usaha dan energi

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usaha dan energi

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Work

z The work done by a constant force on an object that is undergoing a

straight line displacement is given by

r r

W = F S

z Definition of work is based on observations. You do work by exerting the

force on an object while that object moves from one place to another

(undergoes displacement):

z You do more work if the force is greater

z You do more work if displacement is greater

Work

r r

W = F S

James Joule

z SI unit of work is Joule (J) Jewel

1818 - 1889

z 1 Joule = (1 Newton) (1 meter); 1 J = 1 Nm

z Unit of force is pound, unit of distance is foot

z Conversion: 1 J = 0.7376 ftlb, 1 ftlb = 1.356 J

Work

z You push a stalled car through a displacement S with a constant force F

in the direction of motion:

W = F S

z You push a stalled car through a displacement S with a constant force F

at angle to the direction of motion:

W = F S cos

z Only component of force in direction of cars displacement is important

Work and Kinetic Energy

Work and Kinetic Energy

z From the definition of work we know that the total work done on an

object is related to its displacement (changes in position).

r r

W = F S

Work and Kinetic Energy

z Example: Block sliding on a frictionless table

and the force F exerted by the hand.

Work and Kinetic Energy

z Example: Block sliding on a frictionless table

in the direction of its motion.

From N2L, this means that

the block speeds up.

W=FS also tells us that the

total work will be positive.

Fcos contributes to Wtotal.

The block speeds up as well.

force, and the force F exerted by the hand.

Work and Kinetic Energy

z Example: Block sliding on a frictionless table

the displacement. From

N2L, this means that the

block slows down. W=FS

also tells us that the total

work will be negative.

so the speed of the block

stays the same, and Wtotal

is zero.

z Forces acting on a block: its weight, normal

force, and the force F exerted by the hand.

Work and Kinetic Energy

z object will "speed up" if Wtotal > 0,

z object will "slow down" if Wtotal < 0,

z object will "maintain the same speed (constant) if Wtotal = 0.

Work and Kinetic Energy

z Consider a particle with mass m moving along the x-axis under the

action of a constant net force with magnitude F directed along the

positive x-axis.

z Particle acceleration is constant, and by N2L: F=max.

z Suppose, speed changes from v1 to v2 while particle undergoes a

displacement S=x2-x1 from point x1 to x2.

z 1-D constant-acceleration equation:

v22 v12

v22 = v12 + 2 ax S S = x2 x1 ax =

2S

v22 v12 1 1

F S = mv22 mv12

F = ma x = m

2S 2 2

Work and Kinetic Energy

1 2 1 2

F S = mv2 mv1

2 2

z The product FS is the work done by the net force. Thus, it is equal to the

total work Wtotal done by all the forces acting on a particle.

1 2

z Definition of Kinetic Energy: K = mv

2

z Like work, kinetic energy of a particle is a scalar quantity: it depends on

particles mass and speed, not its direction of motion.

z Car has the same kinetic energy when going north at 10m/s as

when going east at 10m/s.

z Kinetic energy can never be negative; its zero when particle is at rest.

Work - Energy Theorem

1 2 1 2 1 2

F S = mv2 mv1 Ki = mvi F S = K 2 K1

2 2 2

z Work done by the net force on a particle equals the change in the

particles kinetic energy:

z When an object moves:

z object will "speed up" if Wtotal > 0, K2 > K1

z object will "slow down" if Wtotal < 0, K2 < K1

z object will "maintain the same speed (constant) if Wtotal =0,

K2=K1

z Speeds and distances must be measured in inertial frame of reference!

z Kinetic energy and work have the same units (Joules, or Nm):

1J = 1N m = 1(kg ) m = 1kg

m

s2

m2

s2

Work and Kinetic Energy

Problem Solving Strategy

z IDENTIFY the relevant concepts: The work-energy theorem is extremely

useful in situations where you want to relate a bodys speed at one point in its

motion to its speed at a different point.

z This approach is less useful for problems that involve time, such as finding the

time it takes a body to go from point 1 to point 2. The reason is that the work-

energy theorem doesnt involve time at all. For problems that involve time, its

usually best to use the relationships among time, position, velocity, and

acceleration we learned in 1-D motion.

1. Choose the initial and final positions of the body, and draw a free-body

diagram showing all the forces that act on the body.

2. Choose a coordinate system. (If the motion is along a straight line, its

usually easiest to have both the initial and final positions lie along the

x-axis.)

3. List the unknown and known quantities, and decide which unknowns

are your target variables. In some cases the target variable will be the

bodys initial or final speed; in other cases it will be the magnitude of

one of the forces acting on the body.

