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NBR 12313: 2000 Combustion system control and safety for use of

combustible gases in iow and high temperature processes

Source: Project NBR 12313: 2000

ABNT / CB09 Brazilian Committee on Fue!
CE09: 401.01 Commission Combustion System Study
and Safety for Use of Fuel Gases
NBR 12313 Combustion Control system and safety
for fuel gas utilization in Iow temperature process
Descriptors: Gas. Safety
This standard cancels and replaces the NBR 13226: 1994
This standard supersedes NBR 12313: 1992
Vaiid from 31.10,2000

ABNT Brazilian Association of Technical Standards is the National Standardization Forum. Brazilian
Standards, whose content is the responsibility of the Committees Brazilian (ABNT/CB) and Sectorial
Standardization Bodies (ABNT/ONS), are prepared by Study Committees (CE), formed by representatives
of the sectors involved, their part: producers, consumers and neutral entities (universities, laboratories and

The Brazilian Standard Project, developed under the ABNT/CB and ABNT/ONS circulate for public
consultation between members of the ABNT and other interested parties,
This standard contains Annexes A, B and C, for information only.

1 Goal
1.1 This standard sets out the minimum requirements for combustion systems, with regard to security
for the starting conditions, operation and equipment stop using gas. The following conditions, as a
function of the temperatures on the inner surfaces of the working chamber and/or process are
below or equal to 750oC (1023 K), where the normal working temperature is
insufficient to promote the ignition of the fuel;
above 750oC (1023 K), where the normal working temperature sufficient to
romote ignition of fuel.

1 This standard does not provide specifications for the manufacture of burners, equipment and Controls.
2 This Standard requires that all safety devices used in combustion systems installations are produced
specifically for use with fuel gas and having performance certificate for the purpose in which it is used,
issued by National or International competent body.
3 The person responsible for operation and maintenance or consumer equipment fuel gas is required to
maintain this equipment operating with all safety devices in perfect condition.

1.2 This standard considers the following gases:

a) natura! gas;
b) retired manufactured gas;
c) refinery gas;
d) !iquefied petroleum gas (LPG);
e) mixing LPG / air: defined as a gas from liquefied petroleum gas mixes with atmospheric air and set

NOTE: The control and security for the production of the mixture LPG / air must comply with the guidelines
of the supplier of the gas.
1.3 This standard apficase the use of gas equipment installed in commercial or industriai establishments.

1.4 This standard applies bere to duocombustiveis equipment with the characteristics described in 1.1,1.2
and 1.3, when operating with gas.

1.5 This standard does not provide guidance for the construction and installation of means that the relief
of internai pressure in case of explosion equipment, resulting for example from incomplete combustion,
fault protection device, or the presence of flammable fuels generated by the process, between others.

The design and installation of such panels and / or parts designed to enable the explosion of relief in
accordance with the applicale rules, to be considered by the equipment manufacturer (example: ovens,
stoves, boilers, etc.), and the responsive and the operation or maintenance of these.

1.6 equipment operating cyclic or sporadically at high temperature must meet the requirements for low
temperature equipment.

1.7 This standard applies here to burner whose flame is partiaily or compietely confined.

1.8 In this standard are given in Annexes A, B and C the following typical diagrams and fiowcharts:
a.1) typical flowchart gas combustion System for low-temperature equipment with a single
a.2) typical block diagram of the gas combustion System starting sequence for low temperature
equipment with a single burner;

b.1) typical flowchart gas combustion System for high temperature equipment with multiple
bumers offset by proof sealing System (bypass);
b.2) typical block diagram of the gas combustion System starting sequence for high-temperature
equipment with multiple burners;
b.3) block diagram for a deviation proof sealing System (bypass) with restriction orifice;
b.4) methods for determining the restriction orifice area, offset by sealing proof systems (bypass);

c) typical flowchart for using alternate gaseous fuel in the same pipe.

2 Definitions
For the purposes of this document, aplicamse the following settings:

2.1 doubie lock and unloading: safety lock System consists of three valves, two automatic lock installed
in series in the gas line and a third automatic discharge valve installed between them with free outiet
to the atmosphere.

2.2 Safety lock: gas flow interruption fuel by closing the shut-off valves, accompanied by the interruption
of ignition source.

2.3 combustion chamber: Part of the equipment in which the main combustion takes place.

2.4 the process chamber: Part of the equipment containing the product to be processed.

2.5 calls departure: Flame set the correct flow of starting, the main burner or separate pilot.

2.6 calls main: Flame, other than the flame of departure, established the main burner.
2.7 commissioning: set of procedures, tests, adjustments and adjustments of the combustion System,
necessary for the placement of equipment in operation.
2.8 high control / low: Demand Control that under the action of the process controller allows the flow of
fuel to be burned occurs only in two positions: maximum flow (high flame) and minimum flow (low

2.9 on / off control: demand control which, under the action of the process controller allows operation with
a single flow of fuel to be burned. The burner remains on or off.

2.10 Modulating control: demand control which, under the action of the process controller allows the
flow of fuel to be burned is variable between the maximum and minimum flow rates.

2.11 flame protection control: Security Control responsible for security lock the drive in the absence of

2.12 Disarm: Maintaining security lock condition of a combustion system, a result of which new game
can not take place without manual intervention.

2.13 high temperature equipment: Equipment operating continuously at temperatures above 750 oC
(1023 K) in the walls of the combustion chamber and / or process.

2.14 low temperature equipment: Equipment operating in less than or equal to 750 oC temperature (1023
K) in the walls of the combustion chamber and / or process.

2.15 establishment of starting calls: starting flame proven training and supervised on a burner.

