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then its z-transform is

defined as

The Z-transform

M. Sami Fadali

Professor of Electrical Engineering

UNR

=time delay operator

1 2

Definition 2.2 Laplace transform the impulse train

Obtain the z-transform of the sequence representation of sampled signal

2 5 7

3 4

Identities Used Repeatedly Unit Impulse

1

-1 0 1

Definition 2.1:

Impulse-sampled version:

, Laplace transform

z-transform obtained using Definition 2.2

same as Definition 2.1

5 6

1

1 a

2

...... a ......

-1 0 1 2 -1 0 1 2

7 8

Z-transform Properties Time Delay

Linearity: Use Definition 2.2 and the linearity Use the time delay property of the Laplace

of the Laplace transform. transform _

Z Z

Example

Example

Z

Z Z

Z Z

9 10

Apply Defn. 2.1 to

Z

Z

Using proof by induction, generalize

Z

Change index of summation to

11 12

Example Discrete-Time Convolution

Use the time advance property to find the z-

transform of the causal sequence

Z Z

Solution

Proof: Let the convolution give

Easier solution:

Write the sequence as

Use the linearity of the z-transform. Causal Sequence

13 14

Find the z-transform of the convolution of two

sampled step sequences.

Solution:

Sampled step

Causal Sequence

Change index summation index from to By the convolution theorem,

z-transform = product of the z-transforms of two

step sequences.

15 16

Multiplication by Exponential Example

Z Find the z-transform of the exponential

sequence

Proof

17

(same as earlier example ) 18

For any , define

Z

Assume Z

Proof (Induction)

(i) Establish validity for . Z

(ii) Assume validity for any and prove it for .

For , we have

Z Substitute for

Z Z

19 20

Example

Inversion of the z-Transform

Find the z-transform of the sampled ramp sequence

1. Long division: gives as many terms of

series as desired.

Write as:

2. Partial fraction expansion and table

Apply the complex differentiation property

look-up: similar to Laplace transform

Z inversion.

21 22

Inverse z-transform

(i) Using long division, expand as a . .

series Solution:

(i) Long Division

sequence

(ii) Inverse Transformation

23 24

Partial Fraction Expansion I: Simple Real Roots

(i) Find the partial fraction expansion of . Residue of a complex function at a

(ii) Obtain the inverse transform using the simple pole

z-transform tables.

Three types of z-domain functions F(z): Residue = partial fraction coefficient of the

with simple (non-repeated) real poles. term of the expansion

with complex conjugate & real poles.

with repeated poles.

25 26

Obtain the inverse z-transform of the

function

. .

Solution: Solve using two different methods. .

.

. . . . Partial fraction expansion then multiply by

27 28

MATLAB Results

numerator ,

r= k=

denominator

40.0000 []

>> num = [1, 1]

-90.0000

>> den = [1, 0.3, 0.02, 0]

50.0000

Partial Fraction Coefficients

p=

>> [r, p, k] = residue( num, den)

-0.2000

p = poles, r = residues

-0.1000

k = coefficients of remainder polynomial.

0

29 30

(i) Partial Fraction Expansion (without

(ii) Table Lookup dividing by z)

The time sequence can be rewritten as

.

.

31 32

II: Complex Conjugate & Simple

Example (cont.)

Real Roots

Partial Fraction Expansion

Use the following z-transforms ( rad.)

Z

(ii) Table Lookup (use the delay theorem)

Same denominator with complex conjugate

roots:

,

(Verify: same answer as before)

33 34

Combined Form

Conjugate Poles

Combine the complex conjugate terms

Use

= angle of pole ( partial fraction coefficient )

Use:

35 36

Example Example (cont.)

Find the inverse z-transform of Multiply by the denominator & equate coefficients

. .

Dividing by z gives , 19.689 (known), solve for and

Check calculations

= 0.9(20)+19.6890.1(1.311) 1.557 0

Partial fraction expansion (multiply eqn. by )

.

37 38

(ii) Table Lookup (1st two terms already known) Substitute for the coefficients

1.311 1.557 1.311 cos sin

19.689

2 0.5 0.5 2 cos 20

0.1

Equate denominator coefficients 1.311 0.707 cos 3 4 4.426 0.707 sin 3 4

0.5 0.707 2 0.707 cos 3 4 0.5

cos 0.5 0.5 0.707

Z

, angle in 2nd quadrant, sin 0.707

Equate coefficients in the numerator

Z

1.311 cos sin 0.5 1.311 1.557

4.426

39 40

Example (cont.) Use Trig. Identities

z-transform tables give

41 42

Residue Approach 1.5

(i) Partial Fraction Expansion

1

Dividing by z gives

Imaginary Axis 0.5

0

-0.5

-1.5

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

Real Axis

. .

43 44

Example (cont.) MATLAB

19.689 0.656 2.213 0.656 2.213 numerator , denominator

20

0.1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 >> num = 5*[1, 3]

Convert from Cartesian to polar form >> den = [1, 0.1, 0.4, 0]

.

>> denp =conv(den1, den 2) % Multiply polynomials

Partial Fraction Coefficients

Inverse z-transform to obtain

>> [r, p, k] = residue( num, den)

3 p = poles, r = residues , k = coefficients of the

20 19.689 0.1 4.616 0.707 cos 1.283

4 polynomial resulting from dividing the numerator by

as obtained earlier. the denominator.

45 46

>> [r,p,k]=residue(num,den)

r= >> A=2*real(r(1))

. .

0.6557 + 2.2131i A=

0.6557 - 2.2131i 1.3115

19.6885 >> B=2*real(r(1)*p(2))

. . .

-20.0000 B=

p=

-0.5000 + 0.5000i

1.5574

-0.5000 - 0.5000i

0.1000

0 47 48

III: Repeated Roots Example

Obtain the inverse z-transform of the function

N ( z) r

A1i n Aj

F z n

z z r 1 i

z zj

z z1 r z z j i 1 1 j r 1

j r 1 Solution

(i) Partial Fraction Expansion (Dividing by z)

1 d i 1

A1, i i 1

( z z1 ) r F ( z ) , i 1, 2, ... , r

(i 1) ! d z z z1

. .

49 50

Partial Fraction Expansion

z-transform tables and Definition 2.1 yield

51 52

Example (cont.) The Final Value Theorem

Theorem 2.1 The Final Value Theorem

Evaluating at yields If a sequence approaches a constant limit

as tends to infinity, then the limit is given

by

Lim

Lim

Using the delay theorem gives the same answer

53 54

Let have a constant limit as tends to infinity

Limit must exist for final value

theorem to apply. = sequence that decays to zero as

Does not apply to: Lim

(i) An unbounded sequence.

(ii) An oscillatory sequence.

Partial fraction coefficient

Lim

55 56

Example 2.17 Example 2.18

Verify the final value theorem using the z- Obtain the final value for the sequence whose z-

transform of a decaying exponential sequence transform is

and its limit as tends to infinity.

Z

Solution: z-transform pair What can you conclude concerning the constants

and if it is known that the limit exist?

Limit with

Solution: Conditions for the validity of the final

Lim

value theorem

Final value theorem Apply the final value theorem

Lim Lim

57 58

Z-transform Solution of

(ii) Solve for X(z)

Difference Equations

Example 2.19: Solve the linear difference equation

Solution

(i) z-transform

59 60

(iii) Partial fraction expansion Equating Coefficients

The partial fraction of is Multiply by the denominator

Equate coefficient of

. .

61 62

x(k)

15

14

12

10

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

k

63

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