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Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report

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Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 1 Disc Brake Assembly Analysis INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Gonca
Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 1 Disc Brake Assembly Analysis INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Gonca

Disc Brake Assembly Analysis

INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Gonca Altuger-Genc

MET-300

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 1 Disc Brake Assembly Analysis INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Gonca

Mridul Mohta Pragadeesh Ravichandran Aditya Kaliappan Velayutham

04/29/2015

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • 1. Abstract……………………………………………………………….3

  • 2. Parameters Involved………………………………………………….5

  • 3. Parts of Braking System…………………………………………… 5 ...

  • 4. Geometry of Contact Area………………………………………… 6 ...

  • 5. Objective…………………………………………………………… 8 ..

  • 6. Procedure…………………………………………………………….8

  • 7. Selection of Materials……………………………………………….10

  • 8. Mechanical Properties…………………………………………… 10 ....

  • 9. Outcomes 1) Analysis Type 1 – Mechanical Event Simulation……………….14 Material A 2) Analysis Type 1 – Mechanical Event Simulation……………….20 Material B 3) Analysis Type 2 – Non-Linear Static Stress Simulation……… 24 ...

Material A

4) Analysis Type 2 – Non-Linear Static Stress Simulation……… Material B

...

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10.Challenges Faced……………………………………………………34

11.Formulae…………………………………………………………….35

12.Computational Problem…………………………………………… 36 .. 13.Design for Manufacturing of Disc Brakes………………………… 38 .. 14.Conclusion………………………………………………………… 39 .. 15.References………………………………………………………… 40 ...

Abstract

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Disc Brakes are the type of the brakes, which uses the pair of calipers attached with the brake pads to rub against the disc. This creates friction between the brake pads and the disc, which in turn reduces the rotatory motion of the axle/wheel or brings it to stationary. Braking systems rely on friction to bring the vehicle to a halt – hydraulic pressure pushes brake pads against a cast iron disc. It consists of a disc made up of cast iron, which is bolted, to the wheel hub and a caliper (stationary mount housing). The caliper is linked to the vehicle’s stationary part like the axle casing and holding pistons in each part. In between each piston and the disc there is a friction pad held in position by retaining pins, spring plates etc. Passages are drilled in the caliper for the fluid to enter or leave each housing.

Failure of disc brakes - If brake pads are not changed promptly, scarring occurs. This happens once they reach the end of their service life. Cracking takes place only for drilled discs that may develop small cracks around edges of holes drilled near the edge of the disc because of the disc's non-uniform rate of expansion. The discs have a certain amount of "surface rust". Sometimes when the brakes are applied, a high-pitched squeal occurs. Most brake squeal is produced by vibration (resonance instability) of the brake components, especially the pads and discs (known as force-coupled excitation).

The standard disc brake of a 4-wheeler model was done using Autodesk Mechanical Simulation through which the properties like deflection, heat flux and temperature of disc brake model were calculated. It is important to understand action force and friction force on the disc brake new material, how disc brake works more efficiently, which can help to reduce the accident that may happen at anytime.

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Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 4 Figure 1 Farmingdale State College 04/29/2015

Figure 1

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 4 Figure 1 Farmingdale State College 04/29/2015

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Figure 2

Parameters involved

  • Clamping Force

  • Braking Force

  • Braking Torque

  • Load torque

  • Inertia torque

  • Rubbing speed

  • Power dissipation

  • Kinetic energy

  • Friction torque

  • Braking time

  • Maximum disc speed

  • Deceleration during braking

  • Delay time for brake signal

  • External load acting on the brake

Parts of Braking System

Brake Pedal—force input to system from driver

Design gives a Mechanical Advantage

Master Cylinder—converts force to pressure

Pressure is used to move brake pads into place

Brake Pads—provide friction force when in contact with rotor

Works to slow or stop vehicle

Caliper—holds pads and squeezes them against rotor

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Rotor—spins with wheel

When used in conjunction with brake pads, slows vehicle

Vents—help provide cooling to brake

Different materials have different coefficients of friction Pad material can be chosen for performance or to create a balance between performance and durability

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 6  Rotor—spins with wheel  When used

Table 1

Geometry of Contact Area

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 6  Rotor—spins with wheel  When used

F = Force on pads

Figure 3

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θ 1 , θ 2 , r 1 , r 0 = Dimensions of brake pad

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 7 θ , θ , r , r

Figure 4

Step 1: Force is applied to by driver to the master cylinder Step 2: Pressure from the master cylinder causes one brake pad to contact rotor Step 3: The caliper then self-centers, causing second pad to contact rotor

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Objective

To develop a technical report by showing the simulation results of the disc brake assembly for different materials by providing the necessary tables/figures/graphs and to examine whether the part fails or not based on the safety factor requirements.

