Sie sind auf Seite 1von 49

1

EXTRADOSED BRIDGE
Contents:
V. Construction Stage (CS) Analysis
I. Introduction
a. Backward CS Analysis
b. Forward CS Analysis
II. Case Study
1) Using Backward CS Analysis results
a. Bridge Information
2) Using Lack of fit force
b. Construction Methods
3) Using Unknown load factor
c. Structural Analysis Comparison
d. Economic Comparison
VI. Nonlinear Effects
a. P- Effects
III. Modeling
b. Large Deformations
a. Section Property Definition
b. Bridge Wizard
VII. Results
a. Deformation
IV. Initial Cable Forces
b. Camber Computation
a. Ideal State
1) Construction Camber
b. Methods
2) Manufacture Camber
c. Cable Tuning with ULF
c. Cable Forces and Stresses

2
EXTRADOSED BRIDGE

II. Case Study


III. Modeling
IV. Initial Cable Forces
V. Construction Stage Analysis
VI. Nonlinear Effects
VII. Results

Bridging Your Innovations to Realities


Extradosed Bridge I. Introduction Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

Benefits with Extradosed Bridge

Ordinary prestressed girder bridge with internal or external tendons having cables installed
outside and above the main girder and deviated by short towers located at supports.
=>Construction & appearance: Cable Stayed Bridge
=>Structural properties & design specifications: PSC girder bridge

Reduced girder depth


=>Reduced self weight of the structure

Longer spans possible with the use of cables


=>H/L of extradosed bridges: 1/15 to 1/35
=>H/L of box girder bridges: 1/15 to 1/17

Lower main tower


=>H/L of extradosed bridges: 1/15
=>H/L of cable stayed bridges: 1/5
=>Smaller stress variation in stay cables
=>Reduced fatigue failure of stay cables
EXTRADOSED BRIDGE

I. Introduction

III. Modeling
IV. Initial Cable Forces
V. Construction Stage Analysis
VI. Nonlinear Effects
VII. Results

Bridging Your Innovations to Realities


Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Bridge Information
Birds Eye View
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Bridge Information
Location

Total Length: L=1085m


Road expansion: B=30m, L=692m
Main Bridge: B=24m, L=225m
Connection Bridge: B=15m,
L=168m
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Bridge Information

Sectional Elevation

Cable Number Main


arrangements of Cables Tower Height Section Optimum Design of Bridge
Preliminary Design

Cable arrangement:
7 lines on Uniformed section FAN arrangement (one sided)
one side H=10,12,14m Number of Cables: 7 lines (0.6-29EA)
FAN arrangement H=2.5m
(0.6-27) L=105.0m Height of the Main Tower:
Harp arrangement (0.6-29) L=105.0m H=12.0m (L/8.75)
(L/8~L/12)
(0.6-31) (L/30~L/60) Section: Uniformed Section 2.5m(L/40)
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Bridge Information
Side Perspective

Transverse section Main Bridge Transverse section Connected Bridge


Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Construction Methods

1) Construction method of EXTRADOSED PSC BOX GIRDER Bridge

Construction F.S.M Full Staging Method


Methods
F.C.M Free Cantilever Method

Characteristics of the Construction Method


Name
Restrictions Duration Economic Constructability

Restrictions by the bottom Economical efficiency is


Construction is fast due to There are plenty of international
conditions are crucial, determined by the height of the
F.S.M the lumped pouring method. bridges constructed by this method.
depending on the supporting supporting. Lower pier is more
Easy to construct
system. cost-effective

Cost-effective if higher pier or


Slow construction due to if there is limited space Construction management is
Less restrictions by the bottom
F.C.M forward construction stage underneath the bridge. For complicated due to having
condition.
method instance, bridge over rail road, measurements of each stage
bridge over the sea.
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Construction Methods

FSM
Low cost of equipment, simple method of construction
Cost effective for level ground and low bridges
Fast construction, stable supports during construction

FCM
Little effect of supporting conditions
Possible for constructing long suspension bridge without heavy duty equipment
Accuracy of the construction can be enhanced by the correction of errors at each
construction stage.
Precise construction and management needed due to changes in the structural system
by each construction stage.
High construction fee compared with F.S.M
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Construction Methods

