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Lecture 6

Heat exchangers
Definition
Heat exchanger is a device used for efficient heat
transfer from one medium to another. The
medium may be in direct or indirect contact
Classification
Recuperative / Regenerative

Transport: Direct / Indirect

Geometry: Tube / Plate / Extended

Phase: Single / Phase change

Fluid arrangement: Parallel / Counter / Cross


Classification
Pool

Spray & tray

Packed column
Condenser
Shell & tube

Extended surface

Plate
Process function
Boiler (fired) Thermosiphon
Evaporator
Evaporator (unfired) Forced circulation

Cooler Steam generation

Exchanger Heater

Chiller
Classification
Counter flow

Parallel flow

Single pass Cross flow

Split flow

Divided flow
Flow arrangement
Cross counter flow

Extended surface Cross parallel flow

Plate Compound flow


Multiple pass
Parallel counter flow

Shell & Tube Split flow

Divided flow
Classification
Spiral tube

Tubular Double pipe


Fixed
tubesheet
Shell & tube Utube
Removable
bundle
Finned tube Floating head
Recuperative Indirect Extended
(fixed heat contact type surface
transfer Finned plate
surface, Direct contact
continuously) type
Gasketed plate

Heat
exchanger
Plate Spiral plate
(cross/parallel
/counter flow)

Disk type Lamella


Rotary
Regenerative
regenerator
(batched heat Drum type
transfer
Fixed matrix
surface)
regenerator
Classification

Spray & tray condenser Cooling tower


Classification

Cooling tower
Classification

Columns Evaporator
Classification

Fired boiler
Classification

Fired boiler
Classification

Fired boiler
Classification

Spiral plate Spiral tube


Classification

Finned tube (liquidgas)

Extended surface Finned plate (lamella for gasgas)


Classification

Plate heat exchange (gasket)


Classification

Double pipe
Classification
1 tube pass
Baffles

Head for 2
tube pass
Mini, 1 shell pass & 1 tube pass

Shell and tube


Classification

Jacket vessel
Internal coils
Rotary regenerator
Technical requirements
1 Overall heat transfer coefficient

2 Pressure drop

3 Heat transfer area

4 Operating under temperature and pressure design

5 Structure and leakage


Fluid selection
1 Maximum of density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, latent
heat

2 Melting point, boiling point, phase are suitable to operation


condition

3 Minimum viscosity

4 Flammability, corrosion, hazard, purity


Fluid arrangment

Gas flow Gas flow

Mixed Unmixed flow Unmixed Unmixed flow


Fluid velocity
High velocity, high number, high heat transfer
coefficient also, high pressure drop as well

Fluids Appropriate velocity


Low viscosity liquids (water, alcohol) 0.5 3.0
High viscosity liquids (oil, glycol, glycerine) 0.2 1.0
Flue gas 6 10
Air 12 16
Compressed air 15 30
Saturated steam 30 50
Superheated steam 30 75
Shell and Tube
Configuration

Fluid in outer
tube (1 pass)
Fluid in inner
tube (1 pass)

Fluid in outer
Fluid in inner tube (1 pass)
tube (1 pass)

Double pipe heat exchanger


Configuration

Rear header

Fluid in shell Fluid in tube


(1 pass) (2 passes)

Shell

Front header Tube bundle


Configuration
Specifications
Large surface area in a small volume

For high pressure

Wellestablished fabrication techniques

A wide range of materials

Easily cleaned

Wellestablished design procedures


Fluid arrangment
Factors Tube side Shell side Factors Tube side Shell side
Phase Gas / Vapor Liquid Viscosity Low High
Corrosion More Less Temperature Far from amb. Close to amb.
Fouling High Low Pressure High Low
Hazardous More Less Pressure drop High Low
Flammable High Low Flow rate Low High

For the fluid in shell side:


