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ISSN 1068798X, Russian Engineering Research, 2010, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 557560. Allerton Press, Inc., 2010.

Original Russian Text F.I. Plekhanov, V.S. Kuznetsov, 2010, published in Vestnik Mashinostroeniya, 2010, No. 6, pp. 2528.

Deformability of Elements of a Planetary Gear Transmission

F. I. Plekhanov and V. S. Kuznetsov
Glazovsk Engineering and Economic Institute, Izhevsk State Technical University

AbstractAn analytical method is outlined for determining the stress state of the pole and satellite shaft in a
planetary gear transmission within their contact zone. The influence of these elements on the pliability of the
joint and on the directional error of the satellite shaft is established. Measures are proposed for equalizing the
loads in the couplings.
DOI: 10.3103/S1068798X10060055

2KN multiflux planetary gear transmissions length; x(y) = x(y)b/C is the beams transverse flex
(James transmissions) are widely used in engineering ure; C = E/f is the rigidity of the elastic base (f =
because they are relatively light and compact, have a const); I = bx3/12 is the axial moment of inertia; E is
large carrying capacity, and are characterized by low the elastic modulus of the first kind; is Poissons
frictional power losses. However, manufacturing and ratio; K = 1.2; b is the thickness of the poles side wall.
installation errors in these mechanisms result in non
uniform load distributions within the couplings, Hence, after double differentiation
thereby reducing the benefits of multiflux mechanical IV 2K ( 1 + ) II 12
energy transmission. Therefore, in the design of such x ( y )  x ( y ) + 3 x ( y ) = 0.
gear transmissions, we need to know the load distribu bxf fbx
tion in the couplings and its dependence on the
deformability of the individual components. On the The transverse force Px(y) per unit length and
one hand, the pliability of the poles side wall and the hence the stress x(y) of the beam on an elastic base
satellite shaft at their contact point compensates the are characterized by damping vibrations. Given that
manufacturing error and equalizes the load over the flexure is constrained (the elastic base is assumed to be
length of the satellite teeth or crowns in the 2KN on both sides of the beam), we may assume aperiodic
transmission (Fig. 1). On the other hand, efforts to variation of Px(y) and x(y). Then
increase the pliability entail changing the shape or y y
dimensions of the components, which may result in x ( y ) = ( A + By )e = B ( y 1/ )e .
extreme increase in stress and transmission failure.
Therefore, we need to know the stress and strain in the
contact zone of the pole and the satellite shaft (Fig. 2).
As a rule, the pliability of these components is
determined experimentally or numerically, with the
specification of parameter values for the transmission.
We now establish analytically the stress variation in
the contact zone of the pole and the satellite shaft. To
this end, we isolate an element of the poles side wall
and consider its equilibrium under the action of nor
mal and tangential stress. We assume that the element
is a beam on an elastic base and employ the superposi
tion principle (Fig. 3).
The transverseflexure equation of the beam takes
the form
M ( y) + 2 K
 ( 1 + ) = II ( y ),
IE Exb

x (z)(y z)dz]b is the bending

where M(y) [M()
0 Fig. 1. Cross section of 2KN planetary gear transmission
torque; Px(y) = x(y)b is the transverse force per unit (James transmission), with selfstabilizing satellites.


x y x


M0 x

0 y
z dz

Fig. 2. Junction of satellite shaft with poles side wall. Fig. 3. Loading of an element of the poles side wall.

We may establish the relation between the normal The energy of a beam of infinite length, equal to the
stress and the tangential stress (y) if we take account work of displacement due to the tangential stress, is
of the pair law and express (y) in terms of the mean
tangential stress in the cross sections of the beam

y dU = bd ( 1 + ) ( R + y )dy/E = 0.5bd dy.

( y ) = D [ ( z 1/ )e /x ]dz 0 0

= Dye / ( x ),
where D is determined from statics equations.
( R + y )dy / dy
= 2 ( 1 + ) d/E. (2)
Then (y) = q()x2yey = q()  xyey. 0 0 0
K(1 + )
Here q() = q0 cos [1]; q0 = 2P/(R); P = F0/(2b); The variation of the stress in Eq. (2) along the
and F0 is the load on the satellite shaft. y axis is analogous to the variation (y) of an isolated
Thus, the normal stress takes the form element (Fig. 3). Then

y ( y ) = q ( ) [ ( z )dz ]/x I
Q ( )d =
ddy = H ( )dye
dy. (3)
0 0
= ( 1 + y )e q 0 cos .
Here H() expresses the dependence of the stress
Correspondingly, the maximum displacement of the in an arbitrary cross section on ; Q() is the radial
satellite shaft in the direction of load P (when = 0) is force per unit thickness of the side wall.

