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Maneuverability of a Wavepiercing High-Speed Catamaran at Low Speed in Strong Wind

Takuya Oura and Yoshiho Ikeda

Osaka Prefecture University, Japan

A high-speed catamaran car ferry has sometimes serious problems on maneuvering for low speed sailing in strong
wind in harbor because of large wind forces acting on its large structure above the water line. In order to clarify the
maneuvering performance of such a ferry in strong wind, wind force measurements and drift speed measurements are
carried out using a scale model of a wavepiercing catamaran in a towing tank with a wind generator, and performances
for steady sailing in a straight direction and station keeping at zero speed in wind are calculated using the experimental


Since a high-speed catamaran car ferry has a

relatively shallow draft and a large structure above the
water line, a very large wind force and small
hydrodynamic resistance forces from water act on the
structures in air and water when the high-speed
catamaran runs at low speed in strong wind. This may
cause some difficulties for maneuvering in harbor.
Tasumi et al (1999) experimentally investigated
maneuvering performance for a simple catamaran.
In the present study, using a scale-model of a
wavepiercing high-speed catamaran, the coefficients of
wind forces are measured in the towing tank with a wind
generator in Osaka Prefecture University. The drift Fig.1 1/80-scale model of Incat 112m WPC.
resistance coefficient is also obtained by measuring the
drifting speed of the model in wind in the towing tank.
Using the measured wind force coefficients and
drift resistance coefficient, a criterion of wind speed for
the wavepiercing high-speed catamaran sailing at
constant speed in a straight direction is obtained. The
results are compared with those for other kinds of ships,
a PCC and a tanker. The station-keeping performances of
it in wind are also obtained using these experimental


The model used in the experiments is a 1/80-scale Fig.2 Side and front profiles of Incat 112m WPC.
model of Incat 112m wavepiercing catamaran (hereafter
Incat 112m WPC) which will be introduced in a Japanese
domestic route in the summer of 2007. The model is Table 1 Principal particulars.
shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2. The principal particulars of the Gross Tonnage 8,000 ton
ship are shown in Table 1. The schematic view of the LOA 112.60 m
experiment is shown in Fig.3. Length of demi-hull 105.60 m
In the experiment, wind velocity is changed as Width of demi-hull 5.80 m
3.8m/s, 5.7m/s, and 7.6m/s, and attack angles of the wind Breadth 30.50 m
are changed by every 15 from 0 to 180. Draft 3.70 m
Longitudinal and transverse forces and yaw moment Maximum speed 40 knot
about its mid-ship position acting on the model is Main engine 9.000 kW / 1,000rpm (4)
measured by a three-component load cell. Waterjet thrust (4) 303 kN (4)

Session A 83
The measured longitudinal and transverse forces CX (exp.)
and a yaw moment are non-dimensionalized as follows, CX (clal.-f)

CX = CY = 0 30 60 90 120 150 180
1 1
a S FU W 2 a S LU W 2

2 2 -0.5

CN =
1 -1
a S L LU W 2

where FX , FY , and MZ denote longitudinal and Wind direction (deg.)
transverse components of wind force, and yaw moment 1
respectively, a density of air ,SF and SL front and CY (exp.)
CY (cal.-f)
lateral projected areas, L length overall of the ship, UW 0.8
wind velocity in m/s, respectively.


UW (m/s)

0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Wind direction (deg.)

CN (exp.)
Fig.3 Schematic view of wind force measurement in 0.1 CN
CN (cal.-f)
towing tank (birds eye view). 0.05


The obtained longitudinal and transverse wind force 0 30 60 90 120 150 180
coefficients CX, and CY and the yaw moment coefficient
CN are shown in Fig.4. In the figure the wind force -0.1
coefficients estimated by Fujiwaras method (2006) are
also shown. The method is an empirical one for -0.15

mono-hulls. -0.2
The result of the longitudinal force coefficient (CX) Wind direction (deg.)
is asymmetrical, and smaller in head wind than in
following wind. The predicted result by Fujiwaras
method can estimate it in fairly good accuracy in head to Fig.4 Measured wind force coefficients of Incat 112m
beam wind, but underestimates it in quarter and WPC for various wind direction with predicted result by
following wind. This difference may be caused by the Fujiwaras method.
catamaran shape with a tunnel. The transverse wind force 1010
coefficient CY is shown in the middle figure in Fig.4. The (ton) Wind velocity
result is also asymmetrical, and has a peak near at 40 0

degrees of wind direction. This peak may be caused by 30

the lift forces acting on two demi-hulls. The predicted 55

results by Fujiwaras method overestimates the measured 150

180 60

one by 20~30% in wide range of beam wind. As shown

90 120
W n
i d
in the bottom figure in Fig. 4, the measured yaw moment
f i
due to wind shows an almost symmetrical shape. The
o e
c c
e t
predicted result underestimates the measured one in wide

range of head wind. 120

In Fig.5, wind forces and its directions acting on
Incat 112m WPC in 10m/s wind are shown. The wind 150
force direction is different from the wind direction.
These are caused by the lift force components of wind
forces acting on the hulls as well known. Fig.5 Measured wind force vectors acting on Incat 112m
WPC in 10m/s wind.