Liquids with < 61, along the tube (prefer to counter current flow)
Liquids with > 61, across the tube
Gases with 4000 < < 40000, across the tube
TEMA types
TEMA: Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association
Size of heat exchanger is represented by the inside
diameter of shell (or bundle diameter) and the
tube length in inches
Type and name of a heat exchanger is designed by
three letters (front header shell rear header)
Front header (stationary header) is where the fluid
enters the tube side of the exchanger
Rear header is where the tube side fluid leaves the
exchanger or is returned to the front header with
multiple passes
Bundle comprises the tubes, tube sheets, baffles
and tie rods to hold the bundle together
Shell contains the tube bundle
TEMA types
Fixed tube sheet Utube Floating head
AEL AEU BES
AEM CEU SIZE 23192 TYPE AES
AEN DEU SIZE 23/37192 TYPE CKT
BEL SIZE 1984 TYPE GBU
BEM
BEN
SIZE 3396 TYPE AFM
SIZE 17192 TYPE CEN
Front header types

Easy to repair and replace


Allow access to the tubes for cleaning or
repair without having to disturb the
pipeline
There are two seals (tube sheetheader
and headerend plate), risk of leakage
Higher cost than B type
Front header types

Suitable to high pressure (only one seal)


Access to the tubes requires disturbance to
the pipeline in order to remove the header.
Cheapest type
Front header types

For high pressure applications > 100


Allow access to the tube without disturbing
the pipeline
Difficult to repair and replace (the tube
bundle is an integral part of the header)
Front header types

For very high pressures > 150


Allow access to the tubes without
disturbing the pipeline
Difficult to repair and replace (the tube
bundle is an integral part of the header)
This is the most expensive type
Front header types

Allow access to the tubes without


disturbing the pipeline
Difficult to maintain and replace (the
header and tube sheet are an integral part
of the shell)
Cheaper than an A type
Shell types

Most commonly used


Suitable for most duties and applications
Shell types

Pure countercurrent flow is required in a two


tube side pass (two shells side passes by a
longitudinal baffle)
Thermal and hydraulic leakage across the baffle
Shell types

For horizontal thermosyphon reboilers


For applications requires the small shell side
pressure drop
Shell types

Similar applications to G type but tends to be


used when larger units are required
Shell types

To be used when the maximum allowable


pressure drop is exceeded in an E type, and
tube vibration is a problem
The divided flow on the shell side reduces the
flow velocities over the tubes and hence
reduces the pressure drop and the likelihood of
tube vibration
Two inlet and one outlet is referred to I type
Shell types

For reboilers only to provide a large


disengagement space in order to minimize shell
side liquid carry over
To be used as a chiller, cool the tube side fluid
by boiling a fluid on the shell side
Shell types

For shell side condensers and gas coolers (the


maximum shell side pressure drop is exceeded
by all other shell and baffle type combinations)
Rear header types

For fixed tube sheets only (the tube sheet is


welded to the shell), so its impossible to access
to the outside of the tubes is not possible
Allow access to the inside of the tubes without
having to remove any pipeline and the bundle
to shell clearances are small
Small thermal expansions and this limits the
operating temperature and pressure
Rear header types

Similar to the L type but it is slightly cheaper


The header has to be removed to gain access to
the inside of the tubes
Small thermal expansions and this limits the
operating temperature and pressure
Rear header types

Allow access the tubes without disturbing the


pipeline
Difficult to maintain and replace (the header
and tube sheet are an integral part of the shell)
N
Rear header types

Allows access to the inside of the tubes for


cleaning and also allows the bundle to be
removed for cleaning
Large bundle to shell clearances required in
order to pull the bundle
For low pressure nonhazardous fluids (the shell
side fluid may leak via the packing rings). Design
gauge pressure is up to 41.4, temperature
is 316
Small thermal expansions, not low cost design
Rear header types

Allow the bundle to be removed


Unlimited thermal expansion
Smaller shell to bundle clearances than the
other floating head types. Difficult to dismantle
for bundle pulling and the shell diameter and
bundle to shell clearances are larger than for
fixed head type exchangers
Most expensive
Rear header types

