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Work

Work
z The work done by a constant force on an object that is undergoing a
straight line displacement is given by
r r
W = F S
z Definition of work is based on observations. You do work by exerting the
force on an object while that object moves from one place to another
(undergoes displacement):
z You do more work if the force is greater
z You do more work if displacement is greater
Work

r r
W = F S

James Joule
z SI unit of work is Joule (J) Jewel
1818 - 1889
z 1 Joule = (1 Newton) (1 meter); 1 J = 1 Nm

z British unit of work is foot-pound (ftlb)


z Unit of force is pound, unit of distance is foot
z Conversion: 1 J = 0.7376 ftlb, 1 ftlb = 1.356 J
Work
z You push a stalled car through a displacement S with a constant force F
in the direction of motion:
W = F S
z You push a stalled car through a displacement S with a constant force F
at angle to the direction of motion:

W = F S cos
z Only component of force in direction of cars displacement is important
Work and Kinetic Energy
Work and Kinetic Energy

z From the definition of work we know that the total work done on an
object is related to its displacement (changes in position).
r r
W = F S

z Work is also related to changes in the speed of the object.


Work and Kinetic Energy
z Example: Block sliding on a frictionless table

z Forces acting on a block: its weight, normal force,


and the force F exerted by the hand.
Work and Kinetic Energy
z Example: Block sliding on a frictionless table

A. The net force on a block is


in the direction of its motion.
From N2L, this means that
the block speeds up.
W=FS also tells us that the
total work will be positive.

B. Here only the component


Fcos contributes to Wtotal.
The block speeds up as well.

z Forces acting on a block: its weight, normal


force, and the force F exerted by the hand.
Work and Kinetic Energy
z Example: Block sliding on a frictionless table

C. The net force here opposes


the displacement. From
N2L, this means that the
block slows down. W=FS
also tells us that the total
work will be negative.

D. Here the net force is zero,


so the speed of the block
stays the same, and Wtotal
is zero.
z Forces acting on a block: its weight, normal
force, and the force F exerted by the hand.
Work and Kinetic Energy

z When an object undergoes a displacement:


z object will "speed up" if Wtotal > 0,
z object will "slow down" if Wtotal < 0,
z object will "maintain the same speed (constant) if Wtotal = 0.
Work and Kinetic Energy
z Consider a particle with mass m moving along the x-axis under the
action of a constant net force with magnitude F directed along the
positive x-axis.
z Particle acceleration is constant, and by N2L: F=max.
z Suppose, speed changes from v1 to v2 while particle undergoes a
displacement S=x2-x1 from point x1 to x2.
z 1-D constant-acceleration equation:
v22 v12
v22 = v12 + 2 ax S S = x2 x1 ax =
2S
v22 v12 1 1
F S = mv22 mv12
F = ma x = m
2S 2 2
Work and Kinetic Energy

1 2 1 2
F S = mv2 mv1
2 2
z The product FS is the work done by the net force. Thus, it is equal to the
total work Wtotal done by all the forces acting on a particle.

1 2
z Definition of Kinetic Energy: K = mv
2
z Like work, kinetic energy of a particle is a scalar quantity: it depends on
particles mass and speed, not its direction of motion.
z Car has the same kinetic energy when going north at 10m/s as
when going east at 10m/s.
z Kinetic energy can never be negative; its zero when particle is at rest.
Work - Energy Theorem
1 2 1 2 1 2
F S = mv2 mv1 Ki = mvi F S = K 2 K1
2 2 2
z Work done by the net force on a particle equals the change in the
particles kinetic energy:

z Work - Energy Theorem: Wtot = K 2 K1 = K


z When an object moves:
z object will "speed up" if Wtotal > 0, K2 > K1
z object will "slow down" if Wtotal < 0, K2 < K1
z object will "maintain the same speed (constant) if Wtotal =0,
K2=K1
z Speeds and distances must be measured in inertial frame of reference!
z Kinetic energy and work have the same units (Joules, or Nm):