The disc brake assembly (Figure 5) on which the analysis has to be done –

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 8 Objective To develop a technical report by

Procedure

Figure 5

  • 1. The disc brake assembly file was downloaded as an Autodesk Inventor file.

  • 2. The unnecessary parts of the assembly were removed so as to reduce the complexity of the project.

  • 3. The entire assembly was cut into half in two different planes. This was done to reduce the simulation time.

  • 4. The final assembly had three parts – one caliper, brake pad and the rotor.

  • 5. The assembly was then opened in the Autodesk Simulation software.

  • 6. The assembly was meshed by selecting the appropriate 3D Mesh settings and by clicking “Generate 3D Mesh” command.

  • 7. Once meshing has been done, both the element definition and element type were defined.

  • 8. The analysis was carried with two different sets of materials for caliper, brake pad and rotor. (Details mentioned later in this report)

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9. The analysis was carried with three different simulation types. (Details

mentioned later in this report)

  • 10. The next step was to define the constraints as follows: - For rotor’s inner side face - fixed constraint, For calipers – fixed constraint and For brake pad – fixed except translational in z-axis Constraints remained the same for Linear and Non - Linear Static Analysis. In addition, rotation of the rotor along the z-direction was set free for MES Type.

  • 11. Linear Static Analysis

The surface of the brake pad, which faces the rotor, was simulated so that it moves a certain distance by providing the option of prescribed displacement.

This was done by Selecting the surface

Right click, select sub

entities and then the vertices were chosen. Then one of the nodes was right clicked and prescribed nodal displacements were selected. The translational motion magnitude was given as 10.666 mm in negative z - direction and then the load curve was selected for an addition of the return cycle. On the same surface, by following the steps mentioned above, nodal forces were applied for 1000 N along the same direction as that of the prescribed displacement. The simulation was then made to run.

  • 12. Non – Linear Static Analysis – The same procedures were followed as that of the Linear Static Analysis. In addition, Surface-to-Surface contact was defined between the meeting faces of the brake pad and the rotor. Although, the outcomes were observed to be different.

  • 13. Mechanical Event Simulation type – The same procedures were followed as that of the Non – Linear Analysis. In addition, two more steps were added i.e.

Nodal Prescribed Displacement on the rotor - the inner hollow surfaces of the rotor was selected by drawing a circle over it. In the option mesh, the joint option was selected to create a joint. For making the rotation possible, the rotor’s element definition was changed from truss to beam, which has rotational degree of freedom. The selection type was changed to rectangle and dragged over the created joint. The nodes been selected was then right clicked to choose nodal prescribed displacements and the value of rotation in terms of number of revolutions was provided.

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Capture rate – It analyzes the component in several steps and increments. More is the value of the capture rate, better is the simulation result. Under the parameters section, the capture rate was selected and

defined as 5 for 1-second forward cycle. So, for a total of 2 seconds, the total time of 10 seconds was made

as a capture rate.

Selection of Materials

The brake disc or rotor is usually made up of cast iron, but in some cases it is

made up of composites such as reinforced carbon–carbon or ceramic matrix composites. We have used two different sets of material type. They are: -

  • a. Caliper: Aluminum 6061 - O Brake Pad: ASTM Steel A36 Rotor: Cast Iron ASTM A48 Grade 50

  • b. Caliper: Aluminum 6061 - O Brake Pad: Steel AISI 4130 Rotor: Titanium Carbide (TiC)

Mechanical Properties

Aluminum 6061 – O [Caliper Material]

 