2.16 test switch position: Device which shows the position of a movable element by an electrical contact.

2.17 Interlock: Interconnection of security and control components necessary to monitor the state of a
required condition.

2.18 period starting flame establishment of: Period between the end of the ignition period and the
activation of the main safety lock system.

2.19 period of establishment of the main draws: Period between the activation of the main automatic
locking system and the pilot interruption.

2.20 period of ignition starting calls: Period between the activation of the ignition source and the
evidence of the match flame.

2.21 pilot: secondary burner used to ignite the main burner.

2.22 alternate pilot: Pilot who is erased at the end of the main burner ignition period and is again lit
before the main burner shutdown due to the control request.

2.23 continuous pilot: Pilot is lit before the lighting of the main flame and is extinguished simultaneously
with her, flame supervision independent of the main burner.

2.24 pilot interrupted: Pilot is lit before the lighting of the main flame and is deleted at the end of the
period of establishment this.

2.25 thermal power: Amount of energy per unit of time, which can be supplied by the burner equipment,
under the conditions for which it was designed.

2.26 pre-purge: Purge the foregoing attempt to burner ignition, starting from a condition of standstill.
2.27 2.27 protection against high pressure gas: protection medium which promotes tripping of the
combustion system, when there is an elevation of the gas pressure above a predetermined value for the
safe operation of the equipment.

2.28 protection against low pressure gas: protection medium which promotes tripping of the combustion
system, reduction occurs when the gas pressure beiow a predetermined value for the safe operation of
the equipment.

2.29 purge: introducing an airflow into the combustion chamber, the working chamber and the chimney
in order to completely eliminate any remaining fuel mixture.

2.30 burner: Component responsible for the maintenance of a stable flame, where a secure and
controlled combustion is generated.

2.31 duocombustivel burner: Burner design which allows operating with gas or other fuel, but not both

2.32 combined burner: Burner whose design allows to operate with gas and/or other fuel simultaneously.

2.33 burner with forced air supply: burner in which the combustion air is supplied under pressure.

2.34 induced burner with air supply: burner in which the combustion air is introduced by the depression
created in the combustion chamber.

2.35 burner with natural air supply: burner which does not require introduction of air by mechanical
means, removing the combustion air directly from the atmosphere through diffusion or carrier.

2.36 pulse burner control system: System multiple burners where it is controlled by the amount and l or
period of operation of the burner, buming in two fixed thermal inputs, i.e., through high 1 low control; or on
off control.

2.37 pressure regulator: valve designed to maintain a constant downstream pressure regardless of flow
variations and pressure or upstream.

2.38 flame sensor: Component of a flame detection system that monitors the presence or absence of
the ame.

2.39 starting sequence: Sequence of steps to ensure the early safe operation of a combustion system.

2.40 simulation calls: A condition in which the sensor misnamed detects the presence of the flame.

2.41 automatic system: one that meets the full cycle of events for the operation of a combustion system,
without operator intervention

2.42 safety locking system: automatic shut-off valves system, controlled by the control and safety circuit
that enables or not the gas flow to the burner.

2.43 combustion system: set consisting of burner, combustion air supply system, gas supply system,
detection system calls and operational control system of the burner.

2.44 Leak proof system: A system that aliows the identification otthe occurrence of gas ieaks through
the safety interlock system.
2.45 deviation for sealing verification System (bypass): automatic procedure used in equipment with
multiple burners to verify the occurrence of gas leakage through the automatic shut-off valves or manual
for each burner.

2.46 flame detection System: Set composed of flame sensor, Signal ampiifier and relay calls.

2.47 tightness test: Procedure to verify the occurrence of gas leaks in the piping and / or components.

NOTE: Specific care regarding the maximum allowable pressure of the components must be observed.

2.48 mechanicai draft: draft type where the displacement of the combustion products is done through
mechanical device, usually extractors.

2.49 natural draft: draft type where the displacement of the combustion products is done by natural

2.50 torch lighting: flame source, burning off the combustion chamber.

2.51 automatic locking valve: automatic normally closed valve installed in the gas feed line, designed to
allow or disallow gas flow in response to an eiectrical Signal.

2.52 relief valve: autooperada valve, normally closed, designed to allow the flow of gas when the
pressure to amount to overcome a preadjusted value.

2.53 manual shut-off valve of the burner: manually operated valve in the gas supply line of the burner,
which is downstream of all valves and accessories installed as close as possible to the burner body.

2.54 automatic discharge valve: automatic valve normally open, installed between the automatic shut-
off valves in the gas line, with exit to the atmosphere.

2.55 automatic locking valve for overpressure: lock operated by gas pressure valve with manual reset,
installed upstream of the throttle with the downstream pressure sensing this and adjusted to block the
passage of gas in case of pressure elevation.

2.56 main valve Manual lock: manually operated valve, installed in the gas supply line upstream of all
other components, for the purpose of full opening orfull closure ofthe gas supply.

2.57 check valve: the valve that prevents reverse flow.

2.58 normally closed valve: valve, when not activated, or rernains returns to the interrupted passage

2.59 normally open valve: Valve that when not activated, rernains or returns to the free passage position.

2.60 starting flow: limited gas flow, which is accepted by a pilot orthe main burner during the
establishment period ofthe match flame.

2.61 Verification safe departure: Checking for premature flame or a flame simulation condition, in order
to block the Start sequence.

2.62 calls display: Opening intended and appropriate flame view.

