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CHAPTER-I

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE STUDY

There was been much concern today about the decent wages, convenient
working hours, conductive working conditions, etc. There is no generally acceptable
definition about this term Quality of Work life. However, some Attempts were
made to describe the term quality of work life. It refers to the Favorableness or
unfavourableness of a job environment for people.

J. Richard and J. Lay define as the Quality of Work life degree to which
members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personnel needs through
their experience in the organization.

Quality of work life improvements are defined as any activity which takes
place alt every level of an organization, which seeks greater organizational
Effectiveness through the enhancement of human dignity and growth. A process
through which the stock-holders in the organization management, unions and
employees-learn how to work together better to determine for themselves that actions,
changes and improvements are desirable and workable in order to achieve the twin
and simultaneous goals of an improved quality of life at work for all members of the
organization and greater effectiveness for both the company and the unions.

Quality of work life (QWL) is viewed as an alternative to the control approach


of managing people. The QWL approach considers people as an asset to the
organization rather than as costs.

It believes that people perform better when they are allowed to participate in
managing their work and make decisions

Quality of Work Life (QWL) can be defined as an extent to which an


employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the
workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. Louis and Smith (1990)

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research identified the importance of QWL in reducing employee turnover and


employee well-being impacting on the services offered.

Initially, Quality of Work life concept was used only for job redesigning
process by considering social- technical system approach, but gradually this concept
was broadened by considering large interventions. Focusing on improving Quality of
Work life to increase the contentment and satisfaction of employees can result in
various advantages for both employees and organization. Through the effective
implementation of interventions of Quality of Work life such as flexible time, job
enrichment, job enlargement, autonomous work group culture, it is possible to
enhance status of Quality of Work life in employees. These interventions ensure the
full use of a workers potential by assuring greater involvement which makes the
work more effective and efficient by augmenting the quality. Quality of Work life
also provides opportunities for active involvement of employees in decision making
process.

Human resource is an asset to the organization; an unsatisfied employee is the


first enemy of the organization. To sustain in competitive market, organizations have
to maintain skilled employees. Employees have to be treated as an asset not liability
and this is possible only through the humanized job design process, known as Quality
of Work Life.

DEFINITION

Quality of Work life is a way of thinking about people, work and organizations,
distinctive elements are (i) a concern about the impact of work on people as well as on
organizational effectiveness, and (ii) the idea of participation in organizational
problem-solving and decision making. Nadler and Lawler.

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EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Like others concepts, evolution of QWL is also traced back to


various phases in history. One such tracing is done by Walton by turning the pages of
history of the last century. He reports that in early 20th century, legislation was
enacted to protect employees from job injury and to eliminate hazardous working
conditions on the one hand and inauguration of unionization movement, on the other.
Emphasis was given to work related conditions such as job security, due process at
the work place and economic gains for the worker. This was followed by propounding
different theories by psychologists proposing a positive relationship between morale
and productivity.

It was against above background that finally, in the 1970s, the idea
of QWL was conceived. QWL was quite broader in sense and scope than these earlier
stray developments mentioned above. Human values, needs and aspirations were at
the heart of the concept of QWL.

The theories of motivation and leadership propounded by the


behavioral scientists also served as seed bed for the development of the concept of
QWL. To quote Maslow depicted in his well-known theory, Need hierarchy theory of
motivation, the complexity of human nature with regard to needs and their
satisfaction. He says that no sooner the lower order needs are satisfied, people start
seeking satisfaction for higher order needs of their need-hierarchy.

CONSTITUENTS OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Walton lists eights conceptual categories i.e. constituents that


together make up the quality of working life. These are briefly discussed below:

Work Environment:

Working environment is a place in which one works. It is a social


and professional environment in which employees are supposed to interact with a
number of people, and have to work with co-ordination in one or the other way. Safe
and healthy working conditions ensure good health, continuity of services, decreased
bad labor management relations. A healthy worker registers a high productivity.
Employees are cheerful, confident and may prove an invaluable asset to the

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organization if the working environment is good. It consists of safe physical and


mental working situations and determining reasonable working hours.

Organization Culture and Climate:

Organization culture is a set of properties and organization climate is a


collective behavior of people that are part of an organization values, vision, norms etc.
Promotion opportunities, promotion and reward evaluation criteria used are both
under the direct control of an organization and subject to the organization's policies.

Relation and Co-Operation:

Relation and cooperation is a communication between management and


employees, concerning workplace decision, conflicts and problem resolving. Work
and career are typically pursued within the framework of social organization and the
nature of personal relationships becomes an important dimension of Quality of Work
Life. Acceptance of the workers is based on skills, work related traits, abilities and
potential without considering the race, sex, physical appearance, etc.

Training and Development:

Training and development is an organizational activity aimed at bettering the


performance of individual and groups. QWL is ensured by the opportunities provided
by the job for the development of the employees and encouragement given by the
management to perform the job, having good conditions to increase personal
empowerment and skills.

Compensation and Rewards:

Compensation and rewards are motivational factors. The best performer is


given the rewards, and this builds the competitions among the employees to work
hard and to achieve both organizational and individual goals. The economic interests
of employees drive them to work and employee satisfaction dependent to some extent
on the compensation offered. Pay should be fixed on the basis of the work done,
individual skills, responsibilities undertaken, performance and accomplishments.

Facilities:

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Facilities play major role in actualization of the goals and objectives by


satisfying both the physical and emotional needs of the employees. Facilities include
food service, transportation, security, etc. Many employers have found it beneficial to
allow alternate work arrangements for their employees. This is one method to increase
employee productivity and morale. The alternate work arrangements to the employees
include flexible working hours, shorter or no commute, and secure working
environment.

Job Satisfaction and Job Security:

Job satisfaction is the favorableness or un-favorableness with which


employees view their work. Job satisfaction is impacted by job design. Jobs that are
rich in constructive behavioral elements such as work autonomy, task variety,
identity, work significance and feedback etc. contribute to employees satisfaction.

Employees want stability of employment and do not like to be the victims of


whimsical personal policies and stay at the mercy of employers. Job security is
another factor that is of concern to employees. Permanent employment provides
security to the employees and improves their QWL.

Autonomy of Work:

In autonomous work groups, employees are given the freedom of decision


making. Workers themselves plan, co-ordinate and control work related activities. It
also includes different opportunities for personnel such as independency at work and
having the authority to access the related information for their task.

Adequacy of Resources:

Resources should match with stated objectives; otherwise, workforce will not
be competent to achieve the predefined objectives. This results in employee
dissatisfaction and lower QWL. Adequacy of resources has to do with enough time
and equipment, adequate information and help to complete assignments.

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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Factor 1: Remuneration:

The most important factor that emerged out of the analysis is


remuneration. This factor establishes that the most important determinant of the
quality of work life is remuneration. The respondents feel that their pay and perks
should be in proportion to their skill set and knowledge base. They also expect
salaries at par with the prevalent market rate. Further, they also expect to be paid for
overtime and during probation period. Perks like free transport, free accommodation
and provident fund are sought.

Factor 2: Opportunities for personal growth:

With the intense competition in the banking industry, personal


growth and advancement are an important prerequisite to a good quality of work life
in this industry. This factor establishes this argument .After a handsome remuneration,
bank employees in India seek opportunities for personal growth .The variables loaded
on this factor clearly indicate that employees consider training in latest techniques,
skill up gradation and fair appraisal of their performance as important variables
influencing the quality of work life.

