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Stefano Crotti, Universit degli Studi di Genova - DINAV, Genova, Italy

Michele Viviani, Universit degli Studi di Genova - DINAV, Genova, Italy

SUMMARY: Experimental tests have been performed on a systematic series of surface piercing propellers with varied

number of blades (4 and 5) and pitch ratio (from 0.8 to 1.4). Influence of depth of immersion and shaft inclination is

discussed and results for variations in these parameters are presented. Regression equations are given describing the

relationship of the thrust and torque coefficients for advance coefficients above the critical values. Influence on Weber

number is briefly considered, confirming results of previous works. This work is the result of a research on the

performances of surface piercing propellers undertaken by the University of Genoa and was partly developed as a

doctoral thesis.

on the contrary can be dramatically severe for immersed

Surface piercing propellers application for leisure boats propellers limiting their application) due to their peculiar

has constantly grown in past years, with an increasing functioning; in particular, the presence of an air sheet on

number of boats adopting it, especially in the high-speed the blade prevents inception of vapour bubbles and thus

segment of the market. Nevertheless, a considerable lack cavitation.

of studies and available data on this specific propeller These two main features make application of surface

type still exists, and its behaviour is still far to be com- piercing propellers to fast crafts very attractive, despite

pletely investigated, due to its relatively recent introduc- some problems which have to be carefully analysed in

tion, the limited (but increasing) range of applications their design; among them, thrust and torque fluctuations

and the fact that data are in many cases considered as due to the typically non stationary functioning of surface

protected know-how for industrial or military reasons. piercing propellers, with blades entering and coming out

Numerical methodologies, whose application is wide- violently in and from water once a revolution, can lead to

spread for conventional propellers, are still far from be- structural problems on propeller itself and on all shaftline

ing applied successfully and with sufficient confidence to and transmission, which have to be kept in mind and

surface piercing propellers and their design, because of monitored.

the considerable difficulties connected to the numerical Typical installation of SPP at stern consists of shaftline

modelization of this particular propeller type, which typi- coming out of transom, which leads to a propeller immer-

cally works at the interface between two fluids, i.e. water sion of about 50% in transom dry conditions and high

and air, leading to complexities not existing for the con- speed, as reported in following figure 1.

ventional case.

Despite the existence of these objective problems, de-

signers of surface piercing propellers currently adopted

have been able to obtain open water propeller efficiencies

which are comparable (even if still a bit lower) to those

hT hT

of conventional propellers with same principal character-

istics (namely pitch to diameter ratio). Moreover, surface

piercing propellers allow to considerably reduce append-

ages resistance with respect to conventional configuration

Figure 1: Typical SPP arrangement

with immersed shaft axes, virtually eliminating most of it.

Considering that appendages resistance for fast craft can One of the main differences between surface piercing

represent 30% or more of total resistance, a considerable propellers and conventional propellers are related to typi-

reduction in power requirements can be obtained by cal profiles utilised (figure 2) and to the blade shape

means of the adoption of this kind of propeller. which presents a peculiar skew distribution; both of them

Another important characteristic which makes surface are usually studied in order to lower, as far as possible,

piercing propeller particularly attractive in the segment of impact into water, moreover profiles are studied in order

Session C 63

to increase thrust produced by propeller face, since venti-

lated propeller back contribution is almost negligible in V 2L

some operating conditions. Wn =

(2)

most influent coefficient for this kind of propeller, as

reported in [1][2][3][4]

0.14

Figure 2: Possible SPP blade sections 0.12

0.10

KT

0.08

2. MAIN PARAMETERS 0.06

0.04

Main parameters influencing SPP behaviour (in terms of 0.02 5 4 3 2 1

usual propeller characteristic curves) are the same usually 0.00

adopted for conventional propellers (namely blade num- 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