Metric

English

Hardness, Brinell

30

30

Ultimate Tensile Strength

124 MPa

18000 psi

Tensile Yield Strength

55.2 MPa

8000 psi

Elongation at Break

25 %

25 %

Elongation at Break

30 %

30 %

Modulus of Elasticity

68.9 GPa

10000 ksi

Ultimate Bearing Strength

228 MPa

33100 psi

Bearing Yield Strength

103 MPa

14900 psi

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Poisson's Ratio

0.33

0.33

Fatigue Strength

62.1 MPa

9000 psi

Machinability

30 %

30 %

Shear Modulus

26 GPa

3770 ksi

Shear Strength

82.7 MPa

12000 psi

ASTM A36 Steel [Brake Pad Set - 1]

Tensile Strength, Ultimate

400 - 550 MPa

Tensile Strength, Yield

250 MPa

36300 psi

Elongation at Break

20 %

20 %

Modulus of Elasticity

200 GPa

29000 ksi

Bulk Modulus

160 GPa

23200 ksi

Poisson’s Ratio

0.26

0.26

Shear Modulus

79.3 GPa

11500 ksi

AISI 4130 Steel, normalized at 1600°F [Brake Pad - Set 2]

Hardness, Brinell

197

197

Hardness, Knoop

219

219

Hardness, Rockwell B

92

92

Hardness, Rockwell C

13

13

Hardness, Vickers

207

207

Tensile Strength, Ultimate

670 MPa

97200 psi

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Tensile Strength, Yield

435 MPa

63100 psi

Elongation at Break

25.5 %

25.5 %

Reduction of Area

60 %

60 %

Modulus of Elasticity

205 GPa

29700 ksi

Bulk Modulus

140 GPa

20300 ksi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

0.29

Izod Impact

87 J

64.2 ft-lb

Machinability

70 %

70 %

Shear Modulus

80 GPa

11600 ksi

Gray Cast Iron Grade 50 [Rotor Set - 1]

Compressive (Crushing) Strength

Density

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

Elongation at Break

Fatigue Strength (Endurance Limit)

Fracture Toughness

Melting Onset (Solidus)

Shear Strength

Specific Heat Capacity

Strength to Weight Ratio

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

1130 MPa (164 x 10 3 psi)

7.2 g/cm 3 (450 lb./ft 3 )

130 to 160 GPa (19 to 23 x 10 6 psi)

1 %

148 MPa (21 x 10 3 psi)

650 MPa-m 1/2

1090 °C (1990 °F)

503 MPa (73 x 10 3 psi)

450 J/kg-K

48 to 57 kN-m/kg

345 to 410 MPa (50 to 59 x 10 3 psi)

228 MPa (33 x 10 3 psi)

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Thermal Conductivity

46 W/m-K

Thermal Diffusivity

14

Thermal Expansion

10.5 µm/m-K

Titanium Carbide [Rotor Set - 2]

Knoop Micro hardness

2400

2000 – 2400

Hardness, Rockwell A

93

93

Vickers Micro hardness

3200

3200

Tensile Strength, Ultimate

258 MPa

37400 psi

Modulus of Elasticity

448 - 451 GPa

65000 - 65400 ksi

Poisson’s Ratio

0.18 - 0.19

0.18 - 0.19

Shear Modulus

110 - 193 GPa

16000 - 28000 ksi

Shear Strength

89.0MPa

12900psi

@Temperature 1925 °C

@Temperature 3497 °F

The assembly (Figure 6) looked like the following upon meshing–

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Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 14 Outcomes Figure 6 1. Analysis Type 1

Outcomes

Figure 6

  • 1. Analysis Type 1 – Mechanical Event Simulation Material A - Caliper: Aluminum 6061 - O Brake Pad: ASTM Steel A36 Rotor: Cast Iron ASTM A48 Grade 50 Prescribed Displacement – 10.666 mm in the negative z-direction Force – 1000 N in the negative z-direction Load Curve - Gradual Surface-to-Surface Contact – Rotor’s outer surface & brake pad’s inner surface Capture Rate – 10 seconds The assembly (Figure 1.1) looked like the following before the analysis was
    done-

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Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 15 Figure 1.1 Maximum Displacement – 10.67 mm

Figure 1.1

Maximum Displacement – 10.67 mm

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 15 Figure 1.1 Maximum Displacement – 10.67 mm

Figure 1.2

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Maximum Stress – 3207.31 N/mm 2

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 16 Maximum Stress – 3207.31 N/mm Figure 1.3