The radial force may be found as the transverse
( y )dy/E = 2q / ( E ).
y 0 (1)
force of a curved beam, on the assumption that = 0
0 and Q() = 0 when = 0
To determine , we need to relate this displacement

to the displacement due to the tangential stress in an
arbitrary cross section of the poles side wall. We use an
energy method to this end.
Q( ) =
q ( ) cos ( ) Rd
The potential shear energy of a b dy (R + y)d /2
pole element is
dU = b dyd ( 1 + ) ( R + y )/E.
q ( ) sin Rd = 0.5q R cos . 0



From Eq. (3), we find H(). Then we determine the

tangential stress

( cos sin )d
= 0.5q 0 R ye P
0 (4)
2 y y
= 0.5q 0 R ye cos .
Substituting Eq. (4) into Eq. (2), we obtain
/2 Fig. 4. Model of the junction of the satellite shaft with the
poles side wall.
= ( 1 + )
cos q R ( 2R + 3 )d/ ( 8E )
With an unfavorable skew angle, we find that
= ( 0.5 1 ) ( 1 + )q 0 R ( 2R + 3 )/ ( 8E ).
= c cos w ( )l;
Equating the right sides of Eq. (5) and Eq. (1), we
conclude that = ( P 2 P 1 )/ ( EL );
8 b w l
R = 0.75 + 0.56 + 
. P 2 P 1 = 2  cos w ,
( 0.5 1 ) ( 1 + ) bL
Then the relative pliability due to pole deformation where P1, P2 are the load per unit length at the left and
takes the form right side walls of the pole (P2 > P1); is the difference
in linear loads in the couplings of the satellites left and
= E/p = 4/ ( R ). right gear crowns; l 1.1bw is the distance between the
centers of the satellite crowns; L 2.1bw + 1.2b is the
The deformation * of the satellite shaft in the con distance between the centers of the supporting surfaces
tact zone with the pole is determined from the same of the poles side walls; is the shafts initial skew
formulas as for the deformation of the poles side wall, angle; bw is the width of the satellite crown; w 20 is
except that, in determining the potential shear energy,
we consider an element of the shaft whose dimensions the coupling angle; c 0.075E is the rigidity of the
are b dy (R y)d. Then coupling [2].
From Eq. (6)
*R = 0.75 + 0.56 + 8/ [ ( 0.5 1 ) ( 1 + ) ] 1
b l 2
 = 1 + 2c  w  cos w .
and the total relative pliability is E b L

( 1/ + 1/*)
= * + = 4 Thus, the initial skew angle is reduced thanks to the
R pliability of the poles side wall.
= ( 0.473 + 0.018 ) ( 1 + ). The shafts skew angle and the nonuniformity of
the load distribution in the couplings may be reduced
(For a steel shaft and a rigid steel pole, = 0.8.) even further by means of additional pliable elements in
the contact zone of the pole and the satellite shaft or by
To estimate the accuracy of the proposed method, switching to nonrigid side walls of the pole [3].
we use a computer model of the contact between the Taking account of , we may express the nonuni
satellite shaft and the poles side wall. The results of formity of the load distribution over the satellite crown
numerical solution are similar to the analytical results in the form
(Fig. 4).
K w = 1 + 0.5/
Using the relation between the initial mismatch
angle of the teeth, the rigidity of the coupling, and the = 1 + 0.5cl cos w ( 1 / )/,
nonuniformity of the load distribution, we determine
the interaction force between the satellite shaft and the where is the mean load per unit length in the cou
poles side wall and the decrease in the shafts skew pling.
angle on account of the pliability. We assume a In Fig. 5, we plot Kw as a function of * = Eb/
rational design of the transmission, with selfstabiliz when b/bw = 0.35, at various values of the relative pli
ing elements (Fig. 1) [1]. ability : (1) a pole without pliable inserts, = 0.8



Kw Thus, we have proposed formulas for the strength

1.8 and rigidity of the joint between the satellite shaft and
the pole of the transmission. Our formulas may be used
to calculate the influence of the pliability on the non
uniformity of the load distribution in the couplings
2 and to establish rational parameters of the planetary
1.4 3 gear transmission.
The planetary transmission here considered is used
1.2 in the extension of steel ingots during semicontinuous
steel casting.
2 6 10 14 18
1. Plekhanov, F.I., Molchanov, S.M., and Skopin, A.A.,
Symmetry of Loading: A Key Principle in the Design of
Fig. 5. Dependence of the nonuniformity of the load dis Gear Transmissions, Privod. Tekh., 2003, no. 4,
tribution over the satellite crown on the skew angle of the pp. 3034.
satellite shaft when = 0.8 (1), 8 (2), and 16 (3).
2. Kudryavtsev, V.N., Kirdyashev, Yu.N., and Gin
zburg, E.G., Planetarnye peredachi. Spravochnik
(Fig. 1); (2, 3) poles with inserts of different pliabil (Planetary Transmissions: A Handbook), Leningrad:
Mashinostroenie, 1977.
ity, = 8 (2) and 16 (3). 3. Russian Patent 2291335.