Work and Kinetic Energy

Problem Solving Strategy

z EXECUTE: Calculate the work done by each force.

z Be sure to check the sign of the work for each force; it must be positive if

the force has a component in the direction of the displacement, negative if

it has a component opposite the displacement, and zero if the force and

displacement are perpendicular.

z Add the amounts of work done by each force to find the total work.

z Be careful with signs! Sometimes it may be easier to calculate the vector

sum of the forces (the net force), then find the work done by the net force.

z Write expressions for the initial and final kinetic energies, K1 and K2.

z Note that kinetic energy involves mass, not weight; if you are given the

bodys weight, youll need to find the mass.

z Finally, use the relationship Wtot=K2-K1 to solve for the target variable.

z Remember that the right-hand side of this equation is the final kinetic

energy minus the initial kinetic energy, never the other way around.

z EVALUATE your answer: Check whether your answer makes physical

sense. A key item to remember is that kinetic energy can never be

negative. If you come up with a negative value of K, youve made a

mistake!

Kinetic Energy

z The example with the hammerhead gives insight into the physical

meaning of kinetic energy.

z The hammerhead was dropped from rest, and its kinetic energy when it

hits the I-beam equals the total work done on it up to that point by the

net force.

z To accelerate a particle with mass m from rest (zero kinetic energy) up

to a speed v, the total work done on it must equal the change in kinetic

energy from zero to K=0.5mv2:

Wtot = K 0 = K K = 1 mv 2

2

z Kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the total work that was

done to accelerate it from rest to its present speed.

z Or from its present speed to rest!

z Catch the ball right pull your hand back, increasing distance to stop

the ball: ball does the work on your hand equal to the balls initial

kinetic energy Wtot=FS=0.5mv2.

z Pulling hand back, you maximize the distance over which this force acts

and thus minimize the force on your hand.

Composite Systems

z Man standing on frictionless roller skates on a level

surface, pushes against the rigid wall, setting himself in

motion to the right.

z Forces acting on him: his weight W, upward normal

forces n1 and n2 exerted by the ground on his skates,

and the horizontal force F exerted on him by the wall.

z No vertical displacement, so forces W, n1 and n2 do

NO work. Force F exerted on him by the wall is

horizontal force that accelerates him to the right, but his

hands dont move. So this force doesnt do work as well.

z Where does the mans kinetic energy come from?

z This system is not a single point (or particle)

z Various parts of the body interact with each other (here:

his hands are still, but his torso moves)

z Total kinetic energy of this composite system of body

parts can change, even no work is done by forces

applied outside the system.

Work and Energy with Varying

Forces

Work and Energy with Varying Forces

undergoing a straight line displacement is given by

r r

W = F S

z What happens when force exerted on an object is NOT constant

and the object moves in path which is NOT straight?

z Example: spring, stretched

z More you stretch it, the harder you have to pull: thus the

force is non-constant

z One complication at a time!

z Fx change along the x-axis (force depends on position)

Work and Energy with Varying Forces

z Particle moves from x1 to x2; Fx depends on coordinate x.

z Lets divide the total displacement by small segments xa, xb, xc

z Total work done during segment xa: ~ by the average force Fa in this

segment multiplied by the displacement xa.

z All segments:

W = Fa xa + Fb xb + ... + Ff x f = Fm xm

Work and Energy with Varying Forces

z If number of segments is very large, segment's width x is very small

z In the limit, the sum is integral of Fx from x1 to x2.

x2

straight-line displacement

x 0

x1

position, the total work done by this

force is represented by the area

under the curve between the initial

and final positions.

Work and Energy with Varying Forces

z Lets check it: if Fx is constant from x1 to x2.:

x2 x2

W = Fx dx = Fx dx = Fx ( x2 x1 ) = F S

x1 x1

Hookes Law

we need to apply on the end the force which is proportional to x:

K spring (force) constant, [N/m]

Floppy toy spring: k=1 N/m Car suspension spring: k=105 N/m

Robert Hooke

1635 1703

... lean, bent and ugly man ...

Hookes Law

z To stretch a spring, you must do work

z Suppose one end of a spring is fixed, you apply force on another end

z That end moves, so the force does work

z Work done by the force when spring elongation goes from zero to X:

X X

1 2

W = Fx dx = kxdx = kX

0 0

2

z Total work is ~ to square of final

elongation

1

z Graph, Area under the curve: W = X kX

2

z If spring was initially already stretched a

distance x1, the work to stretch it to a

greater elongation x2:

x2 x2

1 2 1 2

W = Fx dx = kxdx = kx2 kx1 What happens if you

x1 x1

2 2 compress the spring?

