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Krah drainage, water
and sewage piping systems
Table of contents

KRAH Structured pipes 4

1. Technical parameters
1.1. Specic light weight 6
1.2. Flexibility 6
1.3. Abrasion resistance 6
1.4. Impact resistance 6
1.5. Hydraulics 7
1.6. UV-resistance 7

2. Proles
2.1. Prole and ring stiffness 8
2.2. Prole types of KRAH pipes 8

3. Designing
3.1. Calculating of hydraulic parameters 10
3.2. Static calculation of pipes for underground installation 12
3.3. Pipe ttings 12
3.4. Branches 12
3.5. Bends 12
3.6. Reductions 13
3.7. Manholes 13

4. Jointing methods for KRAH pipes

4.1. Jointing pipes using integrated electro-fusion ttings 16
4.2. Jointing KRAH pipes using gasket 18

5. Installation of KRAH pipes

5.1. Trench 19
5.1.1 Width of a trench 19
5.1.2 Removal of water 20
5.2. Filling material and support 20
5.3. Backll 21
5.4. Packing 21
5.5. Leakage test 21

6. Pipe-in-pipe-method renovation 22
7. Transportation 22
8. Storage 22
9. Quality control 23

DIN 16961-2:2010-03 24

Structured pipes
Materials Pipe length
Polyethylene (PE63, PE80 and PE100) and polypropylene are The standard laying length (L) of the Krah pipes is six
thermoplastics with excellent properties for the application of meters, because in this way they are easy to handle,
water and sewer, as well as for the fabrication of containers store and transport.
for liquids and solid materials. The environmental friendly
polyethylene and polypropylene are resistant to many che-
micals and very suitable for conveying and storing various

Krah pipes can be produced of the following

thermoplastic materials:
Polyethylene (PE80 and PE100)
Polypropylene (PP-R; PP-H; PP-S)

These materials feature below mentioned properties.

Other materials can be used after prior acceptance
of the producer and a third party for quality control.
However, the processed material should have the below
listed specification. Since the latest developments,
polypropylene with a really high stiffness can be used,
DN/ID = internal diameter (mm)
if you are interested ask for further information and L= length (mm)
data sheets.

Additionally it is possible to produce

pipes with any length between one
Typical material specification and six meters. The longer a pipe
Property Standard Unit PE 80 PE 100 PP-R is, the fewer joints are necessary
Density DIN 53479 g/cm3 0.95 0.96 0.91 and this is advantageous for the
ISO 1183 installation of the pipe. Moreover
Melt index ISO 1133 g/10 it is possible to deliver the pipes
MFR 190/5 Code T min ca. 0.43 0.45 0.50
MFR 190/21.6 Code V ca. 10 6,6 - already jointed, whereby the instal-
MFR 230/5 Code V - - 1.25-1.5 lation time on site can be reduced
Tensile modulus ISO 178 N/mm2
Short term 1.000 1200 750
signifcantly. Lengths up to 18m
Long term (50 years) 170 170 160 consisting of 3 pipe sections are
Yield stress DIN 53495 N/mm2 common.
Tensile strength DIN 53495 N/mm2 32 38 15
Elongation at break DIN 53495 % > 600 > 600 > 50 Pipe diameter
Ball indentation hardness ISO 2039 N/mm2 42 46 45
Coefficient of linear DIN 53752 1/C 1.8 x 10-4 1.8 x 10-4 1.6 x 10-4 Krah pipes can be produced with
thermal expansion
internal diameters (ID) from DN
Colour - - black/ black/ gray
yellow yellow 500mm to DN 3000mm. The nomi-
nal diameters (DN) coincidents with
the internal diameter (ID) of the pipe, because in case of proled pipe, the weight can be reduced up to 65% com-
any change in the design of the pipe, the wall thickness can pared to a solid wall pipe with the same ring stiffness.
be increased or reduced while the internal diameter remai- Krah pipes offer the best security and durability. The wall
ns the same. This ensures that the designated hydraulic thicknesses of our pipes can be adapted in small steps
capacity for the installation is maintained. to the respective load.

Wall thicknesses Internal pressure

Both proled and solid wall pipes with wall thicknesses The Krah pipe system can withstand low working pres-
up to 300mm can be produced. sure up to 3 bar, depending on the thickness of the
waterway wall (s1). Equivalent to DIN 8074 the hoop
Minimum wall thickness in accordance
with the standard EN 13476, Figure 5. stress formula can be used to calculate the s1 as the
minimum wall thickness.
Normal pipe dimen-
s1 PE pipe (mm) s1 PP pipe (mm)
sions DN/ID (mm)

300 2.0 2.0

400 2.5 2.5
500 2.5 3.0
If requested all pipes can be delivered either with a bright,
600 3.3 3.5
inspection friendly or an electroconductive inner surface
800 4.5 4.5
made by the co-extrusion process.
1000 5.0 5.0
> 1200 5.0 5.0
The co-extrusion ensures an inspection friendly,
The quality of the pipe is highly depending on the bright inner surface and at the same time a long term
quality of the waterway wall, therefore all Krah pipes UV-resistant outer surface (for example for the storage of
are produced with a minimum waterway wall of 4mm. pipes outside for a long time).

