe Laying 4.09
Curvature Radius 4.10

GEORGE FISCHER 4.0


INSTAFLEX system techno-
logy
Pipe longitudinal line

alignment marks (every 45), for


component assembly
Marks for insertion depth (welding length)
Description with:
name of manufacturer
dimension
material
product code
Alignment markings on the fittings
and the pipe longitudinal line make
it easier to assemble components and
alleviate the time-consuming process
of pre-marking the fitting and the pipe
in order to ensure they are aligned
properly. Work becomes quicker and
more precise.

Insertion depth marking


(Welding length)
Marking the insertion depth on the pipe,
ensures the pipe is not inserted to far into
the fitting, this will prevent the formation
of inner beads in the fusion zone,
when the fusion procedure is followed
correctly.

PB risers, the change of direction used as an


expansion loop
Multistorey distribution, in
concrete floor or ceiling.

4.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Multistorey Installation
The efficient distribution of water in Whether in single family homes,
buildings is a difficult task. INSTAFLEX luxurious apartment buildings, public
meets this challenge and provides a housing, offices or commercial buildings,
solution for installations in both new and INSTAFLEX offers the best possible
in refurbished buildings. solution.

Pipe Layout
It is possible to install INSTAFLEX piping Individual lines, continuous lines, ring
with either the traditional layout of T- mains, T-piece branches and continuous
piece branches or use the reliable pipe lines with circulation as well as the
- in - sleeve technique. This is achieved associated fittings make for optimal
by using flexible PB pipe which comes in water distribution, possible at every floor
straight lengths or in coils, with or without of a building.
protective sleeves. 4

Easy planning
Individual Pipeline Simple pressure loss calculation and
R HW CW size selection
Every tap is supplied by a separate
line
Low pressure losses, short flushing time,
maximum comfort
Single tap connections
With pipe-in-sleeve installation, re-
placement of pipe is very simple

Continuous Pipeline
R HW CW More taps are supplied with a single
pipe
Fewer pipes are required
Increased pressure losses (largest
water consumer should be located at
beginning of pipeline)
Single and double tap connections

GEORGE FISCHER 4.0


Ring Mains Every tap is supplied with water from
two sides
R HW CW
No stagnated water
Pressure loss usually reduced by 1/3 of
that for continuous lines
Double tap connections

T-Piece Branches Several taps can be supplied with one


line
R HW CW
Less space is required for pipes
When renovating, installation in exi-
sting recesses may be possible
Fittings in fusion and/or compression
versions
Single tap connections

Continuous Pipeline with Circula- Legionella-proof operation


tion Maximum efficiency.
R HW CW
HW available up to tap

4.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Pipe Layout for Large
Flowrates Example:
Flowrates with a flow volume of
E 0.4 l/s can be connected with par- Outflow valve
allel supply pipes of 16mm o.d.. E = 0.6 l/s
For parallel supply lines (2 x 16mm o.d.)
the pressure loss is about 20% less than Single line 20mm o.d.
that for a single supply pipe in the next R = 110 mbar/m
highest size (20mm o.d.). Parallel supply
pipes are especially useful where only Dual line 2 x 16mm o.d.
low supply pressures are available. (E = 0.3 l/s each)
R = 90 mbar/m

Difference 20 %

R HW CW 4

Pipe Layout in Screed Floors

The introduction of flexible pipe-in-sleeve floors, similar to the installation of electric


installation systems (e.g. INSTAFLEX with cables in the coiled protective tube, has
PB pipes) had a dramatic impact on in- simplified and accelerated installation
stallation techniques. New layout techni- techniques. Laying pipes in the screed
ques, which not only improved efficiency has proved to be one of the best installa-
but also provide increased design flexibi- tion methods now available.
lity for the installer and designer.
The pipe-in-sleeve installation in screed

Repair/replacement of damaged pipework


One of many innovative aspects of this When the installation is carried out pro-
method of installation is the ability to perly (observing the minimum curvature
easily replace a water carrying pipe radius) using the installation fixtures pro-
which has been accidently damaged by vided, mechanical damage of the pipes
drilling or nails. A major advantage of is practically impossible. The pipes can
the pipe-in-sleeve installation is that the be replaced at any time.
water-conveying pipe is separated from
the building structure by the protective
sleeve.

GEORGE FISCHER 4.0


Pipe layout on the concrete Pipe Layout on Concrete Floor
floor in the insulation layer If pipes are laid on a supporting base
with deformation-resistant
covering. (concrete floor), which serves as a floa-
ting floor.

Sound penetration and/or fluctuations in


the floor thickness should be avoided.

Pipes which are laid in the supporting


base (normally 75mm deep - of which
50mm represents the distance between
Pipe layout on the concrete the top of the pipe and the surface of the
floor in the insulation or support base) or in the insulation must
screed layer with deformati- be imbedded for stability or securely
on-resistant bedding. fastened. By filling in any gaps, an even
surface can be re-established for the in-
sulating layer.

When two pipes are laid parallel in the


insulation with deformation-resistant co-
vering, the requirements for sound insula-
tion from footsteps are fulfilled.

If recesses are planned in the concrete


Pipe layout entirely within floor for laying pipes, they can easily be
the insulation layer with de- run across the floor slab in this conduit.
formation-resistant bedding.
Pipes which are laid in the pipe conduit
in the concrete floor or in the insulati-
on must be in protective sleeves. Pipes
which are imbedded directly in the floor
or floor heating over the insulation can
be laid without protective sleeves.

For other floor coverings, e.g. hot as-


phalt, it must be made certain that the
plastic pipes laid in or under the insulati-
on are not damaged.

Pipe layout in the floor


recesses with deformation-
resistant bedding.

Concrete
Floor floor

Insulation
layer Bedding

Cover

4.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Pipe Layout in the Masonry
(recessed mounting)
Although there are regulations in some
countries against recessed mounting, it
can still be found in renovation and mo-
dernizing work.
In new constructions, especially when the
pipes are laid on or in the concrete floor,
recessed mounting is recommended.
Horizontal wall recesses should be avo-
ided where possible.

Purpose made installation systems


enable fittings to be attached efficiently
in wall recesses.

The pipe-in-sleeve installation makes


insulation or protection of the pipe in the
masonry unnecessary.

GEORGE FISCHER 4.0


metal bars with plaster
1)
Pipe Layout in Lightweight Con-
boards struction Walls
For the installation of multistorey pipes
in dry lined & partition walls1) or wood
walls, the stresses arising from the fittings
and their operation will be transmitted to
the supporting structures.

The pipe fittings can be attached with a 4 2 3 1 3 5


combination of INSTAFLEX mounting
accessories and those supplied by wall
manufacturers.

INSTAFLEX
Distance plate
Plate
Pipe fitting

Wall Manufacturer
Mounting rail
Mounting plate

4.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Frostproof Pipe Laying
An important rule in frostproof pipe For those parts of the building where the
laying in heated buildings is to locate temperature may fall below 0C , e.g.
the pipes in parts of the building where edges of basement floor, garages and
the temperature will always be above driveways, the pipes should be laid in
0C. If this rule is even partially violated, a frost-free zone to prevent danger of
there is an increased danger of water freezing.
freezing in the stagnation points.


Insulation
Wrong
The wrong installation. The pipe could
be exposed to frost via the cold bridge.
Out- Inside
4

Cold
bridge

Insulation
Right
The correct installation. The pipe has
Out- Inside been laid in the warm zone.

Installations which are exposed to frost Frozen pipes can be de-iced according
should be drained normally. Ice crystals to the INSTAFLEX defrosting method, see
in water pockets is not a problem for IN- Section 8 Repairs.
STAFLEX polybutylene (PB) pipes.

GEORGE FISCHER 4.0


Curvature Radius
INSTAFLEX PB pipes 16, 20 and
25mm o.d. must always be bent
cold. The materials require a mini-
mum curvature radius of

R 8 x o.d.
Conveying pipe
Protective
sleeve o.d.

Fastening the pipes


in curves
R

Pipe 16mm o.d. R = 130 mm


20mm o.d. R = 160 mm
25mm o.d. R = 200 mm
Pipes from dimension 32 to 63mm
o.d. can be bent up to a 30 angle
with a curvature radius

R 15 x mm o.d. cold.

Bending INSTAFLEX PB pipes


warm on the construction site is
not permitted.

When moving from the floor


to the wall or within wall
channels, it is necessary to
ensure that the minimum
curvature radius is observed.

4.10 GEORGE FISCHER


Dimensional information
Page

Comparison of pipe dimensions 5.02


z Dimension installation method 5.03 - 5.04
Application examples 5.05 - 5.07
Conclusions for practical use 5.08
Fitting combinations 5.09 - 5.15

GEORGE FISCHER 5.0


Comparison of Pipe Dimensions
Due to the smooth internal bore of
INSTAFLEX pipe similar flow velocities
produced by traditional materials
can achieved with a smaller internal
diameter INSTAFLEX pipe. The tables
below provide a guide for the selec-
tion of pipe size x size i.e.
INSTAFLEX = 20 mm o.d.
Steel = 1/2" o.d.
Copper = 18 mm o.d.

INSTAFLEX PB Pipes
o.d. (mm) 16,6 20,6 25,6 32,6 40,6 50,6 63,6 75,6 90,6 110
ID (mm) 11 .6 14.4 20.4 26.0 32.6 40.8 51 .4 61 .2 73.6 90.0

Steel Pipes galvanized DIN 2440/44


o.d. (inch) 1
/2 3
/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4,6
ID (mm) 16.0 21 .6 27.2 35.9 41 .8 53.0 68.8 80.8 105.3

Copper Pipes DIN 1786/ISO 274


o.d. (mm) 15 18 22 28 35 42 54 76.1 88.9 108
ID (mm) 13 16 20 25 32 39 50 72.0 85.0 103

5.0 GEORGE FISCHER


z-Dimension Installation
Introduction thod
The z-dimension assembly method is z-dimension and a uniform measu-
used to aid the measurement of pipe ring method are at the core of this
lengths between fittings, developed assembly method by George Fischer.
by George Fischer together with ex- The z-dimension is the construction
perienced installers in the domestic measurement of the installer. This al-
and industrial installation sector. It lows him to calculate easily the exact
has proven to be very successful for pipe length between fitting and/or
many years. valves.
As a basis for efficient design, factory The basis for the calculation and ap-
preparation and pre-assembly, this plication of the z-dimension is
method saves the enterprising con-
tractor a considerable amount of time
and money. It makes:
efficient use of employees
administration easier
calculations and accounting easier Uniform Measuring 5
Centreline - Centreline =
efficient use of machinery
reduced stocks of fittings and pipes M
transportation easier, less material
distribution time.

The z-dimension method re- In order to work out the length the
quires pipe needs to be cut to you need:
exact planning of pipe layout the centreline to centreline pipe
knowing the dimensions of valves, section, indicated by M
appliances and their location the z-dimension for fittings and
coordination of architect, designer, valves
contractor as well as any others the construction height h for fittings
involved in the construction whose with outer joint ends
work could effect the pipe layout to take into consideration the join-
use of fittings with constant dimen- ting length x for pipe sections
sional and axis accuracy, as those The exact pipe length L can then be
manufactured by George Fischer easily calculated.
standard pipe connections, which
can be easily installed with George
Fischer fittings and pipes.
z-Dimension and Measuring Me-

x1 x2

z2 L z1

GEORGE FISCHER 5.0


Measurement of Fitting Fitting with outer joint end
C
Fitting with inner joint end L
C
L

h
l
x

x
h = height of fitting
C
L =centreline
Elbow 90 with inner and outer joint
ends (socket spigot)
l = length of fitting from centreline
z = z-dimension
x = length of joint
C
z = lx L

z
l
The z-dimension is the difference bet-
ween the construction length L and
the joint length x.

h
Elbow 90 with two inner joint ends
(sockets)
l Inner joint ends are referred to as
sockets and outer joint ends as spi-
z gots.

Type of joints available in pipe con-


struction are:
plug connections
compression joints
threaded unions
soldered joints
z

fusion joints
solvent cement joints
l

flange adaptors

5.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Application Examples
h z

z2

M
l
M 5
M = h + z

h z1 z2

z1
/2 seal
1
M = l + z1 + z2 + 1/2 seal

M = h + z 1 + z2

GEORGE FISCHER 5.0


z2

z2

M2
M
l

l
z1
z1

z h
M1

M = l + z 1 + z2 M1 = h + z
l = M (z1 + z2) M2 = l + z1 + z2

5.0 GEORGE FISCHER


a a
z h z
z

b
h

b
z M

h 45
M = z + h
z M b = M x 0.707
a = M x 0.707 + (z + h) 5
a

45 z
M = h + z
a or b = M x 0.707

a
z z

b
z h
z
b

z M

l
M
45
M = z + h
z a or b = M x 0.707

45
M = a or b x 1 .414
M = l + 2z
l = M 2z

GEORGE FISCHER 5.0


Conclusions for Practical Use
The z-dimension assembly method by When sections must be prepared on
George Fischer is the proven basis for site (to compensate for variations in
small-scale and industrial pre-assem- the structure):
bly of threaded pipe installations. Always measure along the path of
the pipes.
It combines various processes to pro-
duce a fast and efficient way of using The z-dimension assembly method by
materials, labour and of avoiding George Fischer enables:
unnecessary assembly steps. It makes pre-assembly
economic and high-quality solutions efficient use of materials, labour
possible . and machinery
shorter assembly times
This requires : quick adjustments to construction
Dividing the piping system and in- progress and site conditions
stallation into manageable sections. independence of construction sche-
Dividing installation into pre-as- dules
sembly (in the workshop or on site) better control of outside contracts
and site assembly work. It is ad- better conditions for renovation
vantageous to prepare as much as work
possible before going on site in the more accuracy with less effort
workshop. consistent quality
Preparing all the important pipe di-
mensions, so that pre-assembly can To be able to exploit these advan-
be done in quick succession. tages to the fullest, installation plan-
ning must be given equal priority in
The most important rule is: project planning. Efficient construc-
Use as much information on pipe tion begins in the planning stage with
sections as possible from the in- complete details and coordinated
stallation drawings. information.

Attention: pre-assembled pipe Note: The z-dimension method is


combinations should never be so not synonymous with prefabricati-
bulky that they cannot be easily on; it can be used wherever pipes
transported or installed on site. with fittings are installed.

z-dimension method for diffe-


rent materials
Taking into consideration the varying
characteristics of metal or plastic pi-
ping systems, the z-dimension method
by George Fischer can also be used
with all of them.

5.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Fitting Combinations
Fittings with socket fusion joints

Elbow 90 Dimension M
All dimensions o.d. mm
in mm
16 44
20 49
25 58
32 68
40 80

M
50 96
63 116

T-equal 5
a
Elbow 45 Dimension a/b
o.d. mm
16 27
20 30
25 35
32 41
40 48
b

50 56
63 68
Elbow 90 / T-equal

M
Dimension M
o.d. mm
16 44
20 49
25 58
32 68
Elbow 90 40 80
50 96
63 116
Elbow 90

a
Dimension a/b
o.d. mm
16 25
Elbow 45 20 26
25 30
32 35
40 41
50 47
b

63 56

Elbow 45

GEORGE FISCHER 5.0


Elbow 90 Dimension M
o.d. mm
20-16 47
25-16 51
25-20 53

M
32-16 57
32-20 59
32-25 64
40-25 70
50-25 77
T-red 63-25 88

a
Elbow 45 Dimension a/b
o.d. mm
20-16 30
25-16 32
25-20 33
b

32-16 37
32-20 37
32-25 39
T-red 40-25 43
50-40-25 48
63-40-25 56
Minimum Distance bet-
ween Fittings
a
Dimension a/b M L
z o.d. mm min.
Elbow 45 16 39 55 40
20 42 60 40
25 47 66 45
z 32 55 78 50
40 64 90 55
b

L 50 71 100 60
M 63 85 120 70
75 99 140 80
z 90 117 165 93
110 138 195 107
T-equal or Elbow 90

Elbow 45 Dimension a/b M L


o.d. mm min.
M L 20-16 52 73 39
25-16 54 77 39
25-20 55 78 39
a

32-25 66 94 47
40-32 74 105 51
50-40 92 130 59
63-50 103 145 64
b 75-63 120 170 72
T-equal or Elbow 90-75 138 195 85
90 & Reducer 110-90 163 230 97

5.10 GEORGE FISCHER


a Elbow 45
z Dimension a/b M L
o.d. mm min.
16 35 50 38
20 37 52 38
z 25 42 60 46

b
32 50 70 50
L 40 57 80 56
M 50 60 85 57
63 71 100 66
z
Elbow 45 75 85 120 84
90 95 135 93
110 113 160 110

Elbow 90 Dimension M L
o.d. mm min.
20-16 78 40
L 25-16 82 40 5
M 25-20 85 40
32-25 102 48
40-32 115 53
T-equal or Elbow 90 50-40 140 59
& Reducer 63-50 160 67
75-63 195 80
90-75 225 91
110-90 270 107

Elbow 90 Dimension M L
o.d. mm min.
z

16 60 40
20 66 40
25 76 48
32 88 52
40 100 56
50 115 63
M
L

63 140 72
75 165 81
90 195 93
110 230 104
z

T-equal or Elbow
90

GEORGE FISCHER 5.11


Minimum Distance between Cen- Dimension M L
ters M for Socket Fusion Machine* o.d. mm min.
Jointing 16 150 130
20 156 130
T-equal 25 164 136
32 176 140

z
40 188 144
50 202 150
63 224 156
* Fusion Machine 5120
100

L
M
z

Elbow 90

Fitting Combinations with PB Manifold

5.12 GEORGE FISCHER


Pipe Lengths for Dimension o.d. mm
Position Change 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 75 90 110
M Pipe Lengths L
Elbow 90
80 60 54 52 44
z

100 80 74 72 64 56
120 100 94 92 84 76 68
150 130 124 122 114 106 98 82
180 160 154 152 144 136 128 112 96
M
L

210 190 184 182 174 166 158 142 126 108
250 230 224 222 214 206 198 182 166 148 124
z

Elbow 90

a
z
Elbow 45 Dimension o.d. mm
16 20 25 32 40 50 63 75 90 110 5
z a/b Pipe Lengths L M
80 97 97 92 85 79 73 113
b

L
M
z
100 125 121 120 113 107 101 90 141
T-equal / Elbow
120 154 150 149 142 136 130 119 110 170
90
150 196 192 191 184 178 172 161 152 140 124 212
180 238 224 233 226 220 214 203 194 182 166 254
210 281 277 276 269 263 257 246 237 225 209 297
250 337 333 332 325 319 313 302 293 281 265 353

z
a
z Elbow 45 Dimension o.d. mm
16 20 25 32 40 50 63 75 90 110
z a/b Pipe Lengths L M
80 101 99 99 93 89 85 79 113
b

L
M
100 129 127 127 121 117 113 107 105 99 141
z
Elbow 45 120 158 156 156 150 146 142 136 134 128 120 170
150 200 198 198 192 188 184 178 176 170 162 212
180 242 240 240 234 230 226 220 218 212 204 254
210 285 283 283 277 273 269 263 261 255 247 297
250 341 339 339 333 329 325 319 317 311 303 353

GEORGE FISCHER 5.13


z-Dimension
Elbow 90 Dimension Measurements
Elbow 90 Socket-spigot o.d. mm z h l D
T-equal 90 16 10 34 25 22
20 13 36 28 26
D

25 14 44 32 32
z

32 18 50 38 40
d
z h 40 22 58 44 51
l 50 26 70 51 64
63 34 82 62 81
d
z

75 42 75 92
l

d
90 51 88 114
D 110 63 106 134
D
l

All dimensions
z

in mm
d
z
l1

Elbow 45 Dimension Measurements


Elbow 45 Socket-spigot o.d. mm z h l D
16 6 29 21 22
l
20 7 30 22 26
25 7 35 25 32
32 10 40 30 40
z
l

40 12 46 34 51
16 110mm 50 14 53 39 64
o.d.
63 17 62 45 81
75 18 51 92
z

90 21 58 114
l

d
110 25 68 134
D
16 63 mm o.d.

T-reducing. 90 Dimension Measurements


a o.d. mm a-b-c z1 z2 l l1 D
D
20-16-20 13 13 28 28 26
20-16-16 13 13 28 28 26
l

b 20-20-16 13 13 28 28 26
25-16-25 14 17 32 32 32
l

25-20-25 14 17 32 32 32
d
25-20-20 14 17 32 32 32
l 25-25-20 17 17 32 32 32
c 32-16-32 18 23 38 40
32-20-32 18 23 38 40
32-25-32 18 20 38 40
40-25-40 22 26 44 44 51
50-25-50 26 33 51 51 64
63-25-63 34 44 62 62 81

5.14 GEORGE FISCHER


Reducer Dimension Measurements
o.d. mm z l
20-16 15 30
25-16 18 30
25-20 18 33
d1
d

32-20 25 40
z
32-25 22 40
l 40-20 27 42
40-25 24 42
40-32 22 42
50-20 40 55
50-25 37 55
d1
d

50-32 35 55
50-40 33 55
z

l 63-20 43 58
63-25 40 58
63-32 38 58
63-40 36 58 5
63-50 33 58
75-63 39 67
90-75 40 72
110-63 58 86
110-75 53 86
110-90 50 86

Flange adaptor flat


Flange adaptor with groove
Flange adaptor with spigot
h

Dimension flat with groove with spigot


o.d. mm z l z l h
16 5 20 8 23 42
a
b

20 5 20 8 23 42
25 5 23 8 26
z
32 5 25 8 28
l
40 5 27 10 32
h 50 5 30 10 35
63 5 33 10 38
75 4 35 9 40
90 6 42 11 47
a
b

110 7 49 13 55
d

h
a
b
d

GEORGE FISCHER 5.15


5.16 GEORGE FISCHER
Expansion & Contraction
Page

Expansion & Contraction Introduction 6.02


Change in length 6.03
Allowing for expansion or contraction 6.04 - 6.07
Bracket spacing 6.08 - 6.12

GEORGE FISCHER 6.0


Expansion and Contraction
All materials expand or contract
Example
with the increase or decrease
in temperature. The amount of How much will a 10m length of PB
this expansion or contraction is (INSTAFLEX) expand if the working
dependent on the coefficient of linear temperature is 60C and the
expansion . This coefficient is very installation temperature is 15C?
rarely linear for a material, however t = working temperature -
for most calculations a good average installation temperature
is used. t = 60C 15C
t = 45C
The average linear expansion
Therefore
L = change in length
coefficient of polybutylene (PB):
L = 0.13 x 10 x 45
L = pipe length
= 0.13 mm/mC L = 58.5mm
Therefore
L = x L x t
Important Where L = change in length in mm
Please note that t is the = coefficient of expansion
difference between the
installation temperature and
L = original length in m
the working temperature. t = temperature difference
in C
Change in length L in mm for PB pipes

Pipe l. Temperature difference t in C


in m 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

0.1 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0


0.2 0.3 0.5 0.8 1 .0 2.0 2.3 2.7 3.1
0.3 0.4 0.8 1 .2 1 .6 2.0 2.3 2.7 3.1
0.4 0.5 1 .0 1 .6 2.1 2.6 3.1 3.6 4.2
0.5 0.6 1 .3 2.0 2.6 3.3 3.9 4.6 5.2

0.6 0.8 1 .6 2.3 3.1 3.9 4.7 5.5 6.2
0.7 0.9 1 .8 2.7 3.6 4.6 5.5 6.4 7.3
0.8 1 .0 2.1 3.1 4.2 5.2 6.2 7.3 8.3
0.9 1 .2 2.3 3.5 4.7 5.9 7.0 8.2 9.4
1 .0 1 .3 2.6 3.9 5.2 6.5 7.8 9.1 10.4

2.0 2.6 5.2 7.8 10.4 13.0 15.6 18.2 20.8
3.0 3.9 7.8 11 .7 15.6 19.5 23.4 27.3 31 .2
4.0 5.2 10.4 15.6 20.8 26.0 31 .2 36.4 41 .6
5.0 6.5 13.0 19.5 26.0 32.5 39.0 45.5 52.0
6.0 7.8 15.6 23.4 31 .2 39.0 46.8 54.6 62.4

7.0 9.1 18.2 27.3 36.4 45.5 54.6 63.7 72.8


8.0 10.4 20.8 31 .2 41 .6 52.0 62.4 72.8 83.2
9.0 11 .7 23.4 35.1 46.8 58.5 70.2 81 .9 93.6
10.0 13.0 26.0 39.0 52.0 65.0 78.0 91 .0 104.0
11 .0 14.3 28.6 42.9 57.2 71 .5 85.8 100.1 114.4
12.0 15.6 31 .2 46.8 62.4 78.0 93.6 109.2 124.8


Example from table
A 5m long pipe working at a
temperature of 50C will expand or
contract by 32.5mm.