1J = 1N m = 1(kg ) m = 1kg
m
s2
m2
s2
Work and Kinetic Energy
Problem Solving Strategy
z IDENTIFY the relevant concepts: The work-energy theorem is extremely
useful in situations where you want to relate a bodys speed at one point in its
motion to its speed at a different point.
z This approach is less useful for problems that involve time, such as finding the
time it takes a body to go from point 1 to point 2. The reason is that the work-
energy theorem doesnt involve time at all. For problems that involve time, its
usually best to use the relationships among time, position, velocity, and
acceleration we learned in 1-D motion.

z SET UP the problem using the following steps:


1. Choose the initial and final positions of the body, and draw a free-body
diagram showing all the forces that act on the body.
2. Choose a coordinate system. (If the motion is along a straight line, its
usually easiest to have both the initial and final positions lie along the
x-axis.)
3. List the unknown and known quantities, and decide which unknowns
are your target variables. In some cases the target variable will be the
bodys initial or final speed; in other cases it will be the magnitude of
one of the forces acting on the body.
Work and Kinetic Energy
Problem Solving Strategy
z EXECUTE: Calculate the work done by each force.
z Be sure to check the sign of the work for each force; it must be positive if
the force has a component in the direction of the displacement, negative if
it has a component opposite the displacement, and zero if the force and
displacement are perpendicular.
z Add the amounts of work done by each force to find the total work.
z Be careful with signs! Sometimes it may be easier to calculate the vector
sum of the forces (the net force), then find the work done by the net force.
z Write expressions for the initial and final kinetic energies, K1 and K2.
z Note that kinetic energy involves mass, not weight; if you are given the
bodys weight, youll need to find the mass.
z Finally, use the relationship Wtot=K2-K1 to solve for the target variable.
z Remember that the right-hand side of this equation is the final kinetic
energy minus the initial kinetic energy, never the other way around.
z EVALUATE your answer: Check whether your answer makes physical
sense. A key item to remember is that kinetic energy can never be
negative. If you come up with a negative value of K, youve made a
mistake!
Kinetic Energy
z The example with the hammerhead gives insight into the physical
meaning of kinetic energy.
z The hammerhead was dropped from rest, and its kinetic energy when it
hits the I-beam equals the total work done on it up to that point by the
net force.
z To accelerate a particle with mass m from rest (zero kinetic energy) up
to a speed v, the total work done on it must equal the change in kinetic
energy from zero to K=0.5mv2:
Wtot = K 0 = K K = 1 mv 2
2
z Kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the total work that was
done to accelerate it from rest to its present speed.
z Or from its present speed to rest!
z Catch the ball right pull your hand back, increasing distance to stop
the ball: ball does the work on your hand equal to the balls initial
kinetic energy Wtot=FS=0.5mv2.
z Pulling hand back, you maximize the distance over which this force acts
and thus minimize the force on your hand.
Composite Systems
z Man standing on frictionless roller skates on a level
surface, pushes against the rigid wall, setting himself in
motion to the right.
z Forces acting on him: his weight W, upward normal
forces n1 and n2 exerted by the ground on his skates,
and the horizontal force F exerted on him by the wall.
z No vertical displacement, so forces W, n1 and n2 do
NO work. Force F exerted on him by the wall is
horizontal force that accelerates him to the right, but his
hands dont move. So this force doesnt do work as well.
z Where does the mans kinetic energy come from?
z This system is not a single point (or particle)
z Various parts of the body interact with each other (here:
his hands are still, but his torso moves)
z Total kinetic energy of this composite system of body
parts can change, even no work is done by forces
applied outside the system.
Work and Energy with Varying
Forces
Work and Energy with Varying Forces

z We know that work done by a constant force on an object that is


undergoing a straight line displacement is given by
r r
W = F S
z What happens when force exerted on an object is NOT constant
and the object moves in path which is NOT straight?
z Example: spring, stretched
z More you stretch it, the harder you have to pull: thus the
force is non-constant

z Lets consider straight-line motion with non-constant force


z One complication at a time!
z Fx change along the x-axis (force depends on position)
Work and Energy with Varying Forces
z Particle moves from x1 to x2; Fx depends on coordinate x.
z Lets divide the total displacement by small segments xa, xb, xc
z Total work done during segment xa: ~ by the average force Fa in this
segment multiplied by the displacement xa.
z All segments:
W = Fa xa + Fb xb + ... + Ff x f = Fm xm
Work and Energy with Varying Forces
z If number of segments is very large, segment's width x is very small
z In the limit, the sum is integral of Fx from x1 to x2.
x2