Cheaper and easier to remove the bundle than


with the S type
Unlimited thermal expansion
Largest bundle to shell clearance
More expensive than fixed header and Utube
types
Rear header types
The simplest design, unlimited thermal
expansion, not pure counter flow unless an F
type shell is used, limited to even numbers of
tube passes
Allows the bundle to be removed to clean the
outside of the tubes, the tightest bundle to shell
clearances
Design pressure is up to 64, temperature is
450
Cheapest of all removable bundle designs, but
slightly more expensive than a fixed tube sheet
design at low pressures
Rear header types
Unlimited thermal expansion, allows the tube
bundle to be removed for cleaning
The large bundle to shell clearances required to
pull the bundle, the shell and tube side fluids
can mixed if leakage occurs
Limitation to low pressure nonhazardous fluids
(both the fluids may leak via the packing rings).
Design gauge pressure below 20.7 for
tube, and 10.3 for shell 24
Design temperature below 191
Cheapest of the floating head designs
Construction
1 Stationary HeadChannel 21 Floating Head Cover External
2 Stationary HeadBonnet 22 Floating Tubesheet Skirt
3 Stationary Head FlangeChannel or Bonnet 23 Packing Box Flange
4 Channel Cover 24 Packing
5 Stationary Head Nozzle 25 Packing Gland
6 Stationary Tube sheet 26 Lantern Ring
7 Tubes 27 Tie Rods and Spacers
8 Shell 28 Transverse Baffles or Support Plates
9 Shell cover 29 Impingement Plate
10 Shell FlangeStationary Head End 30 Longitudinal Baffle
11 Shell FlangeRear Head End 31 Pass Partition
12 Shell Nozzle 32 Vent Connection
13 Shell Cover Flange 33 Drain Connection
14 Expansion Joint 34 Instrument Connection
15 Floating Tubesheet 35 Support Saddle
16 Floating Head Cover 36 Lifting Lug
17 Floating Head Cover Flange 37 Support Bracket
18 Floating Head Backing Device 38 Weir
19 Split Shear Ring 39 Liquid Level Connection
20 Slip-on Backing Flange 40 Floating Head Support
Construction
Floating head backing (AES)

36 4 3 34 5 31 6 34 12 29 7 8 27 28 18 36 32

36

15

16

33
17
1 5 34 3 10 35 35 12 34 11 13
Construction
Floating head backing (longitudinal baffle)
Construction
Packed floating tubesheet & lantern ring (AJW)
Construction
Externally sealed floating tubesheet (BEW)
Construction
Outsidepacked floating head (AEP)
Construction
Pull through floating head (BET)
Construction
Floating head exchangers
Spec Advantages Disadvantages
The tubesheet at the rear header is not welded to
Packing materials produce
the shell, allows to move or float. The tubesheet at
limits on design pressure and
the front header is a larger diameter than the shell
temperature. More expensive
and is sealed in a similar manner to that used in
(typically of order of 25% for
the fixed tubesheet design. The tubesheet at the
carbon steel construction)
rear header end of the shell is of slightly smaller
P, S, T, W than the equivalent fixed
diameter than the shell, allowing the bundle to be
rear header pulled through the shell. tubesheet exchanger.
(S more
Allows differential thermal expansion between the Tubes can not expand
popular)
shell and the tube bundle. Both the tube bundle independently so that huge
and the shell side can be inspected and cleaned thermal sock applications
mechanically should be avoided
A floating head exchanger is suitable for the The floating head cover is bolt
rigorous duties associated with high temperatures to the tube sheet, so it
and pressures requires the use of space.
Construction
Fixed tubesheet exchangers (BEM)
Construction
Fixed tube sheet exchangers
Spec Advantages Disadvantages
The tubesheet is welded to the shell. This
Provides maximum heat transfer area results the shell side and out side of the
for a given shell & tube diameter tubes are inaccessible for mechanical
cleaning
Provides for single and multiple tube No provision to allow for differential
Normally passes to assure proper velocity thermal expansion developed between
use L, M, N the tube and the shell side. This can be
rear header Less costly then removable bundle taken care by providing expansion join on
designs the shell side
Design pressure is up to 40 bars
(below 1000mm diameter), and 25
bars (above 1200mm diameter)
Design temperature is up to 350oC
Construction
Utube exchangers (CFU)
Construction
Tank suction heater
Construction
Utube exchangers
Spec Advantages Disadvantages
Because of Ubend, some tubes are omitted at the
Allows differential thermal centre of the tube bundle, tubes can be cleaned only
expansion between the shell by chemical methods (difficult for mechanical
and the tube bundle as well cleaning), so tube side fluids should be clean
as for individual tubes
Due to Unesting, individual tube is difficult to replace
Normally
use M, U Both the tube bundle and Mixed counter and parallel flow
type the shell side can be
inspected and cleaned Tube wall thickness at the Ubend is thinner than at
mechanically straight portion of the tubes
Less costly than floating head
Draining of tube circuit is difficult when positioned
or packed floating head
with the vertical position with the head side upward
designs
Construction
Kettle floating head reboiler (AKT)
Construction
Kettle floating head reboiler (AKT)
Construction
Reboiler with vapor disengagement
Construction
Two exchangers in series
Construction
Internal Outside Pull
Packed lantern
Fixed tube floating head packed through
Type of design Utube ring floating
sheet (split backing floating floating
head
ring) head head
Rear head type L, M, N U W S P T
Relative cost from A
(cheapest) to E (most B A C E D E
expensive)

