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3/28/2017 Top100LinuxInterviewQuestions

Top 100 Linux Interview Questions


By NextStep4it - November 6, 2014

Q:1Whatisthebootsequenceofalinuxserver?

Q:2WhatisHarddiskdriverorHarddiskmodule,aretheydifferentorsame.Explain.

Q:3HowyouwillgettheWWNnumberofHBAcardinstalledinLinux

Q:4HowtocheckRHELVersion?

Q:5Whatisnetworkbondinganddifferentlevelsofbonding?

Q:6Howtosharealinuxresourceonwindowsmachine?

Q:7HowtoscannewlyassignedSANSLUNonLinuxserverwithoutrebooting?

Q:8Howtoresetgrubpasswdandrootpasswdinlinux?

Q:9Whatisjournalinginlinux?

Q:10Whatisdifferencebetweenext2&ext3andext4filesystem?

Q:11WhatarethestepstocreateLVMofnewlycreatedLUN?

Q:12Howtoseethetapedevicenameinlinux?

Q:12PowerpathOverviewwithsoftware/driverinstallationonLinuxservers?

Q:13WhatisRAID&differenttypesofRAIDlevels?

Q:14Whatarethedefaultportsusedforsmtp,ftp,ssh&samba?

Q:15HowtocalculatefreesizefromfreePEmentionedinVGDisplay?

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Q:16LVMinitializeonwhichstageinbootsequence?

Q:17WhatGrubanditsdifferentstages?

Q:18IfwehaveaFiledata.txt,Howyouwillgivepermissionasbelow
GroupNamefinance,writeonly
Userstom&jackonlyread
Usersbond,readwriteexecute.

Q:19Howtochangenetworkinterfacenameifcfgeth0toifcfgnic0

Q:20Howtoresizethefilesystem?

Q:21Howtopreservethepermissionontarbackup?

Q:22Howtosetdefaultgatewayindifferentways?

Q:24Howtoworkin2differentfileswithvieditor,Howtocopypaste&cutinmultiplefiles?

Q:25Differencebetweentar,cpio&ddbackup?

Q:26Howtoincreasesizeofswapinlinux?

Q:27Howtorunaparticularscriptinrunlevel3?

Q:28Whatismeaningofno_root_squashinnfs?

Q:29Whatdaemonsrunonnfsclient?

Q:30Howtocheckwhatarethedriverinstalledinsystem?

Q:31Whatistheformat/etc/fstabfile?

Q:32Fromwherethecommandrpmqafindtheinstalledpackages?

Q:33Whatisthefunctionofsyslog?

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Q:34Howyoucheckthebottleneckofslowserver?

Q:35WhatisthebasicformatofNFSmount?

Q:36Differnceb/wautomountFSandNFS

Q:37Whatistheroleofbootloader(GRUB)Stage1.5?

Q:38Differencebetweensuperblockanddatablock?

Q:39Howtochecktheversionofpackage?

Q:40WhatisSetUIDandGID?

Q:41Whatisstickybitandwheretouse?

Q:42DifferencebetweenLVM1andLVM2?

Q:43Whatisroleof$0,$?and$#inshellscripting?

Q:44HowtofindtheMXrecordofadomainfromthecommandline?

Q:45Whatisthelimitationoffdiskcommand&wheretousepartedcommand?

Q:46WhatareLogicalstepsforPXEServersetupinlinux?

Q:47Whatistheroleof%pre&%postinkickstart?

Q:48Whatarethedifferentfieldsofcrontabfile&cronlogfile?

Q:49whatisthedifferencebetweenU&Foptioninrpmcommand?

Q:50Howwillsupply/Resetpasswordfor50userwithouttypingpasswordagain&again?

Q:51HowwillyougetModule/DriverInformationinlinux?

Q:52Howtocheckactiveportsinlinux?

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Q:53Whatisdifferencebetweensarandvmstat?

Q:54isitpossibletobootthesystemwithout/bootpartitionORdeleted/bootpartition?

Q:55Howtochangethecomplexityofpassword?

Q:56Howtoresolveifauthenticationfailure(incorrectpassword)?

Q:57Howtochangerunlevelwithinlinux?

Q:58HowwillyouloadPAMmodule?

Q:59Isthereawaytocheckthecurrentsystemkernelfor32bitkernelvs.64bitkernel?

Q:60whichfileisresponsibleforforwarding(DNS)andwhatsmeaningofMX,PTRrecord?