Proled pipe wall Norms and standards

The great advantage of this development is that a pro- The Krah pipe system is designed to meet the requi-
led pipe has a very low weight, but at the same time can rements of present applicable international norms
be used for high load applications. A lot less material is and standards. Krah AG is member of the major stan-
needed to produce a pipe with the same statical properti- dardization committees to guarantee that the pipes
es than a solid wall pipe, which means signicant savings are corresponding to the standards, but also that the
in material costs. standards are corresponding to the pipes.

The supportable static load is determined for every pro-

le geometry by the factors elastic modulus (N/mm2)
of the respective material and the moment of inertia of
the prole geometry (mm4/mm) referring to the pipe
diameter. The result is called ring stiffness. By using a

1. Technical
1.1. Specic light weight any breaks or cracks, so that the activity of the pipeline
is not drastically affected. As soon as the overload and
The Krah pipes have a very low weight and therefore earth movement ends, the pipe will go back to its initial
are easy to handle during installation, which makes condition and position.
the usage of a crane on site in most of the cases
unnecessary. Another advantage is the high exibility. Even in areas
which are highly affected by 11 earthquakes, our pipes
Specic weight in kg/dm3
are hardly damaged in comparison to pipes made of other
materials. Despite the exibility of the Krah pipes they
have a great capacity to carry loads, so that they are also
suitable for road construction.

PE PVC GFK Clay Concrete Ductile Steel 1.3. Abrasion resistance

Material characteristic values
Polyethylene and polypropylene pipes are among the most
abrasion proof pipes. This has been tested in the so-called
Darmstadt procedure and the results are shown in the
below diagram and confirm the quality of polyethylene
pipes. Tests have been performed at the Sddeutsche
Kunststoffzentrum for its approval.

Abrasion in mm

Concrete pipe

Concrete pipe coated

GFK pipe
Clay pipe

PP or PE pipe
PVC pipe

By using proled pipes we can safe weight up to 65% compared Cycles

to equivalent solid wall pipes with the same statical capacity.

Abrasion curve of various pipe materials according to the

1.2. Flexibility Darmstadt procedure.

Pipes made of Polyethylene and Polypropylene have consi-

derable advantages to other pipe materials like concrete, 1.4. Impact resistance
steel, ductile etc. Due to their material the Krah pipes
posses over a high elongation at break. This signies, that The high impact resistance, even at low temperatures,
the pipe can support even loads or deformations, that ensures a robust pipe, resistant against impacts during
were not included in the actual calculation and design of transport, installation on the site and during the whole
the pipe, like for examples earthquakes. The Krah pipes service life conditions.
deform conform with the movement of the earth without
1.5. Hydraulics
Inner diameter and hydraulic properties of Krah pipes will
remain constant regardless of the wall thickness or the
proles due to the smooth anti adhesive inner pipe sur-
face. The nominal diameter (e.g. DN/ID 500) corresponds
to the respective inner diameter according to DIN 16961.
Compared to other pipe materials like concrete, smaller
diameters can be used, which means that costs for mate-
rial and installation can be reduced considerably.
Tank 60m3


PE Clay Steel Ductile Concrete

Wall roughness

1.6. UV-resistance Pump room

Black polyethylene pipes are permanently resistant to

atmospheric corrosion and UV radiation. Thus the pipes
can be used and stored outside without the pipe material
being damaged. No aging effect will occur.

Pump room (internal view)

2. Profiles
2.1. Prole and ring stiffness Prole type: SQ

The ring stiffness will be determined for each prole, This prole pipe has a smooth inside and outside includ-
based upon the long-term elasticity module of the ing internal proles with one or more layers. This prole
Polyethylene (Youngs module), the moment of inertia of has a very high long-term stiffness therefore it is very
the prole and the diameter of pipe. Using structural pipe suitable for extremely high loads and big diameters.
walls signicantly reduces the weight of the pipes com-
pared to pipes used in regular construction with equal
ring stiffness. The structural wall of Krah pipes makes it Profile Ix
e [mm] se [mm]
no [mm4/mm]
possible to use these pipes for large static loads.
PR 317 - 47 548 6.02 - 36.38 15.61 - 82.94
OP 14 942 - 194 000 32.98 - 75 56.39 - 132.44

2.2. Prole types of KRAH pipes SQ1 7 700 - 27 000 22.74 - 37.52 45.35 - 68.68
SQ2 34 400 - 107 900 41.32 - 65.07 74.48 - 108.99

Prole type: PR SQ3 92 000 - 300 000 60.04 - 95.99 103.35 - 153.18

List of typical proles

The main properties of the prole serie PR is the smooth lx = moment of inertia, e = distance of inertia,
inside and the proled outside. The low weight and the se = equivalent solid wall thickness
high stiffness are signicant.
Prole type: VW
The fields of application for this kind of profiles are
pipeline systems like for example sewer, drain, storm The type VW is a homogeneous solid pipe with smooth
drain and ventilation. inside and outside surface. These pipes can be used for
internal working pressure. The minimum wall thickness
Prole type: OP measures 5mm, the maximum thickness is 80mm.

This prole has a smooth inside surface and the outside Prole type: ST
surface is proled with an Olympic-rings-alike pattern.
The main characteristics of this prole are also its low Pipes with the prole type ST are specially made for ver-
weight and very high stiffness. tical tanks, where different wall thicknesses in one pipe
are required to save material. The calculation method
is according to DVS 2205.

