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Venturi Scrubber from Perry, CEHB, VII

http://www.matche.com/EquipCost/Index.htm

check this web site for costs of scrubbers

Venturi Scrubbers The venturi scrubber is one of the most


widely used types of particulate scrubbers. The designs have become
generally standardized, and units are manufactured by a large number
of companies. Venturi scrubbers may be used as either high- or lowenergy
devices but are most commonly employed as high-energy
units. The units originally studied and used were designed to the proportions
of the classical venturis used for metering, but since it was
discovered that these proportions have no special merits, simpler and
more practical designs have been adopted. Most venturi contactors
in current use are in fact not venturis but variable orifices of one form
or another. Any of a wide range of devices can be used, including a
simple pipe-line contactor. Although the venturi scrubber is not inherently
more efficient at a given contacting power than other types of
devices, its simplicity and flexibility favor its use. It is also useful as a
gas absorber for relatively soluble gases, but because it is a cocurrent
contactor, it is not well suited to absorption of gases having low solubilities.
Current designs for venturi scrubbers generally use the vertical
downflow of gas through the venturi contactor and incorporate three
features: (1) a wet-approach or flooded-wall entry section, to avoid
dust buildup at a wet-dry junction; (2) an adjustable throat for the venturi
(or orifice), to provide for adjustment of the pressure drop; and
(3) a flooded elbow located below the venturi and ahead of the
entrainment separator, to reduce wear by abrasive particles. The venturi
throat is sometimes fitted with a refractory lining to resist abrasion
by dust particles. The entrainment separator is commonly, but not
invariably, of the cyclone type. An example of the standard form of
venturi scrubber is shown in Fig. 17-48. The wet-approach entry section
has made practical the recirculation of slurries. Various forms of
adjustable throats, which may be under manual or automatic control,
duct of some other shape forms the gas-liquid-contacting zone. The
gas stream flowing at high velocity through the contactor atomizes the
liquid in essentially the same manner as in a venturi scrubber. However,
the liquid is fed into the contactor and later recirculated from
the entrainment separator section by gravity instead of being circulated
by a pump as in venturi scrubbers. The scheme is well illustrated
in Fig. 17-49a. A great many such devices using contactor ducts of
various shapes, as in Fig. 17-49b are offered commercially. Although
self-induced spray scrubbers can be built as high-energy units and
sometimes are, most such devices are designed for only low-energy
service.
The principal advantage of self-induced spray scrubbers is the elimination
of a pump for recirculation of the scrubbing liquid. However,
the designs for high-energy service are somewhat more complex and
less flexible than those for venturi scrubbers.
Plate Towers Plate (tray) towers are countercurrent gasatomized
spray scrubbers using one or more plates for gas-liquid contacting.
They are essentially the same as, if not identical to, the devices
used for gas absorption and are frequently employed in applications in
which gases are to be absorbed simultaneously with the removal of
dust. Except possibly in cases in which condensation effects are
involved, countercurrent operation is not significantly beneficial in
dust collection.
The plates may be any of several types, including sieve, bubble-cap,
and valve trays. The impingement baffle plate (Fig. 17-50) is commonly
used for dust collection applications. Impingement on the baffles
is not the controlling mechanism of particle collection; the
principal collecting bodies are the droplets produced from the liquid
by the gas as it flows through the perforations and around the baffles.
The slot stage (Fig. 17-50) is in effect a miniature venturi contactor.
Valve trays constitute multiple self-adjusting orifices that provide
nearly constant gas pressure drop over considerable ranges of variation
in gas flow. The gas pressure drop that can be taken across a single
plate is necessarily limited, so that units designed for high
contacting power must use multiple plates.
Plate towers are more subject to plugging and fouling than venturitype
scrubbers that have large passages for gas and liquid.
Packed-Bed Scrubbers Packed-bed scrubbers of the types used
for gas absorption may also be used for dust collection but are subject
to plugging by deposits of insoluble solids. Random packings, such as
dumped Raschig rings and Berl saddles, are most seriously affected by
plugging. Regular packings, such as stacked grids, are better in dustcollection
service. When both a gas and particulate matter are to be
collected, it is advisable to use a primary-stage scrubber of the venturi
or similar type to collect the particulate matter ahead of a packed gas
absorber.
Packed-bed scrubbers may be constructed for either vertical or
horizontal gas flow. Vertical-flow units (packed towers) commonly use
countercurrent flow of gas and liquid, although cocurrent flow is
sometimes used. Packed scrubbers using horizontal gas flow usually
employ cross-flow of liquid.
Scrubber packings are too large to serve as collecting bodies for any
except very large dust particles. In the collection of fine particles, the
packings serve primarily to promote fluid turbulence that aids the
deposition of the dust particles on droplets. In a packed tower operating
below the flooding point, with most of the liquid flowing in films
and little spray formation, the relative efficiency in collection of particles
may possibly be lower than that of a venturi-type scrubber operating
at the same contacting power. However, no data are available to
resolve the question.
Mobile-Bed Scrubbers Mobile-bed scrubbers (Fig. 17-51) are
constructed with one or more beds of low-density spheres that are free
to move between upper and lower retaining grids. The spheres are
commonly 1.0 in (2.5 cm) or more in diameter and made from rubber
or a plastic such as polypropylene. The plastic spheres may be solid or
hollow. Gas and liquid flows are countercurrent, and the spherical
packings are fluidized by the upward-flowing gas. The movement of
FIG. 17-48 Venturi scrubber. (Neptune AirPol.)