Q:61WhatareZombieprocessandhowtocheckZombieProcesses?

Q:62Howwillyoudifferentiatedefunctandrunningprocessesinlinux?

Q:63Howtorunjobinbackground?

Q:64Whatisanacron&wheretouseanacron?

Q:65WhatistheroleandsizeofMBR?

Q:66Howtosetgrubbootloaderpassword?

Q:67HowtosetthedateinISTFORMATfromthecommandline?

Q:68Howtochecknfsversionandrelease?

Q:69whatisstaticanddynamicrouteinlinux?

Q:70Howtocheckwhetheroracleisinstalledornotinunix?

Q:71Howtocheckwhichnfsshareismounted?

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Q:72HowtomountISOfileinlinux?

Q:73whatisLDScertificate?

Q:74HowwillyoupatcholderkernelversioninLinuxmachine?

Q:75Whatisthedifferencebetweenyast&yast2command?

Q:76HowwillyoudeactivatemouseinRHELandwhichserviceisresposibleforthat?

Q:77Whatissshportforwarding?

Q:78Howtopatchlinuxserversusingspacewalk?

Q:79WhatisthedifferencebetweenRHNandSpacewalk?

Q:80HowtorecoverdeletedLVMpartitionsinlinux?

Q:81Howwillyouusetrapandshiftcommandinunix?

Q:82WhataredifferentcomponentsofPostfixMailServer?

Q:83WhatistheuseofSPFrecord&DomainKeysinmailserver?

Q:84WhatisdifferencebetweenNFS3&NFS4?

Q:85Whatisuseoflsofcommand?

Q:86Howwillyouchecklastweekaccessedfiles?

Q:87whatistheuseofexec&okoptioninfindcommand?

Q:88Giveoneexmapleofsuid,sgidandStickybit?

Q:89Howtoresetfailedlogincountsinlinux?

Q:90Whatistheuseof.netrcfileinlinux?

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Q:91HowtointegrateLinuxServerswithMicrosoftActiveDirectory?

Q:92Whatisuseofxargswithfindcommand?

Q:93Whatarethedifferentstatesofaprocessinlinux/unix?

Q:94WhatistheuseofACLsinlinuxandhowtoimplementACLs?

Q:95Whatisthedifferencebetweenuseraddandadduser?

Q:96WhatisLVMSnapshotanduseoflvmsnapshot?

Q:97Howtocheckyumrepositryinformation&clearyumcacheinlinux?

Q:98Howtocreateyumrepositorylocally?

Q:99Whatistherolefencinginredhatcluster?

Q:100Howtogracefullyshutdowntwonodelinuxclusterincaseofplannedpoweroutage?

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3/28/2017 RedHatlinuxinterviewQuestions&Answerspart1

Redhat Linux Interview Questions and Answers


part1
By Parveen Kumar - September 22, 2014

Q:HowaredevicesrepresentedinUNIX?

Alldevicesarerepresentedbyfilescalledspecialfilesthatarelocatedin/devdirectory.

Q:Tellmethestepstoremovetheswapfile?

Firstlydisabletheswapfilebyswapoffcommand.
RemoveSwapfileentryfrom/etc/fstabfile.
Nowremovetheswapfilebyrmcommand.

Q:Whatcanwedowithpartedcommandorutility?

Viewtheexistingpartitiontable
Addpartitionsfromfreespaceoradditionalharddrives
Changethesizeofexistingpartitions

Q:Whatis'inode'?

AllUNIXfileshaveitsdescriptionstoredinastructurecalled'inode'.Theinodecontainsinfo
aboutthefilesize,itslocation,timeoflastaccess,timeoflastmodification,permissionandso
on.Directoriesarealsorepresentedasfilesandhaveanassociatedinode.

Q:Canweresizethesizeofapartition?
Yes,wecanresizethesizeofpartitionbypartedcommand.
#parted/dev/sda

print

Toresizethepartition,usetheresizecommandfollowedbytheminornumberforthepartition,
thestartingplaceinmegabytes,andtheendplaceinmegabytes.Forexample:

resize310242048

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Afterresizingthepartition,usetheprintcommandtoconfirmthatthepartitionhasbeenresized
correctly,isthecorrectpartitiontype,andisthecorrectfilesystemtype.

Q:WhatisLVM?

