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Experiment 3: Kinematics of Human Motion

Laboratory Report

Claire Antoinette G. Dela Rosa, Jhunne Irene Marie J. Dema-ala, Denise Mae D. Divino
Department of Math and Physics
College of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Santo Tomas
Espaa, Manila, Philippines

Abstract
2. Theory
Kinematics of the human motion such as


displacement, velocity and acceleration was h
tackled in this experiment. Displacement versus Reaction Time: t=2
g
time and Acceleration versus time were made
into graphs to show the graphical analysis of d
Velocity: v=
human motion. The graphs of the total t
displacement and the instantaneous velocity Instantaneous Velocity = 2V
from a ten second walk was taken to also tackle
the graphical analysis of motion. Lastly, the
reaction time was obtained in which proves that
being distracted can make ones reaction time
3. Methodology
slower.
Activity 1: Graphical Analysis of
Human Motion
1. Introdiction
The group is tasked to predict and
Biomechanics is the science concerned
sketch the appearance of the displacement and
with the internal and external forces acting on
velocity versus time graph of first, a person
the human body and the effects produced by
moving away with constant velocity from a
these forces. Kinematics, as a branch of
chosen starting point for a period of 10 seconds;
biomechanics, is the study of the motion of
second, a person moving toward a chosen
objects using words, equations, graphs and
starting point with constant velocity for a period
diagrams and numbers. It aims to explain the
of 10 seconds; and lastly, a person moving away
motion of objects. With the use of this
from a chosen staring point along a straight line
experiment, the students would learn how to
with increasing speed for a period of 10s
draw the displacement versus time graphs and
seconds. After sketching the predicted graph, a
velocity versus time graphs for uniform motion
Logger Pro is used to produce the graph of the
and uniformly accelerated motion and be
three motion stated above and were compared to
familiar with it. This lets the students determine
the predicted graphs sketched before.
ones normal reaction time and his reaction time
while being distracted, an example of this is Activity 2: Graph Matching
when youre using a cellphone. It should give
Using the Logger Pro and an illustration
the students a clear view why the government
board that is used to create a movement that will
prohibited drivers to use their phones when
be detected by the logger pro, the group is
driving.
tasked to copy 2 graphs prepared by the
professors beforehand (experiment files named mark and the g being the acceleration due to
01b Graph Matching and 01d Graph Matching) gravity which is constant at 9.8 m/s2.
as accurate as possible. The group then took a
4. Results and Discussion
picture of the result and pasted in on the lab
manual. Table 1. Position vs. Time and Velocity vs.
Time graph (moving away with constant
Activity 3: Graphical Analysis of Motion
velocity) The top being the prediction made by
One of the members was asked to walk the group and the bottom being the result from
in straight line for 10 seconds starting from rest. the Vernier Logger pro.
One of the two remaining members measured
As shown in this graph, a linear graph
the distance traveled every second and last
has formed when the student moves in a
member held the stop watch and notified the
constant velocity. As time increases, the distance
others every second. A graph was made to plot
between the origin point and the student also
the total distance versus the total time together
increases. It shows an upward slope, from the
with the best fit line or a straight line that best
starting point to the maximum distance traveled.
represents the data on a scatter (x,y) plot. After
Acceleration is constant since the student moved
the graph, the group then solved for the average
in a constant velocity.
d
velocity (distance over time or t ) and the
instantaneous velocity of every second (average
velocity multiplied by two). The group then
graphed the instantaneous velocity versus the
time with the best fit line in it.

Activity 4: Reaction Time

Using a meter stick, one of the members


(Member A) is asked to hold it at the zero mark
while another member (Member B) positioned
her thumb and index finger at the 50 cm mark
without touching the meter stick. Member A
then dropped the stick without telling member B
and the mark where member B caught the stick
from the 50 cm mark was recorded. The
procedure is then repeated but with member A
being distracted by another member. The whole
process is repeated until all the members of the
group completed the activity. The reaction time

(t) is then solved with the formula:


t= 2
h
g
with h being the height where the member
caught the meter stick starting from the 50cm
Table 3. Position vs. Time and Velocity vs.
Time graph (moving away with increasing
velocity) The top being the prediction made by
the group and the bottom being the result from
the Vernier Logger pro.

Table 2. Position vs. Time and Velocity vs.


This graph shows a student moving away from a
Time graph (moving towards with constant
starting point with increasing speed. This means
velocity) The top being the prediction made by
that its acceleration also increases. It shows an
the group and the bottom being the result from
upward slanting projection. The curve part of the
the Vernier Logger pro.
graph shows the difference in the change of
time, it was double as the velocity slowly
increases.

Table 4. Position vs. Time (graph matching)

As shown in this graph, it is mostly the


same as the graph in table 1. The only difference
is that it started from a distance towards the
point of origin. It shows a downward slope and
its acceleration is also constant since the student
still moved in a constant velocity.
In this activity, our member moved the
illustration board in a manner that its
acceleration should match the graph in the
screen. As the line goes down, the acceleration
of the board decreases. As the line goes up, the
acceleration of the board increases. As the line
forms a straight line, its acceleration is constant.
Since the line does not exactly match the given
graph, we could say that there might be factors
that interfere in the acceleration of an object.
The logger pro might have detected some
particles that may cause the acceleration of the
In this activity, a member moved the board causing uneven lines in the graph.
illustration board in a manner that its velocity
remained constant. Our group member matched
the position vs. time graph by moving the Table 6. Total Displacement vs. Total Time
illustration board away after a few seconds so
that the red line would make an increasing slant.
To match the straight line, our member stopped
moving the board so that it would make a
straight line. After a
few seconds, our
member moves the
board closer so that it
would form a
decreasing slant.
After that, our
member stopped
moving and the red
line is in a straight
line.
Table 7. Instantaneous Velocity vs. Time
Table 5. Velocity vs.