W = lim ( Fm xm ) = Fx dx Varying x-component of force,


straight-line displacement
x 0
x1

z On a graph of force as function of


position, the total work done by this
force is represented by the area
under the curve between the initial
and final positions.
Work and Energy with Varying Forces
z Lets check it: if Fx is constant from x1 to x2.:
x2 x2

W = Fx dx = Fx dx = Fx ( x2 x1 ) = F S
x1 x1
Hookes Law

z To keep ideal spring stretched by amount x beyond its initial length,


we need to apply on the end the force which is proportional to x:

Fx = k x Force required to stretch a spring


K spring (force) constant, [N/m]

z Example: Force constant k


Floppy toy spring: k=1 N/m Car suspension spring: k=105 N/m

Robert Hooke
1635 1703
... lean, bent and ugly man ...
Hookes Law
z To stretch a spring, you must do work
z Suppose one end of a spring is fixed, you apply force on another end
z That end moves, so the force does work
z Work done by the force when spring elongation goes from zero to X:
X X
1 2
W = Fx dx = kxdx = kX
0 0
2
z Total work is ~ to square of final
elongation
1
z Graph, Area under the curve: W = X kX
2
z If spring was initially already stretched a
distance x1, the work to stretch it to a
greater elongation x2:
x2 x2
1 2 1 2
W = Fx dx = kxdx = kx2 kx1 What happens if you
x1 x1
2 2 compress the spring?
Hookes Law

What happens if you compress the spring?

Compression:
z Force Fx and displacement x are both negative

z Force is in the same direction as displacement: work is positive


z Example is following

Fx

x x
Varying Forces: Work - Energy
Theorem
z One can use the same approach: divide total displacement into segments
z Apply Work-Energy Theorem for each segment: Wa=Ka=Faxa
z Sum the changes to find Wtot
z Another way: dv x dx
ax = , vx = dv x dv x dx dv x
dt dt ax = = = vx
dt dx dt dx
x2 x2 x2 dvx
Wtot = Fx dx = ma x dx = mvx dx
x1 x1 x1 dx
z (dvx/dx)dx is the change in velocity dvx during displacement dx. Thus:
x2 1 2 1 2
Wtot = mvx dv x = mv2 mv1
x1 2 2
z Work Energy Theorem is the same: valid for varying forces as well !
Curved Path: Work - Energy Theorem
z Force that varies in direction and magnitude
z Displacement lies along a curved path: particle moves from P1 to P2

z Divide curve between P1 and P2 into small vector displacements dl.


z Each dl is a tangent to the path at its position.
z F is the force at a point along the path, is the angle between F and dl.
z Small element of work W done on particle during displacement dl :
dW = F cos dl = F dl = F dl Total work done on a particle then:

P2 P2 P2 r
W = F cos dl = F dl = F dl (Work done on a curved path)
P1 P1 P1
Power

Watts
Engine

Power man
Mr. Olympia
Power

Definition of work makes no reference to the passage of time


z You lift weight 100N vertically at a distance 1m at constant velocity:
z You do (100N)(1m)=100J of work whether it takes 1 sec, 1 hour, 1
year
z You want to know how quickly the work is done

z Power is the time rate at which work is done. Power is a scalar.