Session A 84
2.4 MEASUREMENTS OF DRIFT SPEED IN WIND Reynolds number and Froude number, the constant value
The model floating in calm water in the towing tank can not be used there. Therefore, in the following
is experienced by steady wind generated by a wind calculations, the CD values at drift angle above 30are
generator as shown in Fig.6. The model is free only in used as a function of only drift angle.
the direction of wind. The wind speeds are changed as CD
3.8m/s, 5.7m/s and 7.6m/s, and the wind direction are 2.5
changed from 0to 180.


U 1

0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Wind force Direction of drift (deg.)
Drift resistance

Fig. 8 Obtained drift resistance coefficient CD of INCAT

Fig.6 Schematic view of drift speed measurement 112m WPC for various drift direction (=0 when the
in windside view ship drift in forward (bow) direction).

In Fig.7, the measured drift speeds, Us, are shown.

In the figure, shows the direction of drift motion. ASSESSMENT OF MANUEVERABILITY OF
The is defined to be zero when ship drifts in straight INCAT 112m WPC IN STRONG WIND
forward direction of the ship (bow direction) .
Since the wind force should be balanced with the 3.1 CRITERIA OF STRAIGHT SAILING IN WIND
drift force, the following equilibrium equation can be The operable criteria of wind speed for Incat 112m
obtained. By solving the equation, the drift resistance WPC sailing in straight direction at constant speed when
coefficient, CD, can be obtained. the vessel is encountered by steady wind of speed of Uw
(m/s) is calculated. The ship is assumed to sail at a
1 W SU S 2 CD
WindforceF constant speed of Us (m/s), in constant drift angle , by a
2 thrust force of FT and helm angle of of the steering
nozzles of the waterjet propulsions as shown in Fig. 9.
where S denotes lateral projected area of a submerged
demi-hull, US drift velocity, w density of water,
Drift speed (m/s) US
0.5 u


0.3 v
0.2 N

0.1 Wind speed 7.6m/s

Wind speed 5.7m/s
Wind speed 3.6m/s
0 FT
0 30 60 90 120 150 180

Direction of drift (deg.) Fig.9 Coordinate System

Fig. 7 Measured drift speed in wind for various drift
angle (=180). The equilibrium of all forces acting on the ship in the
directions of x, y and yaw gives the following equations.
In Fig. 8, the obtained drift resistance coefficients
are shown. The maximum value of the coefficients
X H ( ) + X W ( ) + X T ( ) = 0
appears at around=90-100and reaches about 2.3.
This is because that the two demi-hulls create large eddy YH ( ) + YW ( ) + YT ( ) = 0 (1)
making resistances. Since CD at =0must depend on N H ( ) + N W ( ) + N T ( ) = 0

Session A 85
where XH, XW and XT denote hydrodynamic force acting
on submerged hulls, wind force and thrust force in x 7

direction. YH, YW and YT denote those in y direction 6

and NH, NW and NT in yaw direction, respectively. These =-10(deg.)
forces and moment can be calculated as follows, 5

respectively. 4
K (=Uw/Us)
1 2 3
X H = W 3 (U S cos ) 2 CT 2
2 2
X T = FT cos 0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
(Head wind)
Wind direction (deg.) ()
(Following wind)
YH =
{( )
W S HLU S 2 Y ' 2 + CD sin 2 } Fig.10 Ratio of wind speed to ship speed, K, when Incat
1 112m WPC sails in straight direction in constant speed in

2 various wind directions at helm angles of -30, -20 and

YR = FT sin -10 degree.

N H = W S HL LWLU S N sin 2
2 ' 25
1 20

N R = ( LR ) YR 15 =-30

where denotes displacement volume, SHL, SWT and 10

SWL denote lateral projected area of the submerged

demi-hull, front projected area above the waterline, and 5

lateral projected area above the waterline respectively,

LR and LWL denote the distance from the mid-ship and 0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
length of waterline, respectively. In the calculations,
Inoues formula (1972) is used for NH. and the Wind direction (deg.)
experimental results of the resistance test of a demi-hull
by Okada (1998) is used for CT. Fig. 11 Result of drift angle when Incat 112m WPC
sails at 1m/s in a straight direction in wind with
By numerically solving the equilibrium equations, maximum helm angle,=-30of waterjet.
K value (=UW/US) which is the ratio of wind speed to
ship speed, can be obtained for various helm angle of the FT (kgf.)
waterjets (Tanaka et al (1980) and Sezaki (1980).
In Figs. 10-12, the calculated results for sailing .1200
straightly in wind are shown. The K values shown in =-30
Fig.10 are the results for helm angle of the waterjet of 10,
20 and 30 degrees. The results demonstrate that K value 800
becomes the minimum at wind direction of 140-150
degrees. The K value at the maximum helm angle of the
waterjet, -30 degrees, shows a critical boundary line for 400
sailing straightly at a constant speed. The minimum K
value of critical boundary is about three. This means that
the ship can sail in a straight direction at a constant speed 0
of about 1/3 of wind speed. We can find the minimum 0 30 60 90 120 150 180