Fig 17-48
Fig 17-49

Fig 17-50
Croll Reynolds Scrubbers

http://www.environmental-center.com/technology/croll/scrubber.htm#jvs
st/Index.htm
5) Venturi Gas Scrubber Extracted from Misc Equipment Items

http://www.matche.com/EquipCost/Index.htm gives a start for cost of a venturi scrubbers

High Energy Venturi Scrubbers & Systems http://www.estcorporatio


High energy venturi scrubbers are used for control of fine particles in the size ran
A gas side pressure drop is used to provide intimate contact between the particle
A higher gas side pressure drop will remove smaller particles from the gas. For v
designs are available to maintain the pressure drop needed for effective control o
Skid mounted package systems including a cyclonic separator with liquid storage
and piping reduce the amount of makeup liquid required. System blowers can als

Richardson (100-115) gives a method to size venturi gas scrubbers. An example is included.

Gas capacities range from 225 to 189,800 acfm.

General Description. Note The scrubber in Richardson looks as follows

The WH High Energy Scrubber is a high pressure drop, very high efficiency wet dust collector
with an adjustable throat venturi.

Tangentisl inlet. Cyclone droplet eliminator (See KO pot folder for cyclone method).
Slurry drain.

Sketch is given with Principles of operation.

Engineering and Application data is presented.

Procedure for selecting a WH High Energy Venturi Scrubber is presented.

From the data presented you can predict the performance of a WH High Energy Venturi Scrubber.

From this data you can estiate the cost of a venturi scrubber.

More Details aon the Procedure For Selecting a WH High Energy Venturi Scrubber

Page 110-115 page 4 gives the nomenclature for the Engineering and Application Data

Step 1 To maintain maximum scrubbing efficiency, it is desirable to minimize liquid evaporation in the Contacto
section of the scrubber. For this reason, hot gases should be pre-cooled to about 250 to 300F ahead
of the scrubber inlet. Performance calculations should be based on the assumption that hot gas temper
(and gas volume, gas density and gas viscosity) has been reduced to the 250 to 300F range.
Step 2 Refer to the drawings on page 10 and 11, select the standard size scrubber, N, ( a dimensionless Scrub
having a capacity range which incldes the gas volume at the scrubber inlet. If system requirements are
accurately established, and not subject to change, a special size may be selected by:

3.41(Q)^0.5 <= N <= 4.32(Q)^0.5 Equation (2)

where Q = volumetric flow rate of the gas at the scrubber inlet, actual cubic feet per minute, acfm

one selects the WH size from the Table on page 11 and from the size various dimensions are provided.

