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# Z-transform Definition

## Definition 2.1 Given the causal sequence

then its z-transform is
defined as
The Z-transform

Professor of Electrical Engineering
UNR
=time delay operator
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## Example Z-transform Definition

Definition 2.2 Laplace transform the impulse train
Obtain the z-transform of the sequence representation of sampled signal

## Solution Definition 2.1 gives

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Identities Used Repeatedly Unit Impulse
1

-1 0 1

Definition 2.1:
Impulse-sampled version:

, Laplace transform
z-transform obtained using Definition 2.2
same as Definition 2.1
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## Sampled Unit Step Sampled Exponential

1
1 a
2
...... a ......

-1 0 1 2 -1 0 1 2

## z-transform Definition 2.1 z-transform Definition 2.1

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Z-transform Properties Time Delay
Linearity: Use Definition 2.2 and the linearity Use the time delay property of the Laplace
of the Laplace transform. transform _
Z Z
Example
Example
Z
Z Z
Z Z

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Apply Defn. 2.1 to

Z
Z
Using proof by induction, generalize
Z
Change index of summation to

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Example Discrete-Time Convolution
Use the time advance property to find the z-
transform of the causal sequence
Z Z
Solution
Proof: Let the convolution give

Easier solution:
Write the sequence as
Use the linearity of the z-transform. Causal Sequence
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## DT Convolution Proof (cont.) Example

Find the z-transform of the convolution of two
sampled step sequences.
Solution:
Sampled step
Causal Sequence
Change index summation index from to By the convolution theorem,
z-transform = product of the z-transforms of two
step sequences.

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Multiplication by Exponential Example
Z Find the z-transform of the exponential
sequence
Proof

## z-transform of a sampled step

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(same as earlier example ) 18

## Complex Differentiation Proof (Cont.)

For any , define
Z
Assume Z
Proof (Induction)
(i) Establish validity for . Z
(ii) Assume validity for any and prove it for .
For , we have

Z Substitute for

Z Z
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Example
Inversion of the z-Transform
Find the z-transform of the sampled ramp sequence

## Solution: z-transform of a sampled step

1. Long division: gives as many terms of
series as desired.
Write as:
2. Partial fraction expansion and table
Apply the complex differentiation property
look-up: similar to Laplace transform
Z inversion.

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## Long Division Example

Inverse z-transform
(i) Using long division, expand as a . .
series Solution:
(i) Long Division

## (ii) Write the inverse transform as the

sequence
(ii) Inverse Transformation
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Partial Fraction Expansion I: Simple Real Roots
(i) Find the partial fraction expansion of . Residue of a complex function at a
(ii) Obtain the inverse transform using the simple pole
z-transform tables.

Three types of z-domain functions F(z): Residue = partial fraction coefficient of the
with simple (non-repeated) real poles. term of the expansion
with complex conjugate & real poles.
with repeated poles.

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## Example Example (cont.)

Obtain the inverse z-transform of the
function

. .
Solution: Solve using two different methods. .

## (i) Partial Fraction Expansion (dividing by z)

.
. . . . Partial fraction expansion then multiply by

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MATLAB Results
numerator ,
r= k=
denominator
40.0000 []
>> num = [1, 1]
-90.0000
>> den = [1, 0.3, 0.02, 0]
50.0000
Partial Fraction Coefficients
p=
>> [r, p, k] = residue( num, den)
-0.2000
p = poles, r = residues
-0.1000
k = coefficients of remainder polynomial.
0
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## Example (cont.) Example (cont.)

(i) Partial Fraction Expansion (without
(ii) Table Lookup dividing by z)

## Note: Partial fraction coefficients

The time sequence can be rewritten as
.

.
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II: Complex Conjugate & Simple
Example (cont.)
Real Roots
Partial Fraction Expansion
Use the following z-transforms ( rad.)

Z
(ii) Table Lookup (use the delay theorem)
Same denominator with complex conjugate
roots:
,
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## Residues With Complex

Combined Form
Conjugate Poles

Combine the complex conjugate terms

Use

= angle of pole ( partial fraction coefficient )

Use:

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Example Example (cont.)
Find the inverse z-transform of Multiply by the denominator & equate coefficients
. .