J

ber z, pitch/diameter ratio P/D, expanded blade area ratio

AE/AO, advance coefficient J, Reynolds number Re and Figure 3: Typical SPP KT vs J plot

cavitation number ), with additional parameters intro- Shaft inclinations are much more important in this

duced in order to consider that propeller operates at inter- case since SPP are characterised by considerable ver-

face between air and water (immersion coefficient IT, tical and lateral forces with respect to conventional

Weber number We); moreover, some parameters which propellers due to their asymmetric functioning condi-

are usually considered of lower importance for conven- tions; in particular, horizontal forces can reach very

tional propellers, i.e. longitudinal and horizontal shaft high values (up and over to 50% longitudinal thrust)

angles ( and respectively) and Froude number Fr play and thus have to be carefully taken into account; these

in this case a significant role, additional forces are influenced by blade shape, and

As a consequence, thrust and torque coefficients, in case in particular by rake and skew;

of SPP, are usually represented as follows: Regarding cavitation number, (), as already antici-

pated SPP are considerably less influenced by cavita-

K = f(z; P/D; AE/A0; J; IT; Re; ; ; ; Fr; We) tion phenomena, which are present (if any) only in

(1) correspondence to advance coefficient values higher

than JCR, where blade back is still not ventilated and

Influences of different coefficients can be briefly summa- vapour bubbles can be crated at very low cavitation

rized as follows: numbers.

Immersion coefficient IT, defined as:

z, P/D and AE/AO have an influence similar to the one

for conventional propellers

J influence is similar to conventional propellers at hT

IT =

values above critical JCR , in correspondence to the so- D (3)

called partially vented regime, corresponding to area where hT and D are maximum propeller immersion

1 in following figure 3, while at lower values a differ- and propeller diameter respectively, is a fundamental

ent behaviour is experienced (fully vented regime, parameter for SPP; in particular, it has been observed

corresponding to areas 3, 4 and 5 in figure 3) [2][5][6] that force coefficients vary proportionally to

Nondimensional numbers (Re, Fr and We) can intro- this coefficient

duce significant scale effect between results on mod-

els and in full scale if not properly taken into account; It is not the scope of this work to go into a deeper detail

in particular Weber number is in general defined as of SPP characteristics; more information can be found in

the ratio between inertial and surface tension forces, literature from previous works already mentioned. In pre-

as in the following equation 2, where V and L repre- sent work, results obtained during a PhD activity for a

sent velocity and length of interest and is water ki- systematic series of 5 bladed propellers [7] are presented

nematic capillarity: and compared with other data previously obtained in

Session C 64

studies carried out by DINAV and DIN on another sys- 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 e 0.7) and three longitudinal shaft inclina-

tematic series of 4 bladed propellers [5]. tions (namely 4, 6 e 8) have been tested. As a result, a

total of 36 trials have been performed.

3. DESCRIPTION OF MODELS AND TESTS FOR

THE SYSTEMATIC SERIES 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Surface piercing propellers family 5.67 consists of three As an example, in following figures 5-7 experimental re-

5-bladed models characterised by the same profiles pre- sults in correspondence to testing conditions with various

viously adopted for propeller family 4.68 (4-bladed [5]). IT values and =6 for propeller E9701 (P/D=0.8) are

These three models are characterised by different P/D ra- reported.

tios, namely 0.8, 1.0 e 1.2 (it has to be noted that in the L 5.67

= 6 P/D = 0.8

case of 4.68 series a fourth value of P/D was analysed, 0.12

Kt

namely 1.4); AE/A0 ratio is set to 0.67 for all models 0.1

It

ily). All models have a diameter of 0.25 m, and are char- 0.06

0.4

acterised by a rake angle of 6. 0.04

0.5

0.6

This propeller family, as the previous 4.68, has been cre- 0.02 0.7

Renato Sonny Levi [8][9], and their complete geometry -0.02

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

In following table 1, propellers tested are reported:

L 5.67

= 6 P/D = 0.8

Model. No. P/D 10KQ

0.2

E9701 0.8 0.18

0.16

E9901 1.0 0.14

It

E9702 1.2 0.12

0.1

0.4

0.5

Table 1. Series 5.67 Models 0.08 0.6

0.06 0.7

All experimental tests on these models have been carried 0.04

0.02

out at DINAV Cavitation Tunnel at Genoa University. 0

Cavitation tunnel is characterised by a test section having 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

J

2 m length and a squared transversal section with width

and height equal to 0.57 m. The Tunnel, originally built Fig. 6. Propeller 9701 - =6 - KQ curves

only for conventional propellers testing, has been suitably

L 5.67

modified in order to obtain a free surface flow to test SPP O = 6 P/D = 0.8

[1], as represented in following figure 4. 0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

It

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.5

0.1 0.6

0 0.7

-0.2

-0.3

J

Fig. 4. Cavitation tunnel modification for SPP testing

During tests, free surface level in correspondence to pro- perimental results in correspondence to same testing con-

peller is about 0.25 m, and tests are typically carried out ditions for propeller E9901 (P/D=1.0) are reported.

with a flow speed ranging from 2.5 and 3.5 m/s.

The 3 models have been systematically tested varying pa-

rameters IT and ; in particular, four different values of

immersion coefficient around the typical 0.5 (namely IT =

Session C 65

L 5.67

KT = 6 P/D = 1.0 L 5.67

10KQ = 6 P/D =1.2

0.12

0.3

0.1

0.25

0.08

It 0.2

0.06 It

0.4 0.4

0.5 0.15 0.5

0.04

0.6 0.6

0.7 0.1 0.7

0.02

0 0.05

0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2

-0.02 0

J 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

J

Fig. 8. Propeller 9901 - =6 - KT curves Fig. 12. Propeller 9702 - =6 - KQ curves

L 5.67

L 5.67 O = 6 P/D = 1.2

10KQ = 6 P/D =1.0

0.7

0.25

0.6

0.2 0.5

0.4 It

It

0.15

0.3 0.4

0.4

0.5 0.2 0.5

0.1 0.6 0.6

0.7 0.1 0.7

0.05

0

0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

-0.1

0 -0.2

0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 J

J

Fig. 13. Propeller 9702 - =6 - O curves

Fig. 9. Propeller 9901 - =6 - KQ curves

O = 6 P/D = 1.0

0.7

0.6

The large amount of experimental data gathered has been

0.5 re-analysed in order to better consider some characteristic

0.4 It parameters, i.e. immersion ratio IT and longitudinal shaft

0.3 0.4 inclination . In particular, thrust and torque coefficients

0.2 0.5

0.6 have been evaluated considering a different nondimen-

0.1 0.7

0

sionalization, according to formulations reported in the

-0.1

0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 following.

-0.2 For what regards longitudinal inclination, thrust meas-

J

ured by dynamometer is in the propeller shaft direction,

Fig. 10. Propeller 9901 - =6 - O curves

therefore advance coefficient J has been recalculated

Finally, in following figures 11-13 experimental results in considering advance velocity component in the same di-

correspondence to same testing conditions for propeller rection, as represented in following figure 14, and ac-

E9702 (P/D=1.2) are reported. cording to equation 4:

L 5.67 VA cos

KT = 6 P/D = 1.2 J = (4)

0.14 nD

0.12

0.1

It

0.08

0.4

0.06

0.5

0.04 0.6

0.7

0.02

0

0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

-0.02

J

Fig. 11. Propeller 9702 - =6 - KT curves Fig. 14. Advance velocity in axial direction