6.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Change in length L in mm for PB pipes
Pipe length L in m
Temperature Difference t in C

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130


Change in length L in mm

GEORGE FISCHER 6.0


Allowing for Expansion or Contraction

1 . General
Being a member of the thermoplastic low, at 350N/mm2, overcoming the
family, INSTAFLEX PB is subject to effects of expansion or contraction is
greater thermal movement than generally easier than with metals.
metals. As all materials expand or There are three principal methods
contract and since the modulus of to overcome the effects of thermal
elasticity (E) of INSTAFLEX is very movement.

Method 1
By optimising the flexibility of PB by commonly used in places where the
using the changes of direction found pipework is not visible, i.e. in ceiling
in most installations or to install voids or riser ducts.
expansion loops. This method is most

Flexible expansion leg Pipe lateral yielding in riser

Expansion

Fixed point Sliding


bracket bracket

Flexible Leg

Expansion Loop

Expansion

Fixed point Sliding Sliding Fixed point


bracket bracket bracket bracket

Flexible Leg Flexible Leg

Fixed point
bracket
6.0 GEORGE FISCHER
Method 2
Similar to Method 1 but using can be much further apart.
pipe carrier to continually support Ideal for use in areas where the pipe
the pipe. The advantage of this is visible.
approach is that pipe is continually
supported and the bracket centers

Typical Pipe Carrier Pipe in Riser Carrier

Pipe carrier Pipe ties

Flexible Leg
6
Flexible Expansion Leg Pipe carrier
with carrier

Expansion L

Pipe ties

Fixed point Sliding


bracket bracket Fixed point
Flexible Leg bracket

GEORGE FISCHER 6.0


Method 3
This method utilises the unique feature fixing the pipework to prevent any
of INSTAFLEX, namely its ability to thermal movement.
absorb any thermal movement within This system is commonly used where
itself without detriment to the material there are long pipe runs with laterals.
or system. This is achieved by rigidly

Sliding bracket Fixed point


Fixed point
bracket
bracket
Pipe carrier

Pipe ties

Calculating the Flexible Leg for


Methods 1 and 2.

a = k x L x od where a = flexible leg in cm


k = constant PB = 10
L = Expansion or Contraction in

Sliding
Bracket Fixed Point
Bracket
a

Flexible Leg

Example
How long should leg a be if the expansion L is 3.25cm
on a 6.3cm od pipe?

a = 10 x 3.25 x 6.3 ~ 45cm

6.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Graphical method for Determining the Flexible Leg a
For methods 1 and 2

110
General Guidelines d110
1 . Control the direction and
amount of thermal movement 100
by careful positioning of fixed d90
points. 90
2. Take care to ensure the
d75
pipe can move freely within
the loose brackets. d63 80
3. Never create a fixed point
by tightening the bracket to d50
squeeze the pipe. 70
4. Ensure that the positioning

Flexible Leg a
of loose bracket does not d40
60
inadvertently create a fixed
d32
point.
d25 50
45 6
40

30

20

10

Change in length L in cm

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Temperature difference t in C

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

length of pipe run in m

GEORGE FISCHER 6.0


Method 1 Bracket Spacing

Pipe size Pipe bracket intervals in cm


d 20C 30C 40C 50C 60C 80C

16 70 70 65 65 60 60
20 75 80 75 75 70 70

25 80 80 80 75 75 70
32 90 90 90 90 85 80
40 105 100 100 95 95 90
50 115 115 110 110 105 100
63 130 130 125 120 120 110
75 140 140 135 130 130 120
90 155 150 150 145 140 130

The pipe bracket spacing may be The bracket spacings above are
increased by 30% in the case of based on a maximum deflection of
vertical pipes. i.e. multiply the values 0.25cm between the brackets.
given by 1 .3.

Method 2 Loose Bracket Spacing with support tray


Pipe size All Temperatures Tie Spacing
d

16 to 75mm 1 .5 to 2m maximum approx. every 30cm

90 & 110 1 .5 to 2m maximum approx. every 30cm


No support tray

6.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Pre-stressing
An alternative solution for Methods 1 is at its normal operating temperature
and 2 is to cut the pipe short by the the expansion leg or loop is straight.
amount that it is calculated that it will
expand or contract, such that when it

Position at ambient temperature Position at operating temperature

Note
There must be a
Flexible Leg a

Flexible leg a

Fixed point assembly Method 3 Bracket Spacing


6
Bracket distances for hot water pipes

Pipe dim Fixed point dis- Loose bracket Pipe binder dis-
d mm tances distances tances
L L1 L2

16
20
25 maximum
32 6m between 1 .5 to 2m max. approx every 30cm
40 fixed points
50
63
75

For fixed installations the expansion last fixed point brackets.


force of the pipe is transferred to the

expansion force expansion force expansion force

Force on bracket Force on bracket Force on bracket Force on bracket


= expansion force =0 =0 = expansion force
2 2

GEORGE FISCHER 6.0


Expansion Forces generated by PB pipes for Temperature Differences

Temp. Difference t in C.

Expansion Force FR in N

To calculate the expansion force, the following formula may be used;

FR = A x E x x tC. A = pipe cross section area mm2


2 E = modulus of elasticity 350N/mm2
= coefficient of linear expansion
= 1 .3 x 10-4mm/mmC
= 0.13mm/mC
A = (D2 - d2) t = temperature difference C
where
FR = expansion force
4
2

Example
What is the force acting on an end bracket for a 63 mm od pipe with a
temperature difference of 50C?

FR = (63 2 - 51 .42) x 350 x 1 .3 x 10-4 x 50


4x2

FR = 1185 N

6.10 GEORGE FISCHER


Forces due to expansion of various structure will effect the required
sizes of PB pipe which would be diameter of the fastening rod used
transferred to a fixed point pipe to hold the fixed point in place. This
support clamp, can be read from can be determined using the graph
the graph on page 11 . Depending below and the expansion forces on
on how far the centerline of the pipe page 11 .
needs to be from the supporting

Choosing the Diameter of the Fastening Rods for the Pipe Clamp
and Bass Plate
Hanger length H in cm

Expansion Force Fz in N

Calculating the Fixed Point Support Clamp

D Diameter of the fastener


rods FR x H
Fz = [N]
H Distance to ceiling or LxX
wall from the pipe
L Distance between screws
X Number of screws with
Example:
tensile strength
1200N x 20cm = 1000N
FR Fixed point forces (N) Fz =
FZ Screw or dowel retention 12cm x 2
force (N)
Retention force per screw:
2-hole base plate
x=1 Fz = 1000N
4-hole base plate
x=2

GEORGE FISCHER 6.11


Fixed Point and Sliding Brackets

Arrangement of fixed point Attention!


support brackets Pipe brackets for fixed point
Fixed points direct thermal expansion and sliding support should
of the pipe in the desired direction. be lined with suitable rubber
Fixed points should ideally be inserts or of such a design to
installed at a fitting and should prevent any damage
support it on both sides or be to the pipe.
installed in between the two fittings.

Elbow
Tee

Connecting socket
Valve connection

Sliding support brackets


Sliding brackets allow an axial
movement of the pipe. The bracket
must be in line with the pipe. Sliding
brackets should be lined with rubber
inserts suitable for plastic pipe, or
of such a design to prevent any
Typical fixed point assembly damage to the pipe.

All commercially available pipe


clamps and fastening materials,
which are suitable for plastic pipe
installations can be used as fixed
points or sliding pipe supports for
INSTAFLEX.

6.12 GEORGE FISCHER


Flow Characteristics
Page

Flow Characteristics 7.01


Determining Pressure Loss in Piping Systems Using the
INSTAFLEX Calculation Method
2.1 Determining Pipe Diameter 7.02
2.2 Manifold Distribution 7.03
2.3 Distribution Mains 7.05
2.4 Entire Installation 7.05
Blank INSTAFLEX Pressure Loss Table 7.06
British Method and Data
Calculation example based on C.I.B.S.E. 7.07
Excerpts from the C.I.B.S.E. guidelines 7.09
Simultaneous demand peak flow tables 7.10
Pressure loss and flow velocity tables 7.11 - 7.13
Equivalent pipe length tables 7.14
Flushing Times for Dead Legs 7.15
Terms, Symbols and Units 7.16 - 7.17

GEORGE FISCHER 7.0


Determining Pressure Loss in Piping Systems Using
the INSTAFLEX Calculation Method
Pressure loss calculation is based on 2.1 Determining the pipe dia-
the determination of pipe diameters meter
directly from the load units.
The pipe diameter is determined
Approximate pipe diameters can be using Tables 1a on page 7.03
determined using section 2.1 The load units of the individual pipe-
line sections are the basis for determi-
ning pipe diameter.

The load unit LU corresponds to the


flow rates of outlets and appliances
approx. 1 .5 specific to each country (see guideli-
bar nes or technical regulations). For the
UK see
Table B4.21 p7.09

The total load unit of a pipeline sec-


If pipe diameters are correctly cal- tion are the sum of individual load
culated, pressure loss of 1 .5 bar units in the section, without conside-
(150,000N/m2) should not be excee- ration of simultaneous use.
ded for the entire installation, from
the water meter or the pressure redu-
cing valve to the last outlet.

If the pipe diameter is not sufficient,


pressure losses must be determined
for manifold distribution according to
section 2.2 and for general distribu-
tion using section 2.3. & 2.4

7.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Table 1a: Load units (LU) and pipe diameters for INSTAFLEX polybutylene
pipes and plastic fittings
max. number
LU (LV) 14 17 25 55 180 500 1100

Pipe o.d. (mm) 16 20 25 32 140 550 1163

Pipe ID (mm) 11 .6 14.4 20.4 26.0 132.6 540.8


1151 .4

Manifold Pressure drop


drop = K x 10-1 x Qm
No. of K value K
drop = mm H2O
Ports
Q = l/h
m = 2.026
2 6 5.08
3
/4"
3 7.6 4.23

2.2 Manifold Distribution 2.2.2 Continuous line 7


Piping systems and pressure loss de-
termination for manifold distribution
in the pipe dimensions 16 and 20mm
o.d. .

Pressure loss as a function of flow Continuous lines supplying more than


rate in manifold distribution systems, one outlet from each pipeline on the
it can be determined using Tables 2 manifold. The fact that the tapping
and 3 on pages 7.04 and 7.05. Only points are connected in series means
the least favourable flow path, i.e. the that their pressure losses are cumula-
index pipe with the greatest pressure tive.
loss, is considered when determining
pressure loss. By installing the outlet with the largest
load units at the beginning of the
The load units (LU) for outlets and pipeline, rather than at the end, con-
appliances are given in the relevant siderably lower pressure losses can
technical regulations or guidelines, be obtained.
see page 7.09
The pressure loss in continuous lines is
2.2.1 Individual lines calculated with peak flow. This redu-
ced simultaneous use, which means
that not all outlets on a flow path are
used at the same time or for the same
duration.

The peak flow (Vs) is determined from


the total load units using the relevant
Individual lines supply only one outlet diagrams and charts for simultaneous
from the manifold. The pressure loss use or calculation formulae from the
can be read directly from Table 2 or appropriate technical regulations
3 on pages 7.04 and 7.05. see page 7.10.

GEORGE FISCHER 7.0


If high pressure losses prevent the Pressure loss in a ring main is about
connection of all draw offs to a single 70 % less than in a continuous line.
line, then two or more pipelines may For calculating pressure loss, the ring
be necessary. main is treated as a continuous line
with only one inlet. The pressure loss
2.2.3 Ring mains calculated is multiplied by 0.3; the
Ring mains supply more than one result is the pressure loss of the ring
outlet from the manifold. The outlets main.
are supplied by water from two direc-
tions. 2.2.4 Pressure losses in
This prevents water stagnation. INSTAFLEX pipeline loops
The pressure losses in Table 2 and
3 include the individual resistances
caused by changes of direction, pipe
joints and manifolds.

Table 2: Pressure losses in 16mm o.d. pipeline loops


Loop length l in meters
V V
in
in 11 11 .5 12 12.5 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
l/s m/s
Pressure loss in pipeline loop in mbar

0.07 0.7 17 21 24 28 31 38 45 52 57 66 72 79 86 93 100 107 114 121 128 135 141 148

0.10 0.9 32 38 45 51 57 70 83 96 109 121 134 147 160 173 185 198 211 224 237 249 262 275

0.13 1 .2 54 64 74 84 94 114 134 154 174 194 214 234 254 274 294 314 334 354 374 394 414 434

0.15 1 .4 72 85 98 111 124 150 177 203 229 255 281 307 333 359 385 411 438 464 490 516 542 568

0.20 1 .9 129 150 172 194 216 259 303 346 390 433 477 520 564 607 651 694 738 781 825 868 912 955

0.22 2.1 156 182 208 234 259 311 363 415 467 518 570 622 674 726 777 829 881 933 985 1036 1088 1140

0.25 2.4 200 232 265 297 329 394 459 524 589 653 718 783 848 913 977 1042 1107 1172 1237 1301 1366 1431

0.30 2.8 274 319 364 409 454 544 634 723 813 903 993 1083 1173 1263 1353 1443 1533 1622 1712 1802 1892 1982

0.35 3.3 375 434 494 553 612 731 850 969 1088 1206 1325 1444 1563 1682 1800 1919

0.40 3.8 490 566 642 717 793 944 1096 1247 1398 1549 1700 1852 2003

0.50 4.7 746 860 973 1087 1200 1428 1655 1882

7.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Table 3: Pressure losses in 20mm o.d. pipeline loops
Loop length l in metres
V
V
in
in 11 1 .5 12 12.5 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
l/s m/s
Pressure loss in pipeline loop in mbar

0.07 0.4 6 8 9 10 11 14 16 19 21 24 26 29 31 34 36 39 41 44 46 49 51 54

0.10 0.6 12 14 17 19 21 26 31 35 40 44 49 54 58 63 67 72 77 81 86 90 95 100

0.13 0.8 20 24 27 31 35 42 49 57 64 71 78 86 93 100 108 115 122 130 137 144 151 159

0.15 0.9 26 31 36 40 45 54 64 73 82 91 101 110 119 129 138 147 157 166 175 184 194 203

0.20 1 .2 46 53 61 69 76 92 107 123 138 153 169 184 200 215 230 246 261 277 292 307 323 338

0.22 1 .4 55 64 73 82 91 110 128 146 165 183 201 220 238 256 274 293 311 329 348 366 384 403

0.25 1 .5 70 81 93 104 116 138 161 184 207 230 252 275 298 321 344 366 389 412 435 458 480 503

0.30 1 .8 100 115 131 147 163 194 226 258 289 321 352 384 416 447 479 510 542 574 605 637 668 700

0.35 2.1 134 155 176 196 217 259 300 342 384 425 467 508 550 592 633 675 716 758 800 841 883 924

0.40 2.5 174 200 226 253 279 332 385 438 491 544 597 650 703 755 808 861 914 967 1020 1073 1126 1179

0.50 3.1 268 307 347 386 426 505 584 663 742 821 900 980 1059 1138 1217 1296 1375 1454 1533 1612 1691 1771

0.60 3.7 384 439 494 549 604 714 824 934 1045 1155 1265 1375 1485 1705 1815 1925

0.70 4.3 516 589 661 734 807 953 1099 1245 1391 1536 1682 1828 1974

0.80 4.9 666 759 852 946 1039 1225 1411 1597 1783 1969

7
2.3 Distribution mains 2.4 Entire Installation

Determining pressure losses in dis- Pressure loss in the entire installation


tribution mains of polybutylene (PB) comprises manifold pressure loss
pipe dimensions 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, PST and distribution mains pressure
75, 90, &110mm o.d. loss PVL .

The pressure loss PVL in the distri- Only the manifold and distribution
bution mains is calculated by adding mains with the largest pressure loss
the pressure losses PTS of the indi- are taken into account here, this is
vidual sections of the index run. the index run.

In order to calculate pressure loss, The total pressure loss PInst. is the
peak flow VS must be calculated from maximum pressure loss in the index
the total number of load units in each run from the water meter, pressure
section of pipe, see page 7.09. reducing valve or cistern to the last
outlet.
The pressure loss in the individual
sections is determined by adding To adjust the pressure reducing valve,
the fitting supplements (equivalent the required flow pressure at the most
pipe lengths) from the information distant outlet and the altitude diffe-
on page 7.14 to the given pipeline rence between the pressure reducing
length. Multiplying the total length by valve and the highest outlet point
the pressure loss per
meter run of the must be added to the total pressure
corresponding pipe, as a function of loss PInst..
peak flow volume VS from Tables on
pages 7.11 -13

GEORGE FISCHER 7.0


Job Reference Project Name Date Name Sheet
Apartment Distribution !fxample xxxxx XXXXX 1 of 2

hIfomIatIon from the Drawmgl P...ur. Drop CakuIatIonsl Notes Exploootion


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Colwnn 2 Determining the
~ load Row ~ ~ Pressure Fittings 'bid PresslWe PresSloe demand units from
ReferencesUnIt. Rote length SiZe loss/metreEquivdent Pipe loss lossToial C. I .B. S. E. Guide B4 Table 1-
lposcas/mI length length (pascoIs) !pascals) B4:21 on page 11.29 G
V. m o.d.mm mbor/m m m niJor mbor 't m ,
1.1 3 0.15 1.0 16 ---72 Colwnn 3. Determining the ~ ~ }
value of simultaneous ~ to:S t
1.2 6 0.3 1.5 16 ---319 demand from C.I.B.S.E. ~ ~ ~:i 'c'
1.3 9 0.3 2.0 16 ---364 guide B4:17 on page 11.29 ~ ~ -9-0
or from Table B4:20 on Mi 5 ~
1.4 14 0.3 1.5 16 ---319 page 11.30 which ever is i
~ the lower value ~ J i:s
-i v
, 1074 \ ~ !! i
\ Column 9. Determining the ~ ~ ~
total pressure loss for ~ ~ ..
2 5 0.15 3.0 16 ---124 124" \ the section. including all E ~
'"
~m 0;;
bends. From tables 2 {, 3 2 .s
" \ on pages 11.04 {, 11.05 t.'! u (3
3 12 0.3 3.0 16 ---454 454 "" '\: Section 1
""" Section 2
4 11 0.3 2.5 16 ---409 409
Section 3
Section 4 j .
.~

5.1 3 0.15 1.0 16 ---72 B t


5.2 8 0.25 2.5 16 ---297
r.:'"
~ c
c~
~ '"~
-"
, 369 Section 5 ] v .l.
o.~ "'
-r Po low f ow fi ures ta en j 8 ~ .a
dire tly frpm Tab e B4:17 page 1 .29 ~!"']
~~8.~
N";8..;
~~ 1 ~
.a "e~
13 80

Total PressureDrop (Section No.) 1 6. P -lO74mbar.lO7400Pa --(pascals) GEORGERSOfER+GF+ INSTAFLEXCK>

George Fischerpermit photocopyingof thissheet for usein sizingINSTAFlEXPipingSchemes


t.;.L6').t.
Job Reference Project Name Dote Name Sheet
Manifold and Risers Example xxxx XXXX 2 of 2

Infonnatlon from the Drawingl PressureDrop ColculatlOlll1 Notes Exploinalion


1
Pipe
References
3
Row P"ope
RoM length
4
~ 7
Ilti'
8
Toiol
enl PIpe
ength length
1
-
t
m m 8'm
Value: INSTAFLEXDN 20-'/,. ~ !
see valve chart on page '" ~ ~ B
11.22
Co1wnn2. Determining the
-i
~ .v li
'"
II
"0
c~
~ ~
.~

demand units from ~~


C.I.B.S.E. Guide B4. Table I :s ~
B4.21 page 11.29 I. v]-
Column 3. Determining the .0 ~ ! ~
value of simultaneous
demand from C.I.B.S.E. ~ ~ ! ~
Guide B4. Table B4.20 on
page 11.30
Colwnn 6. Selecting a 8
suitable pipe size for =
fluid flow (usually under ~
3m/s velocity) Record ~
pressure losses from :z=
tables on pages 11.31 -33 $; j
...'"
Column 7. Determining the ~ ~
total value for equivalent .g -g ~
length for all items in ].~ ::;
the pipe section. From; j ~
table 4a or 4b, page 11.33 '6 Y g ~
~ OI"'~
Co1wnn 10. SUllWnerisethe a ! 8. ~
pipe pressures pressures N ,.; 8..;
from the furthest point ~ ~1 ~
back to the pwnp ~ ~ ~ ~

Total PressureDrop (SectIon No.) 1 6. p -32190 oRIbGr(pascals) GEORGERSOiER+GF+ INSTAFLEX<!>

George Fischerpermitphotocopying of thissheetfor usein sizingINSTAFlEXPipingSchemes .