FSM Extradosed Bridge - Sequential Construction Stages in midas Civil (1/2)

1st Construction Stage: Model and activate side span temporary supports by Elastic link and Support

2nd Construction Stage: Remove side span temp. supports, and activate temp. supports of main span

3rd Construction Stage : Activate the main tower and place the diagonal tension-cables in order
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Construction Methods

FSM Extradosed Bridge - Sequential Construction Stages in midas Civil (2/2)

4th Construction Stage: Complete diagonal Tension Cables, and remove temp. supports of main span

5th Construction Stage : Pavement and Finishing => Completion of Construction

Design Condition
Structure: 3 span continuous EXTRADOSED P.S.C BOX Bridge Grade: Excellent
Dimensions: L = 60.0 + 105.0 + 60.0 = 225.0 m Bridge Width: B = 23.740 m (4 lanes both way)
Thickness: H = 2.50 m (equal section) Inclination: S = () 0.5 %
Plane surface alignment: R = Construction method: F.S.M (Full Staging Method )
Prestress construction: Post-Tensioning Method
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Construction Methods

FCM Extradosed Bridge - Sequential Construction Stages in midas Civil (1/2)

1st Construction Stage: Construct Main Pier and Pylon

2nd ~9th Construction Stage: Employ F/T Seg. Construct Diagonal cables

10th Construction Stage: FSM construction for Side Span and apply Pylon1girder Time Load as 255 days
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Construction Methods

FCM Extradosed Bridge - Sequential Construction Stages in midas Civil (2/2)

11th Construction Stage: Connect Key Seg. of Main Span

12th Construction Stage: Completion of Construction


Design Condition
Structure: 3 span continuous EXTRADOSED P.S.C BOX Bridge Grade: Excellant
Dimension: L = 60.0 + 105.0 + 60.0 = 225.0 m Bridge Width: B = 23.74 m (4 lanes both way)
Thickness: H = 2.50 m (equal section) Inclination: S = () 0.5 %
Plane surface alignment: R = (Straight line) Construction method: FCM (Free Cantilever Method)
Prestress construction: Post-Tensioning Method
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

c. Structural Analysis Comparison

F.C.M: Maximum negative moment on supports are relatively greater than Maximum
Dead Load positive moment in the middle point. The moments are concentrated to the supports.
F.S.M: The moment of the supports and the middle point are relatively balanced.

Moment after 10,000 days

Method F. S. M F. C. M

Dead
`
Load

Mid-point 255,900 kN-m 22,540 kN-m

Support -384,800 kN-m -531,500 kN-m


Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

c. Structural Analysis Comparison

For F.C.M construction Cantilever Tendon is added on the upper part to resist excessive
negative moment.
(Efficient to place internal tendon especially bottom tendon)
Tendon Primary For F.S.M. construction it is difficult to place certain tendon at the negative and positive
moment.
Comparing the sum of moment F.C.M. shows more efficient aspect on Positive and
Negative moment.

Moment after 10,000 days

Method F. S. M F. C. M

Tendon
Primary

Mid-Point -70,400 kN-m Total : -21,560 kN-m -57,830 kN-m Total : -30,270 kN-m

Support 62,950 kN-m Total : -23,940 kN-m 80,620 kN-m Total : -920 kN-m
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

c. Structural Analysis Comparison

Tendon Secondary Moment is decided by placement and the amount of tendon. F.S.M.

Tendon Secondary shows efficiency in both positive and negative moment.


However, in the total sum F.C.M. shows efficiency in analysis.

Moment after 10,000 days

Method F. S. M F. C. M

Tendon
Secondary

Mid-Point 33,390 kN-m Total : 11,830 kN-m 38,940 kN-m Total : 8,670 kN-m

Support 23,200 kN-m Total : -40 kN-m 5,500 kN-m Total : 4,580 kN-m
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

c. Structural Analysis Comparison

Creep Secondary Moment behaves similar to the case of Dead Load.