Session C 66

As a result, characteristic curves for inclined shaft tests As expected, different curves tend to collapse into a

are translated towards left , and tend to collapse into a unique one, especially in correspondence to the partially

unique curve. ventilated regime before transition (higher values of the

Regarding immersion coefficient, a different formulation advance coefficient). This nondimensionalized version

has been introduced in [3], in order to better capture in- has been considered in order to obtain regression curves

fluence of propeller immersion on propeller characteristic for KT and KQ, as reported in following paragraphs. Since

curves. In particular, immersed propeller area AO is con- different curves tend to collapse in a unique one in corre-

sidered in the new KT and KQ formulations, as follows: spondence to values of the advance coefficient higher

than the critical one, regressions refer only to this part. In

T Q

K 'T = K 'Q = particular, regressions are studied in order to relate KT

n D 2 AO '

2

n D 3 AO '

2

(5) and KQ coefficients to J and P/D.

In following equations 6 and 7, linear regressions ob-

where AO is represented in following Figure 15: tained are reported, while in equations 8 and 9 quadratic

regressions are reported. In order to appreciate visually

how these regression approximate experimental data, in

figures 18-19 and 20-21 they are represented in graphical

form.

KT=-0,51362J+0,63809(P/D)-0,01018 (6)

10KQ=-0,64987J+1,11662(P/D)-0,15068 (7)

Fig. 15. Immersed propeller area AO

K'T L5.67 - Thrust Coefficients

As a result of the two alternative nondimensionaliza- 0.30

tion introduced, propeller curves obtained at different

longitudinal shaft inclination and immersion ratio (figure 0.25

P/D

16) tend to collapse into a unique curve, as reported in 0.20 0.8

following figure 17 1.0

0.15 1.2

Kt 0,8

0.10

Kt 1,0

0.05 Kt 1,2

0.00

J

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60

-0.05

10K'Q

L5.67 - Torque Coefficients

0.60

P/D

0.40 0.8

1.0

0.30

1.2

0.20 10Kq 0,8

10Kq 1,0

0.10

10Kq 1,2

0.00

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 J

KT=-0,61986J+0,14553(P/D)+

+0,72956J(P/D)-0,3049J2+ (8)

Fig. 17. Thrust coeficient KT (SPP nondimensionalization) -0,12523(P/D)2+0,28459

Session C 67

10KQ=-0,18468J-1,20569(P/D)+ 6. COMPARISON BETWEEN L4.68 AND L5.67

+0,69548J(P/D)-0,56171J2+ (9) SERIES

+0,80543(P/D)2+0,75101

Results from present work increase the wide database of

experimental data already gathered in previous activities

K'T L5.67 - Thrust Coefficients

0.25 on 4-bladed propellers [5].

P/D

For the sake of completeness, in following equations 10

0.20

0.8

and 11 quadratic regressions obtained for 4.68 series are

0.15 1.0 reproted, while in figures 23 and 24 KT and KQ are rep-

1.2 resented for all models tested together with related re-

0.10

Kt 0,8 gression curves.

Kt 1,0

0.05

Kt 1,2

KT=-0,691625J+0,794973(P/D)+

0,870696J(P/D)-0,395012J2+

0.00

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 J (10)

-0.05 -0,515183(P/D)2

Fig. 20. KT quadratic regression

10KQ=-0,300453J+0,543738(P/D)+

10K'Q

L5.67 - Torque Coefficients 0,877638J(P/D)-0,649314J2+ (11)

0.60 -0,208974(P/D)2

0.50 P/D

0.40 0.8

K'T L4.68 & L5.67 - Thrust Coefficients

0.3

1.0 Z-P/D

0.30 0.25

1.2 exp 4-0.8

0.20 10Kq 0,8 0.2 exp 4-1.0

exp 4-1.2

10Kq 1,0 exp 4-1.4

0.10 10Kq 1,2 0.15 reg 4-0.8

reg 4-1.0

0.00 0.1 reg 4-1.2

J reg 4-1.4

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 exp 5-0.8

0.05 exp 5-1.0

exp 5-1.2

Fig.21. KQ quadratic regression reg 5-0.8

0 reg 5-1.0 J

0 0.2reg 5-1.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

As it can be seen from previous figures, quadratic regres- -0.05

nevertheless, linear regresssions still present considerably

high R-squared values (0.956 and 0.913 for thrust and

Fig.23. L4.68 & L5.67 KT values

torque coefficient respectively, compared to 0.968 and

0.956 obtained for quadratic regressions). 10K'Q L4.68 & L5.67 - Torque coefficients