Provision for differential Expansion Individual tubes free Floating Floating Floating
expansion
Floating head
join in shell to expand head head head
Removable bundle No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Replacement bundle
possible
No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Individual tubes Only those in outside


replaceable
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
row
Tube cleaning by
chemicals inside and Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
outside
Interior tube cleaning
mechanically
Yes Special tools required Yes Yes Yes Yes
Construction
Internal Outside Pull
Packed lantern
Fixed tube floating head packed through
Type of design Utube ring floating
sheet (split backing floating floating
head
ring) head head

Exterior tube cleaning


mechanically:
Triangular pitch
No No No No No No
Square pitch
No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Hydraulicjet
cleaning:
Tube interior Yes Special tools required Yes Yes Yes Yes
Tube exterior No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Double tube sheet
Yes Yes No No Yes No
feasible
Number of tube No practical Any even number Limited to one No practical No practical No practical
passes limitations possible or two passes limitations limitations limitations
Internal gaskets
Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
eliminated
Tubes
1 3
Tube diameter: 2 (normally 1). Large tubes are used
4 4
for fouling fluids
Standard tube lengths: 6; 8; 10; 12; 16; 20; 24 . The long tubes
reduce the shell diameter and capital cost (especially high
pressure)
Liquid velocity in tube
1
=

41
=
2
Exchanger surface (area) is in terms of total external square feet of
tubes
=
Tube arrangement
Triangular

= 1,25 : bundle outside diameter

: tube outside diameter

= 0,75 36 : number of tube
: tube pitch
= 24 24
More tubes in a given space

1 : = 1298 + 74,86 + 1,283 2 0,0078 3 0,0006 4


2 : = 1266 + 73,58 + 1,234 2 0,0071 3 0,0005 4
4 : = 1196 + 70,79 + 1,180 2 0,0059 3 0,0004 4
6 : = 1166 + 70,72 + 1,269 2 0,0074 3 0,0006 4
Tube arrangement
Square / Rotated square