Figure 1.3

Maximum Strain – 0.0298476 mm/mm

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 16 Maximum Stress – 3207.31 N/mm Figure 1.3

Figure 1.4

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Graph (Figure 1.5) shows maximum stress that the disc brake can handle under the applied load and the given material conditions -

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 17 Graph ( Figure 1.5) shows maximum stress

Factor of Safety – 0.1142

Figure 1.5

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 17 Graph ( Figure 1.5) shows maximum stress

Figure 1.6

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The pictures listed above reveal that when the disc brake assembly is at the 5 th step, the stress induced by the brake pad is more than the disc brake assembly at 10 th step i.e. rotor at 5 th step has maximum stress of 3207 N/mm 2 than at 10 th step. This is because when the rotor undergoes maximum deflection due to the force applied by the brake pad (5 th step) while being fixed at one end, it bends to the extent, which induces more stress in it. Thus, at the maximum limit (5 th step) stress concentration is higher than when it reaches the 10 th step. This disturbs the original configuration of the rotor and it can never return back to its initial position after continuous and/or repeated use.

The picture (Figure 1.7) to show that the load curve is gradual loading

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 18 The pictures listed above reveal that when

Figure 1.7

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Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 19 Table 1.1 The brake pad’s material is

Table 1.1

The brake pad’s material is ASTM A36 Steel, which is a ductile material and the rotor’s material is Cast Iron ASTM A48 Grade 50, which is also a ductile material. As it is clearly seen from the safety factor plot that the Factor of Safety (FOS) is 0.1142 < 1.0. This shows that the disc brake fails and cannot bear the stress. Also, it can be seen from the above table (Table 1.1) that the minimum factor of safety for ductile material under static load condition is 2.0. So, any value below 2.0 shows that, the disc brake is not in par with the industrial standards. The failure is unavoidable hence; it is not safe and unacceptable.

The analysis was also done by providing the load curve as repeated and impact loading. However, this did not affect the outcome of the analysis and the results were the same as that of the gradual loading. The factor of safety requirements for ductile material is more for repeated and impact loading i.e. 8 and 12 respectively.

Load Curve – Repeated Loading

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 19 Table 1.1 The brake pad’s material is

(Figure 1.8)

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Load Curve – Impact Loading

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 20 Load Curve – Impact Loading ( Figure

(Figure 1.9)

  • 2. Analysis Type 1 – Mechanical Event Simulation Material B - Caliper: Aluminum 6061 - O Brake Pad: Steel AISI 4130 Rotor: Titanium Carbide (TiC) Prescribed Displacement – 10.666 mm in the negative z-direction Force – 1000 N in the negative z-direction Load Curve - Gradual Surface-to-Surface Contact – Rotor’s outer surface & brake pad’s inner surface Capture Rate – 10 seconds The assembly (Figure 7) looked like the following before the analysis was done –

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Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 21 (Figure 7) Maximum Displacement – 10.67 mm

(Figure 7)

Maximum Displacement – 10.67 mm

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Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 22 Figure 2.1 Maximum Stress – 4832.57 N/mm

Figure 2.1

Maximum Stress – 4832.57 N/mm 2

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 22 Figure 2.1 Maximum Stress – 4832.57 N/mm

Figure 2.2

Maximum Strain – 0.0297653 mm/mm

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Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 23 Figure 2.3 Graph ( Figure 2.4) shows

Figure 2.3

Graph (Figure 2.4) shows maximum stress that the disc brake can handle under the applied load and the given material conditions -

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 23 Figure 2.3 Graph ( Figure 2.4) shows

Figure 2.4

Factor of safety – 0.245508

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Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 24 Figure 2.5 The pictures listed above reveal

Figure 2.5

The pictures listed above reveal that when the disc brake assembly is at the 5 th step, the stress induced by the brake pad is more than the disc brake assembly at 10 th step i.e. rotor at 5 th step has maximum stress of 4832.57 N/mm 2 than at 10 th step. This is because when the rotor undergoes maximum deflection due to the force applied by the brake pad (5 th step) while being fixed at one end, it bends to the extent, which induces more stress in it. Thus, at the maximum limit (5 th step) stress concentration is higher than when it reaches the 10 th step. This disturbs the original configuration of the rotor and it can never return back to its initial position after continuous and/or repeated use.