Factor 3: Supportive leadership and structures:

In sync with the findings of the study conducted by Runcie in 1980,


the present study also points out a good quality of leadership and streamlined
organizational structures as an important determinant of the quality of work life. All
the six variables loaded on this factor are indicative of the same. Employees are
looking for a clear delineation of their duties, responsibility and authority. They also
appreciate involvement in decision-making, availability of a forum where they can
voice themselves and leniency in case of mistakes made.

Factor 4: Work environment:

The current study reinforces the same. The five variables loaded on
the current factor, clearly indicate that a good work environment improves the quality
of work life. Bank employees in India seek hygienic work conditions, low levels of

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stress, good safety and health policies, equality and dignity of labour. Ensuring that
the work environment provides these to the employees will significantly help in
improving employee morale and hence work satisfaction.

Factor 5: Work life balance:

An individual needs to create an effective balance between his personal and work life.
Ensuring that an employee has adequate leisure time and opportunities to spend
quality time with his family will definitely improve the quality of work life.

MEASURING QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

A) Quality of work life through employee involvement:

One of the most common methods used to create QWL is employee


involvement. Employee involvement (EI) consists of a variety of systematic
methods that empower employees to participate in the decisions that affect them
and their relationship with the organization. Through (EI), employees feel a sense
of responsibility, even ownership of decisions in which they participate. To be
successful, however, EI must be more than just a systematic approach; it must
become part of the organizations culture by being part of managements
philosophy. Some companies have had this philosophy ingrained in their
corporate structure for decades; Hewlett-Packard, IBM, General Motors, Ford, etc.

B) Quality circles:

Quality circles are small groups of employees who meet regularly


with their common leader to identify and solve work-related problems. They are a
highly specific form of team building, which are common in Japan and gained
popularity in North America in the late1970s and early 1980s. By the 1980s most
medium- and large-sized Japanese firms had quality control circles for hourly
employees. This effort began as a quality improvement program but has since
become a routine procedure for many Japanese managers and cornerstone of
QWL efforts in many Japanese firms. Several characteristics make this approach
unique. First, membership in the circle involuntary for both the leader (usually the

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supervisor) and the members (usually hourly workers). Secondly, the creation of
quality circles is usually preceded by in-house training. For supervisors these
sessions typically last for two or three days. Most of the time is devoted.

To discussions of small-group dynamics, leadership skills, and


indoctrination in the QWL and quality circle philosophies. About a day is spent on
the different approaches to problem-solving techniques. The workers also receive
an explanation of the supervisors role as the groups discussion leader and
information on the quality circle concept. Thirdly, as is pointed out in the training,
the group is permitted to select the problems it wants to tackle. Management may
suggest problems of concern, but the group is empowered to decide which ones to
select. Ideally, the selection process is not by democratic vote but is arrived at by
consensus, whereby everyone agrees on the problem to be tackled. When
employees are allowed to select the problems they want to work on, they are
likely to be more motivated to find solutions. And they are also more likely to be
motivated to stay on as members of the circle and solve additional problems in the
future.

C) Socio-technical systems:

Another intervention to improve QWL is the use of socio-technical


systems. Socio-technical systems are interventions in the work situation that
restructure the work, the work groups, and the relationship between workers
and the technologies they use to do their jobs. More than just enlarging or
enriching a job, these approaches may result in more radical changes in the
work environment.

D) Autonomous work group:

A more common, still rare, approach to employee involvement is


the use of autonomous work groups. These are teams of workers, without a formal
company-appointed leader, who decide among themselves most decisions
traditionally handled by supervisors. The key feature of these groups is a high
degree of self-determination by employees in the management of their day-to-day
work. Typically this includes collective control over the pace of work, distribution
of tasks, organization of breaks, and collective participation in the recruitment and

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training of new members. Direct supervision is often necessary. QWL is more


likely to improve as workers demand jobs with more behavioural elements. These
demands will probably emerge from an increasingly diverse and educated work
force that expects more challenges and more autonomy in its jobs such as worker
participation indecisions traditionally reserved for management.

NATURE AND SCOPE OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Quality of work life is the quality of relationship between employees and total
working environment.

A Great Place to work is where You Trust the people you work for, have
pride in what you do, and enjoy the people you work with. Quality of work life
represents concern for human dimensions of work and relates to job satisfaction and
organizational development.

THE FOLLOWING ASPECTS IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

1. Recognition of work life issues:

Issues related to work life should be addressed by the Board and other
important officials of the company like why people are not happy, do they need
training, why employee morale is poor and numerous other issues. If these are
addressed properly, they will be able to build, People-Centered Organizations.

2. Commitment to improvement:

QWL can be improved if the staff is committed to improvement in


productivity and performance. This issue can be taken by the board through staff
recognition and support programmers. Board should prepare QWL reports on periodic
basis to boost the system. They can also introduce reward system which will be of
help to them.

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3. Quality of work life teams:

Board members should form the combined team of managers and workers and
all the issues and common themes must be identified.

Work Life Teams = Managers + Staff

All issues must be addressed like loss of morale, lack of trust, increased
intensity of work, reward, recognition etc. and commonly, managers and staff should
arrive at solutions.

4. Training to facilitators:

Both the leader and staff can assess the job requirement and decide jointly
what type of training is required to improve the quality of work life

5. Analyze information from focus group:

After the formation of focus groups and their discussion on different issues
and collection of information, the information should be analyzed to give right
direction to organizational activities.

6. Identify and implement improvement opportunities:

It is important to identify and implement improvement opportunities like


communication, recognition and non-monetary compensation. Improving support
structure, constant review of reward and recognition system etc. would help in
formulating communication strategies, focusing on linkages between managers and
staff

7. Flexible work hours:

The diverse work force of today does not want to work for fixed hours or days.
They want flexibility in their work schedule so that professional and personal life can
be managed together.

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8. Flexibility can improve the Quality of Work life in the following ways:

i. Work for longer hours in a day with less number of working days in a week.

ii. Going to office for fixed hours but in different time slots rather than fixed
working hours. Many companies even provide the flexibility of work from home.

9. Autonomy to work:

Delegation is an essential element of organization structure. People want


freedom to work in their own way, in terms of forming teams and making decisions.
If they are allowed to do so, it enhances the QWL. An organization with high quality
of work life is an organization that promotes and maintains a work environment that
results in excellence in everything it does by ensuring open communication, respect,
recognition, trust, support, wellbeing and satisfaction of its members, both, personally
and professionally.

IMPORTANCE OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE:

Many companies find that paying attention to the needs of employees can
benefit the company in terms of productivity, employee loyalty and company
reputation.

Quality of work life is important because of the following reasons,

1. Enhance stakeholder relations and credibility:

A growing number of companies that focus on QWL improve their


relationships with the stakeholders. They can communicate their views, policies, and
performance on complex social issues; and develop interest among their key
stakeholders like consumers, suppliers, employees etc.

2. Increase productivity:

Programmes which help employees balance their work and lives outside the
work can improve productivity. A companys recognition and support through its

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stated values and policies of employees commitments, interests and pressures, can
relieve employees external stress.

This allows them to focus on their jobs during the workday and helps to
minimize absenteeism. The result can be both enhanced productivity and strengthened
employee commitment and loyalty.