.
r!~~otal
ca s
s stem ressureloss = 107;400+ 32,190= 139,590pas-
I
.-Within anticipated working pressures

Z08 GEORGEFISCHER+GF+

.
Calculation Example 3: based on the Chartered
Institute of Building Services Engineers Guide B4

Apartment Distribu-
tion
5 DU/0.15
3DU/0.15l/s 11DU/0.3 l/s 3 DU/0.15 l/s 12 DU/0.3
5 DU/0.1 l/s l/s l/s
5 DU/0.1 l/s 3 DU/0.15 l/s

5.1/3 5.2/8 4/11 48 DU 1 .4/14 1 .3/9 1 .2/6 1 .1/3 2/5 3/12


16/1 16/2.5 16/2.5 DN 20 16/1 .5 16/2 16/1 .5 16/1 16/3 16/3

Section/number of DU( VR)


1 LU equal to 3 DU
Pipe / section length

Manifolds and Risers

6m 8m 6m

48 DU 48 DU 48 DU 7
1 .1/48
3m

25/3.5

48 DU 48 DU 24 DU 24 DU

1 .2/96
3m

25/3
0.5 m
48 DU 48 DU 24 DU 24 DU

1 .3/144
3m

32/3

48 DU 48 DU 48 DU 48 DU

1 .4/192
1m

40/5

1 .5/624
2m

4m 40/2

TWE
312 DU
1 .6/936
50/5
Section / number of DU( VR)
Pipe / section length
5m

GEORGE FISCHER 7.0


Name
Apartment Distribution Example XXXXX XXXXX 1 2

Explaination
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Column 2 Determining the
Pipe Load Flow Pipe Pipe Pressure Fittings Total Pressure Pressure demand units from
References Units Rate Length Size Loss/metre Equivalent Pipe Loss Loss Total C.I.B.S.E. Guide B4 Table
(pascals/m) Length Length (pascals) (pascals) B4:21 on page 11.29
l/s m o.d.mm mbar/m m m mbar mbar
1.1 3 0.15 1.0 16 - - - 72 Column 3. Determining the
value of simultaneous
1.2 6 0.3 1.5 16 - - - 319 demand from C.I.B.S.E.
guide B4:17 on page 11.29
1.3 9 0.3 2.0 16 - - - 364
or from Table B4:20 on
1.4 14 0.3 1.5 16 - - - 319 page 11.30 which ever is


the lower value
1074
Column 9. Determining the
total pressure loss for
2 5 0.15 3.0 16 - - - 124 124 the section, including all
bends. From tables 2 & 3
on pages 11.04 & 11.05
3 12 0.3 3.0 16 - - - 454 454 Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
4 11 0.3 2.5 16 - - - 409 409 Section 4

5.1 3 0.15 1.0 16 - - - 72


5.2 8 0.25 2.5 16 - - - 297
369 Section 5
For low flow figures taken
directly from Table B4:17 page 11.29

1 p = 1074mbar = 107400Pa mbar (pascals)

C.I.B.S.E.
Name
Manifold and Risers Example XXXX XXXX 2 2

Explaination
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Pipe Load Flow Pipe Pipe Pressure Fittings Total Pressure Pressure
References Units Rate Length Size Loss/metre Equivalent Pipe Loss Loss Total
(pascals/m) Length Length (pascals) (pascals)
l/s m o.d.mm mbar/m m m mbar mbar

Value 48 0.3 - DN 20 - - - 8100 8100 Value: INSTAFLEX DN 20-3 /4"


see valve chart on page
1.1 48 0.3 3.5 25 617 1.8 5.3 3270 11370 11.22

1.2 96 0.5 3.0 25 1500 - 3.0 4500 15870 Column 2. Determining the
demand units from
1.3 144 0.6 3.0 32 640 - 3.0 1920 17790
C.I.B.S.E. Guide B4. Table
1.4 192 0.8 5.0 40 360 2.8 7.3 1228 20418 B4.21 page 11.29

1.5 624 1.8 2.0 40 1500 1.8 3.8 5700 26118 Column 3. Determining the
value of simultaneous
1.6 936 2.5 5.0 50 920 1.6 6.6 6072 32190
demand from C.I.B.S.E.
Guide B4. Table B4.20 on
For higher flows figures
page 11.30

taken from Table B4:20 page 11.30 Column 6. Selecting a


suitable pipe size for
fluid flow (usually under
3m/s velocity) Record
pressure losses from
tables on pages 11.31 -33

Column 7. Determining the


total value for equivalent
length for all items in
the pipe section. From
table 4a or 4b, page 11.33

Column 10. Summerise the


pipe pressures pressures
from the furthest point
back to the pump

p = mbar (pascals)
1 32190

Total system pressure loss =107,400 + 32,190= 139,590pas-


cals
p inst 1 .4 bar - Within anticipated working pressures

7.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Excerpts from C.I.B.S.E. Guide, Section B4
The C.I.B.S.E. guides are the basis for
selecting the size of the pipes and
for determining the pressure losses,
within the scope of the application
shown.

Table B4.17. shows the guidelines for Table B4.21 . Shows the guidelines for
approximate water demand at each demand units at each type of outlet
outlet.

Table B4.17. Approximate demand re- Table B4.21 . Practical demand units for
quired of water points (hot and cold). use with data listed in Table B4.20
Sanitary appliance Flow rate Fitting Type of application
(litre/second) Congested Public Private

Basin (spray) 0.05 Basin* 10 5 3


Bath 47 25 12
Basin (tap) 0.15 Sink 43 22 11
Bath (private) 0.3
Bath (public) 0.6 Urinal**
7
Flushing system 0.1 WC (13.5 litre) 35 15 8
WC (9 litre) 22 10 5
Shower (nozzle) 0.15 * These data apply to conventional taps only.
Shower (100mm rose)* 0.4 If spray taps are used, demand may be conti-
nuous at 0.05 litre/s per tap
Sink (15mm tap) 0.2 If a shower spray nozzle is used over the
Sink (20m tap) 0.3 bath, demand may be continuous at 0.1
Wash fountain 0.4 litre/s per nozzle.
Demand will be continuous at 0.003 litre/s
* The use of shower roses results in wasteful per stall
consumption of water, but emergency drench
showers require high discharge rates.

Table B4.20 on page 7.09 shows the


anticipated flow rates for simulta-
neous usage as a result of the total
demand units in each pipe section.

Information reproduced from


C.I.B.S.E. Guide Section B4
by permission of the Charte-
red Institute of Building Ser-
Note: For approximate pipe sizes using tables 1a and 1b on page 7.03.
vices Engineers 1 Load Unit (LU) equals 3 Demand Units from Table B4.21 above

GEORGE FISCHER 7.0


7.10
Table B4.20. Simultaneous demand data for design

Demand Design demand


units (litre/s)

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950

0 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 1 .0 1 .2 1 .3 1 .4 1 .5 1 .6 1 .7 1 .9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5
1000 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5
2000 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4
3000 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2

4000 8.3 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.8 9.9
5000 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 11 .0 11 .1 11 .2 11 .2 11 .3 11 .4 11 .5 11 .6 11 .7
6000 11 .8 11 .9 11 .9 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 13.0 13.1 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4
7000 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.7 13.8 13.9 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.9 15.0 15.1

8000 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 16.0 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.6 16.7 16.8
9000 16.9 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.7 17.8 17.9 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5
10000 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.8 18.9 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.8 19.9 20.0 20.1 20.2
11000 20.3 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 20.8 20.9 21 .0 21 .1 21 .2 21 .3 21 .3 21 .4 21 .5 21 .6 21 .7 21 .8 21 .8

12000 21 .9 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.8 22.9 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.3 23.4 23.5
13000 23.6 23.7 23.8 23.8 23.9 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.7 24.8 24.9 25.0 25.1 25.2
14000 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.7 25.8 25.9 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.2 26.3 26.4 26..5 26.6 26.6 26.7 26.8
15000 26.9 27.0 27.1 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.6 27.7 27.8 27.9 28.0 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5

16000 28.5 28.6 28.7 28.8 28.9 29.0 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 29.8 29.9 29.9 30.0 30.1
17000 30.2 30.3 30.3 30.4 30.5 30.6 30.7 30.8 30.8 30.9 31 .0 31 .1 31 .2 31 .2 31 .3 31 .4 31 .5 31 .6 31 .7 31 .7
18000 31 .8 31 .9 32.0 32.1 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 32.5 32.6 32.6 32.7 32.8 32.9 33.0 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4
19000 33.5 33.5 33.6 33.7 33.8 33.9 33.9 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6 34.7 34.8 34.8 34.9 35.0

GEORGE FISCHER
Table: Pressure Loss per meter run of INSTAFLEX PB Pipe
Pressure Velocity Pipe Size Velocity Pressure
Drop Volumetric Flow L/S Drop
(pascals) (m/s) 16mm 20mm 25mm 32mm 40mm 50mm 63mm 75mm 90mm 110mm (m/s) (pascals)

5.0 0.003 0.006 0.013 0.030 0.065 0.13 0.34 0.42 0.70 1 .10 5.0
5.5 0.004 0.007 0.014 0.033 0.070 0.14 0.36 0.44 0.74 1 .16 5.5
6.0 0.004 0.007 0.015 0.036 0.075 0.15 0.38 0.46 0.78 1 .21 6.0
6.5 0.004 0.008 0.016 0.039 0.079 0.16 0.40 0.48 0.82 1 .27 6.5
7.0 0.004 0.008 0.017 0.042 0.082 0.17 0.41 0.50 0.85 1 .33 7.0
7.5 0.005 0.008 0.017 0.045 0.085 0.17 0.43 0.52 0.88 1 .38 7.5
8.0 0.005 0.009 0.018 0.047 0.088 0.18 0.44 0.54 0.95 1 .43 8.0
8.5 0.005 0.009 0.018 0.049 0.091 0.18 0.46 0.56 0.98 1 .48 8.5
9.0 0.005 0.010 0.019 0.051 0.094 0.19 0.48 0.58 1 .01 1 .53 9.0
9.5 0.006 0.010 0.019 0.053 0.097 0.19 0.49 0.60 1 .04 1 .54 9.5
10.0 0.006 0.010 0.020 0.055 0.100 0.20 0.50 0.62 1 .14 1 .62 10.0
12.5 0.006 0.011 0.023 0.060 0.110 0.22 0.52 0.70 1 .24 1 .84 12.5
15.0 0.007 0.012 0.025 0.066 0.120 0.24 0.55 0.78 1 .24 2.04 15.0
17.5 0.007 0.014 0.028 0.074 0.130 0.26 0.57 0.86 1 .34 2.22 17.5
20.0 0.008 0.015 0.030 0.080 0.140 0.28 0.60 0.92 1 .44 2.39 20.0
22.5 0.008 0.016 0.033 0.085 0.150 0.30 0.62 0.97 1 .53 2.55 22.5
25.0 0.009 0.018 0.035 0.090 0.160 0.31 0.65 1 .02 1 .62 2.70 25.0
27.5 0.009 0.019 0.038 0.095 0.170 0.33 0.67 1 .07 1 .71 2.85 27.5
30.0 0.010 0.020 0.040 0.100 0.180 0.34 0.70 1 .12 1 .80 2.99 30.0 7
32.5 0.010 0.021 0.043 0.105 0.190 0.36 0.72 1 .18 1 .88 3.12 0.5 32.5
35.0 0.011 0.022 0.045 0.110 0.200 0.37 0.75 1 .23 1 .96 3.25 35.0
37.5 0.011 0.023 0.048 0.115 0.210 0.39 0.77 1 .28 2.04 3.37 37.5
40.0 0.012 0.024 0.050 0.120 0.220 0.40 0.80 1 .32 2.12 3.50 40.0
42.5 0.012 0.025 0.053 0.125 0.229 0.41 0.82 1 .37 2.19 3.62 42.5
45.0 0.013 0.026 0.055 0.130 0.238 0.42 0.85 1 .41 2.26 3.75 45.0
47.5 0.013 0.027 0.058 0.135 0.247 0.44 0.87 1 .45 2.33 3.87 47.5
50.0 0.014 0.028 0.060 0.140 0.256 0.45 0.89 1 .49 2.40 4.00 50.0
52.5 0.014 0.029 0.063 0.144 0.264 0.47 0.92 1 .53 2.47 4.12 52.5
55.0 0.015 0.030 0.065 0.148 0.272 0.48 0.94 1 .56 2.53 4.25 55.0
57.5 0.015 0.031 0.068 0.152 0.280 0.50 0.96 1 .59 2.60 4.37 57.0
60.0 0.016 0.031 0.070 0.156 0.287 0.51 0.99 1 .62 2.66 4.50 60.0
62.5 0.016 0.032 0.073 0.160 0.294 0.53 1 .01 1 .66 2.72 4.62 62.5
65.0 0.017 0.033 0.075 0.164 0.301 0.54 1 .03 1 .69 2.78 4.75 65.0
67.5 0.017 0.034 0.078 0.168 0.308 0.55 1 .06 1 .72 2.84 4.87 67.0
70.0 0.018 0.034 0.080 0.172 0.315 0.57 1 .08 1 .75 2.90 5.00 70.0
72.5 0.018 0.035 0.083 0.176 0.322 0.58 1 .10 1 .79 2.95 5.12 72.0
75.0 0.019 0.036 0.085 0.180 0.329 0.59 1 .13 1 .82 3.00 5.25 75.0
77.5 0.019 0.037 0.088 0.184 0.336 0.61 1 .15 1 .85 3.50 5.37 77.5
80.0 0.020 0.037 0.090 0.188 0.342 0.62 1 .17 1 .88 3.10 5.50 80.0
82.5 0.020 0.038 0.093 0.192 .0348 0.64 1 .20 1 .91 3.15 5.62 82.5
85.0 0.021 0.039 0.095 0.196 0.364 0.65 1 .22 1 .94 3.20 5.75 85.0
87.5 0.021 0.039 0.098 0.200 0.370 0.66 1 .24 1 .97 3.25 5.87 87.5
90.0 0.022 0.040 0.100 0.204 0.376 0.67 1 .26 2.00 3.30 6.00 90.0
92.5 0.022 0.040 0.103 0.208 0.382 0.69 1 .28 2.03 3.35 6.12 92.5
95.0 0.023 0.041 0.105 0.212 0.388 0.70 1 .30 2.06 3.40 6.25 1 .0 95.0
97.5 0.023 0.041 0.108 0.216 0.394 0.71 1 .32 2.09 3.45 6.37 97.0
100.0 0.024 0.042 0.110 0.220 0.40 0.72 1 .34 2.12 3.50 6.50 100.0
120.0 0.027 0.046 0.120 0.240 0.44 0.80 1 .48 2.35 3.85 7.00 120.0
140.0 0.030 0.050 0.130 0.260 0.48 0.87 1 .61 2.57 4.20 8.00 140.0
160.0 0.032 0.054 0.140 0.285 0.51 0.94 1 .74 2.79 4.55 9.00 160.0
0.5 1 .5
GEORGE FISCHER 7.11
0.5 1 .0 1 .5
Pressure Velocity Pipe Size Velocity Pressure
Drop Volumetric Flow L/S Drop
(pascals) (m/s) 16mm 20mm 25mm 32mm 40mm 50mm 63mm 75mm 90mm 110mm (m/s)

180.0 0.034 0.058 0.150 0.300 0.54 1 .00 1 .86 3.00 4.90 9.50 1 .5 180.0
200.0 0.036 0.061 0.160 0.315 0.57 1 .06 1 .98 3.15 5.20 9.90 200.0
220.0 0.037 0.064 0.168 0.330 0.59 1 .12 2.09 3.30 5.50 10.50 220.0
240.0 0.039 0.067 0.176 0.345 0.62 1 .18 2.20 3.45 5.75 10.85 240.0
260.0 0.041 0.070 0.184 0.360 0.65 1 .23 2.30 3.60 6.00 11 .20 260.0
280.0 0.042 0.074 0.192 0.375 0.68 1 .29 2.40 3.74 6.25 11 .50 280.0
300.0 0.043 0.078 0.200 0.390 0.71 1 .32 2.49 3.88 6.50 11 .70 300.0
320.0 0.045 0.089 0.207 0.405 0.74 1 .38 2.58 4.02 6.75 12.00 320.0
340.0 0.046 0.084 0.214 0.420 0.77 1 .43 2.67 4.16 7.00 12.35 340.0
360.0 0.047 0.087 0.221 0.435 0.80 1 .48 2.76 4.30 7.20 12.65 2.0 360.0
380.0 0.049 0.090 0.228 0.450 0.82 1 .52 2.85 4.44 7.40 13.00 380.0
400.0 0.050 0.093 0.235 0.465 0.84 1 .56 2.94 4.58 7.60 13.30 400.0
420.0 0.051 0.096 0.241 0.480 0.86 1 .60 3.02 4.72 7.80 13.65 420.0
440.0 0.5 0.053 0.098 0.247 0.495 0.88 1 .64 3.10 4.86 8.00 14.00 440.0
460.0 0.054 0.100 0.253 0.51 0.90 1 .68 3.18 5.00 8.20 14.25 460.0
480.0 0.055 0.103 0.259 0.52 0.92 1 .72 3.25 5.13 8.40 14.50 480.0
500.0 0.057 0.105 0.265 0.53 0.94 1 .76 3.32 5.26 8.60 14.75 500.0
520.0 0.058 0.107 0.271 0.54 0.96 1 .80 3.39 5.37 8.80 15.00 520.0
540.0 0.059 0.109 0.277 0.55 0.98 1 .84 3.46 5.48 8.98 15.35 540.0
560.0 0.061 0.111 0.283 0.56 1 .00 1 .88 3.52 5.59 9.15 15.70 2.5 560.0
580.0 0.062 0.113 0.289 0.57 1 .02 1 .92 3.58 5.70 9.32 16.00 580.0
600.0 0.063 0.115 0.295 0.58 1 .04 1 .96 3.64 5.80 9.50 16.30 600.0
620.0 0.065 0.117 0.301 0.59 1 .06 2.00 3.70 5.90 9.67 16.60 620.0
640.0 0.066 0.199 0.307 0.60 1 .08 2.04 3.76 6.00 9.84 16.90 640.0
660.0 0.067 0.121 0.313 0.61 1 .10 2.07 3.82 6.10 10.01 17.20 660.0
680.0 0.069 0.123 0.319 0.62 1 .12 2.10 3.88 6.20 10.18 17.50 680.0
700.0 0.070 0.125 0.325 0.63 1 .14 2.14 3.95 6.30 10.35 17.75 700.0
720.0 0.071 0.127 0.331 0.64 1 .16 2.17 4.02 6.40 10.51 18.00 720.0
740.0 0.073 0.129 0.337 0.65 1 .18 2.20 4.08 6.50 10.67 18.25 740.0
760.0 0.074 0.131 0.343 0.65 1 .20 2.24 4.14 6.60 10.83 18.50 760.0
780.0 0.075 0.133 0.349 0.67 1 .22 2.27 4.20 6.70 10.99 18.75 780.0
800.0 0.077 0.135 0.355 0.68 1 .24 2.30 4.26 6.80 11 .15 19.00 3.0 800.0
820.0 0.078 0.137 0.360 0.69 1 .26 2.34 4.32 6.90 11 .30 19.30 820.0
840.0 0.079 0.139 0.365 0.70 1 .28 2.37 4.38 7.00 11 .45 19.60 840.0
860.0 0.080 0.141 0.370 0.71 1 .30 2.40 4.44 7.10 11 .60 19.85 860.0
880.0 0.082 0.143 0.375 0.72 1 .32 2.44 4.50 7.20 11 .75 20.10 880.0
900.0 0.083 0.145 0.380 0.73 1 .34 2.47 4.56 7.30 11 .90 30.35 900.0
920.0 0.084 0.147 0.384 0.74 1 .36 2.50 4.62 7.38 12.05 20.60 920.0
940.0 0.085 0.149 0.388 0.75 1 .38 2.53 4.68 7.46 12.19 20.90 90.0
960.0 0.087 0.151 0.392 0.76 1 .40 2.56 4.73 7.54 12.33 21 .20 960.0
980.0 0.088 0.153 0.396 0.77 1 .42 2.59 4.78 7.62 12.47 21 .50 980.0
1000.0 0.089 0.155 0.400 0.78 1 .44 2.62 4.83 7.70 12.60 21 .75 3.5 1000.0
1100.0 0.094 0.164 0.420 0.82 1 .52 2.75 5.09 8.10 13.30 23.00 1100.0
1200.0 0.098 0.173 0.440 0.86 1 .60 2.88 5.34 8.50 13.90 24.20 1200.0
1300.0 0.102 0.181 0.460 0.90 1 .67 3.01 5.58 8.90 14.50 24.90 4.0 1300.0
1400.0 1 .0 0.106 0.189 0.480 0.94 1 .73 3.14 5.81 9.30 15.10 25.80 1400.0
1500.0 0.110 0.197 0.500 0.97 1 .80 3.26 6.03 9.60 15.70 26.90 1500.0
1600.0 0.114 0.204 0.520 1 .01 1 .86 3.38 6.25 9.90 16.25 27.75 1600.0
1700.0 0.118 0.211 0.540 1 .04 1 .92 3.50 6.46 10.30 16.80 28.50 4.5 1700.0
1800.0 0.122 0.218 0.560 1 .08 1 .98 3.61 6.66 10.60 17.30 29.10 1800.0
1 .5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
7.12 GEORGE FISCHER
1 .5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
Pressure Velocity Pipe Size Velocity Pressure
Drop Volumetric Flow L/S Drop
(pascals) (m/s) 16mm 20mm 25mm 32mm 40mm 50mm 63mm 75mm 90mm 110mm (m/s) (pascals)

1900.0 0.126 0.224 0.580 1 .11 2.04 3.72 6.86 10.90 17.80 29.65 19.00.0
2000.0 0.130 0.230 0.600 1 .15 2.10 3.83 7.06 11 .25 18.30 30.15 5.0 2000.0
2250.0 0.140 0.245 0.640 1 .23 2.25 4.07 7.53 12.00 19.55 2250.0
2500.0 0.150 0.260 0.680 1 .30 2.40 4.31 7.98 12.70 20.70 2500.0
2750.0 1 .5 0.157 0.275 0.715 1 .37 2.52 4.54 8.41 13.35 21 .75 2750.0
3000.0 0.164 0.290 0.750 1 .43 2.64 4.76 8.82 14.00 22.70 3000.0
3250.0 0.173 0.305 0.780 1 .49 2.76 4.97 9.21 14.60 23.55 3250.0
3500.0 0.180 0.320 0.810 1 .55 2.88 5.18 9.58 15.15 3500.0
3750.0 0.187 0.335 0.840 1 .61 3.00 5.38 10.03 3750.0
4000.0 0.193 0.350 0.870 1 .67 3.09 5.55 10.36 4000.0
4250.0 0.200 0.360 0.900 1 .73 3.18 5.75 10.66 4250.0
4500.0 0.206 0.370 0.930 1 .79 3.27 5.93 4500.0
4750.0 2.0 0.212 0.380 0.960 1 .85 3.36 6.11 4750.0
5000.0 0.218 0.390 0.990 1 .90 3.45 6.29 5000.0
5250.0 0.224 0.400 1 .020 1 .95 3.54 6.45 5250.0
5500.0 0.230 0.410 1 .050 2.00 3.63 6.61 5500.0
5750.0 0.235 0.420 1 .075 2.05 3.72 6.76 5750.0
6000.0 0.240 0.430 1 .100 2.10 3.81 6.90 6000.0
6250.0 0.245 0.440 1 .125 2.15 3.90 7.03 6250.0 7
6500.0 0.250 0.450 1 .150 2.20 3.98 7.15 5.5 6500.0
6750.0 0.255 0.458 1 .170 2.24 4.06 7.26 6750.0
7000.0 0.260 0.466 1 .190 2.28 4.14 7.36 7000.0
7250.0 2.5 0.265 0.474 1 .210 2.32 4.22 7250.0
7500.0 0.270 0.482 1 .230 2.36 4.30 7500.0
7750.0 0.275 0.490 1 .250 2.40 4.38 7750.0
8000.0 0.280 0.500 1 .270 2.44 4.46 8000.0
8250.0 0.285 0.508 1 .300 2.48 4.54 8250.0
8500.0 0.290 0.516 1 .310 2.52 8500.0
8750.0 0.295 0.524 1 .330 2.56 8750.0
9000.0 0.300 0.532 1 .360 2.60 9000.0
9250.0 0.305 0.540 1 .380 2.64 9250.0
9500.0 0.310 0.550 1 .400 2.68 9500.0
9750.0 3.0 0.315 0.560 1 .420 2.72 9750.0
10000.0 0.320 0.570 1 .440 2.76 10000.0
12000.0 3.5 0.355 0.630 1 .600 12000.0
14000.0 0.380 0.680 1 .750 14000.0
16000.0 4.0 0.405 0.730 1 .900 6.0 16000.0
18000.0 0.430 0.780 18000.0
20000.0 4.5 0.455 0.820 20000.0
22000.0 0.480 0.870 22000.0
24000.0 0.505 0.910 24000.0
26000.0 5.0 0.530 0.950 26000.0
28000.0 0.555 0.990 28000.0
30000.0 5.5 0.580 1 .030 30000.0
32000.0 0.600 1 .070 32000.0
34000.0 6.0 0.620 1 .110 34000.0
36000.0 0.640 36000.0
38000.0 0.660 38000.0
40000.0 0.680 40000.0

GEORGE FISCHER 7.13


Table 4b: Equivalent pipe lengths for socket fusion & electro fusion fittings
PB pipe dimension o.d. mm

16 20 25 32 40 50 63 75 90 110

Item Equivalent pipe lengths m

Elbow 90 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 .0 1 .2 1 .7 2.1 2.6 3.2

Elbow 45 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.9 1 .2 1 .5 1 .9 2.4

T-equal
1 3 0.6 0.8 1 .1 1 .5 1 .8 2.3 3.2 4.2 5.4 6.6
1 3
1 2 0.7 0.9 1 .2 1 .7 2.1 2.7 3.7 4.8 5.9 7.0
2

Stop cock 4.0 7.0 10.0 13.0 16.0 22.0 34.0


Non return valve 2.5 4.3 5.6 6.0 7.9 11 .5
Tap 3.7 11 .8 22.0

T-reduced Always consider the loss factor of the outlet in


flow direction (12 or 13) from T-equal.