Creep Secondary In the total sum of positive moment F.C.M. shows efficiency but, in the negative moment
since the Creep Secondary acts F.S.M. show efficiency.

Moment after 10,000 days

Method F. S. M F. C. M

Creep
Secondary

Mid-Point 4,639 kN-m Total : 16,469 kN-m 0 kN-m Total : 8,670 kN-m

Support -16,950 kN-m Total : -17,690 kN-m -35,730 kN-m Total : -31,150 kN-m
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

c. Structural Analysis Comparison

Shrinkage Secondary Moment shows similarity in both method.


Shrinkage Similar to Creep Secondary moment the total sum of positive moment F.C.M. shows
Secondary efficiency but, in the negative moment since the Creep Secondary acts F.S.M. show
efficiency.

Moment after 10,000 days

Method F. S. M F. C. M

Shrinkage
Secondary

Mid-point 9,980 kN-m Total : 26,449 kN-m 9,177 Kn-m Total : 17,847 kN-m

Support -13,230 kN-m Total : -30,920 kN-m -15,060 Kn-m Total : -46,210 kN-m
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

c. Structural Analysis Comparison

Structural analysis shows that on the final combination both Method of construction has
Conclusion of similar results.
Stress analysis For stress aspect F.S.M. shows greater and conservative. However since the placement of
Continuity Tendon is functioned to greater section force, it is inefficient for placing tendon.

Special Loads (D + CF + LI + PS1 + PS2 + CRSH2 + SD)

Method F. S. M F. C. M

Upper limit
stress
(MPa)

Bottom limit
stress
(MPa)
Extradosed Bridge II. Case Study Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

d. Economic Comparison & Conclusion

Cost effective For applying F.S.M. there has been 10% reduction of the construction Cost.

F.C.M has a long term of construction since it requires accuracy of managing


Construction Camber and several Seg. Construction stage.
Applying F.S.M workability increases and construction time can reduce
EXTRADOSED BRIDGE

I. Introduction
II. Case Study

IV. Initial Cable Forces


V. Construction Stage Analysis
VI. Nonlinear Effects
VII. Results

Bridging Your Innovations to Realities


Extradosed Bridge III. Modeling Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Section Definition

Draw section shape Import CAD file Import section


using CAD through SPC properties

Database
Extradosed Bridge III. Modeling Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Bridge Wizard

FCM Bridge Wizard FSM Bridge Wizard


Extradosed Bridge III. Modeling Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Bridge Wizard & Manual Modeling

Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard

Manual modeling
Using Node/Element tab
EXTRADOSED BRIDGE

I. Introduction
II. Case Study
III. Modeling

V. Construction Stage Analysis


VI. Nonlinear Effects
VII. Results

Bridging Your Innovations to Realities


Extradosed Bridge IV. Initial Cable Force Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Ideal State
Extradosed Bridge IV. Initial Cable Force Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Methods

1. Simple supported Beam


Bridge segment is a simple beam supported by cables.

2. Continuous Beam
Main girder is a continuous supported beam with inclined stay cables (Pendulum Rule).
Extradosed Bridge IV. Initial Cable Force Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Methods

3. Unit Load Method


Unit load cases equal to the number of fixed ideal moment points (for dead load) are defined. Xi is the
unknown to be multiplied to the unit load to achieve the ideal moment distribution.

4. Additional Constraint Method


Extension of Unit load method to time dependent effects and non-linear effects.

5. Unknown Load Factor


User defined displacement/reaction/force constraint. Using vector and matrix calculations the cables
forces are adjusted to satisfy the constrained condition(s).
Extradosed Bridge IV. Initial Cable Force Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

c. Cable Tuning with ULF

Importance of Cable Tuning

ULF calculates the value of cable pretension for a particular constraint. That cable pretension (or Load
Factor) might not be practical or might exceed the cable force tolerance limit. Thus force can be adjusted
using Cable Tuning.