Note: the Table on page 11 gives sizes as WH 65 to WH 1450. The N value is the numerical
component of the size designation. That is, WH 1450 is, in fact, N = 1450 for use in other Figures.

Step 3 Select a first trial pressure drop, dP. In venturi scrubbers, collection efficiency increases as an exponent
pressure drop. Judgement and experience are required to select an adequate first trial value.
As a giude, some typical applications and the required pressure drops are:

Application Pressure Drop, dP, Inches of Water Column

Aluminum Smelter 20 - 25" w.c.


Asphalt Plant 24 - 35" w.c.
Boiler or Furnace Ash or Soot 55 - 63" w.c.
Cupola (Iron Foundry) 55 - 80" w.c.
Lime Kiln 23 - 27" w.c.
Magnesium Ore Roaster 12 - 20" w.c.
Oil Fumes and Condensates 39 - 47" w.c.
Zinc Smelter 20 - 35" w.c.

Step 4 Estimate the rate of circulating (unevaporated) scrubbing liquid supplied to the scrubber.
To avoid liquid carryover or system pulsations, scrubbing liquid rates must be maintained within certain
At any given pressure drop, scrubber efficiency increases as a function of the quantity of scrubbing liqui
Thus, since water (or other srubbing liquids) and the equipment required to supply it are relatively inexp
compared to fan horsepower, it is generally desirable to use values near or equal to the maximum value
herein. The total scrubbing liquid rate consists of three (3) components:

Step 4a R1 is the liquid rate supplied directly to the Venturi Throat and Contactor Section.
The minimu value for R1 determined from Fig 1, page 6.
The maximu value for R1 determined from Fig 2, page 6.

Step 4b R2 is the liquid supplied indirectly to the Contactor by means of a large orifice, solid cone nozzle directly
the Contactor section. R2 is found by:

(0.05)(R1) <= R2 <= (0.2)(R1) Equation (3)

Step 4c R3 is the liquid rate required to clean the spinner vanes in the Droplet Eliminator. It is supplied by mean
a large orifice hollow cone nozzle directly above the Drop Eliminator. R3 is found by:

R3 = 12.078)(N) / Q Equation (4)

Step 4d Calculate W1, flow rate of liquid supplied to upper liquid connection, not including evaporation losses,
U.S. gallon per minute

For N <= 800 W1 = (R1)(Q) / 1000 Equation 5a

For N > 800 W1 = (2)(R1)(Q) / 3000 Equation 5b

Step 4e Calculate W2, flow rate of liquid supplied to lower liquid connection. Not including evaporation losses,
U.S. gallons per minute

For N <= 800 W2 = (R2 + R3)(Q) / 1000 Equation 6a

For N > 800 W2 = (R1/3 + R2 + R3)(Q) / 1000 Equation 6b

Note The use of W1 and w2 will be found in Step 8 where you will determine the evaporation losses.

Step 5 Establish the fractional efficiency curve based on the trial value of dP for the scrubber size N
ESTABLISHED IN Step 2 and 3. A dimensionless parameter, F, is calculated by:

F = {(0.003144)(dP) / Dg} [ (R1 + R2)^0.4571 ][ (S/Ug)^0.2857 ] Equation 7

R1 and r2 were found in Steps 4

Dg is the gas density in lb/cf

ug is the gas viscosity at the Collector inlet in lb/ft-sec

S is the true specific gravity of the dust at the collector inlet, equal to the true density in grams per cc

The fractional efficiency is found by use of Fig 3 on page 7

Step 6 Calculate the total collection efficiency, Et, by means of Equation 1, page 4

Ste 7 If Et is either too low or higher than required to meet emission levels, reduce or increase the trial value o
and/or increase r1 and R2 and repeat steps 4 to 6.

