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8th IEEE International Conference Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology

Communication and Control, Environment and Management (HNICEM)


The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (IEEE) Philippine Section
9-12 December 2015 Water Front Hotel, Cebu, Philippines

Detection of Noise in High Pass IIR Digital Filters


M. Bilal Shahid 1, Um-e-Rubab2,M. Abbas Abbasi3, Muhammad Muazzam 4
Department of Electronics Engineering, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur
4
muazzambazmi@gmail.com,2umerubab367@gmail.com,3abbas.abbasi@iub.edu.pk,1Bilal.shahid@iub.edu
.pk

ABSTRACTRole of Filters in electronic devices is evident in compared to IIR filters of similar functionality. So this tends
this modern era. Filtering is a term that is used in most DSP to much higher use of memory. So we prefer here IIR filter.
applications to pass specific frequencies and reject other ones. There is large number of methods to design IIR filters. One of
There is a wide range of application areas of digital filters
including image processing, voice, and video and data the most commonly used methods is, designing of digital
communication. A large number of techniques are used to design filters from analog filters. This methodology is best for
IIR filters. This papers idea is to design, analyze and compare designing of all types of filters like high pass, low pass, band
performance of Chebyshev I, Chebyshev II and Butterworth IIR pass and band stop filters.
filters using MATLAB FDA tool.Noise free signal will be
rendered at the output of filter.Further effect of different
parameters such as order, type of filter and cut off frequency
arefilter.
Keywords used: -IIR, DSP, FDAtool

I. INTRODUCTION

Now a day, in the field of engineering, digital signaling Figure 1design method of digital filters
techniques play essentially important role in digital
communication network system [2]. Filters change the wave As discussed previously we have used MATLAB software
shape, amplitude and frequency or phase and frequency of a package and its filter design tool to idealize an IIR filter for
system in desired manners. Commonly main purpose of the the reference purpose and comparison of results. We can
filters is to enhance the quality of the signal, to extract design an ideal IIR filter by MATLAB software. Digital filters
information from the signal and to separate two or more have the following IIR design methods:
signals which were previously combined.. Several types of
filters can be designed such as high pass filters, low pass, Butterworth,
band stop and band pas filers [3]. Chebyshev Types I and II,
Two main broad classifications of filters are Analog filters Elliptic and
and Digital filters. Analog filters are related to the analog Bessel filters.
signal in its input which is continuous in time. Digital filters
take digital input which is discrete in time. Digital IIR filter is We have considered only Butterworth, Chebyshev Types I
one of the most frequently used computational tool in digital and II filters in our performance and noise analysis. Noise is
signal processing system [6]. Digital filter is a mathematical fundamentally a random signal with constant spectral density.
algorithm implemented in digital electronic system. Digital This is an undesirable signal, so we will analyze it filters.
filtering is dominant tool of DSP [7][8]. Further there are two
terms used for filters i.e. IIR filters and FIR filters [4]. IIR
term originates from infinite impulse response i.e. its response II. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS
is for infinite time when an impulse is applied to it. While FIR
Butterworth and Chebyshev filter both are used for high pass
filters give finite response. IIR digital filters are known as
filtering process [4]. There are always our interests where to
recursive filters that replace easily analog filters into
use one of them [4]. However, most commonly used design
equivalent IIR digital filters with similar properties. IIR filters
method is Butterworth filter designing. Butterworth filter has
requirefew parameters for its design, less memory and low
gain denoted by A, cutoff frequency by c. and order is
computational complexity than FIR filters .Such a recursive
denoted by N. Magnitude response of both of the filters is
system is referred to a main class of LTI discrete time systems
shown in figures.
which can be described by constant coefficient equation of
difference. The order of FIR filters is normally much high as

978-1-5090-0360-0/15/$31.00 2015 IEEE


8th IEEE International Conference Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology
Communication and Control, Environment and Management (HNICEM)
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (IEEE) Philippine Section
9-12 December 2015 Water Front Hotel, Cebu, Philippines
P

l (i) z i

H ( z) i 0
Q
1 m( j ) z j
j 1 .... (IV)

Here,
l (i) = Numerator coefficient
m(j) = Denominator coefficient.
Mathematically, Power Spectral density of noise can be
expressed as [12]
Figure 2 magnitude response of Butterworth high pass filter design method of Gn ( f ) N0 2 (V)
digital filters
The average power Pn of white noise is infinite, so


Pn N

0 2df ... (VI)