The picture (Figure 2.6) to show that the load curve is gradual loading

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Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 25 Figure 2.6 Table 2.1 The brake pad’s

Figure 2.6

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 25 Figure 2.6 Table 2.1 The brake pad’s

Table 2.1

The brake pad’s material is Steel AISI 4130, which is a ductile material and the rotor’s material is Titanium Carbide (TiC), which is also a ductile material. As it is clearly seen from the safety factor plot that the Factor of Safety (FOS) is

0.245508 < 1.0. This shows that the disc brake fails and cannot bear the stress. Also, it can be seen from the above table (Table 2.1) that the minimum factor of safety for ductile material under static load condition is 2.0. So, any value below 2.0 shows that, the disc brake is not in par with the industrial standards. The failure is unavoidable hence; it is not safe and unacceptable.

The analysis was also done by providing the load curve as repeated and impact loading. However, this did not affect the outcome of the analysis and the results were the same as that of the gradual loading. The factor of safety requirements for ductile material is more for repeated and impact loading i.e. 8 and 12 respectively.

  • 3. Analysis Type 2 – Non-Linear Static Stress Simulation

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Material A -

Caliper: Aluminum 6061 - O

Brake Pad: ASTM Steel A36 Rotor: Cast Iron ASTM A48 Grade 50 Force – 1000 N in the negative z-direction Load Curve – Gradual

The assembly (Figure 8) looked like the following before the analysis was done –

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 26 Material A - Caliper: Aluminum 6061 -

Figure 8

Maximum Displacement – 0.006 mm

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 26 Material A - Caliper: Aluminum 6061 -

Figure 3.1

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Maximum Stress – 21.7096 N/mm 2

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 27 Maximum Stress – 21.7096 N/mm Figure 3.2

Figure 3.2

Maximum Strain – 0.000207 mm/mm

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 27 Maximum Stress – 21.7096 N/mm Figure 3.2

Figure 3.3

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Graph (Figure 3.4) shows maximum stress that the disc brake can handle under the applied load and the given material conditions –

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 28 Graph ( Figure 3.4) shows maximum stress

Factor of Safety – 14.7624

Figure 3.4

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 28 Graph ( Figure 3.4) shows maximum stress

Figure 3.5

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The pictures listed above reveal that when the disc brake assembly is at the 5 th step, the stress induced by the brake pad is more than the disc brake assembly at 10 th step i.e. rotor at 5 th step has maximum stress of 21.7096 N/mm 2 than at 10 th step. This is because when the rotor undergoes maximum deflection due to the force applied by the brake pad (5 th step) while being fixed at one end, it bends to the extent, which induces more stress in it. Thus, at the maximum limit (5 th step) stress concentration is higher than when it reaches the 10 th step. This disturbs the original configuration of the rotor and it can never return back to its initial position after continuous and/or repeated use.

The picture (Figure 3.6) to show that the load curve is gradual loading

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 29 The pictures listed above reveal that when

Figure 3.6

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 29 The pictures listed above reveal that when

Table 3.1

The brake pad’s material is ASTM A36 Steel, which is a ductile material and the rotor’s material is Cast Iron ASTM A48 Grade 50, which is also a ductile material.

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As it is clearly seen from the safety factor plot that, the Factor of Safety (FOS) is

14.7624 > 1.0. This shows that the disc brake do not fail and can bear the stress. Also, it can be seen from the above table (Table 3.1) that the minimum factor of safety for ductile material under static load condition is 2.0. So, any value above 2.0 shows that, the disc brake is in par with the industrial standards. The failure is avoidable hence; it is safe and acceptable.

The analysis was also done by providing the load curve as repeated and impact loading. However, this did not affect the outcome of the analysis and the results were the same as that of the gradual loading. The factor of safety requirements for ductile material is more for repeated and impact loading i.e. 8 and 12 respectively.