= 1,25 : bundle outside diameter

: tube outside diameter
: number of tube
= 36

: tube pitch
= 24 24
For mechanical cleaning

1 : = 593,6 + 33,52 + 0,3782 2 0,0012 3 0,0001 4


2 : = 578,8 + 33,36 + 0,3847 2 0,0013 3 0,0001 4
4 : = 562,0 + 33,04 + 0,3661 2 0,0016 3 0,0002 4
6 : = 550,4 + 32,49 + 0,3873 2 0,0013 3 0,0001 4
Standard tube dimensions
Weight, low carbon
Thickness Internal area External surface Internal surface
steel, 0,2836 lb/in3
(in) (in) (in) (in2) (ft2/ft) (ft2/ft)
(lb/ft)
0,194 0,028 0,0296 0,0654 0,0508 0,066 46
1 0,206 0,022 0,0333 0,0654 0,0539 0,054 52
4 0,214 0,018 0,0360 0,0654 0,0560 0,045 56
0,218 0,016 0,0373 0,0654 0,0571 0,040 58
0,277 0,049 0,0603 0,0982 0,0725 0,171 94
3 0,305 0,035 0,0731 0,0982 0,0798 0,127 114
8 0,319 0,028 0,0799 0,0982 0,0835 0,104 125
0,331 0,022 0,0860 0,0982 0,0867 0,083 134
0,370 0,065 0,1075 0,1309 0,0969 0,302 168
1 0,402 0,049 0,1269 0,1309 0,1052 0,236 198
2 0,430 0,035 0,1452 0,1309 0,1126 0,174 227
0,444 0,028 0,1548 0,1309 0,1162 0,141 241
Standard tube dimensions
Weight, low carbon
Thickness Internal area External surface Internal surface
steel, 0,2836 lb/in3
(in) (in) (in) (in2) (ft2/ft) (ft2/ft)
(lb/ft)
0,407 0,109 0,1301 0,1636 0,1066 0,601 203
0,435 0,095 0,1486 0,1636 0,1139 0,538 232
0,459 0,083 0,1655 0,1636 0,1202 0,481 258
0,481 0,072 0,1817 0,1636 0,1259 0,426 283
5
0,495 0,065 0,1924 0,1636 0,1296 0,389 300
8
0,509 0,058 0,2035 0,1636 0,1333 0,352 317
0,527 0,049 0,2181 0,1636 0,1380 0,302 340
0,541 0,042 0,2299 0,1636 0,1416 0,262 359
0,555 0,035 0,2419 0,1636 0,1453 0,221 377
Standard tube dimensions
Weight, low carbon
Thickness Internal area External surface Internal surface
steel, 0,2836 lb/in3
(in) (in) (in) (in2) (ft2/ft) (ft2/ft)
(lb/ft)
0,482 0,134 0,1825 0,1963 0,1262 0,833 285
0,510 0,120 0,2043 0,1963 0,1335 0,808 319
0,532 0,109 0,2223 0,1963 0,1393 0,747 347
0,560 0,095 0,2463 0,1963 0,1466 0,665 384
3 0,584 0,083 0,2679 0,1963 0,1529 0,592 418
4 0,606 0,072 0,2884 0,1963 0,1587 0,522 450
0,620 0,065 0,3019 0,1963 0,1623 0,476 471
0,634 0,058 0,3157 0,1963 0,1660 0,429 492
0,652 0,049 0,3339 0,1963 0,1707 0,367 521
0,680 0,035 0,3632 0,1963 0,1780 0,268 567
Standard tube dimensions
Weight, low carbon
Thickness Internal area External surface Internal surface
steel, 0,2836 lb/in3
(in) (in) (in) (in2) (ft2/ft) (ft2/ft)
(lb/ft)
0,607 0,134 0,2894 0,2291 0,1589 1,062 451
0,635 0,120 0,3167 0,2291 0,1662 0,969 494
0,657 0,109 0,3390 0,2291 0,1720 0,893 529
0,685 0,095 0,3685 0,2291 0,1793 0,792 575
7 0,709 0,083 0,3948 0,2291 0,1856 0,703 616
8 0,731 0,072 0,4197 0,2291 0,1914 0,618 655
0,745 0,065 0,4359 0,2291 0,1950 0,563 680
0,759 0,058 0,4525 0,2291 0,1987 0,507 706
0,777 0,049 0,4742 0,2291 0,2034 0,433 740
0,805 0,035 0,5090 0,2291 0,2107 0,314 794
Standard tube dimensions
Weight, low carbon
Thickness Internal area External surface Internal surface
steel, 0,2836 lb/in3
(in) (in) (in) (in2) (ft2/ft) (ft2/ft)
(lb/ft)
0,670 0,165 0,3526 0,2618 0,1754 1,473 550
0,732 0,134 0,4208 0,2618 0,1916 1,241 656
0,760 0,120 0,4536 0,2618 0,1990 1,129 708
0,782 0,109 0,4803 0,2618 0,2047 1,038 749
0,810 0,095 0,5153 0,2618 0,2121 0,919 804
1
0,834 0,083 0,5463 0,2618 0,2183 0,814 852
0,856 0,072 0,5755 0,2618 0,2241 0,714 898
0,870 0,065 0,5945 0,2618 0,2278 0,650 927
0,902 0,049 0,6390 0,2618 0,2361 0,498 997
0,930 0,035 0,6793 0,2618 0,2435 0,361 1060
Standard tube dimensions
Weight, low carbon
Thickness Internal area External surface Internal surface
steel, 0,2836 lb/in3
(in) (in) (in) (in2) (ft2/ft) (ft2/ft)
(lb/ft)
0,890 0,180 0,6221 0,3272 0,2330 2,059 970
0,920 0,165 0,6648 0,3272 0,2409 1,914 1037
0,982 0,134 0,7574 0,3272 0,2571 1,599 1182
1,010 0,120 0,8012 0,3272 0,2644 1,450 1250
1,032 0,109 0,8365 0,3272 0,2702 1,330 1305
114
1,060 0,095 0,8825 0,3272 0,2775 1,173 1377
1,084 0,083 0,9229 0,3272 0,2838 1,036 1440
1,120 0,065 0,9852 0,3272 0,2932 0,824 1537
1,152 0,049 1,0423 0,3272 0,3016 0,629 1626
1,180 0,035 1,0936 0,3272 0,3089 0,455 1706
Standard tube dimensions
Weight, low carbon
Thickness Internal area External surface Internal surface
steel, 0,2836 lb/in3
(in) (in) (in) (in2) (ft2/ft) (ft2/ft)
(lb/ft)
1,232 0,134 1,1921 0,3927 0,3225 1,957 1860
1,282 0,109 1,2908 0,3927 0,3356 1,621 2014
112
1,334 0,083 1,3977 0,3927 0,3492 1,257 2180
1,370 0,065 1,4741 0,3927 0,3587 0,997 2300
1,760 0,120 2,4328 0,5236 0,4608 2,412 3795
1,782 0,109 2,4941 0,5236 0,4665 2,204 3891
2
1,810 0,095 2,5730 0,5236 0,4739 1,935 4014
1,834 0,083 2,6417 0,5236 0,4801 1,701 4121
Finned tube
1
Height at 11 , or
8
1
Height (from outside diameter) at 19
16
1
Height inch at 28
27
Tubesheet