Straight-through tees, sockets, reducers, unions are not included because their equiva-
lent pipe length values are to low

Mechanical and physical properties


Properties Value Unit Standard
Density 0.93 g/cm 3
DIN 53479
Melt temperature 122128 C DTA
Vicat softening point 113 C DIN 53735
Glass transition point 18 C ASTM D-746
Fusion heat 100 kJ/kg DSC
Thermal conductivity 0.22 W/mK DIN 52612
Thermal expansion coefficient 0.13 mm/mK DIN 53752
Modulus of elasticity 350 MPa DIN 53457
Shore hardness 53 D-Scale ISO 8608
Impact resistance 40 (0 C) kJ/m2 DIN 53453
Ultimate elongation 125 % DIN 53457
Tensile strength 33 MPa DIN 53455
Yield stress 17 MPa DIN 53455

7.14 GEORGE FISCHER


Flushing times for dead legs
Pipeline Water content per m of pipeline
16 mm o.d. 0.10 l

Flow in l/s
10.07 10.10 10.15 10.20 10.25 10.30 0.50

Flushing times in seconds
2 2.8 2.0 1 .3 1 .0

4 5.7 4.0 2.7 2.0 1 .6 1 .3
6 8.6 6.0 4.0 3.0 2.4 2.0 1 .2

8 11 .4 8.0 5.3 4.0 3.2 2.7 1 .6
10 14.3 10.0 6.7 5.0 4.0 3.3 2.0
Medium content V per m 12 17.1 12.0 8.0 6.0 4.8 4.0 2.4
INSTAFLEX PB pipe 14 20.0 14.0 9.3 7.0 5.6 4.7 2.8
16 mm o.d. = 0.10 l/m 16 22.8 16.0 10.7 8.0 6.4 5.6 3.2
20 mm o.d. = 0.16 l/m 18 25.7 18.0 12.0 9.0 7.2 6.0 3.6
25 mm o.d. = 0.33 l/m
32 mm o.d. = 0.53 l/m 20 28.6 20.0 13.3 10.0 8.0 6.7 4.0
Pipeline length in m

40 mm o.d. = 0.83 l/m 22 31 .4 22.0 14.7 11 .0 8.8 7.3 4.4


50 mm o.d. = 1 .31 l/m
63 mm o.d. = 2.07 l/m 24 34.3 24.0 16.0 12.0 9.6 8.0 4.8
26 37.1 26.0 17.3 13.0 10.4 8.7 5.2
Calculation of
flushing time t 28 40.0 28.0 18.7 14.0 11 .2 9.3 5.6 7
30 42.8 30.0 20.0 15.0 12.0 10.0 6.0
t =
VL
V
Pipeline Water content per m of pipeline
V = pipe content l/m 20mm o.d. 0.16 l
L . = pipeline length m
V= flow l/s Flow in l/s
t = flushing time s
10.07 10.10 10.15 10.20 10.25 10.30 10.50 10.60 11 .00
Flushing times in seconds

2 4.6 3.2 2.1 1 .6 1 .3 1 .1


4 9.1 6.4 4.3 3.2 3.6 2.1 1 .3 1 .1
6 13.7 9.6 6.4 4.8 3.8 3.2 1 .9 1 .6 1 .0
8 18.3 12.8 8.5 6.4 5.1 4.3 2.6 2.2 1 .3
10 22.8 16.0 10.7 8.0 6.4 5.3 3.2 2.7 1 .6
12 27.4 19.2 12.8 9.6 7.7 6.4 3.8 3.2 1 .9
14 32.0 22.4 15.0 11 .2 9.0 7.5 4.5 3.7 2.2
16 36.6 25.6 17.1 12.8 10.2 8.5 5.1 4.3 2.6
18 41 .1 28.8 19.2 14.4 11 .5 9.6 5.8 4.8 2.9
Pipeline length in m

20 45.7 32.0 21 .3 16.0 12.8 10.7 6.4 5.3 3.2


22 50.3 35.2 23.5 17.6 14.1 11 .7 7.0 5.9 3.5
24 54.8 38.4 25.6 19.2 15.4 12.8 7.7 6.4 3.8
26 59.4 41 .6 27.7 20.8 16.8 13.8 8.4 6.9 4.2
28 64.0 44.8 29.9 22.4 18.0 15.0 9.0 7.5 4.5
30 68.6 48.0 32.0 24.0 19.2 16.1 9.6 8.0 4.8

GEORGE FISCHER 7.15


Terms, Symbols and Units
Term Symbol Unit Definition
Calculated flow velocity m/s Average flow velocity at
peak flow
Volume
.
V m3
Flow area A m2 Cross sectional internal area of pipe
Flow, Volume flow V l/s
. Quantity of water volume, which
m3/h flows through a certain flow area,
in a specific amount of time

Outlet flow VE l/s
. Flow through an open tap
including outlets (jet
regulator, shower, etc.) at the
actual flow pressure

Highest V0 l/s
. Outlet flow for a specific
outlet flow flow pressure according to
DIN 52 218 Part2
Least Vmin l/s
. The smallest outlet flow
outlet flow which suffices for use of the tap

Calculated flow VR l/s
. The presumed outlet flow
for the calculation:

VR =

Total flow VR l/s


. The sumVof +calculated
minall V0 flows
2 water consumption
of the supplied
devices in an open cross-section

Peak flow Vs l/s


. The flow which is decisive in hydraulic
calculations taking into consideration
the probable simultaneous use of
water outlet during
operation.

Stationary pressure pR bar, Static atmospheric pressure at a


mbar, measurement point in the system,
Pa when water is not flowing

Flow pressure pFI bar, Static atmospheric pressure at a


mbar, measurement point in the potable
Pa water system, when water is flowing

Minimum flow pressure pmin FI bar, Required static atmospheric pressure


mbar, at the connecting point of a water
Pa outlet at the least outlet flow


Minimum supply pressure pmin V bar Minimum static atmospheric pressure
mbar at the connecting point of the

Pa connecting line to the supply line


according to the specifications of the
respective water supply company
(WVU)

Pressure difference, pressure loss p bar Difference between two pressures in


mbar a potable water system (see also
Pa table 2)

Pressure loss from geodetic pgeo bar geo hgeo = g


height difference mbar
Pa

7.16 GEORGE FISCHER


Term Symbol Unit Definition
Available pressure difference pverf bar, The available pressure difference
mbar, for pipe friction and fittings
Pa
Pipe friction pressure drop R bar/m, Pressure loss per unit length from
mbar/m, pipe friction
Pa/m p
R= l
Pressure loss from pipe friction l R bar, Pressure loss from pipe friction
mbar, in a calculated section
Pa
Available pipe friction Rverf bar/m, The approximated value used in
pressure drop mbar/m, the calculation for pipe friction
Pa/m pressure drop
Pressure loss from fitting Z bar,
Z=
2
mbar,
Pa 2
Pipe length l m
Pipe inner diameter di mm
Resistance value, 1
pipe friction value
Pipe roughness The presumed absolute roughness
PB roughness factor rf = 0.007 of the pipe inner wall in use
(empiric probability)
Loss value 1 Characteristic flow parameter
(constant) for a fitting; required for
calculation of the local pressure 7
loss

Density kg/m3 Ratio of mass and volume
Reynolds number Re 1
di
Kinematic viscosity m2/s Re =
Pump flow
.
VP m3/h

The usable
volume flow conveyed
by the pump
(from: DIN 4046/09.83)
Pump pressure pP mbar, Difference between ultimate
bar, pressure side of the circulation
pump


Pa . the pump
and the pressure before
with a pump flow of VP

GEORGE FISCHER 7.17


7.18 GEORGE FISCHER
INSTAFLEX Jointing Page

INSTAFLEX Jointing 8.01


Compression jointing 8.02
Fusion Jointing 8.03
Hand held fusion joints 16 - 63mm 8.04 - 8.06
Preparing the hand held fusion tool for use 8.07 - 8.10
Preparing the fitting 8.11
Preparing the pipe 8.11 - 8.15
Fusing the pipe and fitting together 8.16 - 8.20
Hand held fusion jointing in situ 8.21 - 8.22
Bench mounted fusion jointing machine 25 - 110mm 8.23 - 8.24
Preparing the bench mounted fusion machine for use 8.25 - 8.31
Preparing the fitting 8.32
Preparing the pipe 8.32 - 8.36
Fusing the pipe and fitting together 8.37 - 8.44
Special fusion jointing using bench mounted socket fusion machine 8.45
Fusing reducing bushes into fittings 8.46 - 8.47
Fusing electrofusion spigots onto fitting 8.47 - 8.48
Electrofusion Jointing 8.49
Preparing the electrofusion control unit for use 8.50 - 8.51
Preparing the fittings 8.51
Preparing the pipe 8.52 - 8.53
Electrofusing the pipe and fittings together 8.54 - 8.55 8
Jointing electrofusion fittings to the pipe 8.55 - 8.57
Cutting & joining INSTAFLEX sleeve 8.58 - 8.59
Joining the sleeve to the fittings 8.60
Cutting & preparing INSTAFLEX carrier 8.61

Handling & storage instructions for INSTAFLEX 8.62


COSHU Regulations for cleaning fluid 8.63 - 8.66
Safety considerations for machinery 8.67 - 8.72
Operational tests & ordinary maintenance 8.73
Common faults in fusion jointing 8.74 - 8.81
INSTAFLEX Installation Quick Reference Guide 8.82

GEORGE FISCHER 8.0


Compression
Cross section of compression Introduction
joint A compression joint is a brass fitting
comprising of a number of parts,
into which the prepared PB pipe is
inserted. As the pipe is inserted into
the fitting it is pushed over an internal
gripping spigot.

When the pipe is fully inserted,


the locking mechanism of the
compression fitting is then tightened.
Gripping spigot This compresses the pipe against the
gripping spigot achieving the water
tight seal without the use of any
sealing material. It also secures the
pipe firmly in place.

There are two methods of preparing


PB pipe for compression joints.
For 16 to 25mm a calibrating tool is
used to stretch the pipe so it will go
onto the gripping spigot.

For 32mm and above the pipe needs


to have a layer of PB reemed from
the inside to enable it to fit onto the
gripping spigot.

There are two mechanisms for


compressing the pipe against the
gripping spigot.

For 16 to 20mm a nut, containing a


split ring, is tightened with a spanner.
This compresses the split ring which
then grips the pipe.

For 25mm and above a clamping


loop is tightened around the pipe, by
screwing an allen key bolt until it is
tight, thus gripping the pipe.

8.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Fusion Jointing
Introduction
A fusion joint is where two pieces
of plastic (usually the pipe and
the fitting have been heated by a
heating tool until their surfaces melt.
Then the two molten surfaces are
Cross section through a fu- brought together and joined. As
sion joint they cool the two molten surfaces
join together into one homogeneous
component.

This can be accomplished with either


hand held fusion tools, which are
suitable for pipe sizes 16 to 63mm

Both pipe and fitting are


heated on a heater tool.

They are then brought to-


gether and held for a preset
time

Or bench mounted fusion machines


which are suitable for pipe sizes 25
to 110mm but normally only used on
75-110mm sizes.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.0


Hand held fusion joints 16 to 63mm
This section covers;
the tools required for hand held
fusion jointing,
setting up the tools for use,
preparing the pipe and fittings for
jointing,
fusing the pipe and fitting together on
a bench and
fusing the pipe and fitting together in
situ.

Tools
The hand held fusion kit may be
hired or purchased, please contact
George Fischer Sales Ltd. Tel: 01203
535535,
Hand held heating element
Equipment required is:-
Hand held heating element:
110 volt used to heat the bushes.

Heating bushes:
16 to 63mm, these are used to melt
the pipes and fittings.

Heating bushes

Temple sticks:
These are wax crayons which melt
at specific temperatures. They are
used to check the heater bushes are
operating at the correct temperature.

Temple sticks

8.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Template:
Used to mark the pipe to check it is
inserted the correct depth into the
fittings.

Template

Gloves:
Heat resistant, used to prevent burns
when the heater bushes are changed
or cleaned.
Heat resistant gloves

Timer:
This must be used for every fusion
joint to check that the exact
heating time for fusion joints is used.

Pipe shear:
For snipping through pipe sizes 16 to
Timer 25mm o.d. at a 90 angle
8

Pipe Shears

Pipe cutter:
For cutting the 25 to 63mm pipe
by rotating around the pipe and
tightening the handle until the cutting
wheel slices through the pipe at a
90 angle.

Roller pipe cutters

Chamfering tool:
For chamfering the end of the pipes
for 25 to 63mm pipe.

Chamfering tools

GEORGE FISCHER 8.0


Cleaning fluid & lint free cloth:
Apply the cleaning fluid to cloth to
clean the pipe and fittings.

The G clamp is secured to the bench


and the hand held heating element is
slipped into it.

Cleaning fluid & cloths

Support base to hold the hand held


heating element upright when being
used to do jointing around the site.

Support base

Either -
Plastic support handle
This is screwed into the hand held
heating tool and is used to hold it
Plastic support handle steady as joints are being made in
situ.

Or
Wooden support handle
This is used to hold the heater plate
of the hand held heating tool steady
when joints are being made in situ.

Note
When the hand held fusion tool
is hired most of the above tools
Wooden support handle come as standard. They are also
sold as a complete package with a
new hand held fusion tool. (Except
cleaning fluid and lint free cloth,
which must be purchased separately.)

8.0 GEORGE FISCHER


Preparing the hand held fusion tool for use
Although the hand held fusion tool is
portable and suitable for use in situ,
it is best to use it at a fixed location
with the tool mounted on a bench.

Warning
The hand held fusion tool is hot
when in use, it should not be
Hand held fusion tool located where untrained staff can
accidentally knock into it. It should
ideally be marked with a clearly
visible warning signs identifying
that it is hot. It may be required by

!
the Safety Officer on the building
site, to cordon off the working area
around this tool.

HOT Mount the fusion tool on a firm,


suitable, work surface. The fixing
method depends on the type of tools

DANGER which come with the hand held fusion


tool

Either
Flat plate 8
This should be secured near the edge
of a working surface
The plate is placed on a clean flat
part of the work surface.
G clamps are then used to fix the
plate to the surface. (G clamps are
not supplied by George Fischer)
Secure fixing plate to the
bench

The metal end of the hand held


fusion tools is placed into the flat
plate and secured in place with the
winged bolt.

Secure fusion tool to the fixing


plate

GEORGE FISCHER 8.0


Or
The support G clamp is secured to
one edge of a working surface. By
rotating the handle below the clamp
until it is tight.

Secure the clamp to the


bench

The plastic end of the hand held


fusion tool is slipped into the support
clamp. This will firmly hold the fusion
tool in place and does not need any
securing.

The fusion tool heater plate has two


holes in it and can maintain two
sets of heater bushes, at the correct
Slip the fusion tool into the temperature, at the same time.
clamp The hole furthest from the handle can
take heat bushes from sizes 16 to
25mm.
The hole closest to the handle can
take heat bushes from sizes 16 to
63mm.

When the hand held fusion tool has


been secured, the heating bushes can
be attached to it.

The allen key bolt is inserted through


the bush socket, with the screw thread
Insert the bolt through the
facing out.
bush
The screw and the bush socket are
put onto the fusion tool, through the
appropriate hole.

and through the heating


element

The other end of the bush set is


screwed onto the protruding bolt.

Screw the other bush onto


the bolt

8.0 GEORGE FISCHER


The bolt is tightened with an allen
key, to ensure there is a good surface
contact between the bush and the
heater plate. The bush heats up
through conduction from the heater
element. It is important to have
good surface contact between the
bush and the heater plate.
Tighten the bolt The fusion tool is plugged into a 110
volt supply and allowed to heat up
for about 5 mins The temperature is
checked using the temple sticks to
confirm the heater bushes are at the
correct working temperature. Firstly
the yellow temple stick is gently
marked on the outside of the bush
socket, this should melt at 253C.
Yellow temple stick is used
to check the element has
Note
reached the correct tempera-
Wax from the temple sticks must
ture _It should melt not come into contact with any
surface on the bushes which will
be in contact with the pipe or
fittings, as this could effect the
quality of joints and lead to leaks.

If the wax melts and maybe smokes


8
a little, we can tell that the bushes
are above the minimum temperature
required for socket fusion jointing.

If the wax does not melt the bush


is not yet up to the correct working
temperature, which is 265C.
Check the fusion tool has power to it
(its lights are on) and try again in 5
-10 mins.

If it still doesnt melt the heater bush


Temperature controller
is not reaching the correct working
temperature. The thermostatic control
may need to be turned up a fraction
(one millimetre clockwise on the
scale).

If the above steps is performed


several times and the thermostatic
control cannot be further adjusted,
there may be a fault with the fusion
tool and George Fischer should be
contacted Tel: 02476 535535

When the bushes are above the


minimum working temperature they
must then be checked to ensure they
are below the maximum working
temperature.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.0


The red temple stick is gently marked
on the outside of the bush, the wax
will melt at 253C.
If the wax does not melt the bush
is within the correct working
Red temple stick is used to temperature.
check the element has not ex-
ceeded the correct tempera- If the wax is left on the bushes for
ture. It should not melt more than 5 seconds it will start to
bake. This is not an indication that
the temperature is too high.

If the wax melts quickly and maybe


smokes a little, then the fusion
tool is above the correct working
temperature.

The thermostatic control on the side


of the fusion tool needs to be turned
Adjust if necessary down a fraction (one millimetre anti-
clockwise on the scale).

Allow the tool about 5 mins to cool


a little and check the temperatures
again with both the yellow and red
temple sticks.

If the above steps is performed


several times and the thermostatic
control cannot be further adjusted,
Clean outside of bush there may be a fault with the fusion
tool and George Fischer should be
contacted Tel: 02476 535535

Check the bushes are clean, using


a piece of dry lint free cloth to
rub off any debris. To clean inside
the smaller bushes the cloth can
be wrapped around a piece of
dowelling or wooden pencil.

Warning
Do not use a screwdriver or metal
Clean inside of bush object as this will damage the
Teflon coating on the bushes.

The hand held fusion tool should now


be firmly fastened on the working
surface, the heater bushes in place
and the tool at the correct working
temperature.

The fusion tool is now ready to begin


fusion jointing.
Fusion tool ready for jointing

8.10 GEORGE FISCHER


Preparing the fitting
Clean the polybutylene fittings
internally with Tangit KS. Reiniger,
cleaning fluid.

Apply the cleaning fluid to a clean,


dry lint free cloth.

Moisten cloth with cleaning


fluid
Rub the moist cloth firmly around the
inside of the fitting on all faces to be
fusion joined.

Place the cleaned fitting carefully


on the working surface, avoid any
moisture or dirt getting inside the
fitting.
Clean inside of fitting
Note:
Do not touch the inside of the
fitting with your hands since this
will dirty the fitting and it will need
to cleaned again.
8
Several fittings can be pre-cleaned
in this way, so long as the cloth is
dampened with fluid and clean, and
the assembly area is not dusty or wet.

Preparing the pipe


The pipe must be cut at right angles
using the appropriate pipe cutters.
Shears for pipes from 16 to 25mm.

Use pipe shears to cut pipe


up to 25mm

Roller cutter for cutting pipes from 25


to 63mm.

The pipe should not be cut with a


hacksaw or similar serrated blade as
this will leave unacceptable burrs.

Use roller cutters on pipe


above 25mm

GEORGE FISCHER 8.11


The pipe must be free from deep
scratches and burrs.
16 and 20mm o.d. pipes do not need
chamfering.
Chamfering pipes from 25 to
63mm o.d.

Check the pads on the chamfering


Check pads are clean. tools are free from grit, as this will
scratch and damage the pipe when it
is being chamfered.

Check the blade on the chamfering


tool is in contact with the pipe and
will remain in contact with the pipe
throughout its chamfer.

Put pipe up to the blade.

Put the centre spindle on the inside


of the pipe wall, the blades (which
are at an angle) should be in contact
with the pipe about half way down
the blades and be able to remain
in contact for at least half the pipes
width as the pipe is chamfered.

Places pipe over central


spindle.
If the above situation is not true the
relative position of the blades can be
adjusted, by loosening the nut on the
central spindle and moving it closer
or further away from the blades as
required.

Then firmly tightening the nut on the


Spindle may need adjusting.
spindle to grip it in its new position.
Loosen nut to adjust spindle
(this adjustment should not be
and then re-tighten it.
required often, but it is occasionally
necessary).

8.12 GEORGE FISCHER


When the cutting blades are
correctly adjusted for wall thickness
the guidance pads on the chamfering
tool need to be adjusted to suit the
pipe size.

