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1.

Definition of machine :

A device which is consisting of fixed and moving part and can


transfer energy in useful form .

In electrical machine is a device that can convert mechanical


energy to electrical energy ,or electrical to mechanical energy, or
changes ac current from one voltage to another voltage level.

Different types of machine:

i)generator (ac or dc ) one or three phase

ii) motor (ac or dc) one or three phase

iii) transformer one or three phase

Need to study machine:

Electrical machine is a very important device now-a-day.it is used


in radar system for radar motion control .In earth station it is used
to antenna movement control.it also used in satellite ,mobile
tower, robotics and also sun tracking solar panel.

2.

Necessity of energy conversion:

Energy conversion is a very common and important term in


science. Everyday more than hundreds types of energy are
converted one form to another. We have to remember that in this
process no energy is created or destroyed, only changes its form
using appropriate conversion process.

Suppose we have many natural resources of energy like


air, water ,oil , coal ,gash etc.

But at this time we need mechanical ,electrical or any other


types of energy..
Than what happen???

Yes- now we can apply proper process to convert our natural


energy to desired energy.

The role of machine in energy conversion process:

Machine can play a important role in energy conversion process.

1.It can convert mechanical energy to electrical energy which is


known as generator.

2.it also can convert electrical energy to mechanical energy which


is known as motor.

3.it changes alternating current from one voltage level to a


different voltage level which is known as transformer.

3.

Electromagnetic induction:

Electromagnetic induction (or sometimes just induction) is a process where


a conductor placed in a changing magnetic field (or a conductor moving
through a stationary magnetic field) causes the production of a voltage
across the conductor. This process of electromagnetic induction, in turn,
causes an electrical current - it is said to induce the current

Faradays law of electromagnetic induction:.

The induced electromotive/electromagnetic force(EMF) in any closed


circuit is equal to the negative of the time rate of change of the magnetic
flux enclosed by the circuit

Faraday's law states that the EMF is also given by the rate of change of the
magnetic flux:
where E is the electromotive force (EMF) and B is the magnetic flux.
The direction of the electromotive force is given by Lenz's law.
The 2nd equation is for a tightly wound coil of wire, composed
of N identical turns, each with the same B, where N is the number of
turns of wire and B is the magnetic flux through a single loop.
4.
What is transformer???
----- transformer is also a one kind of machine that can
change alternating current from one voltage level to another voltage
level but frequency must be same.
In transformer input and also output energy is electrical.
Different types of transformer:
>> step-up transformer:
output voltage higher than input voltage (11KV/33KV)
>> step-down transformer :
output voltage is lower than input voltage(33KV/11KV)

The principle in which transformer transform energy:


Basic operating principle of a
transformer is faradays law of induction and it transforms its
energy in electromagnetic way.

The causes of calling step-up and step-down transformer:

-> A transformer is called step-up


when it gives higher output voltage than the input voltage.
(11KV/33KV)

-> A transformer is called step down


when it gives lower output voltage than the input voltage.
(33KV/11KV)

Application:

In our national grid both types of transformer are


used. At the station, at first voltage is stepped up and fed to the
transmission lines (commonly 11kv is seen) then when it gets to
the substation it's stepped down again (440,220 V).

Another important application of step-up transformer


is in an inverter. This takes a direct current and using switching
methods (commonly an astable multivibrator ) turns it into an
alternating current which is fed to the primary of the transformer.
If the supply is a 24 Volt battery, the transformer will need a ratio
of 1:10 turns to get up to 240 Volts. Such a thing is seen in solar
panel installations and in caravans

On the other hand step-down transformers are every


where.In mobile charger ,laptop charger, television, radio etc.,
there are step-down transformers.

5.

Different types of losses:

There are two important types of losses:


1.cu(copper) loss

2.core loss.

Cu loss:

this loss happens in coil or winding of a machine. As the coil is


made of copper wire, it is called copper loss.

Core loss/iron loss:

This loss happens in the main core of a


machine. as normally the core is made by iron ,it is also called
iron loss.

Coil:

Core:

Winding:

6.

What happen inside a machine???

>>inside a machine there is two part.

i)rotating part(armature or rotor)

II) stationary part(pole or stator)

For dc generator and dc motor the rotating part is called armature


and stationary part is called pole .

But for ac generator and motor the rotating part is called rotor
and stationary part is called stator.

The place where voltage / torque is generated in machine


:

Voltage (electrical energy) for generator

produced in armature (dc generator)


ac in nature

produced in stator (ac generator or alternator)

ac in nature

Torque (mechanical energy) for motor

get from the shaft of armature and rotor

The process of production of voltage or torque:

Using Faradays law of EMI

And the requirement of EMI are:

i)Current through the coil

ii)Magnetic field

iii)Cutting of magnetic field in the conductor which remain in


armature or rotor

7.

Magnetic field:

A magnetic field is generated when electric charge carriers such


as electrons move through space or within an electrical conductor

Importance:

For producing voltage/torque we use faradays law of EMI.

And for faradays law of EMI we need magnetic field

Which material best for electrical machine and why???

The material that gives high magnetic field in low value


current(ferromagnetic material-iron)
Because this type of material gives high magnetic field with low
value of current, so many current is safe and as the magnetic field
is high, voltage/torque produced is also high.

8.

Excitation and magnetization :

Process of producing magnetic field using dc current is called


excitation through coil and magnet.

And the process of making a substance temporarily or


permanently magnetic, as by insertion in a magnetic field is
called magnetization.

Residual magnetism:

Residual magnetism is a property in which certain amount of


excitation remains back in the conductor even after the removal
of the magnets.

9.

Whole question answer:

Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux, dynamically


( motionally ) induced emf is produced according to Faradays
law of EMI.

This current causes the current to flow if the conductor


circuit is short circuited.

By connecting a load we can sort the circuit.

->When the plane of the coil is at right angles to line of


flux, the flux linked with the coil is maximum but rate of
change of flux linkage is minimum, so the voltage induced
Minimum.
The rate of change of flux linkage increases till the point ,
when the coil plane is horizontal To the line of flux in which
rate of change of flux is maximum, so the voltage induced
maximum

->Using split rings or commutator we can convert ac to dc


current .This split rings for alternator also called slip rings.

10.

The classification of dc generator based on excitation


process:

Two types based on excitation

1. Self-excited generator-whose field magnet are energized by


current produced by the generator themselves

2. Separately excited generator-whose field magnet are


energized from an independent external source of dc current

Describe flemings RHR and LHR for generator and


motor:

Whenever a current carrying conductor comes under a magnetic field there


will be force acting on the conductor and on the other hand, if a conductor
is forcefully brought under a magnetic field there will be an induced current
in that conductor. In both of the phenomenon s, there is a relation
between magnetic field, current and force. This relation is directionally
determined by Fleming Left Hand rule and Fleming Right Hand rule
respectively. Directionally means these rules do not show the magnitude
but show the direction of any of the three parameters (magnetic field ,
current, force) if the direction of other two are known. Fleming Left Hand
rule is mainly applicable for electric motor and Fleming Right Hand
rule is mainly applicable for electric generator.

RHR for generator:

For our right hand if the second finger indicated the direction of
magnetic field and the third finger indicated the direction of current flowing
through the conductor then the first finger will indicate the direction of
force.

LHR for motor:

For our left hand if the second finger indicated the direction
of magnetic field and the third finger indicated the direction of current
flowing though the conductor then the first finger will indicate the direction
of force.

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