LVMstandsforLogicalVolumeManager.LVM,isastoragemanagementsolutionthatallows
administratorstodivideharddrivespaceintophysicalvolumes(PV),whichcanthenbe
combinedintologicalvolumegroups(VG),whicharethendividedintologicalvolumes(LV)on
whichthefilesystemandmountpointarecreated.

Q:WhatarethestepstocreateLVM?

Createphysicalvolumesbypvcreatecommand
#pvcreate/dev/sda2

Addphysicalvolumetovolumegroupbyvgcreatecommand
#vgcreateVLG0/dev/sda2

Createlogicalvolumefromvolumegroupbylvcreatecommand.
#lvcreateL1GnLVM1VLG0

Nowcreatefilesystemon/dev/sda2partitionbymke2fscommand.
#mke2fsj/dev/VLG0/LVM1

Q:Howwewillcheckfreespaceondrive/dev/sdawithpartedcommand?

#parted/dev/sda
print

Q:WhataretheprocessstatesinUnix?

Asaprocessexecutesitchangesstateaccordingtoitscircumstances.Unixprocesseshavethe
followingstates:

Running:Theprocessiseitherrunningoritisreadytorun.
Waiting:Theprocessiswaitingforaneventorforaresource.

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Stopped:Theprocesshasbeenstopped,usuallybyreceivingasignal.
Zombie:Theprocessisdeadbuthavenotbeenremovedfromtheprocesstable.

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3/28/2017 RedHatlinuxinterviewQuestions&Answerspart2

Redhat Linux Interview Questions and Answers


part2
By Parveen Kumar - September 22, 2014

Q:Whatcommandshouldyouusetocheckthenumberoffilesanddiskspaceused
andeachuser'sdefinedquotas?
repquota

Q:WhatisthedifferencebetweenLVMandRAID?

RAIDprovidesredundancybutLVMdoesntprovideRedundancy.


Q:WhatareLVM1andLVM2?

LVM1andLVM2aretheversionsofLVM.
LVM2usesdevicemapperdrivercontainedin2.6kernelversion.
LVM1wasincludedinthe2.4serieskernels.

Q:Whatisphysicalextent(PE)?

Eachphysicalvolumeisdividedchunksofdata,knownasphysicalextentstheseextentshave
thesamesizeasthelogicalextentsforthevolumegroup.

Q:Whatislogicalextent(LE)?
Eachlogicalvolumeissplitintochunksofdata,knownaslogicalextents.Theextentsizeisthe
sameforalllogicalvolumesinthevolumegroup.

Q:Whatcommandisusedtoremovethepasswordassignedtoagroup?
gpasswdr

Q:WhatisVolumegroup(VG)?

TheVolumeGroupisthehighestlevelabstractionusedwithintheLVM.Itgatherstogethera
collectionofLogicalVolumesandPhysicalVolumesintooneadministrativeunit.

Q:ExplainLVMsnapshot?
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LVMsnapshotsallowtheadministratortocreateanewblockdevicewhichpresentsanexact
copyofalogicalvolume,frozenatsomepointintime.

Q:Whatcanyoutypeatacommandlinetodeterminewhichshellyouareusing?
echo$SHELL

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Redhat Linux Interview Questions and Answers


part3
By Parveen Kumar - September 22, 2014

Q:Writeacommandtofindallofthefileswhichhavebeenaccessedwithinthe
last30days.
find/typefatime30>filename.txt

Q:HowyouwillcheckonYourserverorsystemdevicemapperisinstalledornot?

Checkthefollowingfile.
#cat/proc/misc

ifthisfilecontains"devicemapper"termitmeansdevicemapperisinstalledonyoursystem.

Q:HowaresnapshotsinLVM2differentfromLVM1?
InLVM2snapshotsareread/writebydefault,whereasinLVM1,snapshotswerereadonly.

Q:Whatisazombie?

Zombieisaprocessstatewhenthechilddiesbeforetheparentprocess.Inthiscasethe
structuralinformationoftheprocessisstillintheprocesstable.

Q:IfavolumegroupnamedasVG0alreadyexistsbutineedtoextendthisvolume
groupupto4GB.Explainallsteps?

FirstlycreatePhysicalvolume(/dev/sda7)ofsize4GB.
Nowrunfollowingcommand.
vgextendVG0/dev/sda7

Q:IfavolumegroupVG0have3PV's(/dev/sda6,/dev/sda7,/dev/sda8)buti
wanttoremove/dev/sda7pvfromthisVG0?
vgreduceVG0/dev/sda7

Q:WhatisthemaximumsizeofasingleLV?