3. Attraction and retention:

Work-life strategies have become a means of attracting new skilled employees


and keeping existing ones satisfied. Many job seekers prefer flexible working hours as
the benefit they would look for in their job. They would rather have the opportunity to
work flexible hours than receive an additional increment in annual pay.

More employees may stay on a job, return after a break or take a job with one
company over another if they can match their needs better with those of their
paid work.

This results in savings for the employer as it avoids the cost of losing an
experienced worker and recruiting someone new.

Employers who support their staff in this way often gain loyalty from the staff.

4. Reduces absenteeism:

a. Companies that have family-friendly or flexible work practices have low


absenteeism. Sickness rates fall as pressures are managed better. Employees have
better methods of dealing with work-life conflicts than taking unplanned leave.

b. Workers (including the managers) who are healthy and not over-stressed are
more efficient at work.

5. Improve the quality of working lives

a. Minimizing work-life role conflict helps prevent role overload and people
have a more satisfying working life, fulfilling their potential both in paid work and
outside it.

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b. Work life balance can minimize stress and fatigue at work, enabling people
to have safer and healthier working lives. Workplace stress and fatigue can contribute
to injuries at work and home.

c. Self-employed people control their own work time to some extent. Most
existing information on work-life balance is targeted at those in employment
relationships. However, the self-employed too may benefit from maintaining healthy
work habits and developing strategies to manage work flows which enable them to
balance one with other roles in their lives.

6. Matches people who would not otherwise work with jobs:

a. Parents, people with disabilities and those nearing retirement may increase
their work force participation if more flexible work arrangements are made.
Employment has positive individual and social benefits beyond the financial rewards.

b. Employers may also benefit from a wider pool of talent to draw from,
particularly to their benefit when skill shortages exist.

7. Benefiting families and communities:

a. In a situation of conflict between work and family, one or other suffers.


Overseas studies have found that family life can interfere with paid work. QWL
maintains balance between work and family. At the extreme, if family life suffers, this
may have wider social costs.

b. Involvement in community, cultural, sporting or other activities can be a


benefit to community and society at large. For instance, voluntary participation in
school boards of trustees can contribute to the quality of childrens education.

While such activities are not the responsibility of individual employers, they
may choose to support them as community activities can demonstrate good corporate
citizenship. This can also develop workers skills which can be applied to the work
place.

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8. Job involvement:

Companies with QWL have employees with high degree of job involvement.
People put their best to the job and report good performance. They achieve a sense of
competence and match their skills with requirements of the job. They view their jobs
as satisfying the needs of achievement and recognition. This reduces absenteeism and
turnover, thus, saving organizational costs of recruiting and training replacements.

9. Job satisfaction:

Job involvement leads to job commitment and job satisfaction. People whose
interests are protected by their employers experience high degree of job satisfaction.
This improves job output.

10. Company reputation:

Many organizations, including Governments, NGOs, investors and the media,


consider the quality of employee experience in the work place when evaluating a
company. Socially responsible investors, including some institutional investors, pay
specific attention to QWL when making investment decisions.

SIGNIFICANCE OF GOOD WORK-LIFE QUALITY

1. Decrease absenteeism and increase turnover.

2. Less number of accidents.

3. Improved labor relations.

4. Employee personification.

5. Positive employee attitudes toward their work and the company.

6. Increased productivity and intrinsic motivation.

7. Enhanced organizational effectiveness and competitive advantage.

8. Employees gain a high sense of control over their work.

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PROBLEMS IN IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Though every organization attempts to improve the employer-employee


relations and through it, the quality of work life of employees, problems may occur in
effective implementation of QWL programmes.

These problems may occur because of,

1. Poor reward and recognition:

People will not do their best when they feel that employers commitment in
terms of reward and recognition is lacking. Commitment is a mutual phenomenon.
When employers want to get the best from employees but do not give them reward
and recognition, people will not be committed to work

2. Dead-end jobs:

Work which does not offer opportunities for growth and promotion is one of
the greatest reasons for employees de-motivation and non-commitment. Jobs which
deprive employees of self-development and growth opportunities lead to high
dissatisfaction and disloyalty.

3. Managing by intimidation:

Mistreating people and managing them by threats and embarrassment leads to


employees dissatisfaction and weakens their commitment. In a best seller book The
Loyalty Link Dennis G. Mc Catty has identified managing by intimidation as one of
the seven ways which undermine employees loyalty.

4. Negative working environment:

Non-acceptance by colleagues, non-cooperation, too much politics, and


negative behavior by colleagues, supervisors and other people in the company also
hamper commitment. At the end of the day people want peace of mind, which if not
available in the work environment will discourage them to show total support to the
company.

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5. No job security:

One of the major needs of employees is job security. If the employee feels that
he can lose his job anytime, he would not be committed towards companys goals.

6. Negative attitude:

Some people by nature are not committed to anything and anyone and as such they
would not be committed to their employers also. Commitment is an attitude and those
who lack it will not be committed to their jobs.

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE IN THE INDIAN CONTEXT:

It wont less than correct to mention that, of late, QWL in India has emerged
as a movement it is the v.v.Giri national institute of labor which took an active lead in
familiarizing the concept of QWL in India. Following are the major that led to the
QWL movement in our country:

1.Available evidences indicate that the changing profile of the Indian worker
from an illiterate, rural, low caste individuals to educate, urban and essentially
belonging to upper strata of caste structure has made him/her more concern for own
hopes and aspirations. The blue collar worker for example seems more committed one
duly molded to fit in the emergent social structure of the day.

2. That worker is not just like other factors of production such as machinery,
land, and capital but a human being with feelings and emotions, has made
organization behave with workers accordingly. The establishment of a separate
ministry of human resources development by the government of India is a testimony
to such realization. However the Indian worker is so far deprived of such a position is
reported by Sen. Gupta. Indian worker wish has yet to be duly recognized and
rewarded accordingly.

3. In India around 10 percent of worker in organized sector are unionized. The


past records relating to labor unions lend enough evidence that the unionized work

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force has been much vocal for demands of one type or other. These usually relate their
better working conditions.

4. That human behavior is highly unpredictable and complex underline the


needs for the study of the organizational behavior.QWL is one of the newer concepts
experimenting how to make effective utilization of human resources.

CONCLUSION

Quality of Work life in India seems in practice in a variety of operational


systems like workers participation, job enrichment, quality circles, etc. Here, an
attempt has been made to give an over view of these in terms of their broad coverage
and experiences of Indian organization with them.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The concept of quality of work life (QWL) deals with the issue of how
rewarding or satisfying the time spent in the workplace. As such, QWL may reflect
working conditions and contextual issues such as relationships with work colleagues
and the intrinsic satisfaction of the job itself. A movement focusing on employee
perceptions of job satisfaction and job challenges, health and safety at work, job
fulfillment and working conditions and the balance between work and non-work.

The movement has promoted such things as flextime, autonomy, employee


participation in decision-making, etc. Underlying this use of QWL is the belief that it
enhances employee performance and productivity; however, empirical proof of this
relationship is not conclusive. Quality of working life is dependent on the extent to
which an employee feels valued, rewarded, motivated, consulted, and empowered. It
is also influenced by factors such as job security, opportunities for career
development, work patterns, and work life balance.