sailing speed if wind speed and direction are given using Wind direction
Wind direction (deg.)
the critical boundary line.
As an example, the lee-angle, or drift angle of the Fig. 12 Result of thrust FT when Incat 112m WPC sails at
ship running at 1m/s or two knots, at helm angle of the 1m/s in a straight direction in wind with maximum helm
waterjet of -30 degrees is shown in Fig. 11. It should be angle,=-30of waterjet
noted that the wind speed changes with each wind
direction which corresponds to the K value for =-30
in Fig.10.

Session A 86
Head wind 112m WPC
K(=Uw/Us) Thrust 100%
K (=Uw/Us)
12 Incat1112
112m WPC
0 Thrust 80%
Tanker (full load) 90
PCC (ballast) (m/s) Thrust 50%
10 330 30

8 60

300 60

270 0 90

0 30 60 90 120 150 180
(deg.) 240 120
Wind direction (deg.)

Fig.13 Comparison of critical value of K of Incat 112m 210 150

WPC with other types of ships predicted by Tanaka
(1980). 180

In Fig.12, the result of the thrust force in the same Follow wind
condition is shown. In the calculation, the thrust by the
waterjets is assumed to be in forward mode only. At very Fig.14 Station keeping plot of Incat 112m WPC in
low speed, more flexible maneuvering performance can wind.
be obtained by using reverse thrust mode.

In Fig.13, the critical value of the K value of Incat 4. CONCLUSIONS

112m WPC is shown with those of two mono-hull ships
which were obtained by Tanaka et al (1980). The results In the present study, maneuvering performances of a
suggest that sailing performance of Incat 112m WPC is high-speed catamaran in wave-piecing type, Incat 112m
slightly worse in whole wind direction than a PCC which WPC are experimentally investigated. Following
has similar maneuvering problems in wind. This may be conclusions are obtained.
because of its larger superstructure and smaller (1) The wind forces acting on the catamaran are
underwater hulls of the light ship. measured and the characteristics of the coefficients are
3.2 STATION KEEPING PERFORMANCE (2) The drift resistance coefficient of the catamaran is
The station keeping ability in strong wind is also obtained by measuring the drifting speed of the
important for berthing of a ship. The station keeping model due to wind in a towing tank.
ability can be calculated by solving the equilibrium of (3) Using the experimental data, the criterion of wind
the forces and moment due to wind with those generated speed for straight sailing at a constant speed in wind is
by waterjet thrust forces by systematically changing the calculated.
thrust and its direction of the waterjet. In the calculation, (4) A criterion of wind speed for station keeping in wind
the experimental wind force and moment obtained in the is calculated.
present study are used. The helm angle of the steering (5) Maneuvering performances in wind of Incat 112m
nozzles of the waterjet is changed within 30 degrees, WPC are revealed.
and the direction of the thrust is changed in forward and
reverse modes. The thrust of reverse mode is assumed to
be 80% of the normal forward thrust mode. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The results of station keeping criteria are shown in The authors would like to express their appreciation
Fig.14. The lines show the maximum wind speed in m/s to Higashi-nihon Ship management Ltd and INCAT
and direction during which Incat 112m WPC can be Tasmania Ltd for their supplying the technical
expected to maintain its station, under its own power, information on the Incat 112m WPC.
without any drift and yaw movement for 100, 80 and They would like to express their appreciation to
50% of the maximum thrust force (120 tons) by the four Associate Professor T. Katayama of Osaka Prefecture
waterjets, respectively. In head wind, Incat 112m WPC Univ. for his help in the experiments.
can stay in up to 87m/s wind, and in following wind in
up to 57m/s wind speed. The minimum wind speed of
17m/s appears when wind direction is near 60 for the REFERENCES
100% thrust. 1) Tasumi, H.(1999). Maneuverability of a High-Speed
Catamaran Running at Low Speed in Strong Wind,
4th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Ship & Marine

Session A 87
2) Fujiwara, T.(2006). Influence of Wave and Wind on
Navigation of PCC, Proc. of PCCPCTC Symposium,
Japan Society of Naval Architects and Ocean
Engineers (Kansai branch)
3) Tanaka, A. et al. (1980). The Ship Maneuverability
in Strong Wind, J. Kansai Society of Naval
Architects of Japan, vol.176
4) Sezaki, Y.(1980). Effect of the Wind Force to the
Speed of a Car Carrier, J. Kansai Society of Naval
Architects of Japan, vol.179
5) Inoue, S. et al. (1972). The Effect of Wind on The
Ship Maneuverability (), J. of West Japan Society
of Naval Architects, vol.45
6) Okada, M.(1998). A Study on Assessment of
Performances of a Fast Ferry., Thesis of
undergraduate research project of Osaka Prefecture

Session A 88