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For2.4basedkernels,themaximumLVsizeis2TB.
For32bitCPUson2.6kernels,themaximumLVsizeis16TB.
For64bitCPUson2.6kernels,themaximumLVsizeis8EB.

Q:Whichcommandisusedtoextendalogicalvolume?
lvextendsize+<addsize>/dev/<vgname>/<lvname>
resize2fs/dev/<vgname>/<lvname>

Q:Whatdaemonisresponsiblefortrackingeventsonyoursystem?
syslogd

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Redhat Linux Interview Questions and Answers


part4
By Parveen Kumar - September 22, 2014

Q:WhatdoyoumeanaFileSystem?
FileSystemisamethodtostoreandorganizefilesanddirectoriesondisk.Afilesystemcan
havedifferentformatscalledfilesystemtypes.Theseformatsdeterminehowtheinformationis
storedasfilesanddirectories.

Q:TellmeallstepstoremoveaLVM?
Toremovealogicalvolumefromavolumegroup,firstunmountitwiththeumountcommand:
umount/dev/<vgname>/<lvname>
andthenusethelvremovecommand:
lvremove/dev/<vgname>/<lvname>

Q:WhichcommandisusedtocreateLVMSnapshot?
vcreatesize<size>sn<snapshotname><lvname>

Thelvcreatecommandisusedtocreateanewlogicalvolume,meaningtheremustbefree
physicalextentsinthelogicalvolumegrouptocreateasnapshot.Thesoptionmeansthatthe
LVisasnapshot,<snapshotname>isthenameofthenewLVcreated,and<lvname>isthe
nameoftheLVfromwhichtocreatethesnapshot.

Q:Whatisthelocationof"network"fileandwhatdoesthiscontains?

location:/etc/sysconfig/network

Thisfilecontainsfollowingfields

NETWORKING=yes
NETWORKING_IPV6=no
HOSTNAME=localhost.localdomain

Q:WhichdeamonisrequiredtostartNetworkservices?
network
/etc/init.d/networkstart

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Q:TellmethenameofdirectorystructurehierarchyforLinux
/root
/boot
/bin
/sbin
/proc
/mnt
/usr
/var
/lib
/etc
/dev
/opt
/srv
/tmp
/media

Q:Whatistheroleof/etc/resolv.conffile?

InthisfilewesetstheDNSservers(usingtheirIPaddresses)andthesearchdomain.The
valuesoftheDNSserversareoftenaddedwhenthenetworkisactivatedbecausethedatacan
beprovidedbyDHCPorasimilarservice.

Q:Isthereanyrelationbetweenmodprobe.conffileandnetworkdevices?
Yes,Thisfileassignsakernelmoduletoeachnetworkdevice.

ForExample:
[root@localhost~]#cat/etc/modprobe.conf
aliaseth0b44
Hereb44isthekernelmodulefornetworkdeviceeth0.
WecanConfirmbyfollowingcommand(Thismoduleb44ispresentornot).
[root@localhost~]#lsmod|grepb44
b44290050

Q:Whatdoes/bootdirectorycontains?

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The/boot/directorycontainsstaticfilesrequiredtobootthesystem,suchastheLinuxkernel,
bootloaderconfigurationfiles.Thesefilesareessentialforthesystemtobootproperly.

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Redhat Linux Interview Questions and Answers


part 5
By Parveen Kumar - September 22, 2014

Q:Ifsomeonedeletes/bootdirectoryfromyourserver,thanwhatwillhappen?

Inthatcaseyourserverwillbeinunbootablestate.YourServercantbootwithout/boot
directorybecausethisdirectorycontainsallbootablefiles

Q:WhatisthelocationoflogfilesforCUPS?
ThelogfilesfortheCUPSprintingsystemarelocatedinthe/var/log/cups/directory.

Q:WhatisYUM?
YUMstandsforYellowdogUpdater,ModifiedbecauseitisbasedonYUP,theYellowdogUpdater.
WheredoesthenameYellowdogcomefrom?YellowDogisaversionofLinuxforthePower
ArchitecturehardwareandisRPMbased,justlikeRedHatEnterpriseLinuxandFedora.YUP,and
laterYUM,werewrittenbytheLinuxcommunityasawaytomaintainanRPMbasedsystem.