Step 8 The gas will leave the scrubber saturated or nearly so. The liquid rates W1 and w2 found in step 4
do not include evaporation losses. These must be calculated by psychometrics and added
proportionally to W1 and w2

A complete example is given for students to follow.

Note To solve the efficiency one must have the particulate conditions at the collector inlet.
This will be typically as follows:

n Dp (microns) Pn % finer
1 0.1 5
2 0.14 10
3 0.2 17.3
4 0.25 25.7
5 0.3 32.8
6 0.36 40
7 0.45 49.8
8 0.55 58.5
9 0.65 65.5
10 0.75 74.5
11 1.2 85.6
12 2 95
13 4 99.14

If you do not have this data, you cannot solve the efficiency part of the design.
You may have to assume this particulate condition simply to demonstrate the method.

Flange types http://progdev.sait.ab.ca/pwen220/042/piping3.htm

Van Stone Flanges are often used in Srubbers. Check the above web site for a description of several types of flang
They are often used to connect plastic PVC pipe to metal pipes with standard flanges.
http://www.estcorporation.com/wetscrub.htm
ne particles in the size range of one micron and smaller.
ntact between the particles in the gas and the scrubbing liquid.
rticles from the gas. For varying gas rates, variable throat
eded for effective control of the particles.
parator with liquid storage, a recirculation pump,
d. System blowers can also be included.

R1 R2
R3

Slurry Drain

Clean Gas Out

See actual dimensions in Richardson


page 10 of 100-115

Richardson No. = 100-115

aporation in the Contactor


out 250 to 300F ahead
ption that hot gas temperature
to 300F range.
, ( a dimensionless Scrubber Size)
system requirements are

et per minute, acfm

dimensions are provided.

is the numerical
use in other Figures.

ncreases as an exponential function of the


first trial value.

maintained within certain limits.


quantity of scrubbing liquid supplied.
pply it are relatively inexpensive
ual to the maximum values determined

solid cone nozzle directly below

or. It is supplied by means of

ing evaporation losses,


ing evaporation losses,

aporation losses.

crubber size N

Equation 7

density in grams per cc

r increase the trial value of dP

d w2 found in step 4
s and added
n of several types of flanges.
From Richardson 100-115, page 11
Given: Gas Conditions at Collector Inlet
Table of capacities, Dimensions and Weights by Fisher - Klosterman Inc.
Gas temp =
acfm acfm length " Radius " max acfm R.H. =
Size N Max Min. A E Selector Q, acfm =
WH - 65 65 360 225 28 5 Dg =
WH - 80 80 550 340 34.375 6 Ug =
WH - 100 100 860 535 43 7 S=
WH - 120 120 1235 770 51.625 8.5 Year =
WH - 150 150 1935 1205 64.5 10 Mtl (1 to 4)
WH - 180 180 2785 1735 77.375 12 Cdn $ exchange =
WH - 210 210 3790 2360 90.375 13.5
WH - 250 250 5375 3345 107.5 15.5 Step 2 Max =
WH - 300 300 7740 4820 129 18 Min. =
WH - 350 350 10535 6560 150.5 21.5 N=
WH - 400 400 13760 8570 172 24 Size =
WH - 450 450 17415 10850 193.5 27.5 Length =
WH - 500 500 21500 13395 215 31 Diam. =
WH - 550 550 26015 16205 236.5 33.5
WH - 600 600 30960 19290 258 36 Step 3 Assume a trial value pressure
WH - 650 650 36330 22635 279.5 39
WH - 700 700 42140 26255 301 42 Step 4a R1 minimum =
WH - 800 800 55035 34290 344 47 R1 maximum =
WH - 900 900 69655 43400 387 53 69655
WH - 1000 1000 85895 53580 430 58 85895 Select R1 just under R1 maximu
WH - 1100 1100 104055 64835 473 63 104055
WH - 1200 1200 123835 77160 516 69 123835 Step 4b 0.05(R1) =
WH - 1300 1300 145335 90555 559 74 145335 0.2(R1) =
WH - 1450 1450 180810 112660 623.5 87 180810
Select R2 = just under 0.2(R1) =