Figure 4White noise

III. IMPLEMENTATIONMETHODOLOGY
Figure 3 magnitude response of Chebyshev High Pass IIR Filter
During the processing of the signal, it is contaminated by
A filter which is stable must follow following condition [2], some quantity of noise; to transmit the signal properly this
noise must be removed first. A number of techniques are there
| h( n)
n 0
to remove the noise [1]. Filters are extensively used for this
type of problem. There are many types of filters which serve
1 this purpose; most important of these are
y[n] (l0 x[n] l1 x[n 1] ..... lP x[n P] Butterworth,Chebyshev I and Chebyshev II IIR filters used to
m0
m1 y[n 1] m2 y[n 2] ........ mQ y[n Q]) remove the noise from the signal.
.. (I) We observed the signal by use of MATLAB and its FDA
toolbox by examining the properties of the filtersand precisely
1 P Q

y[n] li x[n i ] m j y[n j ] the noise response in different bands of frequencies i.e. pass,
m0 i 0 j 1 (II) stop and transition bands. Different parameters altered to
observe the effect on simulation results using FDA tool of
If we rearrange equation II: MATLAB e.g. cutoff frequency,type of filter and order of the
filter [1].
Q P By varying parameters of either cutoff frequency, type of filter
m j y[n j] li x[n i]
j 0 i 0
or order of the filter in MATLABs FDA toolbox while
keeping other parameters constant like sampling frequency
. (III)
and attenuation, noise effect have observed and compared.
If we consider m0 is 1, then transfer function of IIR filter can Initially, we changed order of filters to observe that at which
be written as, order which filter design gives lowest noise. Then this order is

978-1-5090-0360-0/15/$31.00 2015 IEEE


8th IEEE International Conference Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology
Communication and Control, Environment and Management (HNICEM)
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (IEEE) Philippine Section
9-12 December 2015 Water Front Hotel, Cebu, Philippines
best for us. We kept cut off frequency, sampling frequency Round-off Noise Pow er Spectrum

and attenuation constant. Attenuation is constant with value of


-180
3db. We have taken observations at the order of 10, 25, 40 and
-200
55.
-220

Power/frequency (dB/Hz)
IV. NOISE ANALYSIS -240
A. Comparison Of Butterworth Filter At Different -260
Orders
-280

Here are plots of Butterworth filter at four different orders -300

which are 10, 25, 40 and 55. We can see in these plots that -320
Butterworth filter with order 55, gives highest noise in stop -340
band that is near about -325db/HZ. In pass band all of the -360
filters have same amount of noise. Here cutoff frequency is
0 5 10 15 20
kept constant at 12KHZ. Frequency (kHz)
Figure 6 Fc=20KHZ, Fs=48KHZ
Round-off Noise Pow er Spectrum
B. Comparison Of Chebyshev I At Different Orders
-200
As order of Chebyshev I is increased, it gives a peak noise at
-220
cutoff frequency but give almost same noise at stop and pass
band. As we can see, it gives larger noise than Butterworth
Power/frequency (dB/Hz)

-240
filter at higher orders.
-260 Round-off Noise Pow er Spectrum

-280

-300
-100
-320
Power/frequency (dB/Hz)

-340
-150
-360

0 5 10 15 20
Frequency (kHz) -200
Figure 5 Fc=12KHZ, Fs=48KHZ
After changing cutoff frequency to 20KHZ, Butterworth filter
with order 55, gives a noise peak at cutoff frequency. All of -250
these have almost same noise in pass band but have much
variation in stop band. From above plots we can conclude that
filter with lowest order gives smallest noise in stop band.
0 5 10 15 20
Frequency (kHz)
Figure 7 Fc=12KHZ, Fs=48KHZ
When cutoff frequency is changed to 20 KHZ, magnitude of
noise is increased.

978-1-5090-0360-0/15/$31.00 2015 IEEE


8th IEEE International Conference Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology
Communication and Control, Environment and Management (HNICEM)
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (IEEE) Philippine Section
9-12 December 2015 Water Front Hotel, Cebu, Philippines
Round-off Noise Pow er Spectrum Round-off Noise Pow er Spectrum

-60 -80

-100
-80
-120

Power/frequency (dB/Hz)
Power/frequency (dB/Hz)

-140
-100
-160

-120 -180

-200
-140 -220

-240
-160
-260

-280
-180
0 5 10 15 20
Frequency (kHz)
0 5 10 15 20
Figure 10 Fc=20KHZ, Fs=48KHZ
Frequency (kHz)
Figure 8 Fc=20KHZ, Fs=48KHZ
D. Comparison Of Butterworth, Chebyshev I And II
C. Comparison Of Chebyshev II At Different Orders Behavior At Different Orders