Q:HowyouwillinstallsoftwarebyYUM?

yuminstall<pkgname>

Q:Whichoptionisrequiredtoassumetheanswer"yes"toanyquestionsasked
duringinstallationofpackagedependenciesforYUM?

The"y"optionisusedtoassumetheanswer"yes".
ForExample
yumyinstallsquid

Q:Whatdoes/devdirectorycontain?

The/devdirectorycontainsalldevicefilesthatareattachedtosystemorvirtualdevicefiles
thatareprovidedbythekernel.

Q:WhataretheadvantagesofYUM?

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Automaticresolutionofsoftwaredependencies.
Multiplesoftwarelocationsatonetime.
Abilitytospecifyparticularsoftwareversionsorarchitectures.

Q:HowtoremoveasoftwarebyYUM?
yumremove<pkgname>

Q:Whatistheroleofudevdaemon?
Theudevdemonusedtocreateandremoveallthesedevicenodesorfilesin/dev/directory.

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Redhat Linux Interview Questions and Answers


part 6
By Parveen Kumar - September 22, 2014

Q:Whatkindoffilesornodes/dev/directorycontainsandhowdoIaccessorsee
devicefiles?

BlockDeviceFiles:

Blockdevicefilestalkstodevicesblockbyblock[1blockatatime(1block=512bytesto
32KB)].
Examples:USBdisk,CDROM,HardDisk

#ls/dev/sd*

brwrw 1root root 8, 0Mar152009sda

brwrw 1root root 8, 1Mar152009sda1

brwrw 1root root 8, 2Mar152009sda2

brwrw 1root root 8, 3Mar152009sda3

brwrw 1root root 8, 4Mar152009sda4

brwrw 1root root 8, 16Mar152009sdb

CharacterDeviceFiles:

Characterdevicefilestalktodevicescharacterbycharacter.
Examples:Virtualterminals,terminals,serialmodems,randomnumbers

#ls/dev/tty*

crwrw 1root root 4, 64Mar152009ttyS0

crwrw 1root root 4, 65Mar152009ttyS1

crwrw 1root root 4, 66Mar152009ttyS2

crwrw 1root root 4, 67Mar152009ttyS3

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Q:HowtoinstallLinuxsoftwaresbyRPM?
rpmivhtest1.01.i386.rpm

Q:Ifafileassociatedwithtest1.01.i386.rpmdeleted,thanHowwewillrecover
thatfile?

Wecanreinstallthisrpmagain.

Q:WhichoptionsarerequiredtoupgradeaRPM?

Upgradingapackageissimilartoinstallingone.Typethefollowingcommandatashellprompt:
rpmUvhtest2.01.i386.rpm

Q:InwhichdirectoryRPMdatabasestored?

/var/lib/rpm

Q:TellmethenameofdevicefileforPS/2mouseconnection.

/dev/psaux

Q:Ifyouaregettingerror"packageisalreadyinstalled"butyouhavetoinstall
packageanyhow.whatoptionyouwilluse?

rpmivhtest1.01.i386.rpm

Preparing###########################################[100%]
packagetest1.01isalreadyinstalled
Inthiscaseyoucanuse"replacepkgs"option.
rpmivhreplacepkgstest1.01.i386.rpm

Q:Explainthecommand"rpmqa"?

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Itwillqueriesallcurrentlyinstalledpackages.

Q:Tellmethenameofdevicefileforparallelport(Printers).

/dev/lp0

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Redhat Linux Interview Questions and Answers


part 7
By Parveen Kumar - September 22, 2014

Q:Whatdoes/etc/X11/directorycontains?
The/etc/X11/directoryisforXWindowSystemconfigurationfiles,suchasxorg.conf.

Q:HowtolistPCIDevicesonyourserverorSystem?
use"lspci"command.

Q:Whatistheroleof"Kudzu"?
KudzuisusedtoDetectnewHardware.

Q:HowtoEnableACLsfor/homepartition?

Addfollowingentryin/etc/fstab

LABEL=/home/homeext3acl12

Nowremount/homepartitionwithacloption.
mounttext3oacl/dev/sda3/home

Q:HowtoViewACLsforafile(test_file)?
getfacltest_file

Q:Whatdoes/etc/skelldirectorycontains?
The/etc/skeldirectorycontainsfilesanddirectoriesthatareautomaticallycopiedovertoanew
user'shomedirectorywhensuchuseriscreatedbytheuseraddoraddusercommand.