2.63 volume of working chamber: All the space used in a device, to transfer heat to the process or the

2.64 control zone: given space inside the machine, which operates under the same parameters (eg
temperature, pressure).
3. General conditions

3.1 Gas supply

3.1.1 Design and assembly of the internal gas distribution piping shall be carried out in such a way that:

No fluctuation of internal distribution pressure occurs;

The maximum permissible pressure drop between the gas inlet and each point
of consumption is 20%, regardless of the flow variation;
Means are provided to facilitate purging of the gas during commissioning and
No diversions are installed (by-pass) in parallel with any safety equipment;

3.1.2 Pipes to and including the safety interlock system shall be mounted in a position not vulnerable to the
possibility of damage from unforeseen events in their surroundings;

3.1.3 Where it is necessary to use part of a pipeline for more than one fuel within the others line, for example by
the physical separation of the networks. See attachment C;

3.1.4 Any piping in the gas distribution network which is not connected at the point of consumption and which is
under load, must be plugged, capped or have blind flange mounted downstream of the manual locking valve

3.1.5 The piping shall be visually identified as being a gas pipe;

3.1.6 In cases where condensates can create hazards, means should be provided at the lowest points so that
drain any condensate. When wet gases are used, suitable condensate drains to the gas should be installed.
Any condensate drain must be in a position where it can be easily vented.
Flammable condensates must be collected by appropriate means.
Condensate drain valves must be plugged, capped or blind flanges installed.

3.1.1 Filters A filter shall be installed, immediately downstream of the main manual blocking valve of the equipment, to
protect the other components of the gas supply line from deposits and erosion due to particulates. Filters must have filter elements with holes up to 20 microns. It is essential that the pipes are thoroughly cleaned prior to the installation of the components of any
combustion system, as well as during and after any modification or maintenance service.
3.1.2 Pipes General

It is essential that the pipes are thoroughly cleaned prior to the installation of the components of any combustion
system, as well as during and after any modification or maintenance service. Flow rate

The piping of the combustion system shall be designed so that the gas velocity does not exceed 45 m/s. Discharge pipes The discharge pipes from the safety system shall have their discharge ends positioned in an external and
ventilated environment. The point of discharge must be located outside the buildings, and positioned so as to
guarantee the non-return of gas coming from this point into the interior of this building:

a) For gases lighter than air, the building openings (eg: windows) cannot be above the point of discharge;
b) for gases heavier than air, building openings (eg: windows) may not be below point of discharge.

NOTE - The point of discharge should be turned to the external environment and constructed in
such a way as to prevent the entry of water and bodies strangers inside. The diameter of the discharge pipe shall be at least equal to the diameter of the outlet nozzle of the
element discharge controller. For long discharge pipes or with excessive number of bends, it is necessary to increase
in diameter to compensate for load losses. For pressure regulators that have an internal relief valve or vent, installed indoors, It is necessary to
install discharge pipes. The same applies to regulators without internal relief valves, but with a vent, when the
discharge orifice has a diameter greater than 3 mm. This requirement does not apply to pressure regulators having
a second diaphragm, which ensures that no gas leakage into the rupture in the service diaphragm. The discharge pipe of a pressure regulating valve shall be independent of the other pipes of discharge. The discharge pipes of the automatic discharge and relief valves may be interconnected, provided that
the cross-sectional area of the collecting discharge pipe is greater than or equal to the sum of the cross-sectional
area of the two largest discharge pipes to be connected to it.

3.1.3 Gas pressure

Installers of a combustion system shall anticipate the gas pressure ranges reported by the manufacturers and / or
designers of the control system.
3.1.4 Manual locking valves Manual override valves to be used in gas lines shall meet the following basic requirements:

Course for opening or closing it should be 90 ;

they must have mechanical limiters of course;
the drive lever cannot be mounted in such a way as to enable an ambiguous indication of its position of
be easily opened or closed, even after long periods of non-operation. A manually operated main valve shall be installed as close as possible to the equipment in a position safe
and easily accessible. In addition, in equipment with multiple burners, each burner shall be fitted with of a manual
override valve. Manual valves shall be so installed that, when subjected to moving from their operating position, due to
the force of gravity or vibrations, these forces act in the direction of their closure.

3.1.5 Control of the gas supply Check valves When the burner running on gas for food with compressed air and / or oxygen, it must be installed. In
the feed line of each burner or group of burners a check valve in the gas line, and another line of compressed air
and / or oxygen. Pressure Regulators A properly specified pressure regulator shall be fitted to control a supply pressure make the gas to the
equipment burner. When the pressure variations do not reach the pilot to cause operational problems, a unique
regulator must be installed.

NOTE - A pressure regulator for a combustion plant must meet the following characteristics:
- the pressure of a pressure regulator shall not vary by more than 10% of the set
pressure, irrespective of the flow, and or pressure variation to its upstream;
- the pressure on the outlet pressure, provided it does not flow;
- be of the self-operated or operated type, the working fluid being the gas itself. The discharge pipe of a pressure regulating valve shall be independent of the other pipes of discharge
maximum flow rate of gas without pipes extending the pressure counting the impulse lines of pressure regulators
shall not exceed 20 m/s, despite those prescribed in
3.1.6 Protection against high pressure and low gas pressure Protection against high gas pressure

The components of the combustion system are designed to withstand maximum Internal distribution of gas supply,
a quantity of main manual locking valve. When it is not A system consisting of an automatic overpressure locking
valve with Manual, installed upstream of pressure regulator with downstream pressure sensor and adjusted in A
blockage of the passage of gas in case of pressure rise. A partial safety valve must be installed downstream of the
pressure regulator and adjusted with an intermediate pressure between a blocking and operating pressure. High pressure gas protection must be installed under all circumstances, except when all conditions the
following are met:

- the pressure loss through the gas pressure regulator is less than 30% of the minimum
outlet pressure (p <0.3 Ps);
- failure of the throttle does not result in an unsafe starting flow;
- the power of the equipment is less than 500 000 kcal/h (580 kW) and the gas supply
pressure does not exceed 100 mbar (10 kPa). The protection against high pressure of the gas must disarm the system, and new starting must occur
from the beginning of the sequence. In cases where the pilot gas supply is through an independent regulator and in case of failure of this
regulator, the values required in paragraph a) of can be exceeded, it is necessary to use protection against
high gas pressure exclusive to the pilot. Said protection must be operative from the beginning of the period lighting. Between the gas piping and the high-pressure gas sensor, the use of a shut-off valve is forbidden. It is not permissible to delay the action of the high pressure sensor after energizing of the automatic
locking valves. The high pressure sensor shall be installed downstream of the pressure regulator and upstream of the
control system and should be adjusted to a value of at most 20% above the maximum possible pressure to occur in
conditions. During commissioning it shall be checked whether the burner operates safely up to the set pressure of the
high pressure sensor Protection against low gas pressure The installation of protection against low gas pressure immediately downstream of the pressure. The protection against low gas pressure shall disarm the system when it occurs. If a compressor or other similar equipment is used to raise the gas pressure, a low gas pressure must be
installed upstream of it, in order to shut it down, in the event of a reduction of pressure, and prevent automatic
restart if the pressure is restored. Authorization to use a compressor and the shear pressure value should be
decided by the gas supplier and depend on the local requirements of distribution. The use of a locking valve is prohibited between the gas piping and the low gas pressure sensor. The low pressure sensor shall be set to a value of not more than 20% below the minimum pressure
possible under normal operating conditions. During commissioning it shall be checked whether the burner operates safely up to the set pressure of
the low pressure sensor.

3.1.7 Air / gas mixtures The use of a combustion system using the distribution of air/gas mixtures within the flammability limit
should be avoided, but when essential the following precautions must be taken:

a) The pipe leading the mixture should be as short as possible;

b) Devices should be installed to protect the mixer, or blender, flame back (eg: flame arresters and explosion
relief devices);

NOTE - For mixer protection systems, specific standards on the subject must be consulted.

c) Mixer or mixing machine must stop and have its gas supply interrupted, under pressure condition abnormal
gas inlet, or obstruction in the air intake, and require manual reset to be reset in operation. When distributing air/gas mixtures outside the flammability limit, means shall be provided to control and
prevent the mixer or mixing machine from producing a mixture with an inconsistent and flammable Wobbe
3.2 Combustion air supply

3.2.1 The conditions of ambient ventilation, the equipment and the construction in which it is situated must be
such that allow adequate supply of combustion air to the burner under all operating conditions.

3.2.2 Failure to supply combustion air for burners with forced or interrupting the operation and causing a safety
lock or trip.

3.2.3 Installation of a forced or induced air pressure gauge is recommended.

3.2.4 Evidence of airflow can be made by monitoring its static pressure if it can be demonstrated this provides
reliable proof of airflow during purging, ignition and operation.

3.2.5 Where the evidence required in 3.2.4 is doubtful, the airflow must be checked by means of the differential
pressure, in order to meet the requirement of

NOTE - The connection points of a pressure monitoring system shall be so positioned that when the air or draft are
closed, the resulting static pressure difference does not translate into an apparent airflow signal.

3.2.6 In addition to 3.2.4 and 3.2.5, the fan magnet auxiliary contact must be used to verify its correct position
during burner operation. Failure of this interlock shall cause disassembly. Exception is made for fans that use
single-phase motors fed directly from the mains.

3.2.7 Combustion fans should not be installed where temperatures combustion conditions.

3.2.8 Air intakes of combustion fans and air intakes of injectors and burners shall be protected against clogging or

NOTE - Attention must be given to the installation of filters for the combustion air due to the process requirement,
the burner or when the air intake is located in an environment with excess particulate matter.

3.2.9 Means shall be provided to securely secure any adjustments made to combustion or drainage. The design
shall provide that, in the event of failure of the fastening device, due to the force of gravity or vibrations, these
forces act in such a way that the adjustments are changed to a position.

3.2.10 Where a change in combustion chamber pressure leads to a risk condition, such security lock.

3.2.11 When there is an air-generating station that feeds more than one combustion chamber, this shall, in addition
to providing evidence of the airflow of the generation system, specifically provide evidence of air flow in each
chamber served.
3.2.12 Special attention should be given to the requirements necessary for the operation of complex systems, such

a) Draw systems with multiple fans;

b) Multiple burner installations;
c) Electrostatic precipitators;
d) Other devices that may be possible sources of ignition in the exhaust gases.

3.2.13 Air intake from combustion fans should not be carried out in areas where of combustible gases (vapors).

3.3 Electricity supply

4.1.2 Any electrical installation that feeds an electrical circuit or component must comply with the requirements
of standards specific.

4.1.3 The supply of electricity to the components of a combustion system (flame controllers, automatic shut-off
valves, ignition transformers, auxiliary elements, etc.) shall be supplied by means of a suitable voltage stabilizer and
sized to meet The load required, or the equipment should go to safety locking and/or tripping if the voltage variation
exceeds the allowable limits of the system components.

4.1.4 The interruption and/or restoration of the electricity supply at any time cannot safety or disarmament.

4.1.5 A properly identified wiring diagram of the electrical installation must be kept inside the panel. If this is
impractical, this diagram should be available near the installation.

4.1.6 If it is necessary to use a timer relay, it should preferably have a fixed or variable switching time with sealing
after adjustment. The predetermined times should not suffer a variation greater than 20%, depending on the
variation of the supply voltage within its acceptable range of 85% to 110% of the rated value.