Table 8. Total
Displacement, Average
Time (graph Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity at each
second.

Tim Total Ave. Instantaneo


e Displaceme Velocit us Velocity
nt y
matching) 1 53 cm 53 106 cm/s
cm/s
2 60 cm 30 60 cm/s
cm/s
3 84 cm 28 56 cm/s Table 9 shows the normal reaction time of all the
cm/s group members and their reaction time when
4 116 cm 29 58 cm/s they are distracted. It shows that while being
cm/s distracted, a persons reaction time gets slower
5 127 cm 25.4 50.8 cm/s compared to their normal reaction time.
cm/s
6 160 cm 26.7 53.4 cm/s 5. Conclusion
cm/s The experiment was divided into four
7 173 cm 24.7 49.4 cm/s
activities: Activity one requires the prediction of
cm/s
the graph of the displacement over time and
8 185 cm 23.1 46.2 cm/s
velocity over time given a few conditions. It is
cm/s
9 191 cm 21.2 42.4 cm/s then compared to the graph that came from the
cm/s logger pro after finishing the steps. Activity 2
10 195 cm 19.5 39 cm/s made use of the logger pro by making the
cm/s students copy the graph already saved in the
logger pro. Activity 3 is where one of the
students in the group was made to walk for 10
In table 6, it shows the position in seconds with the other members measuring the
regards of time. The position moves away from distance between each step the first member
the starting point as the time increases. It is took and the starting point, and the total distance
clearly shown that as the total displacement that that member had walked during those 10
increases, the average velocity increases. In seconds. Lastly, activity 4 requires each member
tables 7 and 8, it shows the results of the values in the groups reaction time as it was tested by
that the group got for the average velocity of dropping a meter stick vertically by one member
each total displacement as the time increases. In and another member catching the stick with the
term of Table 7, since velocity is constantly use of only their thumb and pointing finger. This
changing, one can estimate velocity in different activity tested both the students reaction time
ways and one way is to look at its instantaneous when they are focused and when they are
velocity distracted by another member of the group
with the formula: 2V or the doubled velocity. calling out their name. After the experiment, the
With table 7, it shows an indirect relationship group concluded that a persons velocity while
between the instantaneous velocity and the time walking is faster at his initial steps then slowly
because it is clear that as the time increases, the decreases as her time and distance increase. The
instantaneous velocity decreases. group also confirmed that usually, a persons
reaction time becomes slower when distracted
Table 9. Reaction times of each group by a phone, or in this case a friend calling them,
member. as compared to when the person is completely
focused on catching the meter stick. Thus, there
Student Reaction Reaction is a basis to House Bill No. 4571, also known as
Time (s) Time(s) the Anti-Mobile Communication Devices Use
while calling while Driving Act of 2011, that promotes road
1 0.27 s 0.25 s safety and the banning of the use of cellphone
2 0.17 s 0.39 s when driving.
3 0.22 s 0.25 s
6. Application

Devise a way to determine the height of the


building using only a stopwatch.

A member of the group (member A) will


drop a heavy object (can be a stone or a ball)
from the top the building and a member at the
end of the building (member B) will time how
fast the object is dropped using a stopwatch.
This method will be repeated 10 times to obtain
the average time to have a precise measurement.
The height of the building will then be
(t 2 ) g
determined using formula: h= with h
2
being the height of the building, t being the
average time and g being the acceleration due to
gravity which is constant at 9.8 m/s2.

From the point of view of Physics, is there a


basis to the law banning the use of cellphones
while driving?

From the point of view of physics, there


is a basis to the law banning the use of cell
phone while driving. When a driver drives a car,
he must be aware of his surroundings at all
times. A driver should always check his speed
and acceleration so that the car would have a
stable maneuver. When a driver is distracted like
using his cellphone, his attention might be
diverted to somewhere else and can lose focus in
driving causing accidents to happen. With
distractions, the driver might not react quickly
because his focus is not on the road. The driver
should always be mindful of his speed and
possible acceleration when driving. With no
distractions, the driver can divert his car away
from harm when an unexpected event happens.

Draw you displacement versus time graph


and velocity versus time graph from your
home on your way to UST and back.
In the graph for the distance over time 7. References
from the student's
Balana C. (2011, June 17). House
home to UST, the distance has
approves on final reading bill banning
a
cellphone use whiloe driving.
rapid
Retrieved from
increase as
http://newsinfo.inquirer.net
time
passes Baker M. (2015) Physics kinematics
while there is only ever a slight retrieved from
increase in the velocity due to the http://www.euclideanspace.com.
student hurrying to get to their
classes. Describing motion with equations
While in the retrieved from
graph for UST to home there is no such http://www.physicsclassroom.com/clas
hurry since the student is going home s
hence the lower incline for the graph of Reaction time retrieved from
the distance over time and the http://physics.nmsu.edu
velocity remaining constant for the
duration of the student's travel.