## Solution (i) Partial Fraction Expansion

Dividing by z gives , 19.689 (known), solve for and

Check calculations

= 0.9(20)+19.6890.1(1.311) 1.557 0
Partial fraction expansion (multiply eqn. by )

.
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## Example (cont.) Example (Cont.)

(ii) Table Lookup (1st two terms already known) Substitute for the coefficients
1.311 1.557 1.311 cos sin
19.689
2 0.5 0.5 2 cos 20
0.1
Equate denominator coefficients 1.311 0.707 cos 3 4 4.426 0.707 sin 3 4
0.5 0.707 2 0.707 cos 3 4 0.5
cos 0.5 0.5 0.707
Z
, angle in 2nd quadrant, sin 0.707
Equate coefficients in the numerator
Z
1.311 cos sin 0.5 1.311 1.557
4.426
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Example (cont.) Use Trig. Identities
z-transform tables give

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## Example (cont.) Pole-Zero Map

Residue Approach 1.5
(i) Partial Fraction Expansion
1
Dividing by z gives
Imaginary Axis 0.5

0

-0.5

## Obtain partial fraction expansion as in 1st approach -1

-1.5
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Real Axis
. .

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Example (cont.) MATLAB
19.689 0.656 2.213 0.656 2.213 numerator , denominator
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0.1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 >> num = 5*[1, 3]
Convert from Cartesian to polar form >> den = [1, 0.1, 0.4, 0]
.
>> denp =conv(den1, den 2) % Multiply polynomials
Partial Fraction Coefficients
Inverse z-transform to obtain
>> [r, p, k] = residue( num, den)
3 p = poles, r = residues , k = coefficients of the
20 19.689 0.1 4.616 0.707 cos 1.283
4 polynomial resulting from dividing the numerator by
as obtained earlier. the denominator.

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## MATLAB Example Other Form

>> [r,p,k]=residue(num,den)
r= >> A=2*real(r(1))
. .
0.6557 + 2.2131i A=
0.6557 - 2.2131i 1.3115
19.6885 >> B=2*real(r(1)*p(2))
. . .
-20.0000 B=
p=
-0.5000 + 0.5000i
1.5574
-0.5000 - 0.5000i
0.1000
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III: Repeated Roots Example
Obtain the inverse z-transform of the function
N ( z) r
A1i n Aj
F z n
z z r 1 i
z zj
z z1 r z z j i 1 1 j r 1

j r 1 Solution
(i) Partial Fraction Expansion (Dividing by z)
1 d i 1

A1, i i 1
( z z1 ) r F ( z ) , i 1, 2, ... , r
(i 1) ! d z z z1

. .
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## Partial Fraction Coefficients Example (cont.)

Partial Fraction Expansion

## (ii) Table Lookup

z-transform tables and Definition 2.1 yield

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Example (cont.) The Final Value Theorem
Theorem 2.1 The Final Value Theorem
Evaluating at yields If a sequence approaches a constant limit
as tends to infinity, then the limit is given
by

Lim

Lim

Using the delay theorem gives the same answer

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## Limitations of Final Value Proof of Final Value Thm.

Let have a constant limit as tends to infinity
Limit must exist for final value
theorem to apply. = sequence that decays to zero as
Does not apply to: Lim

(i) An unbounded sequence.
(ii) An oscillatory sequence.
Partial fraction coefficient
Lim

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Example 2.17 Example 2.18
Verify the final value theorem using the z- Obtain the final value for the sequence whose z-
transform of a decaying exponential sequence transform is
and its limit as tends to infinity.
Z
Solution: z-transform pair What can you conclude concerning the constants
and if it is known that the limit exist?
Limit with
Solution: Conditions for the validity of the final
Lim
value theorem
Final value theorem Apply the final value theorem
Lim Lim

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Z-transform Solution of
(ii) Solve for X(z)
Difference Equations
Example 2.19: Solve the linear difference equation

## with the initial conditions

Solution
(i) z-transform

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(iii) Partial fraction expansion Equating Coefficients
The partial fraction of is Multiply by the denominator

Equate coefficient of

. .

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x(k)
15
14

12

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
k
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