In following figure 22, open water efficiencies obtained 0.7

are reported. exp 4-0.8

0.5 exp 4-1.0

exp 4-1.2

exp 4-1.4

0.4 reg 4-0.8

O L5.67 - Open water efficiencies reg 4-1.0

0.8 0.3 reg 4-1.2

reg 4-1.4

0.7 P/D exp 5-0.8

0.2 exp 5-1.0

0.6 exp 5-1.2

0.8

0.5 reg 5-0.8

1 0.1 reg 5-1.0

0.4 reg 5-1.2

1.2 0

0.3 J

eta 0,8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

0.2

eta 1,0

0.1 Fig.24. L4.68 & L5.67 KQ values

eta 1,2

0

J From the point of view of the statistycal analysis, regres-

-0.1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

-0.2

sions obtained for the 4-bladed propellers present slightly

lower R-squared values, especially for what regards

Fig.22. O from quadratic regression torque coefficient (0.961 and 0.923 respectively), which

result from a larger spread of data.

Session C 68

This result is partly due to the larger amount of data models with variable P/D ratio lead to three groups of

available for the 4-bladed propellers, which have been points in the graph WE- JCR (figure 25), where JCR ex-

tested during years in different experimental facilities perienced in different tests are reported as a function of

(Naples towing tank, Genoa Cavitation Tunnel, NRC- Weber number.

IMD Towing Tank in St.Johns, Newfoundland, Canada)

and not only at Genoa Cavitation Tunnel as for the 5-

JCR

vs Weber Number

bladed propellers. Moreover, it is likely that the presence

Jcr

1.1

of an additional propeller with P/D 1.4 can result in a

1.0

slightly lower R-squared value. P/D = 0.8

From analysis of these data it can be seen that, as ex- 0.9

P/D = 1.0

P/D = 1.2

pected, thrust and torque coefficients increase with P/D 0.8

for both propeller series; however, a slightly different be-

0.7

haviour between 4-bladed and 5-bladed propeller is evi-

denced, since thrust and torque coefficients for the latter 0.6

150 200 250 300 350 400

ments of P/D ratio, contrarily to what could be expected

since propeller characteristics (blade section profiles, Fig.25. Critical advance coefficient vs Weber number

AE/AO, etc.) are similar.

A possible explanation of this phenomenon (still to be Weber number utilized in figure 25 is the one proposed

confirmed) may be related to the different functioning of by Shiba [10], according to following equation:

propellers with odd or even blade number. In particular,

propellers with an even number of blades present a sym-

metrical functioning, in which blade surface entering into n2 D3

W 'E = (12)

water is always similar to blade surface coming out of

water, while for propellers with an odd number of blades Lower limit usually suggested for Weber number in order

an asymmetrical functioning, with a higher instantaneous to avoid scale effects is 180-200 [10]. Even if this ex-

blade surface can be experienced. It is likely, however, perimental campaign was not dedicated to the analysis of

that mean force and torque are not considerably modified this phenomenon, an implicit confirmation of it can be

by this behaviour, since higher and lower instantaneous found by the analysis of previous figure 25. In particular,

thrust and torque tend to compensate each other, and it can be seen that a higher spread of data has been ex-

problems related to odd or even blade number are limited perienced for propeller with P/D = 1.2, whose transition

only to different values of fluctuating forces. happens at WE values around 200, while for remaining

Another reason for this behaviour could be the different models with P/D = 0.8 and P/D = 1.0, for which transi-

spacing between blades and different chord lengths, tion is experienced in correspondence to higher WE val-

which can result in a modified flow, with shifting of the ues, data is considerably less spread.

apparent advance coefficient.