4.1.7 In systems where the control panel of the equipment is installed in a control room, or away from the control
the installation of the burners, an emergency device must be installed near the burners to enable the system
shutdown when necessary.

4.2 Equipment and auxiliary information

4.2.2 General

It is essential that all equipment manufacturers or designers make sure that users are provided with information
regarding the equipment provided or designed.
4.2.3 Minimum information to be provided

Manufacturers or designers shall provide all relevant information, including:

a) Name and address of the manufacturer;

b) Complete description of the equipment supplied, including the serial number;
c) Refractory details, if applicable;
d) Appropriate electrical diagrams, including logic sequence;
e) Requirements for installation;
f) Type of fuel, thermal power and pressures for which the combustion system is designed;
g) Voltage, number of phases and frequency of electrical components;
h) Size and type of gas inlet connections of the combustion system;
i) Instructions for reversing fuel, for burners designed to operate with more than one type of
j) Clear and simple instructions on stopping, starting, operating, emergency conditions of the
combustion system and routine checks.

4.2.4 Nameplates

Each component shall be marked in a durable and easily visible manner, with all the information characterization.

4.2.5 Commissioning data The manufacturer, installer, designer and / or gas supply company shall provide sufficient information for
the correct commissioning of the equipment. The manufacturer, installer or gas supply company shall keep records of the equipment commissioned by
its technicians.

4.2.6 Flame display

It is necessary to provide means for the visual observation of the flame, in order to allow the evaluation of its
stability, under all operating conditions.

4.2.7 Explosion-Proof Devices

Consideration should be given to the need to install explosion-relief devices on gas-consuming equipment.

4.2.8 Equipment involving the use of flammable solvents

When the process involves the use of flammable solvents, additional precautions are required under this Standard.
It is advisable to consult specific standards or codes.
4. Specific conditions

4.1 System Requirements

4.1.1 General

The requirements of combustion equipment of any system dependent on the operation method, and in particular,
the degree of automation required, 80 the security system of the combustion system must be designed and
instailed so that in the event of a single failure of any electrical component, electronic or mechanical system should
be taken automatically to a safe condition.

Some requirements must be met:

a) relays and contactors should be de-energized to perform safety lock, disarm, or other security condition;
b) a single failure of any component linked to the security locking system can not keep him always energized;
c) air flow interlock must be checked in position "naoar" before starting the fan;
d) flame detection system should block the starting sequence if it is detected the presence of ame or sensor faiiure
(flame simulation) before the start of the ignition sequence;
e) the operation buttons, keys, or other devices, incorrectly or out of sequence, can not undermine system security;
f) where they are used connectors quick coupling type (electronic, electrical or mechanical), their construction must
differ as to prevent improper connections,

4.1.2 Pre-purge No attempt ignition can occur without prior security procedures are followed to ensure that no combustible
mixture is present in the combustion chamber and or work. This can be achieved by a suitable period of pre-purge. Special considerations should be given to the dead space ventilation in working chambers, ducts, etc,
before the pre-purge. Any auxiliary equipment that might be a source of ignition within the combustion chambers and or work
must be disabled during pre-purge. It is necessary to interlock the operation of vital components to the effectiveness of purging within the
starting sequence (for example fans, switches, switches for confirmation of open air damper, doors, drawing
records, etc). Where chimneys are equipped with valve for dispensing the adjustment, care should be taken to ensure
that your misfit can not result in the closure of the chimney during the purge, ignition or burner operation. Examples
of precautions:

a) the vaive for drawing scale adjustment such that when it is in the fully closed position,
at least a third of the cross sectional area of the chimney remains open;
b) put together a travei stop in the valve for drawing adjustment to prevent its complete
c) automatically controlling the valve to adjust the drawing, so that it opens to the
proper positions for purging, ignition and burner operation. Such positions should be
substantiated and electrically interlocked to the starting sequence and burner
operation. Specific considerations shouid be taken with respect to pre-purge in cases of processes using controlled
atmospheres. In the System with forced or induced air supply shouid be noted:

a) pre-purge shouid be made, preferably with the maximum combustion air flow can not be
made at a lower flow rate at 25% of maximum flow of combustion air;
b) pre-purge time shouid be such as to ensure that the concentration of any fuel in any pari
of the combustion chamber and chimney, is below 25% of the fuel gas lower flammable
limit; it is calculated assuming the combustion chamber and chimney are initially 100%
filled with flammable gases.
Generally pre-purge shouid provide at least five changes of the internal volume of air
contained in the combustion chamber and / or work, ducts and outlet chimneys of the
combustion products as well as in peripherai Systems as, for example, air preheater
combustion and others;


1 For equipment with thermal input below 100 000 kcal/h, where the five exchanges
parameter of the internal volume of air could harm the process or product, a fewer
number of transactions will be accepted, provided it can be demonstrated by the
designer this need, and in this case the minimum time necessary pre-purge is 30 s.

