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Abstract of thesis presented to the Department of Aerospace, Faculty of

Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia in partial fulfilment of the requirement for


the Master of Innovation and Engineering Design

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS CYLINDER LEVEL INDICATOR AND

TRANSPORTING DEVICE

By

AYORINDE OLADELE OLADIPO

January 2017

Chair: Dr. Noorfaizal Yidris

Faculty: Department of Aerospace Engineering

The gas level indicating and transporting challenges associated with the use of
LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) cylinder is approached with the aim of creating a
conceptual design device that best solve the problems and meet customer
requirements. This is to eliminate the problem of running out of gas that LPG
cooking fuel customers faces using their domestic 14.2 Kg gas cylinder. The
current devices and technological approach to this problem lacks the ability to
provide mobility simultaneously with the provision of gas level indicating
interface.

Market survey was carried out by distributing questionnaires to 25 subjects and 3


restaurants in an effort to collect necessary demographic information and
customer requirements which is considered as the input data for developing a
conceptual design device that best meets customers needs. Topsis (The
Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and Pugh
method concept selection techniques was adopted to choose the best concept
which possess more positive value towards the requirement of potential
customers. The Topsis technique was adopted basically to test for the reliability
of the best concept relatively to the customer requirements.

The part modeling, assembly and static stress analysis of the critical components
was done on CATIA (computer aided three-dimensional interactive application)
V5 R20, and the von misses stress distribution under the loading and boundary
condition was discussed.

The helical compression spring is design in such a way that it compresses by 10


mm along z axis and carries a connecting plate that will contact with a

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connecting plate which is connected to a battery cell and a LED that indicates
that the LPG cylinder is full when it contacts as 10 mm spring deflection and
releases the contact when the gas is less than 10 percent. The helical spring
compressible behavior was taken as an advantage to convert the displacement
into level of gas in the cylinder. The method is expressed wherein in this
dissertation.

During meshing, Octree tetrahedron mesh element type is selected because of


its efficient in generating mesh to simulate highly deformable volumetric objects.
The mesh global sizes are controlled and reduced in order to create solutions in
more elements and nodes so that a better computational results the reduced
element sizes is generated.

ii
Abstrak tesis yang dikemukakan kepada Jabatan Aeroangkasa, Fakulti
Kejuruteraan, Universiti Putra Malaysia sebagai memenuhi keperluan untuk
ijazah Master Inovasi dan Rekabentuk Kejuruteraan

CECAIR PETROLEUM GAS CYLINDER TAHAP INDICATOR DAN

PENGANGKUTAN PERANTI

By

AYORINDE OLADELE OLADIPO

January 2017

Pengerusi: Dr Noorfaizal Yidris

Fakulti: Jabatan Kejuruteraan Aeroangkasa

Tahap gas yang menunjukkan dan mengangkut cabaran yang berkaitan dengan
penggunaan LPG (gas petroleum cecair) silinder didatangi dengan tujuan untuk
mewujudkan peranti reka bentuk konsep yang terbaik menyelesaikan masalah
dan memenuhi keperluan pelanggan. Ini adalah untuk menghapuskan masalah
kehabisan gas yang LPG memasak pelanggan bahan api menghadapi
menggunakan domestik 14.2 Kg silinder gas mereka. Peranti semasa dan
teknologi pendekatan kepada masalah ini tidak mempunyai keupayaan untuk
menyediakan mobiliti serentak dengan penyediaan tahap gas yang menunjukkan
antara muka.

Kajian pasaran telah dijalankan dengan mengedarkan soal selidik kepada 25


mata pelajaran dan 3 restoran dalam usaha untuk mengumpul maklumat yang
diperlukan dan pelanggan demografi keperluan yang dianggap sebagai data
input untuk membangunkan peranti reka bentuk konsep yang menepati
keperluan pelanggan. Topsis (The Teknik Perintah Keutamaan mengikut
Persamaan untuk Ideal Solution) dan Pugh kaedah konsep teknik pemilihan
telah diterima pakai untuk memilih konsep yang terbaik yang mempunyai nilai
lebih positif terhadap keperluan pelanggan yang berpotensi. Teknik Topsis telah
diterima pakai pada dasarnya untuk menguji kebolehpercayaan konsep terbaik
relatif kepada keperluan pelanggan.