Profile Stepped pipes minimum maximum

Cross-section View
Nominal width (Di) 300 (mm) 4000 (mm)
Number of steps (n) two six
PR Length of step (L) 200 (mm) length of a pipe
Wall thickness of step (s) 5 (mm) 300 (mm) for PE
150 (mm) for PP
Step distance 5 (mm)

OP Technical data of stepped pipes

ID Profiil SN h OD a

PR54 2 60 1320 120

PR65 4 71 1342 120
PR75 6 83 1366 140
PR75 8 85 1370 140
PR65 2 71 1542 140
PR75 4 83 1566 140
PR75 6 87 1574 140
PR75 8 91 1582 140
PR65 2 71 1642 120
PR75 4 85 1670 140
PR75 6 89 1678 120
PR75 8 95 1690 140
PR65 2 73 1746 140
PR75 4 87 1774 140
PR75 6 93 1786 140
Sketch of a stepped vertical storage tank
S1 = wall thickness of the step i PR75 8 97 1794 140
L1 = length of the step i
PR75 2 83 1966 140
PR75 4 91 1982 140
OP65 6 122 2044 120
OP65 8 127 2054 120
ID Profile SN h OD a
PR75 2 85 2170 120
PR21 2 27 554 120
OP65 4 117 2234 120
PR34 4 39 578 120 2000
500 OP65 6 127 2254 120
PR34 6 39 578 120
OP65 8 132 2264 140
PR34 8 39 578 100
PR75 2 89 2378 120
PR21 2 29 658 120
OP65 4 127 2454 100
PR34 4 39 678 120 2200
600 OP65 6 135 2470 100
PR34 6 41 682 120
OP65 8 142 2484 120
PR42 8 46 692 100
PR75 2 93 2586 140
PR34 2 39 878 120
OP65 4 132 2664 120
PR42 4 48 896 120 2400
800 OP65 6 141 2682 120
PR54 6 60 920 120
OP65 8 151 2702 100
PR54 8 60 920 120
OP65 2 131 3262 100
PR42 2 46 1092 100
OP65 4 148 3296 120
PR54 4 60 1120 120 3000
1000 OP65 6 169 3338 100
PR65 6 71 1142 140
PR65 8 73 1146 140 8 171 3342 61

Figure 1.1 Prole types of KRAH pipes

3. Designing
3.1. Calculating of hydraulic Relative
parameters ment of hydraulic radius ment of hydraulic
the pipe and diameter the pipe radius and di-
h/D 4Rh/D h/D ameter 4Rh/D

Hydraulic calculations 0.1 0.2500 0.6 1.1104

0.2 0.4824 0.7 1.1848
The basis for hydraulic calculations for pipes is the 0.3 0.6836 0.8 1.2168
European standard EN 752:2008 [1]. To calculate the 0.4 0.8568 0.9 1.1920
average ow velocity in drainage and sewage piping 0.5 1.0000 1.0 1.0000
systems the ow is considered to be in turbulent mode.
This standard includes two equations for calculating Mannings equation
the turbulent ow: Colebrook-Whites and Mannings
equations. Average ow velocity in a pipe with round or non-round
cross-section in cases of full or partial fulfillment is
calculated with the following equation:

Colebrook-Whites equation (2)

The average ow velocity in a round pipe completely where:

lled with uid can be calculated using the following K is Mannings coefcient, m1/3/s;
equation: Rh the hydraulic radius, m;
I the dimensionless hydraulic gradient

Head losses

where: Pipe roughness (k) or Mannings coefcient (K) will deter-

v is the cross-sectional average velocity of ow, m/s; mine the friction head, which is related to the material of
g the acceleration of gravity, m/s2; the pipe, the unevenness in pipe joints and debris which
D the pipe inside diameter, m; accumulates below the surface of the water.
I the dimensionless hydraulic gradient;
k the roughness of pipe inside wall, m; In addition to that, head losses occur in the branching of
v the kinematic viscosity of uid, m2/s pipes, at changes of cross-section, in manholes, in bends
and other ttings. For calculating purposes the following
equation can be used:
In cases where the pipe which is partially full of uid or
non-circular for calculating the average speed using this
equation (1), internal diameter D is replaced with 4Rh,
where Rh is hydraulic radius (ratio of the ow section where:
A and wetted perimeter ). Figure 1 presents how this hL is the local head loss, m;
value 4Rh/D correlates with the relative fulllment of kL the dimensionless coefcient of local
the pipe (h is depth of water in pipe). obstruction;
v the average velocity, m/s;
g the acceleration of gravity, m/s2
Total head loss

To calculate the total head loss the following methods

are recommended [1]:
To add local head losses to friction head losses K is Mannings coefcient, m1/3/s;
caused by flow in pipes; g the acceleration of gravity, m/s2;
Assuming higher hydraulic roughness while D the pipe inside diameter, m;
calculating the friction head losses, the local k the pipe inside wall roughness, m
head losses are considered to accrue to the
total head loss. The choice of pipe diameter is dependent on the pipe
gradient, the volumetric ow rate and the average ow
When using recommended hydraulic roughness in velocity. This is aided by a nomogram, which is shown in
calculating the pipes it is necessary to determine whe- Figure 1. This nomogram was created using Colebrook-
ther the impact of local head losses has been added Whites equation (1) on the condition that the pipe is
to the value of the roughness. In practice, the k values entirely full, the viscosity of water v= 1.03 10-6 m2/s
for the roughness of the pipe inside wall are normally and the pipes inside wall roughness k = 0.007 10-3 m.
between 0.03 mm and 3.0 mm and Mannings coef- In cases where there is a partially full pipe, in equation
cient K is between 70 and 90 m1/3s-1. (1) diameter D shall be replaced with 4Rh.