  • 4. Analysis Type 2 – Non-Linear Static Stress Simulation Material B - Caliper: Aluminum 6061 - O Brake Pad: Steel AISI 4130 Rotor: Titanium Carbide (TiC) Force – 1000 N in the negative z-direction Load Curve – Gradual

The assembly (Figure 9) looked like the following before the analysis was done –

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 30 As it is clearly seen from the

Figure 9

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Maximum Displacement – 0.0072978 mm

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 31 Maximum Displacement – 0.0072978 mm Figure 4.1

Figure 4.1

Maximum Stress – 23.7365 N/mm 2

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 31 Maximum Displacement – 0.0072978 mm Figure 4.1

Figure 4.2

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Maximum Strain – 0.000282 mm/mm

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 32 Maximum Strain – 0.000282 mm/mm Figure 4.3

Figure 4.3

Graph (Figure 4.4) shows maximum stress that the disc brake can handle under the applied load and the given material conditions –

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 32 Maximum Strain – 0.000282 mm/mm Figure 4.3

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Figure 4.4

Factor of Safety – 47.5378

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 33 Figure 4.4 Factor of Safety – 47.5378

Figure 4.5

The pictures listed above reveal that when the disc brake assembly is at the 5 th step, the stress induced by the brake pad is more than the disc brake assembly at 10 th step i.e. rotor at 5 th step has maximum stress of 23.7365 N/mm 2 than at 10 th step. This is because when the rotor undergoes maximum deflection due to the force applied by the brake pad (5 th step) while being fixed at one end, it bends to the extent, which induces more stress in it. Thus, at the maximum limit (5 th step) stress concentration is higher than when it reaches the 10 th step. This disturbs the original configuration of the rotor and it can never return back to its initial position after continuous and/or use.

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The picture (Figure 4.6) to show that the load curve is gradual loading

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 34 The picture ( Figure 4.6) to show

Figure 4.6

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 34 The picture ( Figure 4.6) to show

Table 4.1

The brake pad’s material is Steel AISI 4130, which is a ductile material and the rotor’s material is Titanium Carbide (TiC), which is also a ductile material. As it is clearly seen from the safety factor plot that the Factor of Safety (FOS) is 47.5378 > 1.0. This shows that the disc brake do not fail and can bear the stress. Also, it can be seen from the above table (Table 4.1) that the minimum factor of safety for ductile material under static load condition is 2.0. So, any value above 2.0 shows that, the disc brake is in par with the industrial standards. The failure is avoidable hence; it is safe and acceptable.

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The analysis was also done by providing the load curve as repeated and impact loading. However, this did not affect the outcome of the analysis and the results were the same as that of the gradual loading. The factor of safety requirements for ductile material is more for repeated and impact loading i.e. 8 and 12 respectively.

Challenges Faced

In order to reduce the simulation’s complexity, most of the parts, which play no and/or less role, were removed from the actual assembly (Figure 10).

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 35 The analysis was also done by providing

Figure 10 - Actual Assembly To avoid simulating symmetrical parts and reduce simulation time, the assembly is further divided into half in two different planes (Figure 11). This helped in bringing down the size of the actual assembly.

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 35 The analysis was also done by providing

Figure 11 - Assembly after removing the parts

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In spite of providing all the necessary requirements for the simulation, the rotor was unable to rotate in the desired way.

 Certain analyses under particular conditions were not functioning properly (Figure 7).
Certain
analyses
under
particular
conditions
were
not
functioning
properly
(Figure 7).

Figure 12

Applying different commands and options like remote force, remote loads and constraints, which we haven’t been acquainted before was one of the major issues.

Formulae

Stress = Force/Area = F/A

Strain = Change in length/original length = dl/l

Young’s Modulus, E = Stress/Strain

Poisson’s Ratio = Lateral Stain /Longitudinal Strain

Factor of Safety = Ultimate Tensile Strength/ Maximum Stress

Computational Problem

Standard Brake Design

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Rotor disc dimension = 240 mm (240×10 -3 m) Rotor disc material = Carbon Ceramic Matrix Pad brake area = 2000 sq.mm (2000E-6 m) Pad brake material = Asbestos Coefficient of friction (Wet Condition) = Ranges between 0.07-0.13 Coefficient of friction (Dry Condition) = Ranges between 0.3-0.5

Maximum temperature subjected to = 350

°

C

Maximum pressure subjected to = 1MPa (E6 Pa)

Forces Acting On Rotor Due To Contact with Brake Pads

Tangential force between pad and rotor (Inner face) FTRI = µ1.FRI Where, FTRI = Normal force between pad brake and Rotor (Inner) µ1 = Coefficient of friction = 0.5 FRI = P max / 2 × A pad brake area So, FTRI = µ1.FRI FTRI = (0.5)(0.5)(E6 N/sq.m) (2000E6 sq.m) FTRI = 500 N