As shown by plots, Chebyshev II gives lower noise as When the order of three filters is fixed at 10, all the filters give
compared to Chebyshev I. At higher order, it also gives a peak same noise that is -200db in pass band. But in stop band,
noise at cutoff frequency. Butterworths behavior is better than Chebyshev I and
Chebyshev II. Chebyshev II gives highest noise in stop band.
Round-off Noise Pow er Spectrum Cutoff frequency of Chebyshev II is also changed to 15KHZ.
-100
Round-off Noise Pow er Spectrum
-120
-200
-140
Power/frequency (dB/Hz)

-220
-160
Power/frequency (dB/Hz)

-180 -240

-200 -260

-220 -280

-240 -300

-260
-320
-280
-340
0 5 10 15 20
Frequency (kHz) -360
Figure 9 Fc=12KHZ,Fs=48KHZ
0 5 10 15 20
At cutoff frequency of 20 KHZ, increased magnitude of noise Frequency (kHz)
is observed. Figure 11 Fc=12KHZ,Fs=48KHZ, N=10
When the order of filters is changed to 25, Butterworths and
Chebyshev II noise remains almost constant both in stop and
pass band. But Chebyshev I give highest peak of noise at
cutoff frequency. In pass and stop band it gives almost same
noise.

978-1-5090-0360-0/15/$31.00 2015 IEEE


8th IEEE International Conference Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology
Communication and Control, Environment and Management (HNICEM)
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (IEEE) Philippine Section
9-12 December 2015 Water Front Hotel, Cebu, Philippines
Round-off Noise Pow er Spectrum
V. CONCLUSION
-100

Variation of the noise with the order of the filter, designing


-150 technique of filter and different cut off frequencies can be
Power/frequency (dB/Hz)

analyzed from above graphs. As we increase order of the


-200 filters, the round of noise increases linearly. And the variation
of noise with changing cut-off frequency is also increasing
linearly. In the comparison of designing techniques of high
-250
pass filter, we concluded that Butterworth technique is one of
the most suitable designing techniques. It gives lowest
-300 possible amount of noise as compared to Chebyshev I and II.
Second best technique is Chebyshev II having noise greater
-350 than Butterworth but less than Chebyshev I.
0 5 10 15 20
Frequency (kHz)
Figure 12 Fc=12KHZ,Fs=48KHZ, N=25
At the order of 40, again Butterworths behavior again REFERENCES
remains constant. But Chebyshev I and Chebyshev II give a
peak at cutoff frequency and peak of Chebyshev I occur at a [1] Er. Krihen, Er. Kapil Gulati, Er. Rajni, Noise Detection in IIR Digital
Filter Using Matlab, Second International Conference On Advanced
comparatively higher noise. Computing & Communication Technology, 2012.
[2] Subhadeep Chakraborty, Krishna Kumar and Abhirup Patra, Design
Round-off Noise Pow er Spectrum
of IIR high pass Butterworth filter using analog to digital mapping
technique International Journal of Computer Applications (0975-
-100 8887) Volume 52 N0. 7, August 2012.
[3] Bogdan M. Wilamowski and Ramraj Gottiparthy, Active and Passive
-150 Filter Synthesis using Matlab Department of Electrical & Computer
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Engineering, Auburn University, Al 36849.


-200
[4] Subhadeep Chakraborty, Subhasish MaitraDesign and Determination
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-250
Applications (0975-8887) Volume 58 N0. 7, November 2012.
[5] http.//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/butterworth_filter.
-300 [6] Er. Daljit Singh Bajwa, Er. Karamjeet Singh, Navpreet Kaur Chahal
Survey Paper of Digital IIR Filter Design. International Journal of
-350 Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering
0 5 10 15 20
(2277 128X) Volume 4, August 2014.
Frequency (kHz) [7] Ranjit Singh, Sandeep K. Arya Genetic Algorithm for the Design of
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[8] Samarjeet Singh, Uma Sharma Matlab Based Digital IIR Filter
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Round-off Noise Pow er Spectrum [9] MATLAB The language of Technical Computing, The Math Works
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[10] Alan V. Oppenheim, Discrete-Time Signal Processing 1989.
-100
[11] Wikipedia. Org/wiki/White noise
[12] Bernard Sklar Digital Communication.
Power/frequency (dB/Hz)

-150

-200

-250

-300

0 5 10 15 20
Frequency (kHz)

Figure 14 Fc=12KHZ,Fs=48KHZ, N=55

978-1-5090-0360-0/15/$31.00 2015 IEEE