Step 4c By eqn 4, R3 = 12.078(N) / Q


By eqn 4, R3 =

Fig 1 for 30 inches w.c. dP and N > 800

N R1 R1 calc
800 1.65 1.63 dP = 30 " w.c. for N > 800
900 1.6 1.60 2
1000 1.55 1.57
R1 minimum, Gal/1000 acfm

1.9
1100 1.52 1.53 1.8
1200 1.5 1.50 1.7
1300 1.48 1.47 1.6
f(x) = - 0.000332x + 1.898787
1450 1.42 1.42 1.5 Column B
1.4 Linear (Column B
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Scrubber Size, N
1.4 Linear (Column B

R1 minimum,
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Scrubber Size, N

Fig 1 for 50 inches w.c. dP and for N > 800

N R1 R1 calc
800 3 3.00 Fig 1 for R1 at 50 " w.c. for N > 800
900 2.95 2.95
1000 2.9 2.90 3.1

R1 Minimum, Gal/1000 acfm


1100 2.85 2.85
3
1200 2.8 2.80 f(x) = - 0.000489x + 3.389268
1300 2.75 2.75 2.9
1450 2.685 2.68
2.8 Column B
Linear (Column
2.7

2.6

2.5
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Scxrubber Size, N

Figure 2 for 30" w.c. and N > 800


Fig 2 for R1 Max when N > 800
N R1 max R1 calc
800 4.01 4.01 4.2
900 4.03 4.03
4.15
R1 max, Gal/1000 acfm

1000 4.055 4.05


f(x) = 0.000218x + 3.835446
1100 4.075 4.08
4.1
1200 4.1 4.10
1300 4.12 4.12 4.05 Column B
1450 4.15 4.15 Linear (Column B)
4

3.95

3.9
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Scxrubber Size, N
as Conditions at Collector Inlet

125 F Gas does not require pre-cooling


10%
68,500 lb/hr = 266,328
0.0648 lb/cf
1.25E-05 lb mass/ft- cP = 1.86E-02
2 true specific gravity of solids centipoise
2003
1 12 ga HRS cs Construction
1.6 To convert to CDN $

69,655 acfm
43,400 acfm
900 nominal size Calcs only good when N . 800
WH - 900 Fisher - Klosterman Inc nomenclature
32.25 ft. approx see Richardson page 10
8.8 ft. approx see Richardson page 10

Assume a trial value pressure drop = 30 inches w.c. 1.0836 psi

R1 minimum = 1.6 Fr Fig 1 see curve fit below


R1 maximum = 4.0 Fr Fig 2 see curve fit below

Select R1 just under R1 maximum = 3.8 U.S. Gal/1000 acfm

0.05(R1) = 0.19 Eqn 3


0.76 Eqn 3

Select R2 = just under 0.2(R1) = 0.75 U.S. Gal/1000 acfm

By eqn 4, R3 = 12.078(N) / Q
By eqn 4, R3 = 0.16 U.S. Gal/1000 acfm

N > 800

Column B
Linear (Column B)

1400 1500
Linear (Column B)

1400 1500

c. for N > 800

Column B
Linear (Column B)

1400 1500

n N > 800

Column B
Linear (Column B)

00 1500
If the particle distribution of the solids in the feed is known, the collector efficiency can be determined as follows:

Step 6
Dp(n) % Finer Dp mid Ep mid Ep mid *
n microns Pn microns Fig 3 P(n+1) - Pn P(n+1) - Pn
1 0.1 5.00% 0.10 47 5.00% 2.35
2 0.14 10.00% 0.12 49.5 5.00% 2.48
3 0.2 17.30% 0.17 72.2 7.30% 5.27
4 0.25 25.70% 0.23 86 8.40% 7.22
5 0.3 32.80% 0.28 92.4 7.10% 6.56
6 0.36 40.00% 0.33 96 7.20% 6.91
7 0.45 49.80% 0.41 98.3 9.80% 9.63
8 0.55 58.50% 0.50 99.35 8.70% 8.64
9 0.65 65.50% 0.60 99.74 7.00% 6.98
10 0.75 74.50% 0.70 99.89 9.00% 8.99
11 1.2 85.60% 0.98 99.95 11.10% 11.09
12 2 95.00% 1.60 100 9.40% 9.40
13 4 99.14% 3.00 100 4.14% 4.14
100.00% 100 0.86% 0.86
Required collection efficiency = 90% Et = 90.54% Step 6

Step 5 Calculate F by Equation 7 Step 7 Efficiency, Et, meets requirement.

F = 0.003144(dP)/Dg [ (R1 + R2)^0.4571][(S/Ug)^0.2857] Equation 7

dp = 30 inches w.c.
Dg = 0.0648 lb/cf
R1 = 3.8
R2 = 0.75
S= 2
Ug = 1.25E-05 lb mass/ft-sec

F= 89.25 for use in Fig 3


e determined as follows:
Evaporation Losses are calculated as follows:

From Step 4 and Inut Data

Pressure = 14.696 psia


Temp = 125 F
RH = 10%
R1 = 3.8
R2 = 0.75
R3 = 0.16
Q= 68500 acfm
Dg = 0.0648 lb/cf

For N > 800 W1 = (2)(R1)(Q) / 3000 For N <=800, W1 = (R1)(Q) / 1000 Eqn 5b

W1 = 173.5 usgpm liquid supplied to upper liquid connection, not including evaporation losses.

For N > 800 W2 = (R1/3 + R2 + R3)(Q) / 1000 Eqn 6b

W2 = 149.0 usgpm liquid supplied to lower liquid connection, not including evaporation losses.

Calculation of the evaporation losses involves pscchometric analysis as follows: See Air Density V1.1 in Phys Prope

Calc the lbs of water per pound of dry air at 125F.

Basis V. Ganapathy, Hydroc Pr, May 1989, P-69


Satd Vap Press = 0.08+0.000000281(F)^3.25 a curve fit of vapor pressure data

Sat'd vapour pressure, SVP = 1.915117 psia by eqn 10

At RH = 10% partial Pressure pw = 0.191512 psia by pw = (RH)(SVP)

moles water / moles dry air = = pw / (Po-pw)

moles water / moles dry air = 0.013204 by eqn 11

For dry air at 21% O2 and 79% N2 the MW = 28.84


For water, the MW = 18

lbs water per lb dry air = 0.008241 by moles water * 18 / moles dry air / MW dry air = 28.84

From the psychometric chart, the corresponding web bulb temperature is 76.4 F

At 76.4 thew SVP = 0.450476 psia by eqn 10

Moles water / moles dry air = = SVP / (Po - SVP) = 0.031622

lbs water per lb dry air = 0.019737

Weight of dry air = 4402.52 lb dry air min. by Eqn 11


Evaporation losses = 6.1 u.s. gpm

W1' = 176.8 U.S. gpm

W2' = 151.8 U.S. pgm


evaporation losses.

evaporation losses.