(mm) 16 20 25 38 57
Tubesheet thickness (mm) 21 26 32 48 70
Tube tubesheet joint

Grooved Grooved and flared

Weld
Tube bundle
Tube bundle
Shells

Shell diameter: = 6 20 (normally 24)

Minimum thickness Shell diameter


Material < 500 600 800 > 1000
Carbon steel 5 6 6 6
Alloy 3 4 4 6
Shells
Nozzles & Impingements
Limitation of fluid velocity in nozzle

9000
Shell side nozzles <

2230
Tube side nozzles, noncorrosive and nonabrasive single phase fluids <

740
Tube side nozzles, other fluids <

Impingement protection is required for gases, vapor,


two phases mixtures, corrosive or abrasive
Expansion joint

Flat plates Flanged only heads Flared shell or Formed heads Toroidal
pipe segments

Bellows with reinforcing High pressure


Flanged & flued heads Bellows rings & insulation cover toroidal bellows
Expansion joint

Toroidal Bellows

Bellows with reinforcing rings & insulation cover Flanged & flued heads
Baffles
Baffles installation heat transfer, fluid dynamics, vibration
Baffles spacing is generally 0.2 0.4

Single segmental Single segmental Single segmental


(horizontal) (vertical) (rotated)

Double segmental (low shell side velocity & pressure drop)


Baffles

Disc and doughnut

Triple segmental
Baffles

Helical

Longitudinal
Baffles

Tie rod and baffles


Baffles
Tube passes

1 tube pass 2 tube passes


Tube passes
1 1 +
2 3 2 3 +
5 4 5 4 +
6 6

Front Rear

6 tube pass
Tube passes
Tube passes
Shell passes

1 shell pass 2 shell passes 3 shell passes


Shell passes
Flow arrangement

Cocurrent Counter current

12
24

1 1 Cross flow
1 2 Cross flow
Design procedure
Decide number of shell
Assume overall coefficient
and tube passes.
and pressure drops
Calculate and

Set = 1 1 Estimate pressure drops of


30% tube and shell sides, 1

Determine heat transfer
area required,
1
Decide type, tube side, Calculate overall coefficient
material layout, assign including fouling factors, 1
fluid to shell and tube

Yes
Cost estimation
Decide baffle spacing and
Determine number of estimate heat transfer
tubes, shell diameter coefficient of shell side, Optimization
or not?
Determine fluid velocity Estimate heat transfer
and check coefficient of tube side, Final design
Temperature for fluid properties
For hot stream: =
For cold stream: =