Sairam Subramaniam and Saravanan (2012), did research on Empirical


study on factors influencing on quality of work life of commercial bank
employees. This study was conducted in the Coimbatore city of Tamil Nadu, with
the sample size of 100 and it has been collected from 23 branch networks of public
and private sector commercial banks. A structured questionnaire has been
administered to collect data from the respondents by using simple random sampling
techniques. This study laid focus on the factors influencing quality of work life, socio-
economic background of respondents, expectations of employees in the work place.
Simple percentage analysis, factor analysis and chi-square test were used to draw
analysis and inference of the study. This study concluded that the employees were
facing poor work life quality in the work place. Hence banking employees ought to
pay more attention on bringing more work life quality policy and its implementation.

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Shiney Chib (2012), did research on Quality of Work life and


organizational performance at work place of a private manufacturing unit
Nagpur, India through a structured questionnaire containing 31 items related to 6
variables, namely organizational performance, job satisfaction, QWL, wage policy,
company policy and union policy. The researcher has formulated two models, one is
organization performance depends on QWL, Job satisfaction, wage policy, company
policy and union participation and the other one is QWL which depends on
Organization performance., job satisfaction, wage policy, company policy and union
participation. The collected data were analyzed using simple percentage, regression
and correlation analysis. The study reveals that both the models stand true and QWL
had significant relationship with organizational performance.

Natarajan and Annamalai (2011) did research on A Study on Quality of


Work Life in Pondicherry University. Pondicherry as perceived by the teaching
and non teaching staff that present job, working conditions and work culture are
highly influencing Quality of Work Life in the university and present pay,
promotional policy and supervisory system are moderately influencing the quality of
work life.

Prachi Bhatt (2011) did research on Quality of Work Life in changing


Business Dynamism A study on Perceptual Difference in Public and Private
Sector. That the public sector employees are relatively more satisfied with their
working conditions, their job, relations with the peers etc. and thus find it easy to
balance their work life than the private sector employees and the same in the case of
Job satisfaction level which is more in public sector employees than private sector.

Victor and Thavakumar (2011) did research on Family conflict among


married banking women employees. The data for this study came from 100
married women in public and private banks who responded to a self administered
questionnaire. By using the primary and secondary data, the researchers tend to find

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out extent of work characteristics and family characteristics influence on the work
family conflict. The work characteristics include number of hours worked, work
flexibility, work stressors. The family characteristics include number of children, age
of children, family support. The researchers used the organisations reports,
magazines as their secondary data and collected the primary data based on
questionnaire and interview.From the discussion of the findings, several implications
arouse. There is a need for greater spouse-support, flexible work schedule, child care
centers and family support in order to alleviate work family conflict. Maintenance of
good marital relations is important in reducing spouse conflict and increasing well
being in women employees.

Nadeem Malik (2011), did research on Occupational stress experienced


by private and public sector banks employees in Quetta city. A randomly
selected sample of 200 employees from private and public sector banks shows that
occupational stress is found higher among private bank employees compared to public
bank employees. Among different occupational stress variables role over load, role
authority, role conflict and lack of senior level support contribute more to the
occupational stress. Bank employees can not afford the time to relax and wind
down when they are faced with variety, discrimination, favoritism, delegation and
conflicting tasks.

Daljeet Kaur (2010) did search on, Aims to gain an insight into current
working life policies and practices of employees in ICICI Bank Ltd in
Chandigarh. Several notable factors that influence quality of work life are Fair
Compensation, Safe and healthy working environment, adequate performance
appraisal, career growth opportunities, Training and development etc. On the basis of
his study he said that employees of ICICI bank Ltd. in Chandigarh Region were
happy with the working conditions of the Bank. They felt that they were safe and
secure in Bank. They felt that Bank should start their own transport facilities for the
staff. However, the dissatisfaction among them was the less growth opportunities.
They were not provided with extra care like health camps etc. They were not happy

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with the way performance appraisal was done and felt that their management was not
flexible with their social responsibilities and hence they were less satisfied with their
jobs.

Sanjeev K. Sharma and Geeta Sharma (2010) did research on Perceived


Quality of Working Life among employees in banks to identify the extent to
which banks are meeting the employees expectations on the Quality of work Life
Dimensions. The dimensions of QWL selected are health and well being, job security,
job satisfaction, competence development and the balance between work with their
life style. A total of 150 valid questionnaires were obtained from the employees of
selected public and private sector banks in Chandigarh. They concluded that a happy
and healthy employee will give better turnover, make good decisions and positively
contribute to the organizational goal. An assured good quality of work life will not
only attract young and new talent but also retain the experienced talent.

Rochita Ganguly, Mukherjee ( 2010), did research on, The study of


Nature of the perceived quality of work life (QWL) of the university employees ,
the nature of their job satisfaction, the nature of association between QWL and Job
Satisfaction. The results indicate that the selected group of university employees
perceived different aspects of their quality of work life as either uncongenial viz.
Autonomy, top management support and workers control mainly or they have had a
certain amount of dilemma to comment on a few other aspects such as personal
growth opportunities and work complexity mainly bearing the potential involving a
slight trend of negative opinion.

Shilpa Sankpal, Pushpa Negi and Jeetendra Vashishtha (2010) did


research on , organizational role stress of employees of public and private
banks. The study was conducted in Gwalior city and a sample of 100 bank
employees were used for data collection 50 each from public and private sector. The
data collected was subjected to analysis through T-test for comparing between the
employees of public and private sector banks. Overall 11 hypotheses were tested.

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22

Data was compared on the basis of inter role distance, role stagnation, role
expectation conflict, role erosion, role overload, role isolation, personal inadequacy,
self role distance, role ambiguity and resource inadequacy. The study has highlighted
that there is a significant difference between the role stress of public and private
sector bank employees. It was found that the private bank employees experienced
higher organizational role stress than their public bank counterparts. Looking at the
various aspects of components of organizational role stress, it was found that there
was no difference between the Public and Private Sector bank employees in certain
aspects like role expectation conflict, role isolation and personal inadequacy and role
ambiguity.

Meenakshi Gupta and Vikas Sharma (2009) did search on Quality of


Work Life A Study of bank employees in Jammu region to determine whether
and how the quality of work life affects the satisfaction level of employees of banks.
The study found that among the independent demographic variables, the best
predictor was annual income followed by marital status, sex, education, family size
and job experience. The factor which was ranked as a best factor that was perceived
as satisfactory by the employees was opportunities for personal encouragement.
However factors as participation in decision making and rewards were found to have
a significant impact on employees satisfaction. The banking sector should take note
of this and should encourage employees participation in decision making and they
should be rewarded for their performance to attain satisfaction.

Patiraj Kumari and Pooja khanna (2007) did research on The Quality Of
Working Life in relation to Mental Health Of Bank Employees to investigate the
quality of work life (QWL) in relation to mental health of bank employees. A total
number of 200 bank employees were selected from banks of Haridwar and Dehradun
(Uttaranchal) comprising 150 employees from public and 50 employees from private
sector banks. The result revealed significant positive correlation between QWL and
mental health. Private sector bank employees were found to be more mentally healthy
than the employees of public sector banks.. The study also revealed significant
difference between the mental health of high and low quality of working life groups.

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23

In public sector banks social integration in the work organization and in private sector
banks safe and healthy working condition has the highest contribution towards mental
health.

