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SPM BIOLOGY

EQUATIONS & FORMULAS

NAME: ____________________________________________________

FORM: ____________________________________________________
4.2
Energy value of food (kJg-1) = 100

Mass of 1ml of water = 1g


Therefore, the mass of water
in the boiling tube is the same
as the volume of water used

0.1%
Percentage of vitamin C in fruit juice= X 0.1%

0.1%
Concentration of vitamin C in fruit juice= X 1.0 mg cm-3

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Inhaled air Exhaled air
Initial length of air column 10 10
(x cm)
Length of air column upon adding potassium hydroxide solution 9.9 9.6
(y cm)
Length of air column upon adding potassium pyrogallate solution 7.8 8.0
(z cm)
Change in length of air column owing to the removal of carbon dioxide (x y cm) 0.1 0.4
Change in length of air column owing to the removal of oxygen (y z cm) 2.1 1.6
Percentage of carbon dioxide 1% 4%

= 100

Percentage of oxygen 21% 16%



= 100

Potassium hydroxide solution absorbs CO2, and alkaline potassium


pyrogallate solution absorbs oxygen


Percentage frequency= X 100%


Density=

2
Percentage coverage= X 100%

1 2
Population Size =

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1. Data shows the result of the experiment to determine 4. The following information shows the result of an
the energy value of a peanut. experiment to determine the energy value of cashew
Data berikut merupakan keputusan suatu eksperimen nut.
untuk menentukan nilai tenaga kacang tanah. Maklumat berikut menunjukkan keputusan suatu
eksperimen untuk menentukan nilai tenaga bagi gajus.
Mass of peanut / Jisim kacang tanah 0.5 g
Mass of water / Jisim air 20 g Mass of cashew / Jisim kacang gajus 2g
Initial temperature of water / Suhu awal air 25 C Mass of water / Jisim air 20 ml
Final temperature of water / Suhu akhir air 45 C Initial temperature of water / Suhu awal air 30 C
Final temperature of water / Suhu akhir air 74 C
-1 -1 Specific heat capacity of water / Muatan haba 4.2
The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 J g C .
tentu air Jg-
Calculate the energy value of the peanut. 1C
-1 -1.
Muatan haba tentu air ialah 4.2 J g C
Hitung nilai tenaga bagi kacang tanah What is the calorific value of the cashew nut?
A. 1680 Jg-1 Berapakah nilai kalori kacang gajus itu?
B. 3360 Jg-1 A. 1.488 kJg-1
C. 7560 Jg-1 B. 1.848 kJg-1
D. 11760 Jg-1 Answer : B C. 2.772 kJg-1
D. 3.818 kJg-1 Answer : B
2. When 0.4 g of groundnut is completely burnt, the
temperature of 20 ml of water rises from 30C to 70C. 5. Table 1 shows an experiment to determine the content
The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 JgC. Calculate of Vitamin C in lime juice.
the energy value of the groundnut. Jadual menunjukkan eksperimen bagi menentukan
Apabila 0.4 g kacang tanah dibakar dengan lengkap, vitamin C di dalam jus limau nipis.
suhu 20 ml air meningkat daripada 30C kepada 70C.
Muatan haba tentu air ialah 4.2 JgC. Hitung nilai Sample Volume required to decolourise 1.0
tenaga bagi kacang tanah. 3
cm of 0.1% DCPIP solution
A. 1400 Jg-1 0.1% 0.3
B. 3400Jg-1 Ascorbic acid
C. 8400 Jg-1 Lime juice 1.5
D. 7620 Jg-1 Answer : C
What is the amount of vitamin C in lime juice?
3. The following measurements were made during an Berapakah kandungan vitamin C di dalam limau nipis?
3
experiment to determine the calorific value of rice. A. 0.2 mg/cm
3
Bacaan berikut diperolehi semasa menjalankan satu B. 0.5 mg/cm
3
eksperimen untuk menentukan nilai kalori nasi. C. 0.3 mg/cm
3
D. 5.0 mg/cm Answer : A
Mass of rice / Jisim nasi 2g
Mass of water / Jisim air 10 g
Initial temperature of water / Suhu awal air 28 C
Final temperature of water / Suhu akhir air 56 C

6. The following information shows the results of an


What is the calorific value of the rice?
experiment to determine the carbon dioxide content in
Berapakah nilai kalori nasi itu?
exhaled air using J-tube.
A. 140 Jg-1
Maklumat berikut menunjukkan keputusan ekperimen
B. 280 Jg-1
untuk menentukan kandungan karbon dioksida didalam
C. 588 Jg-1
udara hembusan dengan menggunakan tiub J
D. 1176 Jg-1 Answer : C
Length of exhaled air column 10.0 cm
Length of exhaled air column after treatment 9.6 cm
with potassium hydroxide
Length of exhaled air column after 8.5 cm
treamtment with potassium pyrogallate

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The percentage of carbon dioxide content in the exhaled air What is the estimated population of the rats in the oil palm
is? estate?
Peratusan kandungan karbon dioksida dalam udara Berapakah anggaran populasi tikus dalam ladang kelapa
hembusan ialah? sawit tersebut?
A. 4.2% A. 125
B. 8.5% B. 155
C. 11.0% C. 300
D. 21.0% Answer : A D. 320 Answer : D