Tangential force between pad and rotor (outer face), FTRO. In this FTRO equal FTRI because same normal force and same material

Brake Torque (TB):

With the assumption of equal coefficients of friction and normal forces FR on the inner and outer faces:

TB = FT.R Where TB = Brake torque µ = Coefficient of friction FT = Total normal forces on disc brake, [FTRI + FTRO] FT = 1000 N R = Radius of rotor disc So, TB = (1000) (120E-3) TB = 120 N.m

Brake Distance (x) – We know that tangential braking force acting at the point of contact of the brake, and Work done = FT. x (Equation A) Where FT = FTRI + FTRO X = Distance travelled (in meter) by the vehicle before it come to rest.

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We know kinetic energy of the vehicle.

Kinetic energy = (m.v^2) / 2 (Equation B) Where m = Mass of vehicle

  • v = Velocity of vehicle

In order to bring the vehicle to rest, the work done against friction must be equal to

kinetic energy of the vehicle. Therefore equating (Equation A) and (Equation B)

FT. x = (m.v^2) / 2 Assumption v = 100 km/hr = 27.77 m/s

  • M = 132 kg. (Dry weight of Vehicle)

So we get x = (m.v^2) / 2 FT

  • x = (132×27.772) / (2×1000) m.

  • x = 50.89 m

Heat Generated (Q) = M.Cр.ΔT J/s Flux (q) = Q/A W/m² Thermal Gradient (K) = q / k K/m

Carbon Ceramic Matrix – Heat generated Q= m*cp*∆T Mass of disc = 0.5 kg Specific Heat Capacity = 800

J/kg

°

C

Time taken Stopping the Vehicle = 5 sec Developed Temperature difference = 15

°

C

Q = 0.5 * 800 * 15= 6000 J Area of Disc = Π * (R^2 – r^2) = Π * (0.120^2 – 0.055^2) = 0.03573 sq.m Heat Flux = Heat Generated /Second /area = 6000 / 5 / 0.0357 = 33.585 kw/sq.m Thermal Gradient = Heat Flux / Thermal Conductivity = 33.582E3/40 = 839.63 K/m

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Design for Manufacturing of Disc Brakes

Computer Aided Engineering MET-300 Project – Technical Report 39 Design for Manufacturing of Disc Brakes Figure

Figure 13

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Conclusion

From the results of the simulation and the shown computations, it was found that the braking force and the number of times the brake has been applied, has a direct relationship on the life and efficiency of the disc brake assembly. More is the load applied on the brake pad; more is the force transmitted onto the rotor and enables it to quickly come to rest. The area where the brake pad rubs the rotor generates more stress and displacement. As the brake pad is comparatively smaller than the rotor, it has less factor of safety while being simulated. As the braking force is not directly applied to the rotor, and passed on through the brake pad in between, it is essential to know about the amount of force applied on the brake pad rather than knowing about the rotor’s factor of safety. Non-Linear Static Stress analysis is preferred over Linear Static Stress analysis because it is a complex approach, which analyses the stress and strain more quickly and effectively. It is more accurate than the linear analysis because in linear analysis the basic assumptions are taken into consideration while the same assumptions are being violated in the non-linear analysis. The conditions, which are being taken into account when non-linear analysis is considered, are dynamic loading or time dependent loading and large deformations of the component, which give the engineers an efficient way to analyze the part or component more properly and appropriately than the linear analysis.

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References

Abhang, Swapnil R., & Bhaskar, D.P. (2014, February). Design and Analysis of Disc Brake, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), Volume 8 Number 4 (ISSN: 2231-5381). Retrieved from

Aluminum 6061 – O (n.d.). In ASM Aerospace Specification Metals Inc. online. Retrieved from

ASTM Grade 50 (ISO Grade 350, EN-JL 1060) Grey Cast Iron (n.d.). In Makeitfrom.com online.

Retrieved from

Bobo (2013, January 15). Hydraulic Disc Brake. GrabCAD. Retrieved from

Strength of Materials Basics and Equations | Mechanics of Materials Equations (n.d.). In

Engineers Edge online.

Retrieved from

Titanium Carbide (TiC) (n.d.). In MATWEB Material Property Data online. Retrieved from

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