2 This paragraph does not apply to Systems that are served by collective chimney,
where, in addition to this requirement, must be analyzed the specific conditions of each

c) regardless of the number of installed burners, the equipment must be purged, usandose all
burners, unless it can be demonstrated that a more effective purging is obtained usandose
fewer burners with a higher air flow burner;
d) any hood or fan shouid be operating, and all records correctly positioned to ensure the
effectiveness of pre-purge;
e) in case of disconnection of all the burners, devese perform a pre-purge as specified in
paragraphs a, b, c and d above, except when used pulse burner System (for normal work
regime). In the System with natural air supply shouid be noted:

a) any attempt to ignition and / or re-ignition must be preceded by a controlled fixed time
automatically and interlocked to the control System and flame protection with enough time
to vent any residual fuel mixture, which may be present in the equipment;
b) all equipment doors must remain open until all burners are ready to be connected. If the
efficiency of drainage is reduced by the fact that the doors have been opened, they must
be kept in a position such as to ensure the effectiveness of the purging until its completion,
and then, if possible, opened before start ignition by the ignition of the burners. In the following cases the pre-purge may be omitted (both during the match and after blocking):

a) under which the presence offree oxygen can be dangerous (eg flammable atmospheres) or
their presence could affect the equipment or product quality;
b) In these cases, additional precautions must be taken to prevent leakage of gas
through blockade of blo automatic valves, through the use of two Class 1 or A valve in
series with a sealing proof System.
c) when it is proved that the combustion chamber is a temperature higher than 750oC (as
defined for high temperature equipment). In the case of the burner stop clue to the process control action, pre-purge is not required to split when:

a) burner is installed with a continuous or alternate pilot supervised;

b) systems with pulse burners since the automatic locking valve each burner is certified
that is suitable to the high number of cycles required for the firing pulses;
c) when the burner is installed with two automatic Class 1 or A shut-off valves in series,
simultaneously ciosing with a seating verification system;
NOTE For pulse burners the sealing proof device is not required.
d) systems with multiple burners, where one or more burners are lit in the same zone.

4.1.3 Ignition and establishment of starting calls General The ignition and starting flame establishment shouid occur shortly after pre-purge period. For the burner firing of a smooth and reliable way, devese provide an adequate source of ignition and
take special care with its positioning (see The ignition source must be triggered before or simultaneously with the gas supply. The ignition and I or starting flame establishment must be done safely and automatically without the use
of any hand torch. Torches gas firing equipment to set as high temperature lighting torches are used for ignition of the match flame or main flame, when there is no automatic
ignition. should be provided displays and portholes for ignition, so that the burner available for easy access to your
ignition, and starting flame and main can be clearly observed and should be guaranteed the safety of the operator. For firing a burner with torch, three simultaneous operations are required, without displacement of the
operator. They are: positioning of the torch on the burner, opening the manual shut-off valve and the burner flame
of view.

NOTE After firing the starting flame and main, the torch should be removed and can not be used to stabilize any
of them. In the case of gas lighting torches, a manual shut-off valve, easily accessible, must be installed upstream
of the supply hose. The hose should be as short as possible. The gas igniting torches should be stable under all operating conditions and shall not be affected during
the firing, pressure fluctuations, variations in the pressure of the combustion chamber, etc. The flow of ignition gas torch must be limited to the amount necessary for a reliable ignition and can not
exceed the specified values for starting fire. Ignition by electrical arcing should be provided an adequate ground for the system. All high voltage cables should be as short as possible, and all terminals and altatenso cables must be
protected to prevent the possibility of personal injury or system failures. should be used, preferably with a single transformer secondary pole. Transformers that have more than
one pole may be used, but the other poles are not used must be protected to prevent the possibility of accidents. The transformer should be mounted as close to the burner, but where is not subject to overheating. All ignition electrodes must be mounted and property insulated, so as to ensure that arcing does not occur
outside the correct position to ignite the flame of departure. The spark for ignition can not be energized before the prpurga period has been completed and should
be isle-energized at the end of the ignition period of the match flame (see To set equipment as high temperature, and that does not have control and protection system flame
should be possible to visually confirm the presence of spark ignition and starting gas flame and main, while the
abrese manual shut-off valve of the burner. If it is necessary to pass the altatensao of cable conduit, it must be unique. starting Flame The ignition of a burner must be carried out:

a) through a pilot with stable and correctly positioned ame, and the subsequent
establishment of the main flame, or;
b) b) through direct ignition of the main flame, set the correct flow for the flame of
departure, and the subsequent establishment of the main flame itself, for burners with
forced air supply and burners, to supply natural air with thermal energy released in the
chamber combustion up to 100 000. Kcal/h (120 KW);
c) by gas lighting torches to set equipment as high temperature (see The energy released during the starting flame ignition period should be limited. The following criteria
must be met to determine the starting flow:

a) for the flame established starting according to limit the starting flow to a
maximum of 25% of the required gas flow to obtain a stoichiometric burning, with the
air flow that is proven, it is supplied to the main burner during the ignition period of the
starting flame;
NOTE When applying the criteria defined in lead to low thermal power
drivers, especially in the case of burners with high ratio of maximum power/minimum
power, special considerations must be made to ensure adequate power and pilot ensure
smooth ignition of all gas through-holes of the main burner.
b) to set the starting flames according to, the release of energy during its
ignition must not exceed 100 000 kcal/h (120 kW). The ignition time of departure calls can not exceed 7s. Admitese that this period be extended to 15s, only
for burners with natural air supply, thermal power of less than 300 000 kcal/h (350 kW). In the case of non-establishment of the starting flame should occur safety lock and/or automatic tripping.
However, in certain cases (for example for automatic ignition cycles) the split is acceptable, provided that the safety
equipment is not compromised. The conditions and split number can not exceed three for burners with power more
than 300 000 kcal/h (350 kw) and must be specified in the instruction manual. lf there is no flame signal at the end
of the split, the burner should go to disarm. In systems with multiple burners starting flame from a burner should not interfere with the starting other
burners. Pilots (additional requirements) In burners where the starting flame is established on a pilot burner, the chamapiloto must be erased or
interrupted during operation of the main flame; otherwise, there must be a separate and reliable detection of the
main flame.