9. Table 2 shows the data obtained from an experiment to study


7. Diagram shows an experiment to investigate the content of the population of snails in an area.
carbon dioxide and oxygen in an air sample. Jadual 2 menunjukkan data yang diperoleh daripada
Rajah menunjukkan eksperimen untuk menyiasat kandungan eksperimen untuk mengkaji populasi siput dalam suatu
karbon dioksida dan oksigen dalam suatu sampel udara. kawasan.
Number of Number of snails in the second capture
snails in the Bilangan siput dalam tangkapan kedua
first capture Number of unmarked Number of marked
Bilangan snails in the second snails in the second
siput capture capture
dalamtangk Bilangan siput yang Bilangan siput yang
apan tidak bertanda dalam bertanda dalam
pertama tangkapan kedua tangkapan kedua
60 53 15

Estimate the size of population of snails in the area.


Anggarkan saiz populasi siput dikawasan tersebut.
A. 13.2
Initial length of bubble gas 10.0 cm B. 17
Panjang awal gelembung udara
C. 272
Length of bubble gas + potassium hydroxide 9.4 cm
solution D. 362 Answer : C
Panjang gelembung udara + potassium hidroksida
Length of bubble gas + potassium pyrogalate 8.0 cm 10. Diagram shows the result of an experiment to estimate the
solution
Panjang gelembung udara + potassium pirogalat
population size of wood lice in areas X, Y and Z using the
capture, mark, release and recapture technique.
What is the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air sample? Rajah menunjukkan keputusan satu kajian untuk menganggar
Apakah peratus karbon dioksida di dalam sampel udara? saiz populasi kutu kayu di kawasan X, Y dan Z menggunakan
A. 6 % teknik tangkap, tanda, lepas dan tangkap semula.
B. 10 % Area Number of Number of wood lice in the second
C. 14 % wood lice in capture
D. 16 % Answer : C the first Number of Number of
capture unmarked marked wood
wood lice in lice in the
the second second capture
capture
X 15 5 3
Y 10 12 2
8. Table shows the results of an experiment to estimate the Z 10 9 3
population of rats in an oil palm estate?
What is the total population size of wood lice in that area?
Jadual menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen untuk
Apakah jumlah saiz populasi kutu kayu di kawasan tersebut?
mengganggarkan populasi tikus di ladang kelapa sawit.
A. 30
Number of rats in the first sample 80
B. 60
Bilangan tikus dalam tangkapan pertama C. 115
Number of rats in the second sample 60 D. 120 Answer : C
Bilangan tikus dalam tangkapan kedua
Number of marked rats recaptured 15
Bilangan tikus bertanda dalam tangkapan kedua

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11. A student caught 20 snails in a garden. He marked and 14. Diagram shows eight similar quadrats that are used to
released them. After a week, he caught 10 snails and 4 of estimate the population of Mimosa pudica in a school filed.
them were marked. What is the estimated population size of The coverage of each quadrat is recorded.
the snails in the garden? Rajah menunjukkan 8 kuadrat yang digunakan untuk
Seorang pelajar menangkap 20 ekor siput di dalam kebun. Dia mengkaji populasi Mimosa pudica di padang sekolah. Litupan
menanda dan membebaskan mereka. Selepas seminggu dia setiap kuadrat direkodkan.
menangkap 10 ekor siput dan 4 daripadanya telah ditanda.
Apakah anggaran saiz populasi siput di kebun?
A. 40
B. 50
C. 60
D. 80 Answer : B

12. Diagram shows the result of the distribution of two species of


plants P and Q in 10 different quadrats of the same size 1 m x
1m
Rajah menunjukkan hasil taburan dua spesies tumbuhan P What is the percentage coverage of Mimosa pudica in
dan Q dalam 10 kuadrat berbeza dengan saiz yang sama 1 m this school field?
x 1 m. Apakah peratus litupan Mimosa pudica di padang
sekolah ini?
A. 39%
B. 49%
C. 67%
D. 77% Answer : B

15. Table shows 5 quadrats with the area covered by


Mimosa pudica.
Jadual menunjukkan 5 kuadrat dengan kawasan yang
dilitupi Mimosa pudica.

What is the frequency percentage of species P?


Apakah peratus frekuensi spesis P?
A. 90%
B. 80%
C. 70% What is the percentage coverage of Mimosa pudica in
D. 60% Answer : A this school field?
Apakah peratus litupan Mimosa pudica di padang
13. A quadrat measuring 50 cm x 50 cm is used to determine the sekolah ini?
species density of plant X in a school field. A. 20%
Satu kuadrat berukuran 50 cm x 50 cm digunakan untuk B. 35%
menentukan kepadatan spesis bagi tumbuhan X. C. 45%
D. 60% Answer : D

Based on the results shown in the above table, what is the


density of plant per metre square?
Berdasarkan kepada keputusan yang ditunjukkan dalam
jadual, berapakah kepadatan tumbuhan per meter persegi?
A. 4
B. 16
C. 20
D. 40 Answer : B

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