Twist the black lever on the


chamfering handle, anti-clockwise,
Loosen the guide pads this should loosen the guidance pads.

Put the central spindle roller inside the


pipe and push the chamfering pads
firmly up to the wall of the pipe.

Push pads firmly against pipe


wall
Whilst holding the pads and spindle
roller firmly against the pipe, tighten
the black lever on the chamfering
tool.
8

Tighten pads in position

When the lever has been tightened, it


may be in a difficult position to allow
easy chamfering, it can be moved
to a different position, by pulling
the lever away from the chamfering
tool about 5mm, at this point it
disengages the tightening bolt and
will move freely to a more suitable
position.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.13


The chamfering tool spindle is
inserted into the pipe, and then
pushed firmly against the end of the
pipe.

Whilst still pushing the chamfering


tool firmly onto the end of the pipe,
Push and turn chamfering tool rotate the tool clockwise

As the tool rotates, pipe swarf should


start to be pealed from the pipe,
if the pipe is not being pealed the
chamfering tool must be pressed
more firmly onto the end of the pipe.

Remove swarf

The pipe must be chamfered until the


end of the pipe wall is down to about
half its original thickness. The chamfer
should be at an angle of about 15.

Chamfer pipe to 1/2 wall


thickness

8.14 GEORGE FISCHER


The chamfered pipe now needs to
be cleaned externally with Tangit K.S
Reiniger, cleaning fluid.
Apply the cleaning fluid to a clean,
dry, lint free cloth.

Moisten the cloth with clean-


ing fluid

Rub the moist cloth firmly around the


outside of the pipes about 50mm up
the pipe. This should remove any dirt
and the printed markings on the pipe
(if it does not you may be using the
wrong cleaning fluid).

Note:
Remember not to handle the
outside of the cleaned pipe with
your hands as it will require
cleaning again.

8
Clean the pipe

If you have to put the pipe down,


ensure the clean end does not come
into contact with the surface.

Support the pipe ends

Mark the insertion depth of the pipe


with a template after the pipe has
been cleaned.
Pipe size o.d. Insertion depth
16mm 17mm
20mm 17mm
Mark the insertion depth 25mm 20mm
32mm 22mm
40mm 24mm
50mm 28mm
63mm 32mm
The pipe is now ready for fusion
jointing

GEORGE FISCHER 8.15


Fusing the pipe and the fitting together

Pipe longitudinal line

alignment marks (every 45), for


component assembly

Marks for insertion depth (welding length)


Description with:
- name of manufacturer
- dimension
- material
- product code

The pipe has a line down one


side and the fittings have external
markings every 45. These are to
enable installers to pre-fabricate the
pipes and fittings whilst keeping them
in true alignment.

Alignment line on the pipe

The fittings also have a mark showing


the insertion depth of the pipe into
the fitting. This enables the installers
to measure the centre to centre
distances of branches on site or
from drawings and cut the pipes to
exactly the right length. This subject is
covered in more detail elsewhere and
Alignment marks on the fitting is call the Z dimension method
it makes pre-fabricating pipework
simple.

8.16 GEORGE FISCHER


Long lengths of pipe will need to be
supported during the fusion process,
approximately at the same height of
the fusion tool, to keep them straight
as the joint is made. This can be
achieved with a bench or boxes or
similar support. This will be required
on both sides of the fusion tool.

The timer has to be set for the


required fusion time according to
the pipe size being jointed. (See the
times listed to the left).

The timer can be reset to zero by


pressing both the second and the
minutes buttons simultaneously, the
seconds button is then pressed to set
the correct fusion time on the timer.

The fusion time varies for the pipe The start button will start the timer
size being used and also stop the alarm, although the
alarm will automatically stop after 10
Pipe Size o.d. Time seconds. The timer will then return to
16mm 6 secs the original time (just set) for repeats
20mm 7 secs of the same pipe size, do not reset
25mm 7 secs the timer. 8
32mm 10 secs
Check the fusion temperature of the
40mm 14 secs
bushes is within limits with the temple
50mm 18 secs sticks, described earlier.
63mm 22 secs
The pipe is held in one hand and the
Note fitting is held in the other hand.
These times are critical and should The alignment of the pipe and fitting
always be measured with a timer must be checked before you start
jointing.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.17


The pipe and fitting are pushed
simultaneously onto the heater
bushes, in a steady motion. Larger
pipe sizes will require more effort and
the pipe will be harder to push onto
the bush than the fitting.

Simultaneously push the pipe

As they are pushed onto the bushes


they will start to melt.

and the fitting onto the heater


bush

The pipe is pushed into the bush


socket until the insertion depth mark is
about 2mm short of the bush socket.
If you push any further, the mark will
disappear under the bead of the
melting PB.

2-3mm short of the mark on


the pipe

The fitting is pushed onto the bush


until it reaches the first ridge on the
bush.

and up to the edge of the


fitting
The timer is started when both the
pipe and fitting are fully inserted onto
the bushes.

The operator will have to briefly take


one hand off either the pipe or the
fitting to press the start button on the
timer. It is normal to take your hand
off the fitting.
Start timer

8.18 GEORGE FISCHER


The pipe and fitting must both be
held in place throughout the fusion
process. Gentle pressure should be
maintained to help them stay fully
inserted onto the fusion tool. Also
keeping them straight and level.

Pipe & fitting fully on heater When the timer beeps withdraw
being held in position the pipe and fitting from the fusion
tool, this should be done in a fluid
movement not too fast or slow.

It will be difficult to withdraw the


pipe and fitting at first as they will
tend to stick to the bushes, as they
are withdrawn further they will move
more freely, so less pressure will be
Simultaneously withdraw required. It is important to withdraw
both pipe and fitting from them in a gradual movement as
heater bushes this reduces the amount of molten
material left on the bushes and results
in better joints (this will come with
practice).

Quickly align the pipe and fitting and


bring them together.
Note: 8
It is important to bring the pipe
and fitting together quickly to
Quickly insert pipe into the
prevent their surfaces cooling and
fitting
drying

As you bring the pipe and fitting


together you will have to push the
pipe into the fitting. This must be
done quickly and firmly.

Note:
Do not twist the pipe when
pushing together as this will
Push together without twisting
weaken the bond and may lead to
failures.

Push the pipe into the fitting up to


the end of the weld. i.e. Where the
insertion mark is, stopping just short
of the insertion mark.
Normally there will be two beads of
soft P.B one on the fitting and one on
the pipe. This demonstrates a perfect
joint.
Push up to the insertion mark
You need to maintain slight pressure
holding them together otherwise they
will tend to push apart.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.19


You will have to maintain this pressure
for the holding time which is listed
below for different pipe sizes.
Pipe o.d. Holding Time in secs
16mm 15
20mm 15
25mm 15
Maintain pressure on joint for 32mm 20
holding time 40mm 20
50mm 30
63mm 30
After the holding time has elapsed the
pipe and fitting can be put gently to
one side, on a level surface, to cool.
Note:
It is important to handle the newly
made joint with care, to avoid
putting a strain on it, as it is still
Lay joint on a flat surface for very soft, until the cooling time has
cooling time elapsed.
The newly made joint must be left
undisturbed for minimum of the times
listed below to cool

Pipe o.d. Cooling Time in mins.


16mm 2
20mm 2
25mm 2
32mm 4
40mm 4
50mm 4
63mm 6

After each joint is made rub a dry/


clean cloth over the bush and socket
to check they are free from any
deposits of P.B.
Clean both bushes with a dry
lint free cloth After the joint has been made,
especially when you are using
INSTAFLEX for the first time, check
your workmanship. Learn from any
mistakes and improve your jointing
techniques.
A reference list is given at the end of
the section of common fusion jointing
faults to check and learn from.

Inspect joint After the cooling time the pipe and


fitting are strongly fused together and
can be handled normally
After 1 hour after the last joint has
been made a full system pressure test
up to 15 bar can be undertaken.

8.20 GEORGE FISCHER


Hand Held fusion jointing in situ

!
HOT
So far in this section we have dealt
with using the hand held fusion tool
bench mounted, it can also be used
in situ. The fusion process is the same,
DANGER here we examine the ways in which
the hand held tool can be used in
situ.
Hand held tool
Note
The hand held fusion tool is hot.
When it is being transported
around the site it must have its
cover in place. When it is not
being held it must be placed in a
suitable support (provided with
each fusion tool) not laid on its
Hand held tool on stand with side on the floor. It must be located
insulation cover where it will not cause an accident
or hazard. It must not be left
unattended when switched on.

Making joints in situ will normally


involve 2 people, one to hold the 8
fusion tool and one to hold the pipe
and fitting

Warning
It is important to remember that the
whole heater plate is hot, not just
the bushes. When jointing in situ it is
important to prevent the heater plate
coming into contact with nearby
plastic pipes and fittings as it will melt
them.

If any components are damaged


in this way, although they may not
instantly leak, they will have a shorter
life expectancy and should be
replaced.

Note: Very Important


Because of the short heating times
it is not recommended for 16 and
20mm joints, electrofusion is safer

GEORGE FISCHER 8.21


When using the hand held fusion
tool for joints in situ attach the spare
handle

either
The plastic handle, is screwed onto
the heater plate

Using the plastic handle

or
The wooden handle is hooked over
the end of the pipe

In order to make hand-held fusion


joints in-situ two installers are re-
quired. The fusion tool is held in both
hands by one fitter and pushed into
Using the wooden handle the pipe, which is supported by the
other fitter who at the same time
pushes the fitting onto the fusion tool.

After the correct fusion time the fusion


tool is pulled off the pipe and the
fitting is simultaneously pulled off the
fusion tool.

The fusion tool is withdrawn from


between the pipe and the fitting. The
fitting is then quickly pushed onto the
pipe and held in place for the hold-
ing and cooling time.

Note:
It is important to use the timer. The
timer provided by George Fischer
can be attached to a belt or pock-
et. It can normally be operated by
the fitter holding the fusion tool
after pushing it into the pipe.

8.22 GEORGE FISCHER


Bench mounted fusion jointing machine 25 to 110mm

This section covers the tools required


for bench mounted fusion jointing;
setting up the tools for use; preparing
the pipes and fittings for joining;
fusing the pipes and fittings together
with the bench mounted fusion
machine.

Tools
The bench mounted fusion kit may be
hired or purchased. Please contact
Prisma 110 bench mounted
George Fischer Sales at Coventry Tel:
socket fusion machine
02476 535535.

The equipment required is a


Prisma 110, bench mounted socket
fusion machine (110 volts) which has
wheels at one end and handles at
the other, to enabled it to be moved
around similar to a wheel barrow.

Heating bushes 25mm to 110mm


Temple sticks
these are used to melt the pipe and
fittings. 8
Heater bushes
Temple sticks, these are wax crayons
which melt at specific temperatures,
they are used to check the heater
bushes are operating at the correct
temperature.

Template is used to mark the pipe, to


ensure that it is inserted to the correct
depth into the fittings. For pipe sizes
Gloves 16mm to 63mm only.
Template Gloves. Heat resistant gloves must
be used to prevent burns when
the heater bushes are changed or
cleaned.

Timer This must be used for every


fusion joint to check that the exact
heating time for fusion jointing is
used.

Pipe cutters for cutting the pipe by


rotating them around the pipe and
tightening the handle, until the cutting
wheel slices through the pipe at 90
Timer
angles, to the pipe
One size for 25 - 63mm pipes
Roller cutters
One size for 75 - 110mm pipes.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.23


Chamfering tools for chamfering the
end of the pipe in preparation for
fusion jointing.
One size for 25 - 63mm pipes
One size for 75 - 110mm pipes.

Cleaning fluid & Lint free cloth


Cleaning fluid and cloth
Apply the cleaning fluid to cloth to
clean the pipe.
Chamfering tools (right)
Pipe clamps. These are attached to
the Prisma 110, and are reversible for
supporting different pipe sizes.
One side holds pipes from 25mm
to 63mm. the other side holds pipes
from 75mm to 110mm.
These supports come in pairs for
different purposes, one set holds the
pipe, the other set holds the fitting.
It is important not to get the two sets
mixed.
Pipe clamps
Bench rotating handle. This is a
loose handle which must be removed
when the bench mounted fusion
Bench rotating handle jointed machine is being moved
around the site. It is used to operate
the insertion mechanism on the
machine.

Pipe support stand. This is used to


support a length of pipe at the pipe
clamping side of the bench mounted
fusion machine to prevent the pipe
slipping out of the machine as fusion
joints are made.

Backing plate. This is put over


the rear fitting clamps when fusing
elbows above 50mm to provide back
support to the elbows and stop them
slipping out of the clamps during
jointing
Pipe support stand
Note:-
Most of the above tools come as
Backing plate standard with the hired bench
mounted fusion jointing machine
They can also be sold as a
complete package with a new
bench mounted fusion jointing
machine. With the exception
of cleaning fluid and lint free
cloth, which must be purchased
separately.

8.24 GEORGE FISCHER


Preparing the bench mounted fusion jointing
machine for use

The Prisma 110, bench mounted


fusion machine is provided with
wheels to make it suitable for moving

!
HOT
around site, to different locations as
necessary.

Note
The bench mounted jointing
DANGER machine has components which
get very hot when it is in use.
It should not be located where
untrained staff can accidentally
The fusion machine is mobile come into contact with it. It should
be marked with clearly visible
warning signs identifying that it
is hot. It may be required by the
Site Safety Officer to cordon off the
working area around this tool.

Locate the bench rotating handle


onto the steel shaft protruding 8
from the side of the machine, this is
Attach the handle
achieved by pushing it onto the shaft.

Set the pipe size dial, located at one


end of the machine, to the size of the
pipe being jointed.

Set the pipe size dial

Fix the pipe clamps to the Prisma 110.


For pipe sizes 25 to 63mm have the
small pipe grips facing into the centre
of the machine.

For pipe sizes 75 to 110mm have the


large pipe grips facing into the centre
of the machine.
Clamp grips for small diam-
eter pipework

Clamp grips for large diam-


eter pipework

GEORGE FISCHER 8.25


Fix the front fitting support clamp to
the bench mounted fusion machine.
This clamp is the only clamp which
is fixed in the same position every
time. It can not be moved forward or
backward on the fusion machine like
the other clamps

Front clamp for fittings

There are two depressions under the


clamp for shims to be inserted and
aligned with the depressions on the
bench. Checking the shims are in the
correct place and the clamps are flat
on the guide rails, the bolts are then
firmly tightened to hold them in place.

Front clamp alignment shims


The clamps are fixed onto the guide
rail on the fusion machine, with
locking bars, which are held loosely
to the pipe clamps with bolts and
slipped into the guide rails.

Slide the clamps onto the rail


The front clamps are secured by
tighten the fixing bolt with an allen
key.

Tighten the front clamps


Fix the rear fitting supporting
clamps to the bench mounted fusion
machine

The pair of rear fitting support


clamps have larger jaws than the 2
pairs of pipe support clamps.
Do not get them mixed up as this
will result in joints which are out of
alignment.

Do not get the clamps mixed


up. Pipe support clamps are
smaller.

8.26 GEORGE FISCHER


Slide the clamps to the required
position and tightened up.

A quick release mechanism on the


bolts enables them to be easily
tightened or loosened. To operate
the mechanism, lift the black handle,
Fit the rear clamps this will disconnect it from the bolt,
the handle can then be moved freely
without tightening or loosening the
bolt to get it out of the way.

Lowering the handle will make it grip


the bolt, which can then be tightened
or loosened as required.
The 2 clamps should be set up
opposite each other when holding
a fitting to ensure it is supported
squarely.

Tighten with lever

Slide the clamps forward or


backward on the side rails to suit
different fitting types and sizes.
8

Set clamps up in pairs

Fix the front and back pipe support


clamps on the bench mounted fusion
machine.

This comprises of two pairs of


identical support clamps. Before
fitting check the two clamps on the
left are exactly the same as each
Clamps may be moved on other and the two clamps on the right
the rail are exactly the same as each other,
and the exact mirror of the left hand
clamps.

There should now be eight clamps


fitted to the machine set out in four
pairs directly opposite each other.

All 8 clamps need position-


ing

GEORGE FISCHER 8.27



Slide the clamps to the required
position and tightened up using the
quick release mechanism described
earlier.

Correct!
Each pair of clamps should be
Always ensure clamps are directly opposite each other, to
aligned ensure the pipe is held straight.


Wrong!


Clamps should not be positioned
like this. They should always
be opposite their matching
counterpart

Do not misalign clamps

Slide the pairs of clamps closer


together or further apart depending
on the item being assembled.

Clamps can be placed close


together...

or far apart

8.28 GEORGE FISCHER


When the support clamps are
attached the heater bushes can be
fixed to the heater plate.
The heater plate can heat bushes
from 25 to 110 mm, which are the
sizes the clamps supplied are suitable
for. (Extra bushes will be required for
16 - 20mm jointing)

The heater plate

The allen key bolt is inserted through


the bush socket with the screw thread
facing out.

Push the bolt through the


bush

The bolt screw, with the bush socket


attached, is pushed through the hole 8
in the heater plate. Check the heater
bush is facing the same side as the
clamps for holding the fittings and
the heater socket is facing the clamps
which will grip the pipe.
Position the bush on the
heater plate

The other end of the bush set


is screwed onto the bolt screw
protruding through the heater plate.

Screw the other bush onto the


heater plate

The bolt is tightened with an allen


key to ensure there is a good surface
contact between the bush set and the
heater plate. The bush set heats up
through conduction from the heater
plate.

Tighten the bolt with an allen Note:


key to secure the bushes in When handling the bushes or
place heater plate always wear heat
resistant gloves
GEORGE FISCHER 8.29
The fusion tool is plugged into
110volt supply and switched on,
allowing about 5 mins. to heat up.

A red light will be illuminate to


indicate the power is on and a green
light will illuminate to indicate when
there is power going to the heater
plate.
Switch on the machine

The heater plate is thermostatically


controlled and the green light will
switch on and off as it maintains the
heater plate temperature.

The temple sticks are used to confirm


the heater bushes are at the correct
working temperature. The temple
The red and green lights sticks are made of wax which will
should illuminate melt at specific temperatures.

First the yellow temple stick is


marked on the outside of the bush
socket, this should melt at 253C.

If the wax melts and possibly smokes


a little, we can tell that the bushes
are above the minimum temperature
Tap the bush with the yellow required for socket fusion jointing.
temple stick
If the wax does not melt, the bush
Note is not yet up to the correct working
It is important that no wax from temperature. Check the fusion
the temple stick falls onto the machine is still switched on and has
surfaces of the bushes, which power to it, then leave it 5-10 mins,
will be in contact with the pipe and then try again.
or fittings, as this could effect the
quality of joints and lead to leaks.

If it still doesnt melt the heater bush


is not reaching the correct working
temperature. The thermostat control,
situated by the On switch, may
need to be turned up slightly (one
millimetre clockwise on the scale).

If the above step is performed several


If it does not melt increase the times and the thermostat control can
temperature gradually not be adjusted any higher, then
there may be a fault with the fusion
machine and George Fischer should
be contacted, Tel: 02476 535535.

8.30 GEORGE FISCHER


When the heater bushes are above
the minimum working temperature we
must then check that they are below
the maximum working temperature.

To do this the red temple stick is


marked on the outside of the bush
Tap the bush with the red socket, the wax will melt at 253C.
temple stick
If the wax does not melt, the
bush is within the correct working
temperature. If the wax is left in the
bushes for more than 5 seconds,
it will start to bake. This is not an
indication that the temperature is too
high.
If the wax melts quickly and possibly
smokes a little, then the fusion
Lower the temperature if the tool is above the correct working
wax melts temperature and needs adjusting.
The thermostat control on the side
of the fusion machine needs to be
turned down slightly (1 mm anti-
clockwise on the scale).

Allow the fusion machine about 5


mins to cool a little and check the
temperature again with both yellow
and red temple sticks. 8

If the above task is performed several


times and the thermostatic control
can not be adjusted any further,
Pipe supports stands must be there may be a fault with the fusion
used to support long lengths machine and George Fischer Sales
of pipe should be contacted, Tel: 02476
535535.

The pipe support stand is used to


support the pipe whilst jointing and
can be placed where it counter
balances the pipes weight. It is useful
when assembling long lengths of
pipe to support them from both sides.
Boxes or conventional pipe supports
can achieve this.

Check the bushes are clean, using


a piece of dry lint free cloth to
rub off any debris. To clean inside
the smaller bushes, the cloth can
be wrapped around a piece of
dowelling or a wooden pencil.
Clean the bushes with dry lint
free cloth The fusion machine is now ready to
Note: begin fusion jointing.
Do not use a screwdriver or metal
object as this will damage the
Teflon coating on the bushes

GEORGE FISCHER 8.31


Preparing the Fitting
Clean the polybutylene fittings
internally with the Tangit KS, Reiniger,
cleaning fluid.

Apply the cleaning fluid to a clean,


dry, lint free cloth.

Rub the moist cloth firmly around the


Moisten the cloth with clean- inside of the fitting on all faces to
ing fluid be fusion joined. Place the cleaned
fitting carefully on the working service
surface, avoid any moisture or dirt
getting inside the fitting.

Note:
Remember not to handle the inside
of the fittings with your hands as
you will make them dirty and you
will need to clean them again.

Clean the inside of the fitting Several fittings can be pre-cleaned


in this manner, at any one time,
provided the cloth is still clean and
moist with cleaning fluid, and the
assembly areas is not dusty or wet.

Preparing the pipe


The pipe must be cut at right angles
using the appropriate pipe roller
cutters.

For pipes below 40mm the pipe can


Cut the pipe with roller cutters be held by hand as the roller cutter is
rotated around it.

For pipes above 50mm it is easier


to cut them if you use the clamps on
the fusion machine to hold the pipe
steady whilst you use the roller cutter
to cut the pipe.

The pipe should not be cut with a


Large pipe diameters can be hacksaw or similar serrated blade as
held in the machine this will leave unacceptable burrs.
The pipe must be free from deep
scratches and burrs.

8.32 GEORGE FISCHER


Chamfering pipes from 25 to
110mm o.d
Two tools are required, the smaller
tool is used to chamfer pipes 25 to
63mm, diameter, the larger tool is
use to chamfer pipes 75 to 110mm
diameter.
Select chamfering tool check-
ing that the pads are clean

Check the pads on the chamfering


tools are free from grit, as this will
scratch and damage the pipe when it
is being chamfered.

Check the blade on the chamfering


tool is in contact with the pipe and
will remain in contact with the pipe
throughout its chamfer.

Put the centre spindle on the inside 8


Push the pipe up to the of the pipe wall, the blades (which
blades are at an angle) should be in contact
with the pipe about half way down
the blades, and be able to remain
in contact for at least half the pipes
width as the pipe is chamfered.

If the above situation is not true the


relative position of the blades can
be adjusted, by loosening the nut on
the central spindle and moving the
spindle closer or further away from
the blades as required.