This anomalous behaviour is still to be investigated, and 8. CONCLUSIONS

a better insight could be gained by means of additional

tests on propellers with different blade numbers (e.g. 3 In present work, experimental results obtained from a

and 6), maintaining constant remaining parameters. systematic analysis of a 5-bladed surface piercing propel-

ler series have been presented.

7. INFLUENCE OF WEBER NUMBER On the basis of these results, regression curves for usual

KT and KQ coefficients in correspondence to values of the

During the experimental campaign carried out in [7], advance coefficient higher than the critical one have been

whose results are summarized in the present work, all evaluated and are reported.

tests have been carried out with an almost constant ad- This analysis further increases the large experimental da-

vance velocity in correspondence to JCR value, varying tabase on SPP developed by DINAV and DIN in previ-

propeller revolutions in order to modify advance coeffi- ous years on the 4-bladed series L4.68; it is believed that

cient value, according to testing procedure usually these data can provide a useful source of information for

adopted at DINAV cavitation tunnel for surface piercing designers in the field of SPP, where a significant lack of

propellers. This test procedure does not provide a deep data still exist nowadays despite the ever increasing num-

insight in the analysis of Weber number influence on JCR ber of applications..

value, since Weber number itself is not varied systemati-

cally. Nevertheless, tests carried out on the three different

Session C 69

A different influence of P/D ratio on propeller character- [4] Ferrando M., Viviani M., Crotti S., Cassella P.,

istic curves for the two series emerged from the compari- Caldarella S. (2006) Influence of Weber number on

son of present and previous results; reasons for it are still Surface Piercing Propellers model tests scaling,

to be investigated by means of further analyses, which Proceedings of 7th International Conference on

Hydrodynamics (ICHD), Ischia, 4-6 October 2006

could be extended to propellers with different blade

[5] Ferrando M., Scamardella A. Bose N. Liu P. Veitch

numbers. B., Performance of family of Surface Piercing

Weber number influence on propeller characteristic Propellers, Royal Istitution for Naval Architects (RINA)

curves has not been specifically addressed by this study, Transactions 2002 Part A 11p.

nevertheless a partial confirmation of what is reported in [6] Olofsson N. (1996) Force and Flow Characteristics

previous studies has been obtained. of a Partially Submerged Propeller Doctoral Thesis,

Goteborg: Chalmers University of Technology

REFERENCES Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean

Engineering

[1] Ferrando M., Scamardella A. (1996) Surface [7] Crotti S. Ferrando M. Serie Sistematica

Piercing Propellers: Testing Methodologies, Result Sperimentale di una famiglia di Eliche di Superficie a 5

Analysis and Comments on Open Water Characteristics, Pale, Tesi di Dottorato di Ricerca, Universit degli studi

Proc. Small Craft Marine Engineering Resistance & di Genova, facolt di Ingegneria, Dipartimento di

Propulsion Symposium, pp.5-1 5-27. Ypsilanti: Ingegneria Navale e Tecnologie Marine, 2005

University of Michigan [8] Levi R., 1992, Milestones in my designs, Kaos

[2] Ferrando M. (1997) Surface piercing propellers: Service, Milano, Italy.

state of the art, Oc. Eng. International, 1 (2), 40-49 [9] Levi R., 1990, Dhows to Deltas, A&A, Milano,

[3] Ferrando M., Scamardella A. (1999) Surface Italy.

piercing propellers: model tests procedures and [10] Shiba H. 1953 Air-Drawing of Marine Propellers

comments on related adimensional parameters, Transportation Technical Research Institute, Report No.

Proceedings 5th Symposium on High Speed Marine 9. Tokyo: the Unyu-Gijutsu Kenkyujo.

Vehicles, Capri 24-26 March 1999

Session C 70

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