NOTE In cases where there is more than one unit power burner, below 300 000 kcal/h (350 kW) installed in a
single combustion chamber, permitese the use of continuous pilot with protective flame without sensing separately
from the main flame. In the case of burners with natural air supply and thermal power of less than 300 000 kcal/h (350 kW),
admitese continuous pilot burner without independent sensing the main flame, provided that they met the
requirements 4.1 .2.3. A pilot flame should be stable under all conditions of operation and must not be affected by the
combustion air of the main burner, pressure fluctuations over the burner ignition, pressure fluctuations in the
combustion chamber, etc.

Note stabilization by continuous sparking, among others, is not permitted. Pilots must be constructed and assembled so as to be accessible to performing maintenance. To equipment defined as high temperature, which are not installed flame protection control systems (see, the chamapiloto should be checked visually after its ignition, to ensure the establishment of a suitable
flame with conditions to provide a smooth and reliable ignition of the main flame. The pilot gas supply must be taken upstream of the security locking system of the main burner, with due
regard to the requirements in The pilot supply system (air, gas, spark) must provide a means to set your settings to always provide the
same lighting conditions. The installation against high-pressure gas protection devices may be required to queimadorespiloto (see

4.1.4 Detection Flame A detection system and fire protection must be installed for each burner individually. To set equipment as high temperature, a detection system and fire protection is not required, but must
be installed for each individual burner, in the following cases:

a) in which equipment, for process requirements, a part of the operation is performed at

temperatures less than 750oC (1023 K) and the combustion chamber or process;
b) equipment that provide more than one type of process and occasionally work at
temperatures below 750oC (1023 K);
c) in burners with multiple devices where one or more zones of control operate continuously
or sporadically at temperatures less than 750oC (1023 K), at least for all the burners of these
d) where there are technical or operational need. To set equipment as high temperature, where a detection system and fire protection is not installed:

a) the equipment must be under the constant supervision of a qualified operator

during its startup, at least until the temperature of 750oC (1023 K); is reached;
b) devese immediately stop the gas supply to any burner that has suffered loss of
ame. In equipment with multiple burners, only the burner that suffered loss flame
needs to be deleted.
However, if there is any possibility that this may result in an unsafe condition, so all
equipment should be paralyzed;
c) design for special care to ensure that, in equipment with multiple burners, if the loss
of flame in one or more of them result in reducing the temperature beiow 750oC (1023
K), the equipment or part thereof, are provided means that the operator is alerted and
safe procedures are adopted;
d) installations with multiple burners must be equipped with a leak proof system for
manual shutoff valves for each burner;
e) in case of fall of temperature below 750oC (1023 K), the system must provide a means
of automatically generating an alarm signal that can be used for system lock, and
providences or operator. When the burner has a power output exceeding 100 000 kcal/h (120 kW) and operate continuously for a
period exceeding 24h, shall be equipped with a flame detection system with continuous self-check failure (self
checking) or burner should be turned off and performed the same split as in a period of less than 24h. The flame detection system with continuous self-checking fault (self checking) must be actuated
automatically every period of at least 1h, with the burner operating. A flame detection system must be installed individually for each main burner or set of pilot and main
burner, and the flame must monitor only this set. This system must be installed so as to cause the disruption of gas
supply to this burner. A flame failure will cause the automatic tripping of the burner. The detection system and fire protection must detect the flame of departure, provided the pilot, onlyif it
is in a position that allows a smooth and reliable lighting of the main flame. The location of the sensor must be such
that in the event of reduction, slope or unstabie starting flame, which may damage the main flame lighting security,
this calls starting not sensitize the sensor, causing the automatic tripping of the system. The automatic flame detection should check for the presence of flame or false signal that simulates this,
before attempting to burner ignition. The occurrence of this fact the automatic flame detection should cause the
automatic tripping of the burner. Any detection system and fire protection must respond to loss of calls within 4s. Any detection device and flame protection using microprocessor or microcontrolier must have a program
(software), constructed such that access to and modification thereof by the user is impossible.

4.1.5 Establishment of the main flame Only after the establishment and verification of the match ame, podese allow the lighting of the main
flame. After the establishment and verification of the match flame, there must be a period of establishment of
the main flame for each burner. This period should be limited to a maximum of 3s in the case of rapid opening
valves. in the case of slow opening valve until one third of the total opening time, provided that no more than
10s. At the end of this time must occur:

a) for systems with interrupted pilot, the pilot flame should be extinguished and
devese supervise only the main flame; '
b) for systems with continuous pilot, the presence of the main flame should be proven
by its own flame detection system. it is essential that the main flame is stable without
the presence of pilot flame. If the main flame failure, the system should go to disarm and 4.1.2 must be met. in equipment with multiple burners, in case the occurrence of flame failure, the respective burner
should go to automatic tripping (or tripping exclusively manual for equipment defined as high temperature).