Q:Whatdoes/etc/X11/directorycontains?

The/etc/X11/directoryisforXWindowSystemconfigurationfiles,suchasxorg.conf.

Q:HowtolistPCIDevicesonyourserverorSystem?
use"lspci"command.

Q:Whatistheroleof"Kudzu"?
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KudzuisusedtoDetectnewHardware

Q:HowtoEnableACLsfor/homepartition?

Addfollowingentryin/etc/fstab

LABEL=/home/homeext3acl12

Nowremount/homepartitionwithacloption.
mounttext3oacl/dev/sda3/home

Q:HowtoViewACLsforafile(test_file)?
getfacltest_file

Q:Whatdoes/etc/skelldirectorycontains?
The/etc/skeldirectorycontainsfilesanddirectoriesthatareautomaticallycopiedovertoanew
user'shomedirectorywhensuchuseriscreatedbytheuseraddoraddusercommand.

Q:Whathappenswhenyouaddanewdeviceafterinstallation?
TheKudzuprogramrunseachtimethesystembootsandperformsahardwareprobe.Ifnew
hardwareisfound,Kudzuattemptstomapittoakernelmodule.Ifsuccessful,theinformation
issaved,andthedeviceisconfigured.

Q:HowtoremoveanACL?

setfaclremoveall<filename>

Q:TellmenameofLinuxFilesystems?
Ext2
Ext

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Redhat Linux Interview Questions and Answers


part 8
By Parveen Kumar - September 22, 2014

Q:Whatisthedifferencebetweenext2andext3filesystems?
Theext3filesystemisanenhancedversionoftheext2filesystem.

ThemostimportantdifferencebetweenExt2andExt3isthatExt3supportsjournaling.
Afteranunexpectedpowerfailureorsystemcrash(alsocalledanuncleansystemshutdown),
eachmountedext2filesystemonthemachinemustbecheckedforconsistencybythee2fsck
program.Thisisatimeconsumingprocessandduringthistime,anydataonthevolumesis
unreachable.
Thejournalingprovidedbytheext3filesystemmeansthatthissortoffilesystemcheckisno
longernecessaryafteranuncleansystemshutdown.Theonlytimeaconsistencycheckoccurs
usingext3isincertainrarehardwarefailurecases,suchasharddrivefailures.Thetimeto
recoveranext3filesystemafteranuncleansystemshutdowndoesnotdependonthesizeof
thefilesystemorthenumberoffilesrather,itdependsonthesizeofthejournalusedto
maintainconsistency.Thedefaultjournalsizetakesaboutasecondtorecover,dependingonthe
speedofthehardware.

Q:Explainthecommand"rpmqf"?
itqueriestheRPMdatabaseforwhichpackageowns<filename>.Whenspecifyingafile,specify
theabsolutepathofthefile.

Q:Howtoverifyallinstalledpackages?
rpmVa

Q:HowManyRunLevelspresentinLinux?

Thereare7runlevels,witheachhavingitsownproperties.

0:Haltthesystem
1:Singleusermode
2:Notused
3:Multiusermodewithtextlogin
4:Notused

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5:Multiusermodewithgraphicallogin
6:Reboot

Q:WhichconfigurationfileisrequiredtochangetheRunLevelofServeror
system?
/etc/inittab
Tochangethedefaultrunlevel,modifythisline.
id:5:initdefault:

Q:Anyideaaboutext4filesystem?
Theext4orfourthextendedfilesystemisajournalingfilesystemdevelopedasthesuccessorto
ext3.Ext4filesystemreleasedasafunctionallycompleteandstablefilesysteminLinuxwith
kernelversion2.6.28.

Featuresofext4filesystem:

1.Currently,Ext3supports16TBofmaximumfilesystemsizeand2TBofmaximumfilesize.
Ext4have1EBofmaximumfilesystemsizeand16TBofmaximumfilesize.

[AnEBorexabyteis1018bytesor1,048,576TB]
2.Fastfsckcheckthanext3
3InExt4thejournalingfeaturecanbedisabled,whichprovidesasmallperformance
improvement.
4.Onlinedefragmentation.
5.Delayedallocation
Ext4usesafilesystemperformancetechniquecalledallocateonflush,alsoknownasdelayed
allocation.Itconsistsofdelayingblockallocationuntilthedataisgoingtobewrittentothedisk,
unlikesomeotherfilesystems,whichmayallocatethenecessaryblocksbeforethatstep.