Then firmly tightening the nut on the


spindle to grip it in its new position.
(This adjustment should not be
required often, but it is occasionally
necessary)

GEORGE FISCHER 8.33


When the cutting blades are
correctly adjusted for the pipe wall
thickness, the guidance pads on the
chamfering tool need to be adjusted
to suit the pipe size.
Twist the black lever on the
chamfering handle anti-clockwise,
Put the pipe over the spindle this should loosen the guidance pads.
and loosen the guidance
pad holder

Put the central spindle roller inside the


pipe and push the chamfering pads
firmly up to the wall of the pipe.

Whilst holding the pads and spindle


roller firmly against the pipe, tighten
the black lever on the chamfering
Hold the pads tight to the tool.
pipe wall and tighten

When the lever has been tightened,


it may be in an awkward position
to allow easy chamfering, it can
be moved to a different position by
pulling it away from the chamfering
tool handle by about 5mm. At this
point it disengages the locking
bolt and will move freely to a more
suitable position.
Move the lever out of the
way

8.34 GEORGE FISCHER


Once the guidance pads are set
up for a particular pipe size, they
can chamfer many pipes of that size
without being adjusted again.

The chamfering tool spindle is


inserted into the pipe, and the
chamfering tool is pushed firmly
against the end of the pipe.
For pipes above 50mm it is easier
Push and rotate chamfering to chamfer if you use the clamps on
tool the fusion machine to hold the pipe
stationary while you chamfer the end.

Still pushing the chamfering tool


firmly onto the end of the pipe, rotate
the tool clockwise.
As the tool rotates, pipe swarf should
start to be peeled from the pipe.
If the pipe is not being peeled the
chamfering tool must be pressed
Larger pipe diameters can be more firmly onto the end of the pipe.
held in the machine

The pipe must be chamfered until


the end of the pipe wall is down to 8
about half its original thickness. The
chamfering should be at an angle of
about 15.

Chamfer pipe to 1/2 wall


thickness

GEORGE FISCHER 8.35


The chamfered pipe now needs to
be cleaned externally with Tangit KS.
Reiniger, cleaning fluid.

Apply the cleaning fluid to a clean,


dry, lint free cloth.
Apply cleaning fluid to cloth
Rub the moist cloth firmly around the
Clean the pipe outside of the pipe, about 50mm up
the pipe. This should remove any dirt
and the printed markings on the pipe
(if it does not, you may be using the
wrong cleaning fluid).

Note
Remember not to handle the
outside of the cleaned pipe with
your hands as this will make it
dirty and it will need cleaning
again.
Keep the clean pipe end off
If you have to put the pipe down,
the surface
ensure the clean end does not come
into contact with the surface.

Mark the insertion depth of the pipe


with a template after the pipe has
been cleaned.
Pipe o.d. Insertion depth
16mm 17mm
20mm 17mm
Mark the insertion depth 25mm 20mm
32mm 22mm
40mm 24mm
50mm 28mm
63mm 32mm
75mm 36mm
90mm 42mm
110mm 48mm

Below 63mm this can be done with a


template

Above 63mm you will need to use a


tape measure

The pipe is now ready for fusion


jointing.

8.36 GEORGE FISCHER


Fusing the pipe and fittings together
All the pipes have a line down one
side and the fittings up to 63mm
have external markings every 45.
These are to enable installers to pre-
fabricate the pipes and fittings whilst
keeping them in perfect alignments.

The fittings below 63mm also have a


mark showing the depth to which the
Alignment line on pipe
pipe is inserted into them. This is to
allow installers to measure the centre
to centre distance of branches on site
or from drawings and cut the pipes to
exactly the right length. This subject
is covered in more details elsewhere
and is called the Z Dimension
Method it makes pre-fabrication of
pipework easy.
Alignment mark on fitting
Long lengths of pipe will need to be
supported during the fusion process,
approximately to the same height
of the fusion machine, keeping them
level as the joints are made. The pipe
support clamps will help achieve 8
this, supporting the pipes on both
sides of the fusion tool. This may be
insufficient on its own and extra pipe
support stands or boxes should be
used.

Support the pipes The fitting must be placed squarely


into the fitting support clamps. The
face of the fitting must be placed
flush with the lips at the edge of
the clamps, checking all four points
where fitting is gripped by the clamp.

Note:
Place fitting up to edge of
Ensure the support clamps are the
clamp correct way around on the fusion
machine, for the fitting sizes being
used, see section preparing the
bench mounted fusion jointing
machine for use, for more details
on this. (Page 38)

The rear fitting support clamps may


be moved backwards or forwards
to grip a suitable point on the fitting
(you must not try to hold the pipe with
Adjust rear clamps to grip the rear support clamps since they
fitting will be to large for the pipe).

GEORGE FISCHER 8.37


The fitting is then clamped in the
support clamp by rotating the clamp
opening/closing handle until the
fitting is held firmly.

As the clamp grips the fitting, its


alignment must be checked to ensure
it is straight.
Tighten the hand wheel

When fusing an elbow or tee outlet,


the rear fitting support clamps will not
be able to grip it. Place the backing
plate on the rear fitting support
clamps.

For small fittings put the back-


ing plate on clamps

Move both clamps forward so that


they push the backing plate up
against the back of the fitting and
then tighten the quick release bolts.

Push backing plate up to fit-


ting and tighten the lever

When the heater bushes are in


place check the pipe size selection
dial is set to the correct size for the
pipe you are jointing.

Rotating knob for adjusting


size dim

Fit the pipe into the pipe clamps,


by rotating the clamp opening/
closing handle, until the pipe loosely
gripped.

Hold the pipe in the clamps

8.38 GEORGE FISCHER


Push and hold the stop button in.

Push and hold button

Rotate the large bench rotating


handle clockwise until the pipe and
fitting supports touch the stop button.

Rotate hand wheel

Release the stop button.

Release button

Loosen the pipe support clamps


and push the pipe forwards in the
clamp so that the edge of the pipe is
between 1- 2mm within the fitting.

Push pipe forward

Tighten the pipe support clamp,


so the pipe is held firmly in place
checking the pipe is accurately
centred within the fitting.

Tighten support clamps

GEORGE FISCHER 8.39


Check the timer has been set for the
required fusion time of the pipe size
being joined. See list below

Fusion times vary for each pipe size


being used.

Pipe o.d. Fusion time


Use the timer for all joints 16mm 5 secs
20mm 6 secs
25mm 6 secs
32mm 10 secs
40mm 14 secs
50mm 18 secs
63mm 22 secs
75mm 26 secs
90mm 30 secs
110mm 35 secs

Check the fusion temperature of the


bush is within limits with the temple
sticks, as described earlier, just before
jointing.

Prior to jointing check the


temperature of the bushes

The timer can be reset to zero by


pressing both the second and minute
buttons simultaneously. The seconds
button is then pressed to set the
correct fusion time on the timer. The
start time button will start the timer
and also stop the alarm, although the
Set the timer alarm will automatically stop after 10
seconds. The timer will then return to
original time set. For repeats of the
same pipe size do not reset the timer.

Turn the large bench rotating handle


anti-clockwise, until the pipe and
fitting are as far apart as possible.

Turn the bench rotating han-


dle anticlockwise until pipe
and fitting are as far apart as
possible.

8.40 GEORGE FISCHER


Lower the heater plate between the
pipe and fitting.

Lower the heater plate

Turn the bench rotating handle


clockwise to bring the pipe and fitting
onto the heater bushes.

Rotate the handle clock-


wise
Keep turning the handle until it
cannot be rotated any further. The
heater plate will move during the last
part of insertion as it is automatically
self centring. 8

Push pipe and fitting onto


heater bush

When the pipe and fitting are fully


inserted start the timer.

Start timer

When the timer beeps gently turn the


bench rotating handle anticlockwise
with drawing the pipe and fitting
from the heater bushes. When the
pipe and fitting are free of the heater
bushes continue turning the handle
quickly until it reaches the stop.

When the timer beeps


withdraw pipe and fitting

GEORGE FISCHER 8.41


Quickly lift the heater plate from
between the molten pipe and fitting.

Lift heater plate


Quickly turn the bench rotating
handle clockwise to bring the pipe
and fitting close together.

As they come into contact slowly


continue to rotate the handle so the
pipe inserts gently into the fitting until
it can go no further.
Quickly bring pipe and fitting
together
The mark indicating the insertion
depth should be near the molten
bead of PB or half covered. If it is
4mm or more away from the fitting
the pipe or fitting may have slipped
within the clamps.

Quickly release one of the clamps


and manually push the pipe or fitting
Push up to the insertion mark up to the insertion mark, then re-
tighten the clamp when the pipe is
fully inserted into the fitting.

A slight pressure needs to be


maintained on the hand wheel
throughout the to prevent the
materials natural tendency to push
apart. This is just for the holding times
listed below.
Maintain slight pressure on
the handle

o.d. pipe Holding time Note


It is important when moving the
16mm 20 secs pipe and fitting in and out of the
20mm 20 secs bushes, or into each other, to move
25mm 20 secs them firmly but gently to achieve
32mm 20 secs the best joint.
40mm 20 secs It is also important to move them
50mm 30 secs quickly between the heater plate
63mm 30 secs and jointing to minimise the time
75mm 60 secs they are exposed to free air and
90mm 75 secs cooling.
110mm 90 secs

8.42 GEORGE FISCHER


After the holding time, the pipe and
fitting may be carefully released
from the clamps by turning the hand
wheels anti-clockwise.

Note: It is important to avoid


any strain on the fittings until the
Undo support clamps cooling time has elapsed.
Release fitting first (support
when releasing)

The fitting should always be released


first and the clamp opened wide
enough so that it is clear of the fitting
just in case the pipe moves when
released.

The pipe is then released. As the pipe


Then release the pipe clamp is opened the pipe should be
(support when releasing) supported with one hand to reduce
movement.

The pipe and fitting can be gently put


to one side, on a flat surface to cool
for the required cooling times listed
below.

o.d pipe Cooling time


8
16mm 4 mins
20mm 4 mins
25mm 4 mins
32mm 4 mins
40mm 4 mins
Set aside to cool
50mm 4 mins
63mm 6 mins
75mm 6 mins
90mm 6 mins
110mm 6 mins

After which they can safely be


handled normally.

If the fitting already has a pipe in one


end before jointing, more care will
have to be taken to avoid straining
the new joint when releasing the
fitting and pipe and setting it aside.
This can normally be achieved by
two people working together.
Use two people for long Alternatively if the pipe and fitting is
lengths left in the bench clamps for the full
cooling time, it can then be handled
normally by one man.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.43


When each joint is made rub a
clean, dry cloth over the bush and
socket in the fusion well to check they
are free from any residue of P.B.

After the joint has been made,


Clean outside the bush especially when you are using
INSTAFLEX for first time, check
Clean inside the socket your workmanship, learn from any
mistakes to improve your fusion
jointing technique.

At the end of this section there is a list


of faults to check and learn from but
three common examples are given
below.
Inspect your own workman- 1/ If the bead of P.B around the
ship
external junction between pipe &
fitting is uneven, i.e there is a high
build up in 2 or 4 locations and a
low build up in 2 or 4 locations, this
indicates the fitting has been gripped
too tightly by the clamp in the fusion
machine, tighten the clamps less next
Uneven bead time.

2/ If the insertion mark is not visible,


then the pipe is over inserting into the
fitting. This is either the result of the
pipe size dial being set for the wrong
pipe size or the pipe being inserted
too far into the fitting when the stop
was in place.
Identify cause and correct.
Over insertion

3/ If the insertion mark is clearly


visible by 4mm or more, then the
pipe is being under inserted in to the
fittings. This is either the result of the
pipe size dial being set for the wrong
pipe size, or the pipe not being
brought close enough to the fitting
when the stop was in place, or the
pipe or fitting slipping in the clamps
Under insertion when they are being joined.
Identify cause and correct.

Wait one hour after the last joint has


been made before filling the system
with water and pressure testing up to
15 bar pressure.

8.44 GEORGE FISCHER


Special Fusion jointing using the
bench mounted socket fusion machine
With difficult assemblies like small
pipes, awkward shapes or reducing
bushes, the bench mounted fusion
machine can still be used to assemble
these items, except it has to be used
slightly differently.

Hand held fusion joints


with the bench mounted
The bench mounted fusion tool can
be used to do joints as if it was a
hand held fusion tool.
This can be done with either the
heater plate in its lowered position,
with all the clamps and slide fully
Heater plate lowered open and as far away from the
heater plate as possible.

or with the heater plate in its raised


position.
8

Fusing small pipes with


the bench mounted fusion
machine
Heater plate raised The bench mounted fusion machine,
does not come supplied with bushes
for fusing 16mm and 20mm pipes
and fittings. These will have to be
ordered separately in order to use
this machine for joining pipes and
fittings of these sizes.

Since 16 and 20mm pipes are too


small to fit in the clamps of the
bench mounted fusion machine the
only method to jointing these sizes
is to fuse them by using the hand
held jointing technique. Refer to the
section for hand held fusion jointing
for more information.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.45


Fusing reducing bushes into fittings
What follows is a summary of
additional instructions for fabrication
of reducing bushes fused into fittings.
For full details of bench mounted
fusion jointing please refer to earlier
instructions.

The simplest method of fusing a


Fuse the pipe into a reducer reducer into a fitting is to fuse the
reducer onto the pipe first, then
continue as detailed below.

Hold the pipe with the reducer


already fused onto the end in the
small pipe clamps.
The fitting will be held with the large
fitting clamps.
Hold the pipe in the clamp...

Continue the fusion process as


normal.

...and join as normal

To produce a fusion joint between


a fitting and a reducer without first
fusing the reducer to the pipe can be
achieved by holding the reducer in
the hand

The fitting is still held in the clamps


but you manually push the reducer
The fitting is held in the into the heater bush as you rotate the
clamps while the reducer is handle to bring the fitting onto the
held by hand.
bush.

You can support your arm on the pipe


clamp to aid withdrawing the fitting.

8.46 GEORGE FISCHER


Remove the heater plate...

Tilt the heater plate out of


the way.

... and manually push the reducer into


the fitting.

Push the reducer into the


fitting

Hold the reducer in the fitting for the


holding time. Remember to check its
alignment before it cools.

Hold reducer in place

Fusing Electrofusion
spigots onto fitting
It is easier to put the electrofusion
spigot onto a piece of pipe prior to
fusing. Tighten the screws to hold it in
place.

Place spigot on pipe

Carry on with a normal jointing


procedure to make the joint.

Push spigot with pipe into


heater bush

GEORGE FISCHER 8.47


Alternatively reducers can be fused
onto the pipe as if a hand held joint
is being made. Refer to the section
for hand held fusion jointing for more
information.

When fusing 16 and 20mm pipes


into a reducer, this operation can
only be performed by using the hand
held jointing technique. Refer to the
section for hand held fusion jointing
for more information.

The reducer has no insertion mark.


The correct insertion mark is up to the
end of the reducer.

Note.
With small reduction changes
i.e. 25mm reduced to 20mm it is
difficult to tell which side of the
fitting is reducing. Do not melt
the side of the fitting with printed
writing on. The other side has a
pre-moulded chamfer.

It is necessary to hold the


electrofusion spigot as you withdraw
it from the heater bush.

Hold spigot whilst withdraw-


ing

Push the electrofusion spigot into the


molten fitting.

Push spigot into fitting

After the holding time release the


screws and withdraw the pipe from
the electrofusion spigot.

Withdraw pipe

8.48 GEORGE FISCHER


Electrofusion Jointing
This section covers the tools required Important:
for electrofusion jointing, setting up It should be noted that electrofusion
the tools for use, preparing the pipes and socket fusion fittings are not
and fittings for jointing. Fusing the always compatible. The length of the
pipes and fitting together with the spigot does not permit a joint to be
electrofusion machine. made.

Tools
Electrofusion control unit is a fully
automatic unit for fusing pipe and
electrofusion fittings together, it
can operate at either 240 volts or
110 volts. This is suitable for fusing
all electrofusion joints from 16mm
110mm.

Welding cable this has a plug at


each end, one end is screwed onto
Electrofusion control unit the top socket of the electrofusion
control unit, the other in is plugged
into an electrofusion fitting to make
joints.

Primary cable 110v This has


a plug at each end. One end is
screwed onto the bottom socket of 8
Primary cable 110v the electrofusion control unit, the
other end is plugged into a 110 volt
building site power transformer, to
provide power to the electrofusion
welding cable
control unit.

Primary cable 240v Primary cable 240v. This has a plug


at each end. One end is screwed
onto the bottom socket of the
electrofusion control unit, the other
end is plugged into a 240v socket to
provide power to the electrofusion
Pipe shears control unit.

Pipe shears for snipping through


pipes 16 to 25mm o.d.

Pipe roller cutters for cutting the


pipe at right angle.
One size for 25-63mm pipes.
One size for 75-110mm pipes.
Pipe roller cutters
The pipe must not be cut with a saw
or serrated blade since this will leave
unacceptable burrs.
Cleaning fluid and cloth Cleaning fluid for cleaning the pipe

Lint free cloth Apply the cleaning


fluid to the cloth to clean the pipe.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.49


Note: Note:
The new Only the cables come as standard
electrofusion control with the electrofusion control unit.
unit is now supplied The other tools can be obtained
with 3 outputs. separately or are available as
standard tools with INSTAFLEX socket
fusion machinery. Cleaning fluid and
lint free cloth must be purchased
separately.

Preparing the
electrofusion control unit
for use
The electrofusion control is small and
relatively light weight device and is
designed for ease of transportation
around site.
Internally it is a complicated electrical
device and can easily be broken
or develop a fault if dropped. Care
The electrofusion control unit
is portable must be taken when in use to always
place it on a flat and level surface
where it is unlikely to be knocked off
or damaged.

To operate select whether you will


be using a 240 volt domestic power
supply or a 110 volt building site
power source and select the lead
with the appropriate plug.

Attach the power cable Attach the primary power cable to


(110v Primary cable shown) the control unit by plugging it into the
socket at the bottom of the box, then
rotating the outer plastic ring on the
plug clockwise. The thread will secure
the cable to the control unit.

Attach the welding cable to the


control unit by plugging it into
the socket at the top of the box,
then rotating the outer plastic ring
clockwise the thread will secure the
cable to the control unit.

Attach the welding cable

8.50 GEORGE FISCHER


Note: Plug the control unit primary cable
The new into a power source. All the lights on
electrofusion control the front of the control panel should
unit is now supplied illuminate briefly while the control unit
with 3 outputs. conducts a self diagnostic test.

When this is completed the power


Plug in and check that all
light in the bottom right hand corner
lights come on should remain illuminated, this
indicates the control unit is ready to
begin welding.

If the alarm light comes on, there


may be a fault with the unit and
George Fischer Sales Ltd. should be
contacted Tel: 02476 535535.

The electrofusion control unit will


operate satisfactorily within the
conditions listed below.
Ready light on
110v 240v
Min Max Min Max
Mains voltage 88v 127v 185v 264v
Mains frequency 47Hz 65Hz 47Hz 65Hz
Temperature 15C 40C 15C 40C 8

Preparing the fittings


Clean the polybutylene fittings
internally with Tangit KS. Reiniger,
cleaning fluid.
Apply the cleaning fluid to a clean,
dry, lint free cloth.

Rub the moist cloth firmly around the


inside of the fitting, on all faces to be
Moisten cloth with cleaning joined
fluid

Place the cleaned fitting carefully


on the working surface. Avoid any
moisture or dirt getting inside the
fitting.

Note
Do not handle the inside of the
fitting after cleaning it as your
hand will dirty the fitting and it
Clean the fitting will need to be cleaned again.

Several fittings can be pre-cleaned


at one time, so long as the cloth is
still moist with cleaning fluid and the
assembly area is not dusty or wet.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.51


Preparing the pipe.
The pipe must be cut at right angles,
using the appropriate pipe cutters.
Shears for pipe 16 up to 25mm and
roller cutter for pipes above 25mm.

The pipe should not be cut with a


hacksaw or similar serrated blade
Snip the pipe sizes 25mm as this will leave unacceptable burrs,
and below. and probably result in a cut which is
not at right angles to the pipe, which
is very important.

The pipe must be free from deep


scratches and burrs.

Note
The pipes in all sizes must NOT be
Cutting pipe sizes 25mm and chamfered
above.

Apply the cleaning fluid to a clean


dry, lint free cloth.

Rub the moist cloth firmly around the


outside of the pipe about 100mm
up the pipe for fittings below 63mm
and about 200mm up the pipe for
fittings above 63mm. (It is necessary
Moisten cloth with cleaning to clean the pipe this far, because
fluid when making electrofusion joints it is
standard practice to slip the fitting
fully onto one end of the pipe).

This should remove any dirt and the


printed marks on the pipe (If it does
not you may be using the wrong
cleaning fluid)

Note
Remember not to handle the
outside of the cleaned pipe with
Clean the pipe
your hand as this will make
it dirty, and it will need to be
cleaned again.
If you have to put the pipe down
ensure the clean end does not
come into contact with any
surfaces.

Keep cleaned pipe off


surfaces

8.52 GEORGE FISCHER


Mark the insertion depth on the pipe
after it has been cleaned.
Do not use a wax pencil to mark
the insertion depth.
Pipe o.d. Insertion depth
16mm 27mm
20mm 30mm
Mark insertion depth with a 25mm 34mm
tape measure... 32mm 37mm
40mm 40mm
50mm 44mm
63mm 50mm
75mm 67mm
90mm 73.5mm
110mm 80mm

The insertion depths shown above


are the distance from the centre to
the edge of the electrofusion fitting,
so a fitting of the appropriate size
which has a mark showing its centre
can be used as an aid for marking
the insertion depth.
...or mark insertion depth Note
from centre mark on fitting 8
It is important to mark both ends
of pipe which will be inserted into
the electrofusion fittings, to avoid
errors.

The pipe is now ready for


electrofusion jointing.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.53


Electrofusing the pipe and
fittings together
All the pipes have a line down one
side and the fittings have external
marks every 45 these enable
installers to keep prefabricated pipes
and fittings in the correct alignment
when doing electrofusion joints on
site.
Alignment line on pipe
The pipes will touch in the centre of
the electrofusion sockets, the other
fittings have a Z dimension shown in
the product guide, to help calculate
what lengths to cut pipes to. So it
is easy to calculate the lengths of
the pipes required for electrofusion
installations. The Z dimension
method is described elsewhere.

The electrofusion fittings are usually


used to join pre-fabricated pipework
sub-assembled together on site.
Marks at 45 intervals to aid
alignment
Electrofusion spigots, elbows, tees
and reducers
The electrofusion spigots sizes from
16 to 63mm o.d. are usually fused
with socket fusion into the end of a
fitting, typically an elbow or tee.

When jointing in situ the prepared


pipe end is then inserted its full
distance into the spigot, elbows,
tees or reducers and the 2 screws
on either side of the fitting are firmly
tightened to prevent the pipe from
slipping out.

The electrofusion fitting will now be


ready for jointing.

Electrofusion socket
The electrofusion sockets are
available in all sizes from 16 to
110mm. They normally have the full
length of the socket slipped onto one
pipe end.

8.54 GEORGE FISCHER


The other pipe end is brought
up flush to the pipe end with the
electrofusion socket.

The socket is slipped over both pipe


ends, so the insertion marks on both
pipe ends are just disappearing
this confirms the pipe ends are
positioned exactly in the centre of the
electrofusion fitting.

