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Computational Fluid Dynamics and

Heat & Mass Transfer

Chapter 5 Finite Volume Method for Convection-Diffusion Problems

By Dr. Kuo-Lun Tung

May 16 th , 2006

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 2
S-S Convection-Diffusion Problems
0
=
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 3
S-S Convection-Diffusion Problems
Control Volume Integration :
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 4
FVM for 1-D S-S Convection Diffusion
Continuity equation :
Steps for FVM Analysis

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 5

Step 1: Grid Generation

Step 2: Discretization

Step 3: Solution of Equations

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 6

Step 1: Grid Generation

Step 2: Discretization

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 7

f ( x
)
f ( x
)
f(x k )
'
k
+
1
k
1
f x
(
) ≈
k
x
− x
k
+
1
k
1
f(x k+1 )
Central difference
x
k-1
x k
x k+1
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 8
Step 2: Discretization

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 9
Step 2: Discretization
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 10
Step 2: Discretization
Convective mass flux
Diffusion conductance
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 11
Step 2: Discretization
Pe = Peclet number
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 12
Step 2: Discretization
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 13
Step 2: Discretization
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 14
Step 2: Discretization

D w

D e

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 15

Step 2: Discretization
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 16
Step 2: Discretization

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 17
Step 3: Solution of Equations
TDMA: Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 18
Example : FVM for 1-D S-S
Convection-Diffusion Prob.
L
= 1.0
m
3
ρ
= 1.0
kg m
/
Γ= 0.1
kg m s
/
/

No Heat Source!

 Case (1): u=0.1m/s, 5 cells Case (2): u=2.5m/s, 5 cells

Case (3): u=2.5m/s, 20 cells

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 19
Solution: FVM for 1-D S-S
Convection-Diffusion Prob.

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 20

Solution: FVM for 1-D S-S Convection-Diffusion Prob.

For Node 1:

For Node 5:

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 21
Solution: FVM for 1-D S-S
Convection-Diffusion Prob.
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 22
Solution: Case (1) u=0.1m/s, 5 cells
u = 0.1m / s ; F =ρu = 0.1; D =Γ /δx = 0.1/ 0.2 = 0.5

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 23

Solution: Case (1) u=0.1m/s, 5 cells

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 24

Solution: Case (1) u=0.1m/s, 5 cells

Exact Solution:

u

φ

o

=

0.1

m / s ; F

=

=

1.0;

φ

L

=

0.0

ρ

u

=

0.1;

D

/

δ

x

=

0.1/ 0.2

=

0.5;

L

=

1.0

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 25
Solution: Case (1) u=0.1m/s, 5 cells
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 26
Solution: Case (2) u=2.5m/s, 5 cells
u=2.5m/s
5
cells
u=0.1m/s
5
cells
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 27
Solution: Case (2) u=2.5m/s, 5 cells
Exact Solution:
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 28
Solution: Case (2) u=2.5m/s, 5 cells

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 29

Solution: Case (2) u=2.5m/s, 5 cells

u=0.1m/s; 5 cells

u=2.5m/s; 5 cells

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 30
Solution: Case (3) u=2.5m/s, 20 cells
u=2.5m/s
20 cells
u=2.5m/s
5 cells

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 31

Solution: Case (3) u=2.5m/s, 20 cells

u=2.5m/s
20 cells
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 32
Solution: Case (3) u=2.5m/s, 20 cells

u=2.5m/s; 20cells

u=2.5m/s; 5 cells

Transportiveness

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 33

No convection No diffusion

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 34
Transportiveness

Transportiveness

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 35

The central differencing scheme introduces influencing at node P from the directions of all its neighbors, it does not possess the transportiveness property as convection over diffusion.

D e > F e /2
F e /D e =Pe<2
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 36
Transportiveness
Pe < 2

L

ρ

Γ= 0.1

= 1.0

= 1.0

m

kg / m

3

kg / m / s

Case (1): u=0.1m/s, Case (2): u=2.5m/s,

Case (3): u=2.5m/s, 20 cells (δx=0.05); Pe = 1.25

5 cells (δx=0.2); 5 cells (δx=0.2);

Pe = 0.2 Pe = 5.0

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 37
Better Schemes for C-D Problems
The major inadequacies of the central differencing
scheme is its inability to identify the flow direction.
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 38
Better Schemes for C-D Problems

Upwind scheme; Hybrid scheme; Power-law scheme; QUICK scheme.

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 39
Upwind Scheme for C-D Problems
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 40
Upwind Scheme for C-D Problems

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 41

Upwind Scheme for C-D Problems

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 42

Upwind Scheme for C-D Problems

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 43

Upwind Scheme for C-D Problems
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 44
Upwind Scheme for C-D Problems
Upwind Scheme for C-D Problems

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 45

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 46
Example : FVM for 1-D S-S
C-D Prob. by Upwind Scheme
L
= 1.0
m
3
ρ
= 1.0
kg / m
Γ= 0.1
kg / m / s

No Heat Source!

 Case (1): u=0.1m/s, 5 cells Case (2): u=2.5m/s, 5 cells

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 47
Solution : FVM for 1-D S-S
C-D Prob. by Upwind Scheme
For Node 1:
For Node 5:
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 48
Solution : FVM for 1-D S-S
C-D Prob. by Upwind Scheme
Central Scheme
Upwind Scheme
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 49
Solution : FVM for 1-D S-S
C-D Prob. by Upwind Scheme
u=0.1m/s; 5 cells

Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 50

Solution : FVM for 1-D S-S C-D Prob. by Upwind Scheme

u=0.1m/s
5 cells
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 51
Solution : FVM for 1-D S-S
C-D Prob. by Upwind Scheme
u=2.5m/s; 5 cells
Chap 5 FVM for Conv-Diff - 52
Solution : FVM for 1-D S-S
C-D Prob. by Upwind Scheme