Triveni.S, Amminabhavi and Vijayalaxmi A. Amminabhavi (2005) did


research on A Study Of Quality Of Work Life Of Nationalized And Non
Nationalized Bank Employees to determine scientifically the level of quality of
work life(QWL) of nationalized and non-nationalized bank employees. To achieve the
objective, the Quality of Work Life-Condition/Feelings form was administered on a
sample of 78 bank employees of which 39 were from nationalized and 39 from non
nationalized banks in Hubli-Dharwar Corporation area. The obtained responses were
scored and subjected to t-test. The results revealed that the nationalized bank
employees have significantly higher QWL than those of non-nationalized bank
employees in the dimensions like- autonomy, Work speed and Routine, Work
complexity as well as the composite QWL-Conditions. The incidental analyzes in the
study revealed that the bank employees who expressed higher life satisfaction have
shown significantly higher QWL with regard to conditions than those who expressed
moderate life satisfaction.

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION:

Research is a systematic inquiry that investigates hypotheses, suggests new


interpretations of data or texts, and poses new questions for future research to explore.

Research is defined as a systematized effort to gain new knowledge.


Research the word itself gives the meaning of re-searching, researching more relevant
facts from the existing facts. It can be an academic activity and such the term should
be used in a technical sense.

Research consists of asking a question that nobody has asked before, doing the
necessary work to find the answer, and communicating the knowledge you have
acquired to a larger audience.

NEED OF THE STUDY

The study is intended to evaluate the quality of work life of the employees
because effective quality work life is essential to achieve goal of the
organization.
The presence of quality of work life in organization, leads to numerous
positive outcomes.
This study helps to realize the importance of quality of work life in
organization.

TITLE OF THE STUDY:

A STUDY ON QUALITY OF WORK LIFE OF BANK EMPLOYEES.

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25

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

The present study has been carried out to achieve the following objectives :

1. To find out the influence of demographic variables such as age, gender,


designation, education, job experience, income, area of banks etc. On the level
of quality of work life among employees.
2. To find out the perception of bank employees regarding various dimensions of
quality of work life.
3. To find out the level of quality of work life in banks.
4. To find out the impact of quality of work life on bank employees
5. To make suggestions based on the present study to improve the quality of
work life and of the banks.
6. To find out the perception of bank employees regarding to various components of
quality of work life.
7. To find out the problems in improving the quality of work life.
8. To make suggestions based on the present study to improve the quality of
work life and of the banks.
9. To find out the important of quality of work life.

HYPOTHESIS

There is no significant association between age of the respondents & quality of


work.
There is no significant association between designation of the respondents &
quality of work.
There is no significant association between gender of the respondents &
quality of work.
There is no significant association between education of the respondents &
quality of work.
There is no significant association between salary of the respondents & quality
of work.

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26

RESEARCH DESIGN

It is the overall operational pattern or framework of the project that stipulates


what information is to be collected from which sources by what procedures. It
specifies the objectives of the study, the methodology and techniques to be adopted
for achieving those objectives. It constitutes so as to obtain answer to research
question.

Descriptive research design suits this study, because it deals with various dimensions
of quality of work life in banks.

PRE-TEST

To find out the relevance of the various terms in the questionnaire, a pretest
was conducted by distributing the questionnaire to the number of respondents. This
facilitates the researcher to find out the relevance of the items in the questionnaire.

SAMPLING PROCEDURE

The methods used in drawing samples from a population usually in such a


manner that the sample will facilitate determination of some hypotheses concerning
the population. Sampling is concerned with choosing a subset of individuals from a
statistical population to estimate characteristics of a whole population.

In the present study, the researcher has adopted convenient sampling is a non-
probability sampling technique. For the present study, the researcher took sampling
through various bank sectors in Coimbatore. The researchers have chosen under
graduate and post graduate bank employees. The total strength of the under graduate
and post graduate is 60. Hence, non- probability sampling technique was adopted to
get a sample size of 60.

TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION

A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the data from the


respondents. The questionnaire method was adopted for data collection. The
questionnaire consists of two parts.

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27

The first part consists of personal data of the respondents like name of the
bank, name of the person, designation, age, experience, gender, level of education,
salary.

The second part of questionnaire which consists of 50 questions with various


dimensions with 5 scales answer options

The questionnaire which consists of 50 question of quality of work life was


developed by T S Nanujundeswaraswamy (2015) and all the questions are
standardized question with 5scales.

DATA COLLECTION

One of the important stages in the research is data collection. The period of
data collection has been from 20-01-2017 to 24-01-2017. During these days the
researcher collected the required data during the lunch time.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

The collected data was analyzed appropriately. Diagrams and tables were used
for the interpretation of data.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The researcher study is regarding to quality of work life. The study was
limited to 60 respondents.

Due to the time limitation, the researcher could conduct the study on particular
bank who are ug and pg employees. As the study, is confined to a different bank, the
result of the study cannot be generalized.

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DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED BY THE RESEARCHER

Some of the major difficult encountered during the data collection the time
limit given to meet the employees was very less. The researcher was allowed to meet
the employees only at their lunch time. The researcher had difficult to explain the
second part of the questionnaire to the respondents due to various dimensions in the
questionnaire.

CHAPTERIZATION

Chapter 1 Deals with introduction, operational definitions, significance and


statement of
the study.
Chapter 2 - Deals with review of literature.
Chapter 3 - Deals with research methodology. It includes introduction,
objectives, research design, and area of data collection, universe and sample,
pretest, sampling method, tools of data collection, and limitations of the study.
Chapter 4 - Deals with analysis and interpretation of datas.
Chapter 5 - Deals with findings, suggestions and conclusion.

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CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

TABLE NO: 1
BANK DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENT

S.NO BANK FREQUENCY PERCENT

1 ICICI 17 28

2 KVB bank 6 10

3 Vijaya bank 6 10

4 HDFC 11 19

5 HSBC bank 11 18

6 Kotak Mahindra bank 9 15

Total 60 100

It shows that 28 percent of the respondents belong to ICICI bank, 19 percent


of the respondent belongs to HDFC bank, 18 percent of the respondents belong to
HSBC bank, 15 percent of the respondents belong to Kotak Mahindra bank, 10
percent of the respondents belong to KVB bank, 10 percent of respondent belong to
Vijaya bank.

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TABLE NO: 2
AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENT

S.NO AGE RESPONDENT PERCENT

1 20-30 41 68

2 30-40 14 23

3 40-50 5 9

100
TOTAL 60

It shows that 68 percent respondents belong to the age of 20-30 yrs, 23 percent
of the respondents belongs to the age group of 30-40 yrs, and 9 percent of the
respondents belongs to the age group of 40-50yrs.

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TABLE NO: 3

DESIGNATION DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENT

S.NO DESIGNATION FREQUENCY PERCENT

1 Manager
27 45

2 Office Staff
33 55

3 Total
60 100

It shows that 45 percent of the respondents belong to manager category and 55


percent of the respondents belongs to office staff category.

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TABLE NO: 4
EXPERIENCE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENT

S.NO EXPERIENCE FREQUENCY PERCENT


1-5
1 38 63

6-10
2 20 33
11-15
3 2 4
Total
60 100

It shows that 63 percent of the respondents have 1-5yrs of experience, 33


percent of the respondents have 6-10yrs of experience, and 4 percent of the
respondents have 11-15yrs of experience.