The 4 screws around the electrofusion


socket are tightened to hold the
pipes firmly in place.

The electrofusion socket is now ready


for jointing
Note: Electrofusion fittings now use an allen key fixing and not screwdriver fixing
as illustrated in these examples.

Jointing electrofusion
fittings to the pipe
The fusion joint occurs between the
outside wall of the pipe and the
inside surface of the electrofusion
8
fitting.

As a result the electrofusion fittings


will be a permanent part of the pipe
work system.

The screws on the fittings only hold


the pipe and fittings together when
prior to and during electrofusion
jointing process. They do not add
mechanical strength or extended life
expectancy.
Cross section through an
electrofusion joint

GEORGE FISCHER 8.55


To make an electrofusion joint simply
plug the welding cable from the
electrofusion control unit, into the
electrofusion fitting.

You will hear a beep as the cable is


plugged in and the ready light, on
the electrofusion control unit should
Plug in welding cable come on.

If the alarm comes on, do not use this


Note:
fitting and return it George Fischer for
The new
examination/replacement.
electrofusion control
unit is now supplied
Note
with 3 outputs.
With 75, 90 and 110mm
electrofusion sockets and all
electrofusion tees and elbows
The Ready light should each end is joined separately. It
be on is important to plug the welding
cable into all ends of the fitting
before starting any joints. So
the electrofusion control unit
can perform its diagnostics on
the fitting to check that no faults
exist. (If you do not do this you
could find you have fused one
end. But the other end has a
fault and you need to cut the half
fused electrofusion fitting out and
replace a length of pipe).

If the fitting does not have a fault,


simply press the start button.

No timer has to be set.

The electrofusion process is fully


automatic, it will recognise the fitting
being fused and automatically fuse
it for the correct time, but the fusion
times are listed below for reference.
Press Start

Pipe o.d. Total fusion time


mm seconds
16mm 45
20mm 50
25mm 65
32mm 75
40mm 85
50mm 105
63mm 120
75mm 105 each end
90mm 110 each end
110mm 120 each end

8.56 GEORGE FISCHER


As the electrofusion control unit is
fusing the pipe and fitting together, a
little indicator pip will rise from within
the fitting to indicate a joint has been
successfully made.

Joint indicator starts to show


Although the electrofusion fitting
gets warm during the electrofusion
process, it is never unsafe, or too hot
to handle.

If for any reason the indication pip


does not rise or you are uncertain
the joint had been made (someone
may have switched off the power)
or a fault develops during the fusion
Joint indicator fully showing process. Leave the fitting for a
minimum of 1 hour, then you can go
back and re-make the joint safely.

When the joint has been completed


a beeper will sound and the end
light will come on. This indicates that
a successful joint should have been 8
made.

During electrofusion jointing the pipe


Hold the joint in place and fitting should not be moved, or
subjected to unnecessary stresses.
The pipe and fitting should be
allowed to cool for a few minutes
Note: after each joint has been made,
The new before being moved or subjected to
electrofusion control stress.
unit is now supplied Minimum cooling times before moving
with 3 outputs. pipe and fittings
Pipe o.d. Minimum cooling time
End light will show when the
joint is complete
16mm 4 mins
20mm 4 mins
25mm 4 mins
32mm 4 mins
40mm 4 mins
50mm 6 mins
63mm 6 mins
75mm 6 mins
90mm 6 mins
110mm 6 mins
Wait one hour after the last joint has
Remove the welding cable been made before filling the system
with water and pressure testing, up to
15 bar pressure.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.57


Cutting and joining the INSTAFLEX sleeve
This section covers the tools required
for the INSTAFLEX sleeve cutting and
joining.

Tools
Pipe shears for cutting through the
pipe and sleeve together from 16 to
Pipe shears 25mm o.d.

Sleeve Cutters for cutting the sleeves


for 16 to 25mm pipe, with the pipe in
place without damaging the pipe.

These tools can be purchased from


George Fischer, when ordering the
pipe and fittings

Applications for sleeve


Sleeve cutter The sleeve is usually used as a carrier
duct for INSTAFLEX pipework, where
the pipework is to be buried in the
floor and screeded over or in the wall
and plastered over

Because of its flexible nature,


INSTAFLEX pipes can easily be
withdrawn from its sleeve thereby
meeting the Building Regulations that
a buried pipe should be accessible
through its length.
To ensure the pipe can be withdrawn,
from the sleeve, the sleeve should
have as few bends as possible no
sharper than 8 pipe diameters radius

Minimum bending radius for different


pipe sizes is

Pipe size o.d. Min bend radius


16mm 130mm
20mm 160mm
25mm 200mm

diagram showing min


bend

8.58 GEORGE FISCHER


Cutting the sleeve
The pipe shears can be used to cut
through the pipe and sleeve together
The pipe shears can also be used to
cut through the sleeve if there is no
pipe within it.

Pipe shears can cut through


pipe and sleeve

If you wish to cut the sleeve without


cutting the pipe within the sleeve the
sleeve cutter must be used.

Note
Do not attempt to cut the sleeve
with a bare blade, like a knife as
this will inevitably lead to the pipe
Sleeve safely cuts the sleeve being nicked which will reduce its
life expectancy.

Pipe The cutter is a valuable aid in the


safe cutting of the pipe sleeve
containing a pipe. The pipe cannot
be damaged with this tool
Pipe sleeve 8
internal parts of pipe sleeve Guide Sleeves for 16, 20 and 25mm o.d
cutter pipes can be cut with the pipe sleeve
Blade
cutter.
Position the guides on the
sleeve as shown Place the cutter into the protective
pipe groove.

Press the cutting jaws lightly together


Press the cutter jaws to close and twist back and forth over 90.
on each other
Remove the cut-off pipe sleeve piece
from the cutter by hand.

Twist the cutter forward and


backward whilst holding the
sleeve stationary

GEORGE FISCHER 8.59


Joining the sleeve to
fittings
There are a variety of fittings which
include a cover which holds the pipe
sleeve.

The pipe is inserted into the


Insert the pipe into the fitting fitting (see Section 2, Assembling
compression joints).

The sleeve is brought into place

The sleeve gripping part of the fitting


cover is fastened around the sleeve.

Checking the mechanism grips the


grooves in the sleeve.
Push the sleeve up

No specific cleaning or sealing is


required for the sleeve.

The cutting lengths of the protective


pipe are, 35mm for single valve
Fix the cover in place
connections, 80mm for double valve
connections.
16mm o.d =25mm
20mm o.d. =29mm
Insertion depths for compression
joints
Insertion 16mm o.d = 25mm
depth
20mm o.d = 29mm

which are marked on the pipe cutter.

35mm

80mm

8.60 GEORGE FISCHER


Cutting and preparing
INSTAFLEX carrier.
It is not compulsory to use pipe
support carrier, but where it is used
it must be used properly. This section
gives a little advice for preparing
INSTAFLEX pipe support carrier for
use, so that it will not damage the
pipes.

Tools

Hacksaw for cutting the carrier.

File For smoothing rough burrs from


the edge of the carrier

Hacksaw and file

Method
The carrier is used to reduce the
quantity of the pipe supports used on
hot and cold water installations.
8

The carrier is cut with a hacksaw.

Cut to length with hacksaw

The rough edges are smoothed with


a file to prevent them damaging the
pipe.

File the edges smooth

GEORGE FISCHER 8.61


Handling and Storage Instructions for INSTAFLEX

INSTAFLEX must be stored properly on site


Handling pipes.
INSTAFLEX pipes are very flexible, No more than 8 pipes should be
they will bow when carried. It placed directly on top of each other.
is important to prevent the pipe Pipes should be protected from
from rubbing on the floor, which sunlight. Long periods of time in the
will damage them when they are sun can lead to oxidisation of the
transported around site. surface of the pipes, which will affect
jointing.
When moving 6m lengths of pipe, use Pipes should be kept reasonably
2 men to carry them. clean i.e. not left on the floor or in the
When moving 3m lengths of pipe, mud.
one man can carry the pipe, but he
must hold the pipe in the centre, high Storing fittings.
enough from the ground to prevent INSTAFLEX fittings are usually
it from scuffing. Do not drag pipes provided in sealed plastic bags. The
across the floor. fittings should be kept in these bags
until they are required. This will keep
Small sizes may be coiled to make the fittings clean and prevent them
transporting easier. Do not leave the from being damaged.
pipes coiled for long periods of time
as this can lead to a permanent bow.
Care should be taken to ensure
the pipes do not come into contact
with any sharp objects as this may
damage the pipes surface.
When mechanical handling is used,
metal hooks must not come into
direct contact with the pipes.

Storing pipes.
INSTAFLEX pipes can develop a
permanent bow if stored incorrectly.
This will make pipes difficult to install.
INSTAFLEX should be stored flat at
all times (not vertically or allowed to
sag).

INSTAFLEX should be stored on a soft


surface, like wood (clean scaffolding
boards), this will prevent the pipes
being scratched while they are stored
and when they are withdrawn for
use.

Pipes should be stored in neat stacks.


Pipes of different sizes should be
stacked separately. Where this is
not possible, larger pipes should be
stacked on the bottom.

8.62 GEORGE FISCHER


COSHU Regulations for cleaning fluid
Date of issue: September 1995 GEORGE FISCHER SALES LIMITED
Paradise Way, Coventry CV2 2ST
Tel 02476 535535 Fax 02476 530450/1
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

Hazard Data Sheet


The Product: Tangit KS Reiniger (Special Cleaner)
Cleaner based on Ethanol.
Declaration according 91/155/EEC:
90% Ethanol
Symbol: F
R-Phrases: 11
CAS No. 64-17-5
Hazards: R11 highly flammable
The solvents contained in the product evaporate during
drying time and the vapours may form explosive highly
inflammable vapour-air mixtures.

First Aid Procedures:

Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. Intensive inhalation: remove to fresh


air, give oxygen, seek medical advice in hospital.
Skin contact: Rinse with running water and soap. Skin care. Remove
contaminated clothes.
Eye contact: Immediately flush eyes with copious amounts of running 8
water (for 10 minutes), put on a bandage with sterile
gauze, see an oculist.
Ingestion: Flush oral cavity, drink plenty of water, see a physician.

Fire Fighting measures:



Do not inhale combustion gases

Extinguishing media: Suitable for all regular extinguishing materials. In case of


fire, cool endangered containers with water spray.

Extinguishing media which must not be used for safety reasons: none known.

Special exposure hazards arising from the product itself, from combustion
products or from resulting gases: can form explosive gas-air mixtures.

Special protective equipment for firefighters: wear protective equipment. Wear


self-contained breathing apparatus.

Accidental release measures:


Personal precautions: Ensure adequate ventilation. Keep away ignition sources.
Wear protective equipment.

Environmental precautions: Do not allow to enter drainage system, surface or


ground water.

Methods of cleaning up/removing: Remove with liquid absorbing material


(sand, peat, sawdust). Dispose of contaminated material as waste - see
Disposal considerations.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.63


Handling and Storage:
Handling: Ventilate working rooms thoroughly. Avoid naked flames,
sparking and sources of ignition. Switch off electrical
devices. Do not smoke. Do not weld. Do not empty waste
into waste water drains.
Avoid open flames and sources of ignition. No smoking.
Storage: Ensure adequate ventilation. Close the container carefully
after use and store it at a good ventilated place. Store
protected from heat influence. Store at temperatures under
50C. Store only in the original container.
Do not store together with edibles or other consumable
substances.
Storage class: VCI-storage Class: 3A (BRD)

Exposure Controls/Personal Protection:


Information on the system design: Ensure for good ventilation/suction. Draw off
vapours directly at the point of generation and exit. In the case of regular
work, provide bench mounted extraction equipment.

Components with specific control parameters:


Ethanol
CAS No. 64-17-5
MAK 1000ppm (1900mg/m3)

Personal protection; Do not breathe dust and vapours. Avoid skin contact.
Do not eat, drink or smoke while working. Avoid
alcohol consumption when working with the product.
Wash hands before work breaks and after finishing
work.

Respiratory protection: When processing large amounts wear suitable


breathing mask when there is inadequate ventilation.
Hand protection: Solvent proof protective gloves
Eye protection: Wear protective glasses in the event of spray hazard
Skin protection: Suitable protective clothing.

Physical and Chemical Properties:


Physical state: Liquid
Colour Colourless
Odour Alcohol-like
pH Not applicable
Boiling Point 78C
Flash Point + 12C Abel Pensky
Autoflammability: Product is not self-igniting
Limits of explosion: Lower 1 .8 Vol % Upper 19 Vol % (literature)
Vapour pressure: (20C) 58 mbar (highest partial vapour pressure)
Relative density: (20C) 0.789 g/cm3
Solubility: (20C) miscible in water
Viscosity: Watery
Ignition temperature + 425C DIN 51794

8.64 GEORGE FISCHER


Stability and Reactivity:
Conditions to avoid: No decomposition if used according to specification
Materials to avoid: None known is used for its intended purpose
Hazardous decomposition products: None if used for intended purpose

Toxicological information:
Inhalation: The toxicity of the product is due to its narcotic
effect after inhalation. Injuries to health cannot be
excluded after longer or repeated exposure.

Ecological Information:
Based on the components contained in the product and/or structurally
comparable substances the following ecological data are to be expected:

Persistence
and Degradability The material is degraded quickly. The total of the
organic substances contained in the product reach
at least 60% BOD28/COD in the closed bottle test
or at least 70% DOC removal in the modified OECD
screening test. (OECD limits for classification readily
biodegradable; at least 60% BOD28/COD resp.
at least 70% DOC).

Aquatic Toxicity Acute fish toxicity: EC50 100 mg prod./1 (golden


orfe, DIN 38412T15 or zebra fish, ISO 7346)
Acute bacterial toxicity: EC50 100 mg prod.1 8
(oxygen consumption test with Ps. putida)
Keep from entering waste water, soil or surface
waters.

Disposal Considerations:
Special waste incineration with the approval of the responsible local authority.
Only emptied packages with traces of dried product and without solvent
vapours are to go for recycling.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.65


Regulatory information:
Classification and labelling according to Hazardous Materials Statutes:

Symbols of danger:
F Highly flammable
R-Phrases:
R11 Highly flammable
Further advice:
R18 In use, may form flammable/explosive
vapour-air mixture
S-phrases:
S2 Keep out of reach of children
S7 Keep container tightly closed
S16 Keep away from sources of ignition no
smoking
S23 Do not breathe vapour
S29 Do not empty into drains
S46 If swallowed seek medical advice
immediately and show this
container or label
Further Advice:
S37/39 Wear suitable gloves and eye/face
protection
S51 Use only in well ventilated areas.

Other information:
This information is based on our current level of knowledge and relates to the
product in the state in which it is delivered. It is intended to describe put
products from the point of view of safety requirements and is not intended to
guarantee any particular properties.

For further information contact:


01606 593933 - Manufacturer - Henkel Home
Improvement & Adhesive Products
02476 535535 - Distributor - George Fischer Sales
Limited

8.66 GEORGE FISCHER


Safety considerations for machinery
Comply with the requirements of the Electric wiring to the apparatus
current health and safety as work The electric wiring between the
act. At all times, when using any job-site distribution board and
machinery. the apparatus must be achieved
If you notice a problem attend to it using H07RN-F or similar abrasion
yourself or point it out to a supervisor and chemical-resistant cables; any
to have it attended to. extension leads must be made of
the same type of cable and have a
conductor cross-section suited to the
Safety recommendations power output of the apparatus, or
When using all plastic pipe welding
preferably greater according to the
apparatus, tools, the fundamental
length of the extension lead.
premises for reducing the risk of
.
accident are careful and scrupulous
The cables must not be laid in areas
handling and compliance with
traversed by vehicles or pedestrians
the instructions for their use and
in order to avoid their being
with current accident prevention
damaged and becoming potentially
regulations.
dangerous; when this is unavoidable,
special protection must be provided
Negligence and failure to
against mechanical damage or
comply with accident prevention
accidental contact with job-site
regulations can cause accidents at
machinery. The direct laying of cables
work.
underground is to be avoided: in
such cases heavy-duty PVC cable
Electric wiring to the power supply 8
ducts must be used.
The electrical distribution board
where the apparatus is to be
Earthing
connected must be of the ASC type
There must be a single earthing
and therefore comply with the safety
connection for the whole job-site:
requirements of the CEI 17-13/1 and
the earthing resistance value must
17-13/4 standards; in particular, it
be suited to the protection devices
contain one or more highly sensitive
used and must ensure that no metal
differential circuit-breakers that are
part liable to come into contact with
triggered within 0.4 sec in the event
an electric conductor can reach an
of dispersions to earth, so as to
electric potential in excess of 25 V.
protect the operator of the apparatus
The earthing system must be
in the event of direct or indirect
prepared and tested by qualified
contact with any live parts (e.g. in the
staff and the installation must
case of a faulty earthing connection),
be reported to the authorities
plus thermal and magneto-thermal
concerned.
protection devices sized according to
It is only when the standards for a
the output of the equipment requiring
proper earthing system have been
protection (fig.1).
complied with that Class I apparatus
Power takeoffs and their relevant
can be considered safe from the
protection devices must be identified
point of view of the risk of electric
by means of suitably worded stickers.
shock.
The power takeoffs on the distribution
board must have a protection rating
of at least IP 44 (fig.2).

GEORGE FISCHER 8.67


Recommendations for the proper use and storage of
electrical apparatus:

To reduce the risks (of electric shock) to a minimum, the apparatus must be used
and stored properly: in particular:-

Avoid using temporary power in ship-yards or in areas surrounded by


connections that have not been metal, make sure that the equipment is
made in compliance with the powered by means of a SELV (Security
standard requirements. Extra Low Voltage 48v) system or through
electrical separation with added
Always avoid physical contact equipotential link.
with any live parts.
Check at least once a month that the
Do not disconnect the plug from differential circuit-breaker trips
the socket by pulling on the cable. properly.

Do not drag, carry or lift the Get the earthing system checked by
apparatus by means of the cable. qualified staff.

Do not step on the cable or stand Clean the apparatus carefully,


heavy or sharp objects, or objects paying particular attention to ensure
at a temperature which may be that the substances used are suitable
critical for the resistance of the and cannot damage the insulation
insulation (70C) on the cable. do not use solvents, petrol or
abrasive .
It is absolutely forbidden to use
electrical apparatus in wet areas: Store all the electrical equipment in a
ensure that gloves, shoes, any dry place and out of the reach of
protective gear and the apparatus persons unauthorized to use the
itself are always dry. apparatus.

Do not spray water or any other Avoid using electrical apparatus in


liquids in the direction of the the presence of inflammable gases,
apparatus. steam, fumes or dust unless the
apparatus involved carries the
Periodically (of after any abnormal special symbol certifying that it has
situation) check the insulation of been designed and made with
the electric cable and all the specific materials and methods which
insulated parts of the apparatus; make it explosion-proof.
bear in mind that any infiltration of
dirt combined with a high degree On completion of the welding jobs,
of humidity turns materials which or during interruptions, make sure
were originally valid electrical that the apparatus is disconnected
insulators into conductors from the power supply (by means of
an omnipolar circuit breaker with
Check the conditions of the cable suitable electrical contacts or by
insulation, especially in line with disconnecting the plug from the
the fair lead and cable grip, or in power supply socket).
any other places liable to
particular mechanical strain. Before operating the apparatus
again, make sure that it has not been
Avoid using the apparatus in damaged or man-handled in such a
critical environmental conditions way as to make it dangerous to use.
(e.g. extreme temperatures, high
relative humidity, lightning etc.) It is only when the above
recommendations and current
If the apparatus is used in restricted regulations (particularly the CEI
spaces, with a high level of humidity, standards 64-8 and 64-8/7 (fig

8.68 GEORGE FISCHER


5), 17-13/1 and 17-13/4) have
been scrupulously complied with
the necessary steps will have
been taken to prevent accidents
at work. It is always advisable for
specialized personnel to provide
an accurate training, information
and updating of the operators of
electrical appliances.

What to avoid doing into contact with the apparatus and


Do not use tools or machines with thus place the operator at risk (of
housing or grips that are cracked electric shock).
or deformed, particularly if they are
made of plastic; any dirt and damp Avoid using the machine or
penetrating in cracks can carry apparatus in the presence of
electricity, consequently causing an inflammable or explosive liquids
electric shock if there is any damage or mixtures (Class C1 and C3Z1
to the insulation of the machine or areas) as this could cause an
apparatus. outbreak of fire or an explosion,
with the consequent risk of injury for
Avoid accidentally turning on the the operator and damage to the
machine surrounding environment.
Before connecting it to the power
supply, make sure that the machine If a crane is used for transporting
and all its accessories are switched or positioning the machine inside 8
off. an excavation, make sure that the
machine is well attached by means
Avoid working in dangerous of hooks, belts or ropes suited to the
environments weight of the apparatus (check the
In the event of having to use the weight of the machine); should the
machine in an excavated pit, make machine drop, even from not very
sure that the walls of the excavation high, it could injure the operator
are properly supported by means (by squashing him) and damage
of stays or barriers to avoid any the apparatus. In any case, avoid
earth or stones falling away and standing or working under the
damaging the machine and any of suspended machine (fig. 6).
its component parts or creating a
hazard to the operator. In the event of having to work on job-
sites in the vicinity of water or other
In the event of welding liquids, or alongside barges, boats,
operations in narrow spaces (e.g. ships or the like, it is compulsory to
excavations, pits, boiler rooms, use low-voltage (48 V) machinery
etc.) it is essential for the operator and equipment in order to safeguard
to be supervised by somebody the operator from the risk of electric
on the outside; also make sure that shock.
inside the pit there is no infiltration of
water or other fluids that might come

GEORGE FISCHER 8.69


Do not perform welding on pipes Tel: 024 7653 5535.
which contain or have previously Use suitable working clothing
contained materials which, in (fig.7)
combination with heat, give off Do not wear baggy clothing or
explosive or toxic gases that would jewellery, as these can become
prove dangerous for the operator. caught up in moving parts of the
machine and become a hazard to
Fumes and gases that are inevitably the operator.
caused by the welding process
may become dangerous if they are The operator must always wear:
breathed in over a period of time,
so it is advisable to provide suitable protective gloves, mittens or
ventilation in the working area; if other suitable means for
this is impossible, it is compulsory to protecting his hands
provide breathing apparatus and a
supply of air or adopt other methods anti-accident footwear
to enable proper breathing and suitable for use on the job-site
ventilation in the working area.
a boiler suit or work overalls
Avoid working with the machine in
environments saturated with fumes Avoid keeping any rags or other
from varnishes, de-greasers, fuels items hanging from pockets as they
or the like, irritation to the eyes could become caught up in the
and respiratory tract are the first moving machine tools and prove
symptoms of intoxication; in such dangerous for the operator.
cases, it is essential to stop the work Avoid wearing loose belts or shoes
and provide better ventilation of the with the laces undone as these could
working area. become caught up in moving parts of
the machine and prove a danger for
Do not place the equipment in areas the operator.
which are particularly dirty or dusty.
The operator should not have long
Maintenance of tools hair or a long beard to avoid the risk
Sharp, clean tools produce better of getting caught up in the moving
results and are safer to use. parts if the machine; alternatively,
Immediately replace any worn, operators must use appropriate
broken or lost parts; it is not protective coverings which safely
permitted to use a machine with contain their hair or beard.
components which are either no
longer capable of functioning Keeping the work place clean and
properly or missing; worn, broken or tidy
lost components can be a source of Untidy and dirty work places and
danger to the operator: the machine work benches are not only a sign
could suddenly fail, placing the of inefficiency, but also a source of
safety of the surrounding environment accident; it is essential to keep the
at risk. work place clean and tidy.