ensity V1.1 in Phys Property Folder

Eqn 10

Eq 11

air / MW dry air = 28.84

see Perry VI, page 12-5


Cost Richardson 100-115 1988
Mtl =
Mat'l class (1 to 4) = 1 2 3 4 Size =
12 ga - NRS 1/4" - NRS 12 ga 1/4" wt man hrs Year =
Size N cs cs 304 ss 304 ss lbs install Cdn Ex =
WH - 65 65 $3,286 $3,795 $3,849 $4,563 35 8
WH - 80 80 $3,480 $4,001 $4,104 $4,935 50 8 1988
WH - 100 100 $3,707 $4,295 $4,466 $5,477 80 8 2003
WH - 120 120 $3,966 $4,611 $4,865 $6,091 110 8
WH - 150 150 $4,391 $5,137 $5,529 $7,148 170 16 1
WH - 180 180 $4,853 $5,721 $6,274 $8,358 245 16 2
WH - 210 210 $5,579 $6,586 $7,376 $9,989 420 16 3
WH - 250 250 $6,301 $7,527 $8,584 $12,032 595 16 4
WH - 300 300 $7,308 $8,856 $10,301 $13,684 855 24
WH - 350 350 $8,411 $10,328 $11,596 $16,571 1,165 24 2003
WH - 400 400 $9,813 $12,146 $13,777 $20,031 1,520 24
WH - 450 450 $11,106 $13,908 $15,486 $22,486 2,615 24
WH - 500 500 $12,511 $15,826 $17,693 $25,934 3,230 32
WH - 550 550 $13,994 $17,874 $20,047 $29,653 3,905 32
WH - 600 600 $15,650 $20,137 $22,485 $33,720 4,650 32
WH - 650 650 $17,322 $22,315 $25,003 $37,994 5,455 32
WH - 700 700 $19,087 $24,632 $27,672 $42,541 6,325 48
WH - 800 800 $22,945 $29,878 $33,727 $52,721 8,260 48
WH - 900 900 $26,854 $35,400 $40,097 $62,939 10,455 64 2003
WH - 1000 1000 $31,173 $41,501 $47,126 $74,396 12,910 64
WH - 1100 1100 $35,840 $48,119 $54,481 $86,878 21,030 96
WH - 1200 1200 $40,752 $54,854 $62,140 $100,293 25,025 96 2003
WH - 1300 1300 $46,092 $62,045 $70,430 $114,392 29,370 128
WH - 1450 1450 $54,412 $73,665 $83,850 $137,345 36,540 128

2003
Fabricated Equipment Index
Year FEI
1975 192.2
1976 200.8
1977 216.6
1978 238.6
1979 261.7
1980 291.6
1981 321.8
1982 327.5
1983 330.1
1984 335.4
1985 335.6
1986 337.7
1987 344.1 Escalation.
1988 361.3 1.05
1989 379.4 1.05
1990 398.3 1.05
1991 418.3 1.05
1992 439.2 1.05
1993 461.1 1.05
1994 484.2 1.05
1995 508.4 1.05
1996 533.8 1.05
1997 544.5 1.02
1998 555.4 1.02
1999 566.5 1.02
2000 577.8 1.02
2001 589.4 1.02
2002 601.2 1.02
2003 613.2 1.02
2004 625.4 1.02
2005 638.0 1.02
2006 650.7 1.02
2007 663.7 1.02
1 12 ga - NRS cs
900
2003
1.6 assume no duty per NAFTA

Base FEI = 361.3


Escalated FEI Index = 613.2

12 ga - NRS cs $26,854 1988


1/4" - NRS cs $35,400 1988
12 ga 304 ss $40,097 1988
1/4" 304 ss $62,939 1988

Purchased Cost, Cdn $ = $72,920


F.O.B Louisville, Kentucky
Shipping weight = 10455 lbs

Shipping Rates for 1000 miles, Class 100 for scrubbers


Richardson 100-700 $18.86 per 100 wt.

Cdn $ Shipping = $5,354

Purchased Cost, Cdn $ = $78,274


FOB Plant Site

Installation Hrs = 64
Crew rate = 2003 $50.00 $/hr Cdn
Installation Cost $3,200 $, Cdn

Total Installed Cost = $81,474 $ Cdn