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TABLE NO: 5

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENT

S.NO GENDER FREQUENCY PERCENT

Male
1 45 75

Female
2 15 25

Total
60 100

It shows that 75 percent of the respondents are male, and 25 percent of the
respondents are female.

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TABLE NO: 6

EDUCATION DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENT

S.NO EDUCATION FREQUENCY PERCENT

1 UG
26 43

2 PG
34 57

3 Total
60 100

It shows that 57 percent of the respondents have pg degree, and 43 percent of


the respondents have ug degree.

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TABLE NO: 7
SALARY OF THE RESPONDENT

S.NO SALARY FREQUENCY PERCENT

1 5000 to 10000 1 2

2 10000 to 15000 38 63

3 15000 to 25000 21 35

Total 60 100

It shows that 63 percent of the respondent are drawing salary between 10000
to 15000, 35 percent of the respondent are drawing salary between 15000 to 25000,
and 2 percent of the respondent are drawing salary from 5000 to 10000.

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TABLE NO: 8
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENT BASED ON THEIR LEVEL OF
QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

S.NO QUALITY OF WORK FERQUENCY PERCENT


LIFE
LOW
18 30
1
MODERATE
2 31 52

HIGH
3 11 18

Total
60 100

In this table it shows that 52 percent of the respondents belong to moderate


level of QWL, 30 percent of the respondents belongs to low level of QWL,18 percent
of the respondents belongs to high level of QWL.

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TABLE NO: 9

OPINION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ON DIMENSIONS OF


QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Dimensions Quality of Low Moderate High


Work Life

Working environment 36 11 13
60% 18% 22%

Organization culture 35 14 11
climate 58% 23% 18%

Relation &co-
operation 35 12 13
58% 20% 22%

Training 34 11 15
&development 57% 18% 25%

Compensation 39 11 10
&rewards 65% 18% 17%

Facility 41 11 8
68% 18% 13%

Job satisfaction &job 34 12 14


security 57% 20% 23%

Autonomy of work 34 14 12
57% 23% 20%

Adequacy of resource 35 11 14
58% 18% 23%

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Opinions of the respondents based on their working environment have 60%


of low level quality of work.
Opinions of the respondents based on their organization culture &climate
have 58% of low level of quality of work.
Opinions of the respondents based on their relation & co-operation have
58% of low level quality of work.
Opinions of the respondents based on their training &development have
57% of low level quality of work.
Opinions of the respondents based on their compensation& rewards have
39% of low level quality of work.
Opinions of the respondents based on their facility have 68% of low level
quality of work.
Opinions of the respondents based on their job satisfaction & job security
have 57% of low level quality of work.
Opinions of the respondents based on their autonomy of work have 34% of
low level quality of work.
Opinions of the respondents based on their adequacy of resources have 35%
of low level quality of work.

This table shows that opinions of the respondents based on their dimensions
of quality of work life have low level of work life.

So the quality of work life in an organization should focus on all dimensions


in order to improve their work life.

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TABLE NO: 10
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AGE AND QUALITY OF WORK LIFE OF THE
RESPONDENT

AGE OF THE QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


RESPONDENT
LOW MODERATE HIGH TOTAL

14 17 10 41
20-30 (34%) (42%) (24%) 100%
1 7 6 14
30-40 (7%) (50%) (43%) 100%
1 2 2 5
40-50 (20%) (40%) (40%) 100%

Total 16 26 18 60

Value df Sig. (2-sided)


Pearson Chi-
Square 4.502a 4 .342

Hypothesis: There is no association between age of the respondents & quality of


work life

Above table shows that 42% of the respondents in 20-30 yrs of age category have
moderate level of quality of work life and 50%of the respondents in 30-40yrs of age
category have moderate level of quality of work, 40% of the respondents in 40-50yrs
of age category have moderate and high level of quality of work life.

The chi-square test was applied to find out the association between age and quality of
work life. Since the calculated value is less than the table value, we can conclude that
there is no association between age and quality of work of the respondents. Hence
null hypothesis is accepted.

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TABLE NO: 11
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE DESIGNATION AND QUALITY OF WORK
LIFE OF THE RESPONDENT

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


DESIGNATION
OF THE
RESPONDENT LOW MODERATE HIGH TOTAL
8 9 10 27
MANAGER (30%) (33%) (37%) (100%)

8 17 8 33
OFFICE STAFF (24%) (52%) (24%) (100%)

TOTAL 16 26 18 60

Pearson Chi-
Square Value df Sig. (2-sided)

2.105a 2 .349

Hypothesis: There is no association between designation of the respondents &


quality of work life.

Above table shows that 37% of the respondents in manager category have high level
of quality of work life and 52% of the respondents in office staff category have high
level of quality of work.

The chi-square test was applied to find out the association between designation and
quality of work life. Since the calculated value is less than the table value, we can
conclude that there is no
association between designation and quality of work of the respondents. Hence null
hypothesis is accepted.

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TABLE NO: 12
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GENDER AND QUALITY OF WORK LIFE OF
THE RESPONDENT

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


GENDER OF
THE
LOW MODERATE HIGH
RESPONDENT TOTAL

15 19 11 45
MALE
(33%) (42%) (25%) (100%)

1 7 7 15
FEMALE
(7%) (47%) (46%) (100%)

TOTAL 16 26 18 60

Pearson Chi-
Square Value df Sig. (2-sided)

4.903a 2 .086

Hypothesis: There is no association between gender of the respondents & quality of


work life.

Above table shows that 42% of the respondents in male category have moderate level
of quality of work life and 47% of the respondents in female category have moderate
and high level of quality of work life.

The chi-square test was applied to find out the association between gender and quality
of work life. Since the calculated value is higher than the table value, we can conclude
that there is no association between gender and quality of work of the respondents.
Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

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TABLE NO: 13
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EDUCATION AND QUALITY OF WORK LIFE
OF THE RESPONDENT

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


EDUCATION OF
THE
LOW MODERATE HIGH
RESPONDENT TOTAL

9 10 7 26
UG (35%) (38%) (27%) (100%)

7 16 11 34
PG (21%) (47%) (32%) (100)%

TOTAL 16 26 18 60

Pearson Chi- Value df Sig. (2-sided)


Square
1.483a 2 .476

Hypothesis: There is no association between education of the respondents & quality


of work life.

Above table shows that 38% of the respondents those who finished their under
graduate have moderate level of quality of work life and 47% of the respondent those
who finished post graduate have moderate level of quality of work life.

The chi-square test was applied to find out the association between education and
quality of work life. Since the calculated value is higher than the table value, we can
conclude that there is no association between education and quality of work of the
respondents. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

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TABLE-14
T-TEST
SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DESIGNATION & WITH THEIR
LEVEL OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

One-Sample Statistics

Std. Error
N Mean Std. Deviation Mean
Designation of
60 3.5333 1.26848 .16376
respondent
Quality of work
60 1.8177E2 12.70575 1.64031
life

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Sig. (2- Mean
T df tailed) Difference Lower Upper
Designation
of
21.576 59 .000 3.53333 3.2057 3.8610
respondent

Quality of
work life 110.813 59 .000 181.76667 178.4844 185.0489

NULL HYPOTHESIS: There is no significant relationship between designation and


quality of work life.