NOTE Special considerations must be made by the designer, in order to evaluate the need to bring the
whole system to disarm in the event of flame failure in more than one burner. Where one main burner is ignited by a pilot, the thermal power of the main flame during its
establishment period may not exceed 35% of the maximum thermal power of the burner. Restrictions on the thermal power of the main flame in do not apply to:
a) systems where the starting flame is obtained through ignition of the main burner itself, in
accordance with 4.1 .341 b);
Note Podese allow the main burner ignition at the maximum thermal power, provided that the
energy released during the ignition satisfies the requirements and
b) in the case of multiple burners installed in a single combustion chamber and the unit power is
less than or equal to 300 000 kcal/h (350 KW), the lighting of the main ame of each burner can be
done at maximum power;
c) in the case of burners with natural air supply and thermal power of less than 300 000 kcal/h (350.
KW), admitese the main burner ignition at full power through single pilot provided that the lighting the
flame remains fully within the combustion chamber, even when the device is at room temperature. The burner design must ensure smooth ignition of all gas passage holes. in systems with multiple burners, the main flame should preferably be lit separately and in order
compatible with the equipment of the project. is not allowed switching on a main flame through the cross firing with another major. However,
Recognition is that some burners with multiple portachamas are designed to be lit by a single source of

ignition and therefore should be treated as a simple burner. The power delivered by the main flame during its establishment period, should be established
separately by monitoring the air supply conditions and gas eg usandose pressure sensors and I or proof of
position, and this case without the possibility of manual intervention. For systems equipped with mechanical connections (levers, rods) directly connecting the gas
control valves and air, it is acceptable to prove the correct position of the valves during the period of
establishment of the main flame. For example, in systems using prpurga air valve in the high heat
position, podese prove the complete opening of the air control valve to drain through a test switch position
without the possibility of manual intervention and, after the prpurga, another switch can check if the gas
control valve is open correctly to control the power to be released by the main flame during its
establishment period. The establishment of the main flame must be done in order to ensure smooth ring, avoiding
delayed ignition occurs.

4.1.6 security lock system General

4.1 .6.1.1 This section denes the requirements for automatic shut-off valves for all combustion systems
covered by this standard. It is necessary that all the burners are under the control of two or more automatic
shut-off valves. The type of automatic shut-off valve required in this section is defined by the requirements
of its closing force. The automatic shut-off valves do not necessarily have to open automatically.

For high temperature equipment with multiple burners, the individual automatic locking device of the burner
may be regarded as one of the safety shut-off valves. The body of the automatic shut-off valves and automatic discharge may not have axles, levers,
steering wheels, etc. exposed to permit manual actuation of the valve, independent of the normal sequence
of operation. Each automatic shut-off valve should have a specic device failsafe to provide its closure, so that
close when deenergized or when subjected to a failure of its operating fluid. They must have closing spring
with sufficient force to ensure its tightness under operating conditions. The security locking systems must be installed in a safe position and as close to the burner. The condition of tightness 'of valves that make up the security locking system should be checked
periodically. The valves used in safety lock systems must be valves that have been developed for this specific
application. This requirement must be satised through technical documentation, to prove that the valve in
question was developed for the automatic locking application fuel gas combustion system. In addition, the
manufacturer must provide a certificate attesting that their valves support a lifetime of proof test at least
250,000 operations without presenting any irregularity in their performance. Automatic Shut-off valves of the main burner (normally closed)

4162.1 The gas supply for each main burner or group of burners must be under control of a safety
interlock system.

NOTE It is understood as a group of burners, the set of two or more burners installed in the same
combustion chamber and close to each other. The safety interlock system installed to a burner or group of burners must meet the requirements
listed in Table 1, which considers the thermal power released by a burner or group of burners.

41.62.13 The security locking system should be deenergized when the machine is turned off. The automatic locking system must stop the gas supply to the burner or group of burners
whenever, for example, one of the following hazardous situations occur:
gas pressure below or above the safe operating range of the burner;
combustion air failure;
power outages;
lack of flame;
by performance of equipment safety interlocks (examples: high vapor pressure, low water, excess
temperature); ,
circulation system failure of the process. When the automatic locking system is pieenergized by a risk, new start can only take place by
manual intervention. For systems with multiple burners of different power given the same working chamber, all the
burners should have the safety interlock system with the same configuration. Selecting this configuration
should be done according to table 1, considerandose the highest power burner. Where two automatic shutoff vaives are used, one of them can be used for demand control.

NOTE Additional care must be taken when using automatic shut-off valves, as demand for control valves in
burners with forced or induced air supply (see The maximum gas flow speed through automatic shut-off valves must not exceed 30 ml 5. Automatic Shut-off valves departure ftame (normaily closed) independent thermal power starting flame, and even if it is less than 100 000 kcal I h (120 kW),
the security locking system should meet the requirements of table 1. Requirements for automatic shut-off vaives

The automatic shutoff valves must meet the following requirements:
a) Maximum closure time should be 1 sec;
b) should be selected so as to open against all possible differential working pressures up to the
pressure iimit to which they are classified;
c) maintaining under a watertight closing differential pressure condition of at least one and a half
times the working pressure to which has been classified;
d) maintain a tight closure under all differential pressures in counter flow, as dened below:
valves with nominal diameter up to 50 mm (2 ") including 150 mbar (1.5 kPa);
Vaives with a nominal diameter of 50 mm (2 ") 100 mbar (1 kPa).
Attachment A (Informative)
Low temperature equipment with single burner
A.1 Typical gas flow system flowchart for low temperature single burner equipment

01 Main burner 11 Manual locking main valve 21 Pressure gauge

02 Flame protection control 12 Filter 22 Register for pressure gauge
03 Flame sensor 13 Pressure regulator 23 Low pressure switch
04 Ignition transformer 14 Automatic overpressure locking 24 High pressure switch
05 Flexible tube 15 valve valve
Relief 25 Pilot burner
06 Manual burner lock valve 16 Automatic shut-off valve 26 Draw control damper
07 Manual air flow adjustment valve 17 Automatic discharge valve 27 Exhaust fan
08 Air flow control valve 18 Bubbler 28 Differential pressure switch
09 Servomotor 19 Leakproofness system 29 Manual pilot locking valve
10 Combustion air blower 20 Gas flow control valve 30 Manual gas flow control valve of the pilot
A.2 Typical block diagram of the starting sequence of the gas combustion system for low temperature with a
single burner