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Mariano Marcos State University

COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES


Department of Nursing
City of Batac, Ilocos Norte

Community-Based Health Education


Program in the Prevention and Control of
Pulmonary Tuberculosis

SUBMITTED BY:

Doctolero, Jayzel Laika A.


Edu, Andrea Glace S.
Fernandez, Angelyn D.
Gresola, Mark Paul
Isla, Nicole Jennica B.
Vizcarra, Jim Relly R.

Prof. Marvin R. Lutrania


Research Adviser
Main Problem:

What is the level of awareness among residents of Batac City on the prevention

and control of Pulmonary Tuberculosis?

Sub Problems:

1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents as to:


1.1 Age
1.2 Civil status
1.3 Place of residence
1.4 Educational attainment
1.5 Occupation
1.6 Family monthly income
1.7 Number of children
2. What is the level of awareness of the respondents about Pulmonary

Tuberculosis as to its causes, mode of transmission, manifestations,

prevention, and control?


3. Is there a significant relationship between the socio- demographic profile

of the respondents and to their level of awareness on the prevention and

control of Pulmonary Tuberculosis?

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM

Rationale

The spread of infectious diseases in the world is continuously becoming a threat

to all persons, regardless of age, sex, lifestyle, ethnic background, and socioeconomic
status. They can cause death and suffering and impose a financial burden when it

comes to its treatment. These infectious diseases can be transmitted in several ways:

through the air, from direct or indirect contact with another person, soiled objects, skin

or mucous membrane, saliva, urine, blood and body secretions, through sexual contact,

and through contaminated food and water (WHO, 2009). Thus, prevention and control is

required to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious diseases and it is

considered as one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide (WHO, 2016). In the 5th

century BC the great Hippocrates claimed that tuberculosis (then known as phthisis) is

the most widespread of all the diseases in his time. In addition to this, it was typically

fatal. Hippocrates, like many of his colleagues at the time, believed that tuberculosis

was hereditary but Aristotle extremely disagreed and said that Tuberculosis is a

contagious disease (Intellectual Ventures Laboratory, 2014). The highest incidences of

tuberculosis are seen in those countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with the

lowest gross national products. The World Health Organization estimates that nine

million people get TB every year, of whom 95% live in developing countries. An

estimated 2-3 million people die from TB every year.

In the Philippines, TB is a major health problem. It is the sixth leading cause of

death and illness. In 2011, WHO estimates that there are 260,000 incident cases in the

country, and 28,000 die in a year. TB prevalence is high among the high risk groups

such as the elderly, urban poor, people who are in their productive years and those with

compromised immune systems such as people living with HIV and malnutrition. It is

estimated that 10,600 patients have multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) in 2011. And

there are currently 65,000 TB cases remain undetected and untreated. These are called

the missing TB cases (WHO Representative Office Philippines, 2017). According to the

International Committee of the Red Cross in the Philippines, tuberculosis is four to five

times more prevalent in jails and prisons than in civilian communities. In 2013, the ICRC

and the Bureau of Corrections partnered to improve TB control in National Bilibid


Prison, with mass screening as one of the strategies identified. Some 280 TB cases

were found from a total of 8,833 inmates during mass screenings held since 2014. Of

these cases, 27 were multi-drug-resistant (MDR), a severe type of TB.

Last August 2016, The Provincial Health Office (PHO) of Ilocos Norte has rolled

an intensified caravan aimed at eliminating tuberculosis (TB) disease in the province.

The anti-TB caravan started in Barangay Talogtog, Solsona town. The residents from

the six villages adjacent to Barangay Talogtog, who suffer persistent cough within two

weeks, participated the caravan. The residents had undergone phlegm testing before

they were given free medicines. According to Dr. Josephine Ruedas, head of the

Provincial Health Office of Ilocos Norte, the province has more than 1,000 TB patients

who are undergoing necessary medication in different treatment centers.

In City of Batac Ilocos Norte, there are currently 311 Pulmonary Tuberculosis

cases in year 2011 to 2014. The top 5 barangays of Batac City with the most numbered

PTB cases are Barangay Baay, Tabug, Baligat, QuilingSur, and Palompong respetively.