Q:Howtoverifythesignatureofanrpm?

rpmKtest1.01.i386.rpm

Q:ExplainarchitecturesrequiredforRPMs?
noarchArchitectureindependent,canrunonanyarchitecture
i386Genericbuildfora32bitx86system
i586Sometimesusedwhenbuildingkernelsforolderx86processors

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IntelPentiumII,IntelPentiumIII,IntelPentium4,AMDAthlon,and
i686AMDDuronsystems(MostRPMsforthesearchitecturesarebuiltusingthei386
architecture,withthekernelforthesearchitecturesbeingbuiltwiththe
i686foroptimalperformance.)
x86_6464bitprocessorssuchasAMDAthlon64,AMDOpteron,andIntelEM64T
ia64IntelItanium
ppc32bitIBMPOWER,IBMeServerpSeries,andIBMeServeriSeries
s390x64bitIBMeServerSystemz

Q:Howwecreateext3filesystemon/dev/sda7disk?
#mkfsj/dev/sda7

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Redhat Linux Interview Questions and Answers


part 9
By Parveen Kumar - September 22, 2014

Q:Canweconvertext2filesystemtoext3filesystem?
Yes,wecanconvertext2toext3filesystembytune2fscommand.
tune2fsj/dev/<BlockDeviceName>

Q:What"neat"commandwilldo?
neatcommandprovidesGraphicalinterfacetochangenetworksettingsfornetworkdevices.

Q:Whichprotocolisrequiredtoallowlocalprintingandprintsharing?
InternetPrintingProtocol(IPP)isrequiredtoallowlocalprintingandprintsharing.

Q:WhatisSWAPSpace?

SwapspaceinLinuxisusedwhentheamountofphysicalmemory(RAM)isfull.Ifthesystem
needsmorememoryresourcesandtheRAMisfull,inactivepagesinmemoryaremovedtothe
swapspace.WhileswapspacecanhelpmachineswithasmallamountofRAM,itshouldnotbe
consideredareplacementformoreRAM.Swapspaceislocatedonharddrives,whichhavea
sloweraccesstimethanphysicalmemory.

Q:WhatarethestepstocreateSWAPfilesorPartition?
Createswappartitionorfile
Writespecialsignatureusingmkswap
Activateswapspacebyswaponacommand
Addswapentryinto/etc/fstabfile

Q:Howyouwillcreateswapfileofsize4GBandexplainswapfileentryin
/etc/fstabfile?

Useddcommandtocreateswapfile.
ddif=/dev/zeroof=/SWAPFILEbs=1024count=4
mkswap/SWAPFILE
swapona
Entryinto/etc/fstabfile.
/SWAPFILEswapswapdefaults00
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Q:WhatisCUPS?
CUPSstandsfor"CommonUNIXPrintingSystem".CUPSisaopensourceprintingsystem
developedbyAppleInc.CUPSusestheInternetPrintingProtocol(IPP)toallowlocalprinting
andprintsharing.

Q:Howwewillcreateext4filesystem?
#mke2fstext4/dev/DEV

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Redhat Linux Interview Questions and Answers


part 10
By Parveen Kumar - September 22, 2014

Q:whichutilityorcommandisusedforcreatingsoftwareRAIDsforRHEL5?
mdadm

Q:CanwecreatesoftwareRAIDduringLinuxinstallation?

Yes,wecancreateSoftwareRAIDduringLinuxInstallationbyDiskDruid

Q:Explain/procfilesystem?
/procisavirtualfilesystemthatprovidesdetailedinformationaboutLinuxkernel,hardwares
andrunningprocesses.Filesunder/procdirectorynamedasVirtualfiles.Because/proc
containsvirtualfilesthatswhyitiscalledvirtualfilesystem.Thesevirtualfileshaveunique
qualities.Mostofthemarelistedaszerobytesinsize.Virtualfilessuchas/proc/interrupts,
/proc/meminfo,/proc/mounts,and/proc/partitionsprovideanuptothemomentglimpseof
thesystem'shardware.Others,likethe/proc/filesystemsfileandthe/proc/sys/directory
providesystemconfigurationinformationandinterfaces.

Q:Canwechangefilesparametersplacedunder/procdirectory?