W
z Average power: Pav =
t
W dW
z Instantaneous power: P = lim =
t 0 t dt
Power
z The SI unit of power is watt (W), 1 W = 1 Joule per 1 second.

z In the British system of units power is in ftlb/sec or in a larger unit


called horsepower (hp).
z 1 hp = 550 ftlb/sec = 33,000 ftlb/min = 746 W = of kilowatt (kW)

z The kilowatt-hour (kWh) is a unit of electrical energy, not power


z energy = power time
James Watt
z In mechanics, power is expressed 1736 1819
in terms of force and velocity Watt's steam engines

W F S S
Started with nothing, died

Pav = = =F = F vav
as a very wealthy man

t t t

W dW P = F v
P = lim = = Fv
t 0 t dt In terms of scalar product
Potential Energy and Energy
Conservation
Warm-Up: Power

Power climb
z Runner with mass m runs up the stairs to the top of 443-m-tall Sears
Tower. To lift herself there in 15 minutes (900 s), what must be her
average power output in watts? Kilowatts? Horsepower?

z Treat the runner as a particle of mass m.


z Lets find first how much work she must do
against the gravity to lift herself at height h.

W = mgh = (50kg )(9.8 sm2 )(443m) = 2.17 105 J


W 2.17 105 J
Pav = = = 241W = 0.241kW = 0.323hp
t 900 s
z Another way: calculate average upward force and then
multiply by upward velocity
z Upward force here is vertical, average vertical component of
velocity is (443m) / (900s) = 0.492 m/s

Pav = F vav = (mg )vav = (50kg )(9.8 sm2 )(0.492 ms ) = 241W


Gravitational Potential
Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy

z Energy associated with position is called potential energy


z If elevation for which the gravitational potential energy is chosen to be
zero has been selected then the expression for the gravitational
potential energy as a function of position y is given by
U grav = mgy

z Gravitational potential energy Ugrav is associated with the work


done by the gravitational force according to

Wgrav = U1 U 2 = (U 2 U1 ) = U
Conservative with Non-Conservative
Forces
Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces

z Work done by the conservative force only depends on the initial


and final positions, and doesnt depend on the path
z Runner: gravitational force is conservative
z From point 1 to point 2, same work

z The work done by a conservative force


has these properties:
It can always be expressed as the difference
between the initial and final values of a
potential energy function: U = -W.
It is reversible.
It is independent of the path of the body and
depends only on the starting and ending points.
When the initial and final points are the same
(closed loop), the total work is zero.

All forces which do not satisfy these properties are non-conservative forces.
Elastic Potential Energy
Elastic Potential Energy
z When you compress a spring:
z If there is no friction, spring moves back
z Kinetic energy has been stored in the
elastic deformation of the spring
z Rubber-band slingshot: the same principle
z Work is done on the rubber band by the
force that stretches it
z That work is stored in the rubber band
until you let it go
z You let it go, the rubber gives kinetic
energy to the projectile

z Elastic body: if it returns to its original


shape and size after being deformed
Elastic Potential Energy
Spring is stretched
Equilibrium It does negative work on block

Spring relaxes
It does positive work on block

Spring is compressed
Positive work on block

Block moves from one position x1 to another position x2: how


much work does the elastic (spring) force do on the block?
Elastic Potential Energy
z Work done ON a spring to move one
end from elongation x1 to a different
elongation x2
z When we stretch the spring, we do
positive work on the spring 1 2 1 2
W = kx2 kx1
z When we relax the spring, work done 2 2
on the spring is negative

z Work done BY the spring


z From N3L: quantities of work are
1 2 1 2
negatives of each other Wel = kx1 kx2
z Thus, work Wel done by the spring 2 2

z We can express the work done BY the


spring in terms of a given quantity at the
beginning and end of the displacement U=
1 2
kx [J ]
2
Elastic potential energy
Elastic Potential Energy
1 2
U = kx z The graph of elastic potential energy
2 for ideal spring is a parabola
z For extension of spring, x>0
z For compression, x<0
z Elastic potential energy U is NEVER
negative!
z In terms of the change of potential
energy:

Wel = U1 U 2 = U =
1 2 1 2
= kx1 kx2
2 2
Elastic Potential Energy

1 2 1 2
Wel = U1 U 2 = U = kx1 kx2
2 2

z When a stretched spring is stretched greater, Wel is negative


and U increases: greater amount of elastic potential energy is
stored in the spring

z When a stretched spring relaxes, x decreases, Wel is positive


and U decreases: spring loses its elastic potential energy

z More spring compressed OR stretched, greater its elastic


potential energy
Elastic Potential Energy: Work - Energy
Theorem
z Work Energy Theorem: Wtot=K2-K1, no matter
what kind of forces are acting on the body. Thus: Wtot = Wel = U 2 U1