An approximate comparison between estimations of

computational velocities based upon equations (1) and
(2) can be performed using the following equation:

Figure 1. Nomogram
Volumetric ow rate


10 11
3.2. Static calculation of pipes for All ttings are fabricated from pipes of the type VW or
SQ. Generally the i ttings are designed corresponding
underground installation
to the required stiffnesses and in consideration of the
welding factors. Every tting can have any kind of pipe
A signicant advantage of Krah pipes is that they can be end and can be assembled with the existing pipe sys-
easily tailored to the needs of various types of projects. tem with any jointing technique.
In accordance with the different norms and standards,
the pipes must be selected in accordance with their
class of nominal ring stiffness (SN), as SN2 (only for
pipes DN> 500), SN4, SN8 or SN16 (in accordance with
the standard ISO9969), or in accordance with any other
stiffness standard (DIN16961, ASTM F894, NBR 7373
etc) notwithstanding the testing methods (at constant
speed or constant load).

In addition to this, in accordance with Article 9.1 of the

standard EN 13476-3, the manufacturers are allowed
to produce pipes DN/ID > 500 that fall between the All pipe end dimensions fuli ll the requirements of the
above listed SN-classes. To qualify for this admission standard EN 14376, like the minimum lengths and stiff-
the producer must be able to prove this solution with nesses. The standard spigot length (Ls) is 140mm and
static calculations. With Krah pipes, we are able to the standard socket length (Lm) is 140mm.
provide any project with pipes of the precise stiffness
that the project demands.

It is useful to perform static calculations for Krah pipes

taking into consideration the specications of each par-
ticular project. In 99% of cases the pipes selected for a 3.4. Branches
particular project are over-dimensioned in the original
project design documentation. Using the calculations it
is possible to prove that it is sufcient to install a pipe Branches can be manufactured and delivered in every
with less stiffness but the correct prole, including the type and form. The angle can be adapted individually
required safety factor which is also cheaper and faster from 15 to 90 as well as the ends and the respective
to install. In addition to this, rst of all, the actual quality segment lengths.
of the pipes depends on the correct wall thickness, the
raw materials used and reliable jointing technology
but not on stiffness.

3.3. Pipe ttings 3.5. Bends

The Krah pipe can be provided in the complete range
of diameters and stiffness classes but also fittings,
manholes and other components are deliverable to Bends can be manufactured and segmented in different
accomplish the mission of a homogenous and reliable angles and the related radius of the bend to pipe diame-
pipe system. ter can be selected independently.
Number of segments 3.7 Manholes
15 2
30 2
Krah Pipes produces manholes in accordance with the
45 3
designers specications. Manholes are made of polye-
60 3
thylene and they are in accordance with all the interna-
75 4
tional regulations and standards. The materials used
90 4
are environmentally friendly and durable. Therefore, they
are the best choice for producing pipes, manholes and
Number of segments

Krahs product portfolio includes a wide choice of man-

The gure presents the angles of the standard bends holes for water and sewage pipelines. According to the
in accordance with the DIN 16961 standard. Other customers requirements they can either have a hatch
solutions are in accordance with the customers made of cast iron or plastic. Hatches can be joined to
requirements. the manholes in one of two ways: either xed rigidly or
by using telescopic pipe which allows them to move. We
produce manholes with solid and grated hatches, both
of which can be round or square.

The diameter of a manhole depends on its purpose.

3.6. Reductions Normally the diameters of the jointing ends and where
they are placed in relation to each other will be the most
important factor. Also, the size of the equipment used for
Reductions can be made both centric and eccentric so cleaning the sewage system must be considered.
that the reductions will always meet the requirements. For
standard reductions the maximum difference in diameter
is 200mm, other differences on request.

Diameters of most common manholes (body/telescope):

OD200/OD160 mm

OD400/OD315 mm

OD560/OD500 mm

ID800/OD500 mm

Devision and new arrangement of the pipe segments ID1000/OD630 mm

to create a 90 angle.

12 13
To make it easier to inspect them, all Krah manholes have manholes are also produced, which are normally used
a yellow inside surface. to divert water from parking lots to the piping.

Inspection manhole for rainwater DN/ID1600 Inspection manhole for rainwater DN/ID1500

Pipelines from a diameter of DN/ID800 mm and Sewage manholes

upwards we recommend, if possible (curvature man-
holes, owing-through manholes) the more economical These are used for the inspection and maintenance
saddle manholes. of sewage piping. Manholes are made with a owing
channel to provide a steady ow of refuse liquids. The
recommended size for the owing channel is 1/3
from the diameter of the main line. This means that
there is a channel at the base of the manhole to ensure
the better ow of refuse liquids.

Saddle manhole OD560mm, for ID1000 mm pipe

Main functions of manholes:

Rainwater and drainage manholes Inspection manhole for sewage DN/ID800

These manholes are meant to divert rainwater. In most NB! If possible, please avoid using square angle turns in
cases these manholes have a smooth base, and are the ow channel. To prevent a turn with a square angle
between 200 mm and 1000 mm in diameter. Grated we recommend the use of a manhole body with a suitable
diameter into which a gently sloping ow channel can be
A turn inside manhole ID800 Rainwater manholes

Gate valve manholes

To open and close sections of water and sewage piping.