Procedure

1. Use Unknown Load Factor to


calculate the cable pretension (or
Load Factor).
2. Adjust the cable pretension (or load
factor) using the table or bar graph.
3. Select the result item for which the
effects of the cable pretension are to be
checked.
4. Produce the results graph for the result
item selected from step 3.
5. Save the adjusted pretension forces in
a load combination or apply the new
pretension forces to the cables directly
using the pre-programmed buttons.
EXTRADOSED BRIDGE

I. Introduction
II. Case Study
III. Modeling
IV. Initial Cable Forces

VI. Nonlinear Effects


VII. Results

Bridging Your Innovations to Realities


Extradosed Bridge V. Construction Stage (CS) Analysis Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Backward CS Analysis

Significance

Cable prestress, introduced during


the construction of cable-stayed
bridge, could be calculated by
Backward CS Analysis from the
final stage.

Limitations

Does not consider Time Dependent


Effects and Non-Linearity Effects.
Extradosed Bridge V. Construction Stage (CS) Analysis Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Forward CS Analysis

1) Using Backward CS Analysis Results (Preferred for Multiple Pretension Loads for single cable)

Obtain cable pretension load using unknown load


factor and cable tuning after final stage analysis

Perform Backward CS Analysis applying the


pretension load obtained from last step

Obtain cable forces in each CS after performing


Backward construction stage analysis

Apply cable forces as Pretension Loads in each


construction stage

Perform CS analysis with cable pretension force


specified as External Force type and obtain results
Extradosed Bridge V. Construction Stage (CS) Analysis Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Forward CS Analysis

2) Using lack of fit force (No time dependent effects considered)

Obtain initial pretension load using Unknown Load


Factor on final stage

Fine tune the cable forces using Cable Force


Tuning

Apply initial prestress force to cables for


construction stage analysis

Turn on Lack of fit force Control option in


construction stage analysis control

Perform construction stage analysis to obtain


jacking forces of cables at each construction stage
Extradosed Bridge V. Construction Stage (CS) Analysis Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Forward CS Analysis

3) Using Unknown Load Factor (Not suitable for Cables)

Perform CS analysis with self weight and unit


pretension load

Calculate Unknown Load Factor for the stages of


cable force activation

Perform iterative analysis using Unknown Load


Factor to modify the cable forces

Further modify cable pretension load using cable


tuning

Check the jacking forces of cables at each CS in


results > forces > truss forces.
EXTRADOSED BRIDGE

I. Introduction
II. Case Study
III. Modeling
IV. Initial Cable Forces
V. Construction Stage Analysis

VII. Results

Bridging Your Innovations to Realities


Extradosed Bridge VI. Nonlinear Effects Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. P- Effects

Considered for both construction stage and final stage.


Cant be run with Tension Only Cable Element in Final Stage Analysis.

Construction Stage Final Stage


Extradosed Bridge VI. Nonlinear Effects Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Large Deformations

Considered for main span length generally longer than 600m.


Considered for both construction stage and final state.

Construction Stage Final State


EXTRADOSED BRIDGE

I. Introduction
II. Case Study
III. Modeling
IV. Initial Cable Forces
V. Construction Stage Analysis
VI. Nonlinear Effects

Bridging Your Innovations to Realities


Extradosed Bridge VII. Results Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Deformation

Pylons

Pylon construction
tolerance is as shown:
Extradosed Bridge VII. Results Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Deformation

Pylons

Pylon maximum lateral deformation


= 13.249mm < 38mm => OK
Extradosed Bridge VII. Results Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Deformation

Bridge Deck

Bridge deck tolerance is as shown:


Extradosed Bridge VII. Results Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Deformation

Bridge Deck

Maximum bridge deck deformation = 9.9mm < L/5000 = 20mm => OK


Extradosed Bridge VII. Results Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Camber Computation : Construction Camber

Construction Camber

Construction Camber is shown as the


net displacement results in Midas Civil
Extradosed Bridge VII. Results Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Camber Computation : Manufacture Camber

Manufacture Camber

To see real displacement in the results, check


Initial Tangent Displacement for Erected Structures
option in CS Analysis Control Data.
Extradosed Bridge VII. Results Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Camber Computation
Camber results of Deck
Extradosed Bridge VII. Results Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

c. Cable Forces & Stresses

Truss Forces Truss Stresses


Thank You!

Bridging Your Innovations to Realities