Hookes Law

Compression:

z Force Fx and displacement x are both negative

z Example is following

Fx

x x

Varying Forces: Work - Energy

Theorem

z One can use the same approach: divide total displacement into segments

z Apply Work-Energy Theorem for each segment: Wa=Ka=Faxa

z Sum the changes to find Wtot

z Another way: dv x dx

ax = , vx = dv x dv x dx dv x

dt dt ax = = = vx

dt dx dt dx

x2 x2 x2 dvx

Wtot = Fx dx = ma x dx = mvx dx

x1 x1 x1 dx

z (dvx/dx)dx is the change in velocity dvx during displacement dx. Thus:

x2 1 2 1 2

Wtot = mvx dv x = mv2 mv1

x1 2 2

z Work Energy Theorem is the same: valid for varying forces as well !

Curved Path: Work - Energy Theorem

z Force that varies in direction and magnitude

z Displacement lies along a curved path: particle moves from P1 to P2

z Each dl is a tangent to the path at its position.

z F is the force at a point along the path, is the angle between F and dl.

z Small element of work W done on particle during displacement dl :

dW = F cos dl = F dl = F dl Total work done on a particle then:

P2 P2 P2 r

W = F cos dl = F dl = F dl (Work done on a curved path)

P1 P1 P1

Power

Watts

Engine

Power man

Mr. Olympia

Power

z You lift weight 100N vertically at a distance 1m at constant velocity:

z You do (100N)(1m)=100J of work whether it takes 1 sec, 1 hour, 1

year

z You want to know how quickly the work is done

W

z Average power: Pav =

t

W dW

z Instantaneous power: P = lim =

t 0 t dt

Power

z The SI unit of power is watt (W), 1 W = 1 Joule per 1 second.

called horsepower (hp).

z 1 hp = 550 ftlb/sec = 33,000 ftlb/min = 746 W = of kilowatt (kW)

z energy = power time

James Watt

z In mechanics, power is expressed 1736 1819

in terms of force and velocity Watt's steam engines

W F S S

Started with nothing, died

Pav = = =F = F vav

as a very wealthy man

t t t

W dW P = F v

P = lim = = Fv

t 0 t dt In terms of scalar product

Potential Energy and Energy

Conservation

Warm-Up: Power

Power climb

z Runner with mass m runs up the stairs to the top of 443-m-tall Sears

Tower. To lift herself there in 15 minutes (900 s), what must be her

average power output in watts? Kilowatts? Horsepower?

z Lets find first how much work she must do

against the gravity to lift herself at height h.

W 2.17 105 J

Pav = = = 241W = 0.241kW = 0.323hp

t 900 s

z Another way: calculate average upward force and then

multiply by upward velocity

z Upward force here is vertical, average vertical component of

velocity is (443m) / (900s) = 0.492 m/s

Gravitational Potential

Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy

z If elevation for which the gravitational potential energy is chosen to be

zero has been selected then the expression for the gravitational

potential energy as a function of position y is given by

U grav = mgy

done by the gravitational force according to

Wgrav = U1 U 2 = (U 2 U1 ) = U

Conservative with Non-Conservative

Forces

Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces

and final positions, and doesnt depend on the path

z Runner: gravitational force is conservative

z From point 1 to point 2, same work

has these properties:

It can always be expressed as the difference

between the initial and final values of a

potential energy function: U = -W.

It is reversible.

It is independent of the path of the body and

depends only on the starting and ending points.

When the initial and final points are the same

(closed loop), the total work is zero.

All forces which do not satisfy these properties are non-conservative forces.

Elastic Potential Energy

Elastic Potential Energy

z When you compress a spring:

z If there is no friction, spring moves back

z Kinetic energy has been stored in the

elastic deformation of the spring

z Rubber-band slingshot: the same principle

z Work is done on the rubber band by the

force that stretches it

z That work is stored in the rubber band

until you let it go

z You let it go, the rubber gives kinetic

energy to the projectile

shape and size after being deformed

Elastic Potential Energy

Spring is stretched

Equilibrium It does negative work on block

Spring relaxes

It does positive work on block

Spring is compressed

Positive work on block

much work does the elastic (spring) force do on the block?