A gate valve manhole facilitates all-year-round mainte-
nance of the piping.

Air release manholes

These are used to release air that emerges from water

and sewage piping where there are signicant height
differences. Saddle manhole

Water meter manhole

These are used to measure the amount of uids which

pass through the water and sewage piping.

Inspection manhole

The inspection manhole is used to inspect the quality

of the uids that ow in the sewage piping.

Flow reducing manhole

This is used to reduce the ow speed in rainwater and Rainwater manholes with electro-fusion ttings
sewage piping.

14 15
4. Jointing methods
for KRAH pipes
3. The fusion areas must be free from dirt andhumi-
4.1. Jointing pipes using dity and be out of direct sunlight.
integrated electro-fusion ttings 4. If the outside temperature is below +5C, additio-
nal measures must be used, such as a tent and
heating fan.
A complete pipe system is always just as secure as its 5. Check the sockets and spigots for possible dama-
weakest component. The weakest component is the joint. ge during transportation.
Therefore it is important to choose the most suitable and 6. Remove the protective film only when you are
permanent one. The welding of small diameter plastic ready to start cleaning the pipes and are going to
pipes and fittings with the help of electro fusion has joint immediately.
been a common method in the market for years. Above 7. Install the pipe in a way that the welding wire is
all because this jointing technique is very favourable, easily accessible.
simple and secure, which has caused Krah to develop 8. The sockets and spigots must be cleaned
this technique for big pipes according to DVS 2207-1. with detergent and paper which is not fluffy or
A fusion wire is included into the socket of the pipe. After 9. Mark the spigot with waterproof marker on the
putting the socket and spigot of the two pipes, that shall length of the pipe which enters the socket (at least
be jointed, together, the wire is heated with the help 120mm).
of a special fusion device whereby the two pipe ends 10. Joint the pipes and make sure that the spigot goes
(the socket and the spigot) are welded together. This into the socket as far as the previously marked
jointing technique allows pipes to be installed in such line. Make sure that there is no moisture between
a short period of time never achieved before. With only the sockets and spigots.
one welding device it is possible to install a pipeline of 11. In cases where the pipes are larger than DN/ID
72m with a diameter of 1200mm inbetween 8 hours. 800, an internal support ring for the spigot must
The installation speed is now depending on the trench be installed (ca 20 mm from the end of the pipe).
works. 12. After nishing these preparations start immedia-
Fusion adapter tely with the fusion process.
Pulling chain
for fusion

Inside support ring (for pipes

Spigot over DN/ID 800)
Electro-fusion wire

Jointing and fusing instructions

for KRAH pipes with electro-fusion
socket Items 13 and 14

13. Place the KRAH pulling chain into the special chan-
1. Power source: The power of the generator must be nel at the end of the socket. The tensioner must
at least 15 kVA. Ensure the stable characteristics be placed at least 25 cm away from the welding
of the current! wire.
2. Fusion can only be performed by authorized 14. Pull the chain until the value of the tightening
personnel. torque is reached, as presented in the chart
15. In cases where the pipeline is short make sure the of the tightening torque is reached in the chart
sockets and spigots are xed properly and cannot below.
move. 19. When the fusion time is over mark the fusion with
16. Joint the fusion equipment with the welding wire waterproof marker (No. of fusion, date, voltage
using the adapter. If necessary, bend and cut the used, time, name of operator).
ends of the welding wire for the adapter so it is as 20. Remove the adapter from the welding wires.
close as possible to the socket. Make sure the wel- 21. Do not move the pipe during the cooling period.
ding wires wont touch each other (short circuit). 22. After the cooling period (about 35 45 mins)
17. Enter the fusion parameters (read from the barco- remove the pulling chain and the inside support
de with special equipment or enter manually). ring.
Begin the fusion process. 23. Checking and testing of the drainage and sewage
18. At the beginning of the last third of the fusion, pull piping joints is regulated with the standard EN
the pulling chain again until the required value 1610:200.

item 14 item 16

Tightening torque for

Tightening torque at the
DN/ID (mm) Voltage (V) Time (sek) No. of fusion equipment over-tightening after 2/3 of
beginning of fusion
fusion period
500 20 900 1 50 Nm 60 Nm
600 24 1020 1 50 Nm 60 Nm
800 33 1020 1 55 Nm 65 Nm
1000 40 1080 1 55 Nm 70 Nm
1200 43 1260 1 60 Nm 70 Nm
1400 28 1020 2 60 nm 70 Nm
1500 32 1020 2 65 Nm 75 Nm
1600 32 1080 2 65 Nm 78 Nm
1800 40 880 2 75 Nm 90 Nm
2000 39 1200 2 80 Nm 90 Nm
2200 41 1260 2 85 Nm 95 Nm

Fusion parameters for KRAH pipes for manual input and tightening torques for pulling chain.
Send an enquiry for the parameters for bigger diameter.

16 17
4.2. Jointing KRAH pipes using

Two gaskets per joint



Install the gaskets as shown in the figure

To facilitate the installation, it would be good if

the ground around one of the pipes to be jointed
could be partially backfilled as this ensures proper
support during the jointing and prevents the pipeline
from waving.