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS: There is significant relationship between


designation and quality of work life.

T-test was applied to find out is there any significant difference between
designation of the respondent and with their level of quality of work life. It is found
out that significant level is .000 which is less than .05 so it is concluded that there is a
significant difference between designation and quality of work life. Therefore null
hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted.

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TABLE-15
SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GENDER& WITH THEIR LEVEL
OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Std. Error
N Mean Std. Deviation Mean
Gender of
respondent 60 1.2500 .43667 .05637

Quality of
work life 60 1.8177E2 12.70575 1.64031

Test Value = 0
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Sig. (2- Mean Difference
T df tailed) Difference Lower Upper
Gender of
respondent 22.174 59 .000 1.25000 1.1372 1.3628

Quality of
work life 110.813 59 .000 181.76667 178.4844 185.0489

NULL HYPOTHESIS: There is no significant relationship between designation and


quality of work life.

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS: There is significant relationship between


designation and quality of work life.

T-test was applied to find out is there any significant difference between gender of the
respondent and with their level of quality of work life. It is found out that significant
level is .000 which is less than .05 so it is concluded that there is a significant
difference between gender and quality of work life. Therefore null hypothesis is
rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted.

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TABLE-16

COMPARSION OF MEANS BETWEEN RESPONDENTS BANK & QUALITY


OF WORK LIFE

Bank of respondent Mean N Std. Deviation


ICICI 1.8753E2 17 10.51260
KVB bank 1.8233E2 6 3.50238
Vijaya bank 1.7850E2 6 9.91464
HDFC 1.7755E2 11 15.88939
HSBC bank 1.8340E2 10 13.92998
Kotak Mahindra bank 1.7660E2 10 14.19076
Total 1.8177E2 60 12.70575

ANOVA Table

Quality of work
life
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups
1120.137 5 224.027

Within Groups
8404.596 54 155.641 1.439 .225

Total
9524.733 59

The one way ANOVA test was applied to find out whether there is significant
different between respondents bank and quality of work life. ANOVA test proved that
there is no significant difference between bank and quality of work life.

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TABLE-17

COMPARSION OF MEANS BETWEEN RESPONDENTS EDUCATION &


QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Education of Std. Deviation


respondent Mean N
UG 1.8092E2 26 13.08411
PG 1.8241E2 34 12.56768
Total 1.8177E2 60 12.70575

ANOVA

Quality of
work life
Sum of Mean
Squares df Square F Sig.
Between
32.652 1 32.652 .200 .657
Groups
Within
9492.081 58 163.657
Groups
Total
9524.733 59

The one way ANOVA test was applied to find out whether there is significant
different between respondents education and quality of work life. ANOVA test
proved that there is no significant difference between bank and quality of work life.

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TABLE-18

COMPARSION OF MEANS BETWEEN RESPONDENTS SALARY


& QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

salary of respondent
Mean N Std. Deviation
5000 to 10000 1.8900E2 1 .
10000 to 15000 1.8150E2 38 13.06274
15000 to 25000 1.8190E2 21 12.56147
Total 1.8177E2 60 12.70575

ANOVA Table

Quality of work
life
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 55.424 2 27.712 .167 .847
Within Groups 9469.310 57 166.128
Total 9524.733 59

The one way ANOVA test was applied to find out whether there is significant
different between respondents salary and quality of work life. ANOVA test proved
that there is no significant difference between bank and quality of work life.

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TABLE-19

COMPARSION OF MEANS BETWEEN RESPONDENTS AGE &


QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Age of respondent Mean N Std. Deviation


20-30 1.8024E2 41 13.58635
30-40 1.8486E2 14 10.99550
40-50 1.8560E2 5 8.17313
Total 1.8177E2 60 12.70575

ANOVA Table
Quality of
work life
Sum of Mean
Squares df Square F Sig.
Between
302.258 2 151.129 .934 .399
Groups
Within
9222.475 57 161.798
Groups
Total 9524.733 59

The one way ANOVA test was applied to find out whether there is significant
different between respondents age and quality of work life. ANOVA test proved that
there is no significant difference between bank and quality of work life.

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TABLE-20

COMPARSION OF MEANS BETWEEN RESPONDENTS EXPERIENCE&


QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Experience of
respondent Mean N Std. Deviation
1-5 1.8250E2 38 13.59998
6-10 1.8010E2 20 11.67498
11-15 1.8450E2 2 .70711
Total 1.8177E2 60 12.70575

ANOVA Table

Quality of
work life
Sum of Mean
Squares Df Square F Sig.
Between
90.933 2 45.467 .275 .761
Groups
Within
9433.800 57 165.505
Groups
Total 9524.733 59

The one way ANOVA test was applied to find out whether there is significant
different between respondents experience and quality of work life. ANOVA test
proved that there is no significant difference between bank and quality of work life.

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TABLE-21
CORRELATION TABLE SHOWING THE COMPARISION BETWEEN
VARIOUS DIMENSIONS & QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Job Adequacy Experience


satisfaction Autonomy of salary of of
&security of work resource respondent respondent
Job Pearson
satisfaction Correlation .361** .354** -.139 -.067
1
&security Sig. (2- .005 .006 .288 .611
60
tailed) 60 60 60 60
N
Autonomy Pearson
of Correlation .361** .438** .056 .008
1
work Sig. (2- .005 .000 .672 .954
60
tailed) 60 60 60 60
N
Adequacy Pearson
of resource Correlation .354** .438** .100 .013
1
Sig. (2- .006 .000 .448 .924
60
tailed) 60 60 60 60
N
salary of Pearson
respondent Correlation -.139 .056 .100 .536**
1
Sig. (2- .288 .672 .448 .000
60
tailed) 60 60 60 60
N
Experience Pearson
of Correlation -.067 .008 .013 .536**
respondent Sig. (2- 1
.611 .954 .924 .000
tailed) 60
60 60 60 60
N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The correlation test was applied to find whether there is significant


relationship between various dimensions of quality of work life. The correlation test
proved that there is a relationship between job satisfaction & security, adequacy of
resources and autonomy of work. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

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CHAPTER-V
FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS AND CONCULSION

INTRODUCTION
Findings are the statements of factual information are based upon the data
analysis. Suggestions and recommendations constitute the action plan put forward to
the policy makers and users of research findings. Conclusions are inferences or
generalizations drawn from the findings.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION

On the basis of the data collected and analyzed from the respondents, the major
findings of the study are as follows

FINDINGS

It was found that 28 percent of the respondents belong to ICICI bank


It was found 68 percent respondents belong to the age of 20-30 yrs.
It was found that 55 percent of the respondents belongs to office staff
category.
It was found 63 percent of the respondent belongs to 1-5yrs of experience.
It was found 75 percent of the respondent are male.
It was found 57 percent of the respondent are qualified till pg.
It was found 63 percent of the respondents are drawing salary between10000
to 15000.
It was found 52 percent of the respondents based on their level of quality of
work life belongs to moderate level.
It was found 36 percent of the respondents based on their opinion have low
level of working environment.