Wtot = U1 U 2 = K 2 K1 K1 + U1 = K 2 + U 2 If only elastic force


1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 does work
mv1 + kx1 = mv2 + kx2
2 2 2 2
z Total mechanical energy E (the sum of elastic potential
energy and kinetic energy) is conserved
z Ideal spring is frictionless and massless E = K +U
z If spring has a mass, it also has kinetic energy
z Your car has a mass of 1.2 ton or more
z Suspension spring has a mass of few kg
z So we can neglect springs mass in study of how the car
bounces on its suspension
Elastic Force + other forces?
If forces other than elastic force also do
z
work on the body, the total work is
Wtot = Wel + Wother = K 2 K1

K1 + U1 + Wother = K 2 + U 2 elastic force + other forces

1 2 1 2 1 1
mv1 + kx1 + Wother = mv22 + kx22
2 2 2 2
z The work done by all forces other than the elastic force
equals the change in the total mechanical energy E of E = K +U
the system, where U is the elastic potential energy:

z System is made up of the body of mass m and the


spring of force constant k
z When Wother is positive, E increases
z When Wother is negative, E decreases
Force and Potential Energy
Force and Potential Energy

z We have studied in detail two specific conservative


forces, gravitational force and elastic force.
z We have seen there is a definite relationship between a
conservative force and the corresponding potential
energy function.
z The force on a mass in a uniform gravitational field is
Fy = - mg. The corresponding potential energy function
is U(y) = mgy.
z The force exerted on a body by a spring of force
constant k is Fx = - kx. The corresponding potential
energy function is Us(x) = (1/2)kx2.
z In some situations, you are given an expression for
potential energy as a function of position and have
to find corresponding force.
Force and Potential Energy

Consider motion along a straight line, with coordinate x


z Fx(x) is the x-component of force as function of x
z U(x) is the potential energy as function of x
z Work done by conservative force equals the negative of the change
U in potential energy:
W = U
z For infinitesimal displacement x, the work done by force Fx(x) during
this displacement is ~ Fx(x)x (suppose that this interval is so small
that the force will vary just a little)
U
Fx ( x)x = U Fx ( x) =
x
z In the limit x0:

dU ( x) Force from potential


Fx ( x) = energy, one dimension
dx
Force and Potential Energy

dU ( x) Force from potential


Fx ( x) = energy, one dimension
dx
z In regions where U(x) changes most rapidly with x (i.e. where dU(x)/dx is
large) the greatest amount of work is done during the displacement, and
it corresponds to a large force magnitude
z When Fx(x) is in positive x-direction, U(x) decreases with increasing x
z Thus, Fx(x) and U(x) have opposite sign
z Thus, the force is proportional to the negative slope of the potential
energy function
z The physical meaning: conservative force always acts to push the
system toward lower potential energy
Force and Potential Energy

z Lets verify if this expression correctly gives the gravitational force and the
elastic force when using the gravitational potential energy and the elastic
potential energy:

= (mgy ) = mg
dU ( y ) d
U ( y ) = mgy Fy ( x) =
dy dy

1 dU ( x) d 1
U ( x) = kx 2 Fx ( x) = = kx 2 = kx
2 dx dx 2
z The gravitational potential energy is linearly related to the
elevation (i.e. constant slope) and the force is constant.
z The elastic potential energy varies quadratically with position.
The force varies in a linearly.
Energy Diagrams
Energy Diagrams
z In situations where a particle moves in
one-dimension only under influence of
a single conservative force it is very
useful to study the graph of the
potential energy as a function of
position U(x)
z At any point on a graph of U(x), the
force can be calculated as the
negative of the slope of the potential
energy function
z Fx = - dU/dx

z Example: Glider on an air track


z Spring exerts a force Fx=-kx
z Potential energy function U(x)
z Limits of the motion are the points
where U curve intersects the
horizontal line representing the total
mechanical energy E