Mark the spigot with waterproof marker on the leng-

th of the pipe which will enter the socket (at least
Cover the sockets and spigots with PLENTY of

The spigots and sockets must be kept clean during

the lubrication as well as the jointing process.

Joint the pipes up until the marked line on the spigot

has been reached.

During the jointing period a mechanical aid is nee-

ded. If you joint by pushing, a device to spread the
pressure must be used (e.g. a wooden sheet), to
prevent the socket from being damaged.
Grooves for gaskets on the pipe
Avoid dragging the pipe ends.

Krah pipes with a gasket jointing are for use in

straight pipelines. In cases where there is a curva-
ture in the project, a pipe bend must be used.
5. Installation of
KRAH pipes
5.1. Trench Trenches must be designed and excavated in a way that
guarantees an installation which is safe and which ts
the requirements.

If the underground constructions, e.g. manholes, need

to be accessed from the side, a protected working zone
with a minimum width of 0.5 m must be provided. If two
or more pipes are going to be installed into the same
trench or embankment, the minimal horizontal inter-
pipe working area must be observed. If it has not been
stated otherwise, it must be: for pipes up to and includ-
ing DN700 0.35 m and pipes over DN700 0.5 m.

1. Trench walls 5. Bed

2. Final backll 6. Depth of cover
3. Initial backll 7. Depth of bed
4. Sidell 8. Depth of trench

a depth of lower bed layer

b depth of higher bed layer
c depth of initial backll

b=k x OD (see chapter ll and support)

Installation of Krah pipes DN/ID1000 at a construction site
k a factor without unit, ratio between depth of
higher bed layer b and OD
5.1.1 Width of a trench
OD outer diameter of pipe in millimeters Maximum width of a trench

Note 1. The maximum width of a trench cannot exceed the

maximum width as provided in the construction design
For minimal values for a and c see chapter fill and drawings.
If this is not possible, the designer must be contacted.
Note 2. Minimum width of a trench
In some national standards k x OD replaces the deter-
mination of the bed angle. The bed angle is not the The minimum width of a trench must exceed the values
same as the reaction angle of the bed used in the con- provided in Figures 1 and 2, except in the cases cove-
struction design documentation. red in Section

18 19
Minimum width of trench (OD+x)
Unsupported trench
Supported trench
> 60 60
225 OD + 0.40 OD + 0.40
> 225 to 350 OD + 0.50 OD + 0.50 OD + 0.40
> 350 to 700 OD + 0.70 OD + 0.70 OD + 0.40
> 700 to 1200 OD + 0.85 OD + 0.85 OD + 0.40
> 1200 OD + 1.00 OD + 1.00 OD + 0.40

Figure 1 Minimum width of trench with respect to

nominal size (DN). In the equation OD+x, x/2 equals the
minimum working space between the pipe and the wall of the
trench or supports, where: OD is the external diameter in meters
and designates the angle of the unsupported wall of the trench,
measured with respect to the horizontal (see Figure 2). The minimum width of the trench based upon Tables 1
and 2 can be amended in the following circumstances:

If the staff must never go into the trench;

If the staff must never go between the piping and
Depth of trench Minimum width of trench
m m the wall of the trench;
In unavoidable limited situations.
< 1.00 No minimum width required
In all these cases special precautions must be consi-
1.00 1.75 0.80
dered during the design and construction.
1.75 4.00 0.90
> 4.00 1.00

Table 2 Minimum width of trench with respect to depth of

5.1.2 Removal of water
During installation the excavations must be kept free of
water. Methods for disposing water must not damage the
lling material or piping. After the water has been disposed
of, all the temporary drains must be closed properly.

5.2. Filling material and support

Materials, base layer, support and thickness of the
filling layer must be in accordance with the design
documentation. The lling material and its fractional
Figure 2 - angle of unsupported wall of trench composition together with the support must take the
following into consideration:

Size of pipe;
Material of pipe and wall thickness;
Characteristics of the ground.
The width of the base layer must be equal to the width 5.4. Packing
of the trench, if it has not already been determined
otherwise. The width of the base layer for the piping While installing Krah pipes, the side- and initial backll
installed into the embankment must be four times OD, must be packed at least up to 90% of the standard den-
if it has not been determined otherwise. sity - Proctor density.

The depth of the initial backll, c (see Figure 1) must If required, the initial backll, which is directly over the
be 150 mm over the cylinder and 100 mm over the pipe, must be packed manually. The nal backll, which
joints. is directly over the pipe, cannot be packed mechanically
until the total depth of the lling material over the pipe
All soft ground under the base of the trench must be is 300 mm. The total depth of the cover directly over the
removed and replaced with material suitable for the pipe before mechanical packing depends on the type of
base layer. packing equipment. While deciding upon the packing
equipment, the number of passing throughs and the
depth of the layer to be packed, the material to be pac-
5.3. Backll ked and the pipe to be installed must be considered.