Elastic Potential Energy

z Work done ON a spring to move one

end from elongation x1 to a different

elongation x2

z When we stretch the spring, we do

positive work on the spring 1 2 1 2

W = kx2 kx1

z When we relax the spring, work done 2 2

on the spring is negative

z From N3L: quantities of work are

1 2 1 2

negatives of each other Wel = kx1 kx2

z Thus, work Wel done by the spring 2 2

spring in terms of a given quantity at the

beginning and end of the displacement U=

1 2

kx [J ]

2

Elastic potential energy

Elastic Potential Energy

1 2

U = kx z The graph of elastic potential energy

2 for ideal spring is a parabola

z For extension of spring, x>0

z For compression, x<0

z Elastic potential energy U is NEVER

negative!

z In terms of the change of potential

energy:

Wel = U1 U 2 = U =

1 2 1 2

= kx1 kx2

2 2

Elastic Potential Energy

1 2 1 2

Wel = U1 U 2 = U = kx1 kx2

2 2

and U increases: greater amount of elastic potential energy is

stored in the spring

and U decreases: spring loses its elastic potential energy

potential energy

Elastic Potential Energy: Work - Energy

Theorem

z Work Energy Theorem: Wtot=K2-K1, no matter

what kind of forces are acting on the body. Thus: Wtot = Wel = U 2 U1

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 does work

mv1 + kx1 = mv2 + kx2

2 2 2 2

z Total mechanical energy E (the sum of elastic potential

energy and kinetic energy) is conserved

z Ideal spring is frictionless and massless E = K +U

z If spring has a mass, it also has kinetic energy

z Your car has a mass of 1.2 ton or more

z Suspension spring has a mass of few kg

z So we can neglect springs mass in study of how the car

bounces on its suspension

Elastic Force + other forces?

If forces other than elastic force also do

z

work on the body, the total work is

Wtot = Wel + Wother = K 2 K1

1 2 1 2 1 1

mv1 + kx1 + Wother = mv22 + kx22

2 2 2 2

z The work done by all forces other than the elastic force

equals the change in the total mechanical energy E of E = K +U

the system, where U is the elastic potential energy:

spring of force constant k

z When Wother is positive, E increases

z When Wother is negative, E decreases

Force and Potential Energy

Force and Potential Energy

forces, gravitational force and elastic force.

z We have seen there is a definite relationship between a

conservative force and the corresponding potential

energy function.

z The force on a mass in a uniform gravitational field is

Fy = - mg. The corresponding potential energy function

is U(y) = mgy.

z The force exerted on a body by a spring of force

constant k is Fx = - kx. The corresponding potential

energy function is Us(x) = (1/2)kx2.

z In some situations, you are given an expression for

potential energy as a function of position and have

to find corresponding force.

Force and Potential Energy

z Fx(x) is the x-component of force as function of x

z U(x) is the potential energy as function of x

z Work done by conservative force equals the negative of the change

U in potential energy:

W = U

z For infinitesimal displacement x, the work done by force Fx(x) during

this displacement is ~ Fx(x)x (suppose that this interval is so small

that the force will vary just a little)

U

Fx ( x)x = U Fx ( x) =

x

z In the limit x0:

Fx ( x) = energy, one dimension

dx

Force and Potential Energy

Fx ( x) = energy, one dimension

dx

z In regions where U(x) changes most rapidly with x (i.e. where dU(x)/dx is

large) the greatest amount of work is done during the displacement, and

it corresponds to a large force magnitude

z When Fx(x) is in positive x-direction, U(x) decreases with increasing x

z Thus, Fx(x) and U(x) have opposite sign

z Thus, the force is proportional to the negative slope of the potential

energy function

z The physical meaning: conservative force always acts to push the

system toward lower potential energy

Force and Potential Energy

z Lets verify if this expression correctly gives the gravitational force and the

elastic force when using the gravitational potential energy and the elastic

potential energy:

= (mgy ) = mg

dU ( y ) d

U ( y ) = mgy Fy ( x) =

dy dy

1 dU ( x) d 1

U ( x) = kx 2 Fx ( x) = = kx 2 = kx

2 dx dx 2

z The gravitational potential energy is linearly related to the

elevation (i.e. constant slope) and the force is constant.

z The elastic potential energy varies quadratically with position.

The force varies in a linearly.

Energy Diagrams

Energy Diagrams

z In situations where a particle moves in

one-dimension only under influence of

a single conservative force it is very

useful to study the graph of the

potential energy as a function of

position U(x)

z At any point on a graph of U(x), the

force can be calculated as the

negative of the slope of the potential

energy function

z Fx = - dU/dx

z Spring exerts a force Fx=-kx

z Potential energy function U(x)

z Limits of the motion are the points

where U curve intersects the

horizontal line representing the total

mechanical energy E

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