Based on the scenario presented, it is clear that infectious diseases specifically

tuberculosis, is continuously affecting a large number of people worldwide. This caught

the interest of the researcher to conduct the study to gain an in-depth understanding of

the level of awareness among BHW and family heads of Batac City regarding the

prevention and control of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Statement of the Problem

This study will be conducted to determine the level of awareness among BHW

and family heads of Batac City on the prevention and control of Pulmonary

Tuberculosis.

Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:

1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents as to:


1.1 Age
1.2 Civil status
1.3 Place of residence
1.4 Educational attainment
1.5 Occupation
1.6 Family monthly income
1.7 Number of children
2. What is the level of awareness of the respondents about Pulmonary

Tuberculosis as to its causes, mode of transmission, manifestations,

prevention, and control?


3. Is there a significant relationship between the socio- demographic profile

of the respondents and to their level of awareness on the prevention and

control of Pulmonary Tuberculosis?

Significance of the Study

Pulmonary Tuberculosis is continuously becoming as the main problem of the

Philippines. It is considered as the sixth leading cause of morbidity and mortality.

In line with this, this study will be conducted to find out the level of awareness

among respondents of Batac City on the prevention and control of Pulmonary

Tuberculosis. The results and findings of the study will benefit the following:

Family Heads. The family heads will be able to learn about the disease process

of Pulmonary Tuberculosis which will give them a better understanding about the

prevention and control of the disease.

Healthcare Providers. This study will serve as a guide for health care providers

in rendering health educations especially on the areas that are not aware about

Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Barangay Health Workers. The result of this study will provide insight to the

BHWs about the level of awareness among residents on the prevention and control of

PTB, hence, this research will be a basis for them in providing appropriate health

education and on the prevention and control of the spread of the disease.
Nursing Students. This study will provide awareness to nursing students about

the level of awareness among residents on the prevention and control of PTB. This will

help them in raising the awareness of the residents through health educations.

Nursing Educators. The data that will be derived from the study will be their

basis in enhancing discussions pertaining to the prevention and control of Pulmonary

Tuberculosis.

Nursing Researchers. The results of this study will provide information to the

researchers on the level of awareness among residents of Batac City on the prevention

and control of PTB which will serve as a basis for further studies.

Scope and Delimitation


This study will focus on the level of awareness among residents of Batac City on

the prevention and control of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. It will utilize the descriptive-

correlational design in data gathering.

The participants will be taken from the list that will be provided by the rural health

unit of Batac City who belongs to the top 5 barangays with the highest incidence of

Pulmonary Tuberculosis. The participants will only be delimited to ages 18 and above

residing at Barangay Baay, Tabug, Baligat, QuilingSur, and Palompong. There will be

100 participants and the respondents will be the barangay health workers of each

barangays and the head of each family

Data on the level of awareness among residents at the rural areas of Batac City

on the prevention and control of Pulmonary Tuberculosis will be primarily base from the

responses of the respondents with the items given in the questionnaire. To validate their

responses, actual observations and unstructured interviews will be conducted.

Interpretation of data will be based from the appraisal of the researcher.

Definition of Terms
For a better understanding, the following terms that will be used in the study are

hereby defined:

Awareness. This refers to knowledge of the participants about Pulmonary

Tuberculosis as to its causes, mode of transmission, manifestations, prevention, and

control.

Control. This refers to the actions of the participants in taking hold of controlling

the spread of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Prevention. This pertains to the practices of the participants that they apply in

order to avoid the development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis. This refers to an infectious disease caused by

Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily involves the lungs. It is manifested by

chronic cough, blood-streaked sputum, weight loss, fever, and night sweats.

Socio-Demographic Profile. This refers to the respondents age, civil status,

place of residence, educational attainment, occupation, family monthly income, and

number of children.

Age. This refers to the participants ages 18 years old and above.

Educational Attainment. This refers to the highest level of education the

respondent had completed

Occupation. This pertains to the employment or the source of income of

the respondent

Place of Residence. This pertains to the location of the respondents

where they reside.

Monthly Income. This refers to the amount of money the respondents

families receive every month.

Number of Children. This pertains to the total number of respondents

children.