Placing the sidell and backll can only be started if the

pipe joints and the base layer allow loading. 5.5. Leakage test
Backll, including placing the lling material and the According to the requirements pipe systems have to be
nal backll, the removal and packing of the closing tested for leakage. There exist different kinds of test
wall of the trench must be carried out in a way that procedures.
ensures the loading capacity of the piping in accor-
dance with the project documentation. The rst alternative is the section test, where the total
pipe sections (between two manholes) are tested in all.
The lling material must be placed in a way that pre- Air hoses are blown up and they lock the pipes at both
vents the existing ground from falling in or the lling ends. Then, water with a certain nominal pressure is
material being mixed with the existing ground. In special pumped into the tightened section. This overpressure
cases, especially if ground water is present, geotextiles is tested after a certain period of time which gives infor-
or an inverted rectier may be needed to keep the lling mation about the leakage of the section.
material in place.
The other alternative is the jointing test (only possible
Suitable precautions must be observed in locations with diameters greater than DN/ID 600mm), where
where the flow of groundwater may replace small only the pipe joints are tested as it is assumed that the
ground particles or where the level of ground water pipes themselves are tight. A leakage testing device
may be reduced. is used but the testing principle is the same applied
in the section test, the only difference is that the test
Should parts of piping need to be anchored, this must area is the joint.
be done before the lling material is put in place.

20 21
6. Pipe-in-pipe-method
The reconstruction of damaged sewage pipes using the restoration Pipe-in-pipe-method is very important. Krah pipes
are perfect for restoring broken pipes. The stiffness of the pipes is calculated using actual loads. Also, in order to restore
short pipes, Krah provides suitable solutions. Welding will take place within the pipe. Pipes are available in lengths of
1 m to 6 m. With Krah pipes it is possible to restore the static throughput capacity of a sewage piping system without
digging it out. In cases of longer trenches, it is possible to use up to 18 m of pre-produced pipes. In cases of DN 800
pipes or with pipes that have larger diameters, it is possible to insert single pipes into the existing sewage piping and
to joint them using internal extrusion welding.

7. Transportation
It is very easy to transport Krah pipes, as the pipes are lightweight. During transportation the pipes must be secured
to prevent them from moving. In special cases, if the pipes are delivered in a container, the space should be used
efciently and the lengths of pipe must be adjusted to the transportation conditions.

8. Storage
While storing pipes and pipe ttings it is important to This means that each layer of pipes shall be in the
ensure that the ground is smooth and to avoid point opposite direction to the next layer the socket is side-
loads. Further, it must be made sure that there are no by-side with the spigot. Sockets cannot be in contact
stones or any other objects with sharp ends. Then, it is with the sockets in the next layer.
important to check that the spigots and sockets of the
pipes loaded on each other are in different directions.

A sample about storing Krah pipes

9. Quality control
Total quality management
After the production, the final product is tested and
The quality of the pipes and the pipe products is the compared with the requirements of the customer.
criterion for all developments of Krah AG and compa- The nal minute is written and the documentation is
nies using the Krah technology. As the international nished. In order to guarantee that the static theoretic
requirements vary because of the different norms and values are conform to the reality pipes are continuously
standards, there exists a multiplicity of test procedures taken out of the production and they are tested with the
for the quality assurance. The whole production process help of a ring stiffness test according to DIN 16961 or
is included in an extensive Total-Quality-Management- ISO 9969.
System. There are two main fields, the one is the
internal quality control and the other is the external
(third-party) quality control.

Generally the internal quality control is divided into

three different steps:


The raw materials and any other input are tested regarding
the melting ow ratio, moisture and colour. Usually any
new delivery of material is tested before it is stored. Every
test is documented, analysed and led. Measuring the width of the pipe wall


The quality assurance demands a great know-how and
During the production the individual working steps are therefore the Krah AG has created a Quality handbook
continously supervised and documented. Moreover in which all the important tests including the necessary
the most important dimensions are measured and if machines are described. In order to give the customer
necessary, corrected. an impression of the quality control it is possible to have
a look into the handbook.

Inspection of ring stiffness

22 23
Marking DIN 16961-2:2010-03
Depending on the used pipe standard, the marking can Annex B (INFORMATIVE)
be different. A minimum marking is: The pipes shall Methods of assessing the load capacity of pipes
be marked at intervals of maximum 2m, at least once
per pipe. B.1 General

The marking must include at least the following: One of the most frequent uses of profiled pipes is in
buried piping systems. Before these are installed, proof of
No. of standard (e.g. EN13476) their load bearing capacity is required to be provided.
Nominal dimension (e.g. DN/ID 1000)
Producer (e.g. Krah Pipes) This proof can be provided in the form of structural design
Ring stiffness class (e.g. SN8 in accordance with calculations or computational graphs or tables based on
the standard EN13476) practical experience and comparative calculations.
Ring elasticity (e.g. RF30 in accordance with the
standard EN13476) Structural design based on analysis or computation is
Material of pipe (e.g. PEHD) not generally necessary in thermoplastic pipe design. In
practice, each calculated prediction of the behaviour of a
pipe is heavily dependent on the conditions assumed for
the purposes of the calculation corresponding to actual
conditions on-site. With this in mind, in critical cases it is
recommended that the input data be carefully checked
and veried by carrying out soil analyses and monitoring
pipe-laying operations.

In standard installation situations (see Table B.1), pre-

dictions of the behaviour of underground pipes can be
made on the basis of practical experience.