Log mean temperature difference: = 1 12
ln
2

= 1 +
> 2
= +
=
< 1
= +
2
1
= +
2
= 1
= +
2
= 1 = 2
Heat transfer coefficient of tube side
Single phase:

0.33 0.14

2100 = 1.86

0.7

> 2100 = 0.0230.8 0.33 1+

Heat transfer coefficient of tube side
Condensation:
13

= 0.76

stratified flow

1+

= 0.021 0.8 0.43
2
annular flow : gravitational acceleration 9.81 2
: condensate thermal conductivity,
: condensate density, 3
: vapor density, 3
: condensate dynamic viscosity, 2
: tube loading (condensate flow per unit length of tube),
Heat transfer coefficient of shell side
Single phase:
0.25
23
= 0.40.5 + 0.06 0.4


= 0.25 5.2

= 0.67 300
= 40 105


1+

Condensation: = 0.021 0.8 0.43
2
Heat transfer coefficient
Boiling = +

= = 0.0190.8 0.4

1
=

: heat transfer coefficient by convaction,


: characteristic dimension,
: liquid velocity,
: liquid density, 3
: mass fraction of vapor
: liquid dynamic viscosity, 2
: liquid thermal conductivity,
Heat transfer coefficient
Boiling = +

= :

0.001220.79
0.45 0.49
0.24 0.75
=
0.5 0.24 0.29 0.24
: heat transfer coefficient by boiling, : latent heat,
: liquid thermal conductivity, : surface tension,
: liquid density, 3 : wall temperature,
: vapor density, 3 : saturation temperature of liquid,
: liquid dynamic viscosity, 2 : saturation pressure relative to , 2
: liquid heat capacity, : saturation pressure relative to , 2
Heat transfer coefficient
Boiling = +

= :
0.17 1.2 10

= 0.1040.69 0.7 1.8 +4 + 10

: heat transfer coefficient,
: operating pressure,
: liquid critical pressure,
= : heat flux, 2
Heat transfer coefficient
100
8
6
5
4
3

10
8
6
5
4
3
0.9 0.5 0.1
2
1
1
0.1 2 3 4 5 6 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 2 3 4 5 6 8 100
Heat transfer coefficient
1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6
0.5
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

1 4
10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 105 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 106

1.25
Overall heat transfer coefficient
For cleaning:

=
1 1 1
+ ln +
2

1
= =
1 1
+ ln +
2

1

1 1
+

Overall heat transfer coefficient
For dirty:
1
= =
1 1
+ + ln + +
2

1

1 1
+ + +

Pressure drop

Fluids Pressure drop,


Low viscosity liquids < 1 0.35
High viscosity liquids = 1 10 0.5 0.7
Gas / Vapor
High vacuum 0.004
Medium vacuum 10% system absolute pressure
1 2 50% system gauge pressure
Above 10 10% system gauge pressure
Pressure drop of tube side
0.14
2 2
Darcy equation =
145 105

22
return loss =

= + : pressure drop of tube side
: pressure drop in tube side
: return loss (lost due to direction change)
: friction factor 2 2
: specific gravity
: density of fluid in tube 3
: tube velocity
: gravity acceleration 32.174 2
: tube length
: number of tube passes
: tube inner diameter
Pressure drop of tube side
Friction factor, 2 2

Reynolds number,
Pressure drop of shell side
0.14
+ 1 2 2
Darcy equation =
145 105

= = 122 2
= ; triangular

42 2
= = 1 = ; square

: pressure drop of shell side : number of baffles
: friction factor 2 2 : baffle spacing
: specific gravity : cross section area of shell 2
: density of fluid in shell 3 : shell inner diameter
: shell velocity : equivalent diameter of shell
: tube outer diameter
: tube pitch
Pressure drop of shell side


Friction factor, 2 2

Reynolds number,
Example of heat exchanger design
Summary

Total area = ; ;
Tube length = ; ; ; ;
Shell diameter = ; ; ;

Heat coefficient of tube = ;

Heat coefficient of shell = ; ; ; ; ;


Pressure drop of tube = ; ; ; ;

Pressure drop of shell = ; ; ; ; ; ;


Data of heat exchanger design
; ;