Bahagian pemodelan, pemasangan dan analisis tegasan statik komponen kritikal


telah dilakukan ke atas CATIA (bantuan komputer aplikasi interaktif tiga dimensi)
V5 R20, dan von rindukan agihan tegasan di bawah pembebanan dan keadaan
sempadan telah dibincangkan. Mampatan spring heliks adalah reka bentuk
dalam apa-apa cara yang ia memampatkan dengan 10 mm sepanjang paksi z
dan membawa plat menghubungkan yang akan menghubungi dengan plat
menghubungkan yang bersambung dengan sel bateri dan LED yang

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menunjukkan bahawa silinder LPG telah penuh apabila kenalan sebagai 10 mm
spring pesongan dan siaran kenalan apabila gas adalah kurang daripada 10
peratus. Musim bunga heliks tingkah laku mampat telah diambil sebagai satu
kelebihan untuk menukar anjakan ke tahap gas di dalam silinder. Kaedah yang
dinyatakan di mana dalam disertasi ini.

Semasa bersirat, Octree tetrahedron mesh jenis elemen dipilih kerana cekap
dalam menjana mesh untuk mensimulasikan objek isipadu sangat ubah bentuk.
The mesh saiz global dikawal dan dikurangkan bagi mewujudkan penyelesaian
dalam lebih unsur-unsur dan nod supaya keputusan pengiraan yang lebih baik
saiz elemen dikurangkan dihasilkan.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my supervisor Dr.


Noorfaizal Yidris for his role and support both morally and academically towards
the success of this project. His advices and teaching has been of a tremendous
help during my studies and for the completion of this dissertation and his
generous heart and willingness to assist is highly appreciated.

I also like to express my gratitude to my examiners, Dr Dayang Laila Abang


Majid which is also the programme coordinator and my advisor and also Dr
Mohammad Yazdi for their crucial criticism and input which help reshape my
creative mind during the conceptualization stage in this project.

Lastly, I acknowledged the assistance I received from my parents Mr and


Deaconess Mrs Ayorinde and also the support from my wife Mrs Chipo Ayorinde,
daughter Farayola Chiedza Ayorinde and other family and friends.

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APPROVAL

This thesis was submitted to the Department of Aerospace, Faculty of


Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia and has been accepted as partial
fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Innovation and
Engineering Design. The members of the Examination Committee are as
follows:

Dr. Noorfaizal Yidris


____________________________
Name of the Supervisor
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Universiti Putra Malaysia
(Supervisor)

Dr. Dayang Laila Abang Abdul Majid


____________________________
Name of the Examiner
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Universiti Putra Malaysia
(Examiner 1)

Dr. Mohammad Yazdi Harmin


____________________________
Name of the Examiner
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Universiti Putra Malaysia
(Examiner 2)

________________________
Dr. Dayang Laila Abg Haji Abd Majid
Programme Coordinator
Master of Innovation and Engineering Design
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Universiti Putra Malaysia

Date:

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DECLARATION

I declare that the thesis is my original work except for quotations and citations
which have been dully acknowledged. I also declare that it has not been
previously, and is not concurrently, submitted for any degree at Universiti Putra
Malaysia or at any other institutions.

Signature: ________________________ Date: __________________

Name and Matric No.: _________________________________________

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ABSTRACT ii
ABSTRAK iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
APPROVAL vi
DECLARATION vii
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES xi
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xiv

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Problem statement 5
1.2 Project objectives 6
1.3 Scope of study 6

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Gas level Ultrasonic measurement 7

2.2 LPG Cylinder Concept design - Fuel Peep 9


Window
2.3 Adjustable LPG Gauge 11
2.4 Liquid Level Gauge 13
2.5 Hydraulic jack operating system LPG 16
weighing machine 20
2.7 Effect of handle design for cylinder trolley 26
2.8 Comparison of bursting pressure 31
2.9 Burst pressure and failure location 35

3 MATERIALS AND METHODS / METHODOLOGY


39
3.1 Questionnaire 39
3.2 Quality function deployment 41
3.3 Concept Development 43
3.3.1 Concept 1: Three Castor wheels 43
/ Helical compression spring /
LED Indicator
3.3.2 Concept 2: Two wheels / Helical 44
compression spring Mechanism
/ LED Indicator
3.4 Concept evaluation and selection 45
3.4.1 Concept selection using 46
TOPSIS
3.5 Detailed design 49