Check that the accessories are Mud and grease could cause the
coupled safely to the machine: if a tools being used to slip, with a
clamp or reduction fitting is not well consequent risk of injury for the
attached to the machine, it could operator; it is essential to provide
drop (together with the pipe) as a clean resting surfaces, such as panels
result of the welding process. or tables of some kind, which will give
For any replacement operations, use protection from dirt; it is essential
only spares which can be obtained to make sure that the surface on
through George Fischer Sales Ltd. which the machine is operated

8.70 GEORGE FISCHER


has the necessary stability to Always remove the plug from
guarantee the performance of the socket when the jointing
good-quality welding and avoid operation has been completed
the danger of it toppling over, as
this would be a source of danger Never touch the heating
for the operator (squashing or other surfaces of the heaterplate
injury) and would cause damage to with bare hands, to check the
the machine parts. temperature (during tests), use
only temple sticks or special
Keep visitors away contact thermometers .
Keep visitors at a safe distance from
the work place: outsiders coming The basic machine
close to the machine may obstruct Check that the pipes and/or fittings
the work in progress and become to be welded are securely locked
a danger to themselves and to the in place so that the welding can
operator. be done with the utmost precision,
without the risk of the parts falling
USE GLOVES Make sure that the job-sites where out, which would be hazardous for
work is in progress are protected and the operator.
HIGH suitably signposted, as required by
TEMPERATURE accident prevention regulations, so During the welding process, the
as to impede access to unauthorized operator must have enough work
ELECTRICITY persons (fig.8). space around the machine so that
Make sure that the barriers used no part of their body comes into
to prevent access to visitors on the accidental contact with the machine.
job-site are at a sufficient distance
to guarantee the safe transit of any Attached to the machine is a table
indicating all the risks for which it
8
passers-by.
Always avoid the machine being is impossible to provide adequate
used by untrained staff (fig.9). safety precautions during the design
stage (fig. 10).
ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL RISKS
AND SAFETY MEASURES GEORGE FISCHER CANNOT
The machines must be used only by TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR
trained staff; the use of the machine ANY DAMAGE TO PERSONS
by unqualified staff may place both OR PROPERTY THAT ARE
the operator and the surrounding CAUSED BY FAILURE TO READ
environment in danger. AND COMPLY WITH THIS
The operator takes up the position MANUAL BY AUTHORIZED OR
in front of the machines and must UNAUTHORIZED STAFF.
always have a full view of the
operations being performed.

The heater plate


The heating element can reach
temperatures of about 300C; it is
essential to take the utmost care in its
handling and to rigidly comply with
the following recommendations:

Use protective gloves

Always grasp the heater


exclusively by means of the
grips provided.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.71


On the basis of an analysis of the use of the machine, together with an
technical features of the welding evaluation of the risk, a description
machines in terms of the aspects of the safety device provided at the
of machines safety and operation, design stage and any particular
the following table has been drawn indications on the machine or
up to indicate each type of danger supplementary information.
deriving inevitably from the proper

Danger Risk evaluation


Electrocution (electric shock) moderate risk with a low probability
of occurrence

Squashing between clamps mild risk with a low probability of


occurrence

Squeezing between carriages moderate risk with a low probability


of occurrence

Burning due to fire or explosion severe risk with a very low


probability of occurrence

Scorching due to contact with moderate risk with a modest


the thermoplate probability of occurrence

Getting caught up in the machines mild risk with a low probability of


moving parts occurrence

Squashing due to falling machine mild risk with a low probability of


occurrence

Safety device or warning signal Supplementary information

Highly-sensitive differential See safety recommendations


circuit-breaker

Warning signs attached to machine Analysis of danger
(see Fig. 10) See safety recommendations

Warning signs attached to machine ( Analysis of danger


see Fig. 10)

Suitable clothing See safety recommendations

Tripod support See safety recommendations

8.72 GEORGE FISCHER


Operational tests and
ordinary maintenance
Before proceeding with welding
operations, perform the following
tests, making any necessary
adjustments to the machine.

Check that the rated voltage for the


machine and all its component parts
corresponds to the mains power
supply.

The machines sliding-carriages and


heaterplatess guides must always be
kept clean.

With each welding cycle, clean


the non-stick surfaces of the heater
bushes at working temperature, using
soft paper soaked in spirit (use heat
resistant gloves).

Check the quality of the Teflon-


coated surface on the sockets; any
deep or severely scored surfaces are
not permitted. 8

Check the proper operation of the


thermostat by measuring the surface
temperature of the sockets with a
contact thermometer.

Check the locking capacity of the


clamp jaws.

If any defects are detected in any


one or more of the above aspects,
it is essential to call George Fischer
Sales Ltd. Tel 024 7653 5535 for
advice.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.73


Section 9 Common faults in fusion jointing
The purpose of this section is to
illustrate typical common faults which
can occur when fusing INSTAFLEX
joints. This will enable corrective
action to be taken to prevent the
re-occurrence of these faults and
therefore maintain a high quality of
workmanship and avoid problems in
the future.
External view of perfect joint
Perfect Joint
Firstly we should identify what is a
perfect joint. Externally there should
be two roughly even beads of P.B. at
the junction of the pipe and the fitting
and the insertion mark should be
clearly visible.
Internally there should be a sharp
pipe edge and a small even bead of
material, which does not exceed the
Internal view of perfect joint visible pipe wall thickness

Over Insertion
This is caused when jointing the pipe
is inserted too far into the heater
bush and/or too far into the fitting.
In both cases the insertion mark on
the outside of the pipe will have
disappeared.

Over insertion If the pipe is inserted too far into the


- no mark visible heating bush it may cause the end
of the pipe to melt inwards, this will
result in even amount of intrusion
around the pipe bore.
If the pipe is inserted too far into the
fitting, it will cause the small bead of
material inside the fitting to intrude
into the pipe bore.

Over insertion will not mean that a


Over insertion joint will leak, it will simply interfere
- intruding into pipe bore with fluid flow. If only a few of these
occur it will have no noticeable effect
on fluid flow. It becomes a problem
if this is a regular occurrence when it
may reduce fluid flow rates.

The solution is to keep to the insertion


markings visible when making a joint.

Keep insertion mark visible

8.74 GEORGE FISCHER


If making a joint with the fusion
jointing machine ensure the depth
dial is correctly adjusted for the
appropriate pipe size being jointed.

Check depth dial.

Under Insertion
This occurs in the fusion process when
the pipe is not inserted far enough
into the heater bush and/or too little
into the fitting.
In both cases the insertion mark on
the outside of the pipe will be over
3mm away from the fitting.
Under insertion - mark short If the pipe is not inserted far enough
of fitting. into the heating bush, but is inserted
its full distance into the fitting, there
will only be one bead of excess P.B.
on the outside of the fitting.

If the pipe is inserted the correct


distance into the heater bush, but not 8
far enough into the fitting (or not held
firmly in place during the holding
time). There will be a grove between
Under insertion of pipe into the 2 beads of molten material of the
heater bush. pipe and fitting.

Under insertion will not always mean


a pipe will leak straight away. It
will probably mean a joint has a
reduced life expectancy, this will be
proportional to the degree of under
insertion.

The solution is to check the fusion


Under insertion of pipe into mark is only 12 mm short of the
fitting. heater bushes when fusing the pipe.
And about 2-3 mm short of the fitting
when joining the pipe.

It is important to maintain the


pressure on the pipe and fitting for
the duration of the holding time.

Check the pipe size dial on the


bench mounted fusion machine is
Keep holding the pipe and
fitting together during the correctly set for the appropriate pipe
jointing time. size being joined since this dictates
the insertion depth.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.75


Under chamfering
This is where insufficient P.B. is peeled
away from the INSTAFLEX pipe
when it is chamfered. Sometimes the
chamfer can be uneven (less P.B. is
Leads to excess PB in
taken from one side of the pipe than
Under chamfering.
fitting the other).
After fusion jointing there is excess
and often uneven build up of molten
P.B. inside the pipe.
This will not cause a joint to leak. It
will simply interfere with flow of fluid
to a small degree. It should have no
overall effect on fluid flow throughout
a system.
The solution is to chamfer the pipe
Chamfer to 1/2 wall slightly deeper, until the pipe wall is
thickness
half of its original thickness.

Over chamfering
This is where excessive P.B. is peeled
away from the INSTAFLEX pipe when
it is chamfered.
After fusion jointing there is no
discernable P.B. molten bead within
Over chamfering No bead within the the pipe.
fitting
Over chamfering will not result in
instant leaks within the pipes. It may
reduce the life expectancy and
strength of the joint.
The solution is to chamfer the pipe a
little less, so the end of the pipe after
chamfering appears to have a wall
thickness half of the original thickness.
Chamfer to 1/2 wall
thickness Over heating
This is usually where INSTAFLEX is left
in the heating bushes for too long, or
the heater plate is running at too high
a temperature.
It can be seen that the pipe wall
within the fitting it no longer smooth
and round because it has started to
collapse.
Over heating will not normally
cause a joint to leak. It will simply
Over heating causes interfere with fluid flow. It may
the pipe to collapse become a problem if this is a regular
occurrence, as it could reduce fluid
flow rates.
Check the temperature of the heater
bush with the temple sticks, to see if it
is running too hot. If it is turn it down.
Allow 5 minutes to cool and re-check.
Check the tempera- Adjust temperature if If it is not, check the timer is set at
ture necessary

8.76 GEORGE FISCHER


the correct time for size of pipe and
fitting.
If both of the above are correct, you
may be inserting and withdrawing
the pipe too slowly, resulting in the
Check timer & pipe You may need to speed ends being in the bushes too long.
size chart up the insertion Try and speed up the insertion and
withdrawal process a little and see if
this improves the joint quality.

Under heating
This usually occurs where INSTAFLEX
is not heated long enough in the
heater bushes. It can also occur when
Under heated fitting -
the heater plate is not hot enough.
The bead is too small It should be noticed during assembly
that it is more difficult that normal
to push the molten pipe and fitting
together.

The bead that normally occurs on the


outside of the pipe will be smaller.
If only the fitting is heated and not
the pipe (or visa versa) there will only
be one molten bead. The bushes may
Single bead fitting or pipe
not be tight enough on the heater
not heated at all plate. These fitting will always fail. 8
Under heating will frequently
cause a joint to leak. If you think
a fitting and pipe is under heated,
dont risk it, throw it away and try
again.
Check heater is Check the bush is tight
switched on Check there is still power to the
heater plate (i.e. the power on
red light will be on and the green
thermostat light will be flicking on
and off.) Check all connections and
switch back on.

Check the allen key bolt, securing the


bushes, is fully tightened to ensure
there is good conductivity between
Check heater bush tempera- the heater plate and bushes. Check
ture the temperature of the bushes,
with the temple sticks. Adjust the
temperature if necessary, wait 5
minutes to heat up.
If all of the above were OK, check
the timer is set for the correct time for
the pipe size being jointed.

If none of the above are wrong,


contact George Fischer Sales Ltd Tel:
Adjust temperature if neces- 02476 535335 for advice.
sary

GEORGE FISCHER 8.77


Excessive residue on the bushes
This usually occurs on old and
worn bushes, or dirty bushes, but
it can occur if the pipe/fitting are
withdrawn too fast.
If the bushes are old and worn,
contact George Fischer Tel:
02476 535535, and arrange for
replacement /recoated bushes.
Dirty bushes
If the bushes are dirty, clean them
thoroughly with spirit and a lint free
cloth wrapped around a pencil.

Withdrawing the pipe too quickly,


is a common problem when partly
trained staff are becoming familiar
with hand held fusion jointing. They
have to take more care to withdraw
the fitting more gradually. This will
Clean bushes thoroughly
come with experience. Until then the
bushes must be thoroughly cleaned
between every joint.
Sometimes withdrawing the pipe and
fitting too fast will leave P.B. in the
bush and create a web P.B. strands.
Ignore this, and quickly re-join the
pipe and fitting as normal. (The P.B.
web of strands will re-melt in the
molten joint and not effect the joint
quality). More gradual withdrawal
of pipe and fitting is required. Clean
excess residue from the pipe and
fittings.
This will not cause joints to fail in
the short or long term. It will simply
take more time to clean the bushes
between each joint. If the bushes are
not cleaned properly between each
joint and residue is left on the bushes
this could cause long term problems
with dirty joints see the section below.

Dirty joints
Dirty joints are visible after a joint has
been made because the external and
internal beads of molten P.B. will be
slightly or noticeably brown.
Dirty joints are an indication that a
residue of P.B. is being left on the
Dirty joints are visible exter- bushes after each joint (this is not
nally always noticeable at a glance). This
P.B. residue is then baking on the hot
bushes and turning brown or even
black.

8.78 GEORGE FISCHER


When the next joint is made the
baked P.B. is sticking to the molten
P.B. and becoming trapped in
between the joint.
Dirty joints are weaker joints and
they may take weeks or even months
before they fail.
As soon as it is noticed that joints are
Dirty joints are visible inter- slightly brown, the bushes must be
nally cleaned thoroughly with spirit and
lint free cloth wrapped around a
pencil.
If the above does not prevent the
problem, then replace the bushes
with new /recoated bushes. Contact
George Fischer Sales Ltd. Tel: 02476
535335.

Misalignment
This usually occurs with hand held
Clean bushes thoroughly
joints. As they are brought together
sometimes it is difficult to bring the
pipe exactly into the centre of the
joint.

This is noticeable within the fitting


by a small amount of extra material 8
occurring on one side of the pipe.

Slight misalignment when This will not cause a joint to leak. It


bringing pipe and fittings will simply interfere with fluid flow
together to a small degree. It should have no
overall effect on fluid flow through a
system.
Note:
It is far more important to ensure
that the two molten surfaces
of pipe and fitting are brought
together quickly rather than to
spend time trying to get the joint
alignment perfect when they
should be cooling down.
Aligned joints will become easier
Check alignment from two for installer, the more joints they
plains from the top and from make by hand.
the front. Slight misalignment
can be corrected during the
holding time During the hold time, there is a time
to ensure the pipe and fitting are
straight compared to each other. This
is done visually in 2 plains. From the
front and from the top. The pipes can
be moved slightly, when soft to bring
them into alignment. But they must
not be twisted.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.79


If pipes are misaligned when being
joined on the bench mounted fusion
machine this could be due to:
The clamps may be loose, check and
tighten the bolts. If they are not loose
check the clamps are in the correct
position as detailed in the section for
setting up the bench mounted fusion
Misaligned bench mounted machine.
fusion joint
Uneven fusion bead around the
pipe and fitting
With a hand held tool. This is usually
because the pipe and/or fitting is
being held in the fusion tool at an
angle (i.e. not at 90 to the face of
the heater tool). This will heat the
pipe and/or fitting too much on one
side.
Misaligned bench mounted
fusion joint This will not cause a joint to leak or
affect its life expectancy. It is simply a
poor appearance.

This can be overcome by holding the


pipe and fitting straight in the fusion
tool. Often it will help if the pipe is
supported through its length by pipe
supports to the same height as the
fusion tool.

Uneven fusion joint

With the bench mounted fusion


machine. An uneven bead is normally
the result of over tightening of the
pipe clamp or fitting clamp. This will
cause areas where the bead is thick
and areas where the bead is thin.
This will not normally cause leaks,
only if there is no bead in the areas
which should have a thin bead. It
can be resolved by not tightening the
clamps as much next time.

8.80 GEORGE FISCHER


With the bench mounted fusion
machine. If the bead is more on one
side than the other, it is likely that the
pipe clamps are loose on the slide.

Check and tighten the bolts. If they


are not loose, check the clamps are
in the correct position as detailed in
the section for setting up the bench
mounted fusion machine.

Please Note.

If you continue to have difficulties 8


please contact the George Fischer
Sales Office who will be able to
provide further advise.

GEORGE FISCHER 8.81


INSTAFLEX Installation
Quick Reference Guide
For full details refer to full INSTAFLEX Training Manual

Socket Fusion Jointing


1 . Chamfer pipe ends
2. Clean pipe & fittings
3. Check heater bushes temperature
4. Check and clean heater bushes
5. Set timer to correct heating time
6. Mark fusion depth with gauge
7. Make joint but Do Not Twist after insertion only
adjust for squareness
8. Hold pipe & fitting together for required holding time
9. Carefully put pipe and fitting down for cooling time

For 16 to 110mm Pipe & Fittings


Polybutylene (PB) Socket Fusion Jointing
Pipe outside Wall thickness Welding Heating Holding Cooling
diameter minimum length time time time
o.d. (mm) mm L (mm) t (sec) t1 (sec) t2 (min)
16 2.0 15 6 15 4
20 2.0 15 7 15 4
25 2.3 18 7 15 4
32 3.0 20 10 20 4
40 3.7 22 14 20 4
50 4.6 25 18 30 4
63 5.8 28 22 30 6
75 6.8 31 26 60 6
90 8.2 36 30 75 6
110 10.0 42 35 90 6

8.82 GEORGE FISCHER


Notes

GEORGE FISCHER 8.83


Notes

8.84 GEORGE FISCHER


Approvals in Europe

Keuringsinstituut
voor waterleidingartikelen
Kiwa nv

2




DVGW
 
Deutscher Verein des Gas-
und Wasserfaches e. V.

 
sterreichische Vereinigung
fr das Gas- und Wasserfach


 

SVGW
Schweiz. Verein des Gas-
und Wasserfaches
SSIGE
Socit Suisse de lindustrie
du Gaz et des Eaux

SOCOTEC
DIRECTION TECHNIQUE
Dpartement des
Equipements Techniques

The comprehensive INSTAFLEX


approvals in the respective countries
include: AGREMENT TECHNISCHE
TECHNIQUE GOEDKEURING
compression joints from 16 to 63mm AVEC MET
o.d. inclusive,
Sddeutsches CERTIFICATION CERTIFIKAAT

socket fusion joints from 16 to 63mm


Kunststoffzentrum
o.d. inclusive, Officially recognized test
as well as system accessories. institute
for plastics

GEORGE FISCHER 11
2.011
GF Piping Systems > Worldwide at home
Our sales companies and
representatives ensure local
customer support in over 100
countries.

Numerous renowned international companies have years


of good experience with GF Piping Systems. We would
be pleased to demonstrate our competence in providing
reference data on the basis of these real applications.

Please find more information concerning Instaflex:


www.georgefischer.co.uk

The technical data is not binding and not an expressly warranted characteristic of the goods.
It is subject to change. Please consult our General Conditions of Supply.

Australia Denmark / Iceland India Poland Switzerland


George Fischer Pty Ltd Georg Fischer A/S George Fischer Piping Systems Ltd Georg Fischer Sp. z o.o. Georg Fischer Rohrleitungssysteme (Schweiz) AG
Kingsgrove NSW 2008 2630 Taastrup 400 093 Mumbai 02-226 Warszawa 8201 Schaffhausen
Tel. +61(0)2/95 54 39 77 Tel. +45 (0)70 22 19 75 Tel. +91(0)22/820 2362 Tel. +48(0)22/313 10 50 Tel. +41(0)52 631 30 26
sales@georgefischer.com.au info@dk.piping.georgfischer.com branchoffice@georgefischer.net www.georgfischer.pl info@rohrleitungssysteme.georgfischer.ch
www.georgefischer.com.au www.georgfischer.dk www.piping.georgfischer.ch

Austria France Italy Romania United Kingdom / Ireland


Georg Fischer George Fischer S.A.S. Georg Fischer S.p.A. Georg Fischer George Fischer Sales Limited
Rohrleitungssysteme GmbH 93208 Saint-Denis Cedex 1 20063 Cernusco S/N (MI) Rohrleitungssysteme AG Coventry, CV2 2ST
3130 Herzogenburg Tl. +33(0)1/492 21 34 1 Tel. +3902/921 861 70000 Bucharest - Sector 1 Tel. +44(0)2476 535 535
Tel. +43(0)2782/856 43-0 info@georgefischer.fr office@piping.georgfischer.it Tel. +40(0)1/222 91 36 info@georgefischer.co.uk
office@georgfischer.at www.georgefischer.fr www.georgfischer.it office@georgfischer.ro www.georgefischer.co.uk
www.georgfischer.at

Belgium / Luxembourg Germany Japan Singapore USA / Canada / Latin America / Caribbean
Georg Fischer NV/SA Georg Fischer GmbH Georg Fischer Ltd George Fischer Pte Ltd George Fischer Inc.
1070 Bruxelles/Brssel 73095 Albershausen 556-0011 Osaka, 417 845 Singapore Tustin, CA 92780-7258
Tl. +32(0)2/556 40 20 Tel. +49(0)7161/302-0 Tel. +81(0)6/6635 2691 Tel. +65(0)67 47 06 11 Tel. +1(714) 731 88 00
info.be@be.piping.georgfischer.com info@georgfischer.de info@georgfischer.jp info@georgefischer.com.sg Toll Free 800/854 40 90
www.georgfischer.be www.rls.georgfischer.de www.georgfischer.jp www.georgefischer.com.sg infoship@us.piping.georgefischer.com
www.us.piping.georgefischer.com
Brazil Georg Fischer DEKA GmbH
George Fischer Ltda 35232 Dautphetal-Mornshausen Netherlands Spain / Portugal Export
04795-100 So Paulo Tel. +49(0)6468/915-0 Georg Fischer N.V. Georg Fischer S.A. Georg Fischer Rohrleitungssysteme (Schweiz) AG
Tel. +55(0)11/5687 1311 info@dekapipe.de 8161 PA Epe 28009 Madrid 8201 Schaffhausen
www.dekapipe.de Tel. +31(0)578/678 222 Tel. +34(0)91/781 98 90 Tel. +41(0)52 631 11 11
info.vgnl@nl.piping.georgfischer.com info@georgfischer.es export@piping.georgfischer.com
www.georgfischer.nl www.georgfischer.es www.piping.georgfischer.com
China
Georg Fischer Piping Systems Ltd Shanghai Greece Norway Sweden / Finland
Pudong, Shanghai 201319 Georg Fischer S.p.A. Georg Fischer AS Georg Fischer AB
Tel. +86(0)21/58 13 33 33 10434 Athens 1351 Rud 12523 lvsj-Stockholm
info@cn.piping.georgfischer.com Tel. +30(0)1/882 04 91 Tel. +47(0)67 18 29 00 Tel. +46(0)8/506 77 500
www.cn.piping.georgfischer.com office@piping-georgfischer.gr info@no.piping.georgfischer.com info@georgfischer.se
www.georgfischer.no www.georgfischer.se

LITGF0472 (08.04)
George Fischer Sales Limited