B.2. Structural design based on practical experience

Quality certicates
On the strength of decades of experience, and provided
In general the whole production is constantly supervised the pipes used are at least of the minimum quality-
by a third party inspection. The quality control exceeds required by this standard and are properly laid, most
by far the ISO 9000 certications because in our case construction work involving underground pipes can be
the quality of the nal product is tested. As result we carried out without any need for complicated structu-
are in the position to issue quality certicates for every ral design calculations (see CEN/TS 15223, DIN EN
delivery of pipes from the most simple quality certicate 13476-1).
2.2 to the rst class certicate 3.1b according to EN
10204. The limiting values specied in Table B.1 shall be obser-
ved in respect of the installation conditions and the
The recent certicates given to Krah pipes are always installation quality.
available on our website: in the
sub-directory: Certicates. Studies at the European level (see Bibliography [1]) and
extensive research into the deection behaviour of
pipes in existing European pipe systems (see
Bibliography [2]) have investigated the subject of def-
lection of underground pipes. In the latter study, actual
deection was measured several times over a period of
25 years. The ndings of the two studies have resulted
in the empirical values shown in Figure B.1.

Figure B.1 illustrates the expected maximum long-term

deection of buried pipes as a function of the laying
quality and the ring stiffness of the pipes.
X Ring stiffness SN, in kN/m2
Y Groundwater level above the invert, in m
1 Compaction GOOD
2 Compaction AVERAGE

Joonis B.2 Maximum permissible groundwater level

above the invert (GW) as in ATV-DVWK-A 127 (DWA-A
127 Code of practice)

Key NOTE 1 The relationship between SN and SR24 as

X Ring stiffness SN, in kN/m2 shown in Figure B.2, based on polyethylene, is intended
Y Long-term deection, in % for guidance. The curve has been calculated assuming
A Compaction AVERAGE a laying depth of 6 m and good laying quality (see Table
B Compaction GOOD B.1). Higher ground water levels are permitted for pipes
laid at a depth less than 6 m.
Joonis B.1 Long-term pipe deflection: maximum
values NOTE 2 Good and average compaction with 95 %
and 90 % standard Proctor density respectively are
The ring stiffness of a pipe or tting cannot be directly used for all types of ground in which pipes are installed
converted from the SR24 to the SN value and vice-versa. (i.e. including natural ground). Only installation case I
Due to the inuence of various factors: the modulus of as in ATV-DVWK-A 127 is considered. Mixed soils of
elasticity of the respective material, the nominal size of groups 1 and 2 as in ATV-DVWK-A 127 (DIN 18196)
the pipe, the various methods of testing stiffness and the are assumed.
differing durations of the tests, the value of ring stiffness is
required to be determined individually by testing. Practice According to CEN/TS 15223, piping systems of stiffness
has shown that these factors do not have any measurable classes SN 4 or SR24 16 designed to be used underg-
inuence on the actual deection of pipes once they are round are sufciently resistant to external water pressu-
laid. re. The more stringent requirements of ATV-DVWK-A 127
(DWA-A 127) [3] with regard to external water pressure
The ring stiffness values < SN 4 (SR24 16) shown in the can be checked in Figure B.2 as a function of the ring
diagrams are most frequently found in large pipes. stiffness of the pipe.

24 25
Tabel B.1 Conditions on which the graphs in Figure B.1 are based

Pipe system Systems intended to be installed underground and complying with the requirements of
DIN 16961 Parts 1 and 2

Depth 0,8 m 6,0 m

Trafc load included
Trench width as in DIN EN 1610
Ground water see Figure B.2 and Notes
Laying quality as in DIN EN 1610

Compaction GOOD
Granular soil to be used as bedding is carefully placed in the embedment and
compacted, after which the soil is placed in layers not more than 30 cm thick
and each layer carefully compacted. The pipe shall be covered with a layer at
least 15 cm thick. The trench is then lled with (any type of) soil and compacted.
Proctor density of embedment 95 %

Compaction AVERAGE
Granular soil to be used as bedding is placed in layers not more than 30 cm
thick and each layer carefully compacted. The pipe shall be covered with a
layer at least 15 cm thick. The trench is then lled with (any type of) soil and
Proctor density of embedment ! 90 %

Timbering Prior to compaction, the timbering shall be removed as recommended in DIN EN 1610.

The proven exibility of the pipes is such that failure will not occur, even when the pipes are subjected to unforeseen
loads or are improperly installed. Deections of up to 15 % do not adversely affect the correct functioning (i.e. the
durability, hydraulic properties and leak tightness) of the pipe system.

B.3 Structural design based on design calculations

If structural calculations are necessary (for instance because the laying conditions are other than those given in Table
B.1), a method specied in DIN EN 1295-1 should be used. In Germany, method ATV-DVWK A 127 (DWA-A 127) is
generally used. Recommended deection values can be found in CEN/TS 15223.

B.4 Suitability of methods for large pipes

The specications of CEN/TS 15223 and DIN EN 13476-1 are limited to pipes up to 1 200 mm in diameter. However,
the interaction between pipe and the ground surrounding it is always largely the same, irrespective of the diameter
of the pipe. The reason for this is the dominance of the surrounding ground. Calculations in accordance with ATV-
DVWK-A 127 (DWA-A 127) show that the pipe diameter hardly affects the results of the stress and deection analyses.
This is also conrmed in Figure B.1. The main factor is the excellent soil and laying quality that is recommended for
large pipes.
Gaasi tee 11 / 75306 Rae vald / Harjumaa / Eesti /
Tel: +372 684 1050 / Fax: +372 684 1051 / /