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3.6 Modification 53
3.7 Pugh Method 55
3.8 Detailed design of critical parts of the 56
selected concept
3.8.1 Helical spring design 57
3.8.1.1 Calculation of the helical spring 57
design parameters
3.8.1.2 Part Model, Material properties, 61
boundary and loading conditions
3.8.2 Mounting Plate 65
3.8.3 Double end thread bolt 68
3.8.4 Caster 68
3.8.5 Caster horn base axle pin 72
4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 75
4.1 Static stress analysis 75
4.1.1 Helical compression spring 75
4.1.2 Mounting plate 78
4.1.3 Cater horn base 80
4.2 Part Model and material selection 80
4.3 LED Circuit 88
5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND 92
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY 94
APPENDICES 97

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LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1.1 Physical properties of propane, butane and isobutane 3


2.1 Properties of E-glass continuous fiber and cured 10
vinyl ester mixed.
2.2 The Adjustable LPG gauge drawing labels and name 13
attribute
2.6.1 Details of the subject 21
2.6.2 Trolley start trials (Maximum foot forces (N)) 22
2.6.3 Trolley start trials (Biomedical loads including spinal 22
compression)
2.6.4 Trolley start trials Peak wrist angles (degrees) when 23
handle is first grasped
2.6.5 Trolley start trials subjective ratings of effort and 24
body discomfort
2.6.6 Trolley steady pushing trials tilt angle, elbow angle 25
and ratings of effort and stability
2.8.1 The material model parameters 34
2.8.2 The comparison of the two results (Experiment and 35
Simulation)
2.9.1 Shows the LPG specifications 35
2.9.2 The mechanical properties of the LPG tank 36
2.9.3 Comparison of the results 38
3.1.1 Shows the demographic information of the surveyed 39
end users
3.1.2 Shows the customer requirements 40
3.1.3 Shows the customer requirements 40
3.2.1 Shows the weightage/importance in reference to 42
functional requirements
3.2.2 Showing the Planning matrix 42
3.4.1.1 Shows the decision matric 46
3.4.1.2 Shows the quality qualitative criteria 46
3.4.1.3 Shows the attributed value being non- 47
dimensionalized
3.4.1.4 Shows the weightage value 47
3.4.1.5 Shows the weightage value of concept 1 and 2 48
3.4.1.6 Shows the Ideal solution 48
3.4.1.7 Shows the negative ideal solution 48
3.5.1 Coefficient and Exponents for equation (i) 51
3.7.1 Pugh Method 56
3.8.2.1 shows the number of nodes and elements discretized 71
in the horn base model
3.8.3.1 Number of nodes and elements 74
4.1.1 Shows the material properties of the spring 77
4.1.2 Part Model and material selection 84
4.2.1 Shows the LED Circuit components 88

x
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

1.1 Indian Urban Household dependence on 1


various cooking fuels in 2001
1.3 Malaysias Liquefied Petroleum Gas 2
consumption in 2014
1.4 Monthly household LPG consumption by user 2
households by quantile
1.5 schematic diagram of LPG 4
1.6 shows a customer transporting LPG Gas on 6
head
2.1.1 Gas Level Classic Gas level indicator 7
2.1.2 Shows the red LED indication showing there is 8
no LPG at that level in the cylinder
2.1.3 Shows the green light LED indicating the pulse 8
meet in contact with LPG in the cylinder at that
level
2.1.4 The functional block diagram representing 8
Ultrasonic level transmitter operational process
2.1.5 Ultrasonic distance measuring transducer 9
sensor
2.2.1 The components of the LPG Container 11
2.2.2 Von-misses stress contour plot 11
2.3.1 Adjustable LPG gauge drawing 12
2.4.1 Perspective view of Liquid Level Gauge 14
2.4.2 Perspective top view of the Indicator dial 15
2.4.3 Perspective view of gauge head 15
2.4.4 Gauge sub-assembly 15
2.4.5 Dimensions of domestic gas cylinder 16
2.5.1 Shows the schematic presentation of the 17
Hydraulic system LPG Weighing machine
2.5.2 Shows the 3-Dimensional model of the 17
Hydraulic LPG Weighing machine
2.5.3 Displacement diagram and von misses stress 18
acting on Load cell
2.5.4 Boundary condition and Meshed body of the 18
base plate
2.5.5 Displacement and Von misses stress plot of 18
the base plate
2.5.6 Displacement diagram and stress acting on top 19
plate
2.5.7 Assembly of LPG weighing machine 19
2.6.1 Trolley configuration and experimental 20
conditions used in the study
2.6.2 Extremes of the range of experimental 21
conditions