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52

It was found 35 percent of the respondents based on their opinion have low
level of organization culture climate.
It was found 35 percent of the respondent based on their opinion have low
level of relation & co-operation.
It was found 34 percent of the respondent based on their opinion have low
level of training & development..
It was found 39 percent of the respondent based on their opinion have low
level of compensation& rewards.
It was found 41 percent of the respondent based on their opinion have low
level of facility.
It was found 34 percent of the respondent based on their opinion have low
level of job satisfaction& job security.
It was found 34 percent of the respondent based on their opinion have low
level of autonomy of work.
It was found 35 percent of the respondent based on their opinion have low
level of adequacy of resource.
Chi-square test was applied it was found there is no significant association
between age of the respondent & quality of work life.
Chi-square test was applied it was found there is no significant association
between designation of the respondent & quality of work life.
Chi-square test was applied it was found there is no significant association
between gender of the respondent & quality of work life.
Chi-square test was applied it was found there is no significant association
between education of the respondent & quality of work life.
T- test was applied it was found there is significant difference between
designation and quality of work life.
T- test was applied it was found there is significant difference between gender
and quality of work life
Anova test was applied it was found there is no significant difference
respondents bank and quality of work life.
Anova test was applied it was found there is no significant difference
respondents education and quality of work life.
Anova test was applied it was found there is no significant difference
respondents salary and quality of work life.
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53

Anova test was applied it was found there is no significant difference


respondents age and quality of work life.
Correlation test was applied it was found there is significant relationship
between various dimensions & quality of work life.

SUGGESTIONS

To improve the quality of work life of the employees in bank sector, the banks
should concentrate on all dimensions because the findings denotes low level of
quality of work life. There shall be chances of open forums for employees to
have better quality of work life and make themselves to satisfied in their job.
This may improve the quality of work life of the individuals.

CONCLUSION

The study tells about the relationship between the employees satisfaction and
various dimensions of quality of work life. The study revealed that the quality
of work life in selected banks found that did not satisfy to all employees
equally. Most of the employees are not satisfied with facilities. They need to
improve the quality of work life of its employees as they are the assets of the
banks. To improve the work life of bank employees organization should
concentrate on all dimensions because each factor are influencing the
employees environment.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anita, B., and Subba Rao, P., (1998), Quality of Work Life in Commercial
Banks, Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi.
Ayesha Tabassuma, Tasnuva Rahmanb and Kursia Jahan, (2011) , Quality of
. Work Life Among Male and Female Employees of Private Commercial Banks in
Bangladesh, International Journal of Economics and Management.
Baba, VV and Jamal, M (1991) Reutilization of job context and job content as
related to employees quality of working life: a study of psychiatric nurses. Journal
of organizational behavior.
Bearfield, S (2003) Quality of Working Life. A ciirt Working paper 86.
University of Sydney. www.acirrt.com
D. Manjula and Dr. M. Selvakumar Marimuth (2014), Analysis of Quality of
Work Life of Employees in Private Sector Commercial Banks - Application of
Discriminant Analysis, Abhinav National Monthly Refereed Journal of Research
in Commerce & Management, Vol. 3, Issue 9, September.

Edwards, J., Van Laar, D.L. & Easton, S. (2009). The Work-Related Quality of
Life scale for Higher Education Employees. Quality in Higher Education.
Meenakshi Gupta and Vikas Sharma, (2009), Quality of Work Life - A Study
of Bank Employees in Jammu Region, AJBMR, Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp. 1-8.
Noor Mohamed A., (2008), A Study of Job Satisfaction among Nationalized
Bank Employees, SMART Journal of Business Management Studies. Vol. 4,
Issue 2, July-December, p. 61.
Radha Yadav and Ashu Khanna, (2015), Employees Satisfaction on Quality of
Work life at State Bank of India, International Conference on Humanities,
Literature and Management.
Sekaran, V., (1981), Perceived Quality of Working Life in Banks in Major
Cities in India. Prajanan.
. Shobha B. Hangarki (2014), Quality of Work Life among Employees in
Banking Sector: A Study Undertaken at Nationalized Banks, Hyderabad
Karnataka Region, Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.,
Issue 2, pp. 194-197

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Stanely, E., (1974), Job Satisfaction as an Indication of the Quality of


Employment, Social Indications Research.
Trivedi, I.V., and Chundavat, D.S., (1992), Quality of Work Life with Special
Reference to Banking Industry, The Indian Journal of Commerce.

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QUALITY OF WORK LIFE OF AN BANK EMPLOYEES


QUESTIONNAIRE

PART A:
1. Name of the bank :

2. Name of the person :

3. Designation :

4. Age :

5. Experience :

6. Gender : Male Female

7. Level of Education :
Post Graduation
Graduation :
Diploma :

8. Average salary paid : a) Less than 5000


b) 5000 to 10 000
c) 10000 to 20000
d) More than 20000

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PART- B:

1. My bank work environment is good and highly motivating.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

2. Working conditions are good in my bank.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

3. It is hard to take time off during our work to take care of personal or family
Matters.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

4. My bank offers sufficient opportunities to develop my own abilities.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

5. The bank provides enough information to discharge my responsibilities.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

6. I am given a lot of work empowerment to decide about my own style and place of
work.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

7. There is cooperation among all the departments for achieving the goals.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

8. I feel free to offer comments and suggestions on my Performance.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

9. I am proud to be working for my present bank.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

10. I am involved in making decisions that affect our Work.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

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11. I am discriminated on my job because of my Gender.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

12. The wage policies adopted by my bank are Good.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

13. The bank communicates every new change that takes place.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

14. There is a harmonious relationship with my colleagues.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

15. There is a strong sense of belongingness in my Organization.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

16. I am unable to attend to my personal work due to the demands made by


my job.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

17. The relationship between managers and employees are very good.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

18. There is a very cordial relationship with my immediate superior.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

19. I will get good support from my sub-ordinates.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree.

20. Training programs in our bank help employees to achieve the required skill for
performing the job effectively.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree.

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21. The training programs aim at improving Interpersonal relationship among


employees.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

22. My bank offers sufficient training opportunities to perform my job competently.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

23. I feel that the training programs should be conducted frequently.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

24. I feel that I am given an adequate and fair compensation for the work I do.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

25. Organization will pay salary by considering responsibilities at work.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

26. Bank does a good job of linking rewards to job performance


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

27. Promotions are handled fairly.

a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

28. When I do my job well, I am praised by my Superior.

a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

29. Fringe benefits provided are good.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

30. Bank provides the social security benefits.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

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31. Good transportation facilities are provided by the bank.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

32. Safety measures adopted by the bank are


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

33. Good welfare activities are provided by our bank.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

34. I feel comfortable and satisfied with my job.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

35. I feel quite secured about my job.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

36. Conditions on my job allow me to be as productive as I could be


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

37. A strong trade union is required to protect employees interests.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

38. The job security is good.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

39. My earnings are fair when compared to the others doing the same type of work in
other bank.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

40. The procedure followed for job rotation is good.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

41. I feel that my work allows me to do my best in a particular area.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree
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42. My job lets me use my skills and abilities.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

43. My bank allows a flexi-time option.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

44. A part of my job is allowed to be done at home.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

45. I find my work quite stressful


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

46. I am ready to take additional responsibilities with my job


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

47. In our bank there is a balance between stated objectives and resources provided.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

48. There are much defined channels for information exchange and transfer.
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

49. My bank provides resources to facilitate my performance.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

50. Communication and information flow between the departments is satisfactory.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) uncertain d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

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