Yes,tochangethevalueofavirtualfile,usetheechocommandandagreaterthansymbol(>)
toredirectthenewvaluetothefile.Forexample,tochangethehostnameonthefly,type:
echowww.nextstep4it.com>/proc/sys/kernel/hostname

Q:ExplainRAID1?
RAIDLevel1isbasedonMirroringtechnique.Level1providesredundancybywritingidentical
datatoeachmemberdiskofthearray.Thestoragecapacityofthelevel1arrayisequaltothe
capacityofoneofthemirroredharddisksinaHardwareRAIDoroneofthemirroredpartitions
inaSoftwareRAID.RAID1providesredundancymeansgoodprotectionagainstdiskfailure.In
RAID1writespeedisslowbutreadspeedisgood.

Q:ExplainRAID5?
RAIDLevel5isbasedonrotatingparitywithstripingtechnique.RAID5storesparity
informationbutnotredundantdata(butparityinformationcanbeusedtoreconstructdata).
ThestoragecapacityofSoftwareRAIDlevel5isequaltothecapacityofthememberpartitions,
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minusthesizeofoneofthepartitionsiftheyareofequalsize.TheperformanceofRAID5is
basedonparitycalculationprocessbutwithmodernCPUsthatusuallyisnotaverybigproblem.
InRAID5readandwritespeedsaregood.

Q:WhichkernelmoduleisrequiredforSoftwareRAID?

mdmodule

Q:WhatistheroleofchunksizeforsoftwareRAID?
ChunksizeisveryimportantparameteronwhichRAIDperformancebased.
Weknowstripesgoacrossdiskdrives.Buthowbigarethepiecesofthestripeoneachdisk?
Thepiecesastripeisbrokenintoarecalledchunks.Togetgoodperformanceyoumusthavea
reasonablechunksize.

ForbigI/OswerequiredsmallchunksandforsmallI/Oswerequiredbigchunks.

Q:Whatistheuseofsysctlcommand?

The/sbin/sysctlcommandisusedtoview,set,andautomatekernelsettingsinthe/proc/sys/
directory.

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Redhat Linux Interview Questions and Answers


part 11
By Parveen Kumar - September 22, 2014

Q:/proc/directorycontainsanumberofdirectorieswithnumericalnames.What
isthat?
Thesedirectoriesarecalledprocessdirectories,astheyarenamedafteraprogram'sprocessID
andcontaininformationspecifictothatprocess.

Q:WhatisthedifferencebetweenhardwareRAIDandSoftwareRAID?
ThehardwarebasedRAIDisindependentfromthehost.AHardwareRAIDdeviceconnectsto
theSCSIcontrollerandpresentstheRAIDarraysasasingleSCSIdrive.AnexternalRAID
systemmovesallRAIDhandling"intelligence"intoacontrollerlocatedintheexternaldisk
subsystem.ThewholesubsystemisconnectedtothehostviaanormalSCSIcontrollerand
appearstothehostasasingledisk.

SoftwareRAIDisimplementedunderOSKernellevel.TheLinuxkernelcontainsanMDdriver
thatallowstheRAIDsolutiontobecompletelyhardwareindependent.Theperformanceofa
softwarebasedarraydependsontheserverCPUperformanceandload.

Q:WhatarethecommonlyusedRAIDtypes?
RAID0
RAID1
RAID5

Q:ExplainRAID0?

RAIDlevel0worksonstripingtechnique.InRAID0thearrayisbrokendownintostripsand
dataiswrittenintostrips.RAID0allowshighI/Operformancebutprovidesnoredundancy.
RAID0ArraySizeisequaltosumofdisksinarray.Ifonedrivefailsthenalldatainthearrayis
lost.

Q:WhatisRAID?
RAID,standsforRedundantArrayofInexpensiveDisks.RAIDisamethodbywhichsamedata
orinformationisspreadacrossseveraldisks,usingtechniquessuchasdiskstriping(RAIDLevel
0),diskmirroring(RAIDLevel1),anddiskstripingwithparity(RAIDLevel5)toachieve

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redundancy,lowerlatency,increasedbandwidth,andmaximizedabilitytorecoverfromhard
diskcrashes.

Q:WhyshouldweuseRAID?
SystemAdministratorsandotherswhomanagelargeamountsofdatawouldbenefitfromusing
RAIDtechnology.

FollowingarethereasonstouseRAID
Enhancesspeed
Increasesstoragecapacityusingasinglevirtualdisk
Minimizesdiskfailure

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