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2.6.3 llustration of static effort required to support 26
the weight of the load when not balanced.
2.7.1 Show the free length ( ) of an helical spring 27
2.7.2 Show assembled length La (identified as li) of 27
an helical spring
2.7.3 Show the solid height (ls) of an helical spring 28
2.7.4 Preferred range of stress for various spring 29
indexes
2.8.1 schematic diagram of the 2.8 mm cylinder 32
2.8.2 schematic experiment mechanism 32
2.8.3 shows the graph of the first experiment 33
2.8.4 shows the tear that occurs 33
2.8.5 Ansys model of the tank 33
2.8.6 The simulation results 36
2.9.1 The burst experiment set up 36
2.9.2 The burst pressure and its mean value 36
2.9.3 The loading condition and the corresponding 37
displacements
2.9.4 Nodal displacement of selected nodes 37
3.2.1 Pigeon Intelligent Gas trolley 41
3.3.1.1 Concept 1 Assembly Isometric view 44
3.3.1.2 Concept 2 Assembly Isometric view 45
3.5.1 Shows the minimum Tensile strength of spring- 51
steel wire generated from equation (i) and
Table 3:5:1 above.
3.6.1 Shows the isometric view of Concept 3 design 54
3.6.2 Shows the model when the handle is pressed 54
inside 55
3.6.3 Shows the spring installation 55
3.8.1.1.1 Material properties 57
3.8.1.1.2 Preferred range of stress for various spring 59
indexes.
3.8.1.1.3 Shows the coordinates in yellow spot on the 60
Critical Buckling Loading curves
3.8.1.2.1 Shows the Isometric view of the helical 61
compression spring
3.8.1.2.2 material properties of spring as specified on 62
CATIA
3.8.1.2.3 Shows the boundary condition 63
3.8.1.2.4 Shows the loading condition and the applied 63
distributed force.
3.8.1.2.5 Element size of the mesh model 64
3.8.1.2.6 Shows the mesh model 64
3.8.1.2.7 Shows the weight of the spring 65
3.8.2.1 Show the 3D isometric view of Mounting or top 66
plate
3.8.2.2 Shows the material properties of mounting 67
plate material
3.8.2.3 Shows the boundary condition 67
3.8.2.4 shows the loading condition of the mounting 67
plate

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3.8.2.5 Shows the deformed mesh body 68
3.8.2.6 Shows the weight of the mounting plate 68
3.8.4.1 shows the caster horn base frame 69
3.8.4.2 Shows the material properties of caster horn 70
base
3.8.4.3 Mounting plate and kingpin. 70
3.8.4.4 Boundary and loading condition of caster base 71
horn
3.8.4.5 Shows the horn base mesh model 72
3.8.4.6 Shows the caster assembly bottom view 72
3.8.5.1 Shows the axle pin 73
3.8.5.2 Shows the material properties of the axle pin. 73
3.8.5.3 Shows the boundary and loading conditions 74
3.8.5.4 Shows the mesh model 74
4.1.1 Resultant force acting on spring 76
4.1.2 Von misses stress on spring 76
4.1.3 Displacement vector (Translational) 77
4.1.4 Shows the maximum von misses stress. 78
4.1.5 Resultant force 79
4.1.6 Shows the von misses stress of mounting plate 79
4.1.7 Shows the translational displacement. 79
4.1.8 Maximum von misses stress on mounting plate 80
4.1.9 Shows the resultant load 80
4.1.10 Shows von misses stress of caster base horn 81
frame
4.1.11 Shows the displacement vector 81
4.1.12 Von misses plot of axle pin 82
4.1.13 Shows the Translational displacement vector 83
plot
4.1.14 Shows the maximum von misses stress on 83
axle pin
4.3.1 LED circuit graphic representation 88
4.3.2 Shows the circuit diagram showing the voltage 89
across the resistor and LED
4.3.3 The circuit diagram 89
4.3.4 Graphic presentation of LED base green 3 90
mm selected for the circuit
4.3.5 Shows the details of the 660 ohms resistor 90
4.3.6 Shows the LED circuit setup 91

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Acronym Definition

LED Liquid emitting diode


LP Liquefied petrol
LPG Liquefied petroleum gas
CATIA acronym of computer aided three-dimensional interactive
application
TOPSIS Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal
Solution

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