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# 1

Contents:
V. Construction Stage (CS) Analysis
I. Introduction
a. Backward CS Analysis
b. Forward CS Analysis
II. Case Study
1) Using Backward CS Analysis results
a. Bridge Information
2) Using Lack of fit force
b. Construction Methods
c. Structural Analysis Comparison
d. Economic Comparison
VI. Nonlinear Effects
a. P- Effects
III. Modeling
b. Large Deformations
a. Section Property Definition
b. Bridge Wizard
VII. Results
a. Deformation
IV. Initial Cable Forces
b. Camber Computation
a. Ideal State
1) Construction Camber
b. Methods
2) Manufacture Camber
c. Cable Tuning with ULF
c. Cable Forces and Stresses

2

## II. Case Study

III. Modeling
IV. Initial Cable Forces
V. Construction Stage Analysis
VI. Nonlinear Effects
VII. Results

## Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

Ordinary prestressed girder bridge with internal or external tendons having cables installed
outside and above the main girder and deviated by short towers located at supports.
=>Construction & appearance: Cable Stayed Bridge
=>Structural properties & design specifications: PSC girder bridge

## Reduced girder depth

=>Reduced self weight of the structure

## Longer spans possible with the use of cables

=>H/L of extradosed bridges: 1/15 to 1/35
=>H/L of box girder bridges: 1/15 to 1/17

## Lower main tower

=>H/L of cable stayed bridges: 1/5
=>Smaller stress variation in stay cables
=>Reduced fatigue failure of stay cables

I. Introduction

III. Modeling
IV. Initial Cable Forces
V. Construction Stage Analysis
VI. Nonlinear Effects
VII. Results

## Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Bridge Information
Birds Eye View

a. Bridge Information
Location

## Total Length: L=1085m

Main Bridge: B=24m, L=225m
Connection Bridge: B=15m,
L=168m

a. Bridge Information

Sectional Elevation

## Cable Number Main

arrangements of Cables Tower Height Section Optimum Design of Bridge
Preliminary Design

Cable arrangement:
7 lines on Uniformed section FAN arrangement (one sided)
one side H=10,12,14m Number of Cables: 7 lines (0.6-29EA)
FAN arrangement H=2.5m
(0.6-27) L=105.0m Height of the Main Tower:
Harp arrangement (0.6-29) L=105.0m H=12.0m (L/8.75)
(L/8~L/12)
(0.6-31) (L/30~L/60) Section: Uniformed Section 2.5m(L/40)

a. Bridge Information
Side Perspective

## Transverse section Main Bridge Transverse section Connected Bridge

b. Construction Methods

## Construction F.S.M Full Staging Method

Methods
F.C.M Free Cantilever Method

## Characteristics of the Construction Method

Name
Restrictions Duration Economic Constructability

## Restrictions by the bottom Economical efficiency is

Construction is fast due to There are plenty of international
conditions are crucial, determined by the height of the
F.S.M the lumped pouring method. bridges constructed by this method.
depending on the supporting supporting. Lower pier is more
Easy to construct
system. cost-effective

## Cost-effective if higher pier or

Slow construction due to if there is limited space Construction management is
Less restrictions by the bottom
F.C.M forward construction stage underneath the bridge. For complicated due to having
condition.
method instance, bridge over rail road, measurements of each stage
bridge over the sea.

b. Construction Methods

FSM
Low cost of equipment, simple method of construction
Cost effective for level ground and low bridges
Fast construction, stable supports during construction

FCM
Little effect of supporting conditions
Possible for constructing long suspension bridge without heavy duty equipment
Accuracy of the construction can be enhanced by the correction of errors at each
construction stage.
Precise construction and management needed due to changes in the structural system
by each construction stage.
High construction fee compared with F.S.M

b. Construction Methods

## FSM Extradosed Bridge - Sequential Construction Stages in midas Civil (1/2)

1st Construction Stage: Model and activate side span temporary supports by Elastic link and Support

2nd Construction Stage: Remove side span temp. supports, and activate temp. supports of main span

3rd Construction Stage : Activate the main tower and place the diagonal tension-cables in order

b. Construction Methods

## FSM Extradosed Bridge - Sequential Construction Stages in midas Civil (2/2)

4th Construction Stage: Complete diagonal Tension Cables, and remove temp. supports of main span

## 5th Construction Stage : Pavement and Finishing => Completion of Construction

Design Condition
Dimensions: L = 60.0 + 105.0 + 60.0 = 225.0 m Bridge Width: B = 23.740 m (4 lanes both way)
Thickness: H = 2.50 m (equal section) Inclination: S = () 0.5 %
Plane surface alignment: R = Construction method: F.S.M (Full Staging Method )
Prestress construction: Post-Tensioning Method

b. Construction Methods

## 1st Construction Stage: Construct Main Pier and Pylon

2nd ~9th Construction Stage: Employ F/T Seg. Construct Diagonal cables

10th Construction Stage: FSM construction for Side Span and apply Pylon1girder Time Load as 255 days

b. Construction Methods

## 12th Construction Stage: Completion of Construction

Design Condition
Dimension: L = 60.0 + 105.0 + 60.0 = 225.0 m Bridge Width: B = 23.74 m (4 lanes both way)
Thickness: H = 2.50 m (equal section) Inclination: S = () 0.5 %
Plane surface alignment: R = (Straight line) Construction method: FCM (Free Cantilever Method)
Prestress construction: Post-Tensioning Method

## c. Structural Analysis Comparison

F.C.M: Maximum negative moment on supports are relatively greater than Maximum
Dead Load positive moment in the middle point. The moments are concentrated to the supports.
F.S.M: The moment of the supports and the middle point are relatively balanced.

## Moment after 10,000 days

Method F. S. M F. C. M

`

## c. Structural Analysis Comparison

For F.C.M construction Cantilever Tendon is added on the upper part to resist excessive
negative moment.
(Efficient to place internal tendon especially bottom tendon)
Tendon Primary For F.S.M. construction it is difficult to place certain tendon at the negative and positive
moment.
Comparing the sum of moment F.C.M. shows more efficient aspect on Positive and
Negative moment.

## Moment after 10,000 days

Method F. S. M F. C. M

Tendon
Primary

Mid-Point -70,400 kN-m Total : -21,560 kN-m -57,830 kN-m Total : -30,270 kN-m

Support 62,950 kN-m Total : -23,940 kN-m 80,620 kN-m Total : -920 kN-m

## c. Structural Analysis Comparison

Tendon Secondary Moment is decided by placement and the amount of tendon. F.S.M.

## Tendon Secondary shows efficiency in both positive and negative moment.

However, in the total sum F.C.M. shows efficiency in analysis.

## Moment after 10,000 days

Method F. S. M F. C. M

Tendon
Secondary

Mid-Point 33,390 kN-m Total : 11,830 kN-m 38,940 kN-m Total : 8,670 kN-m

Support 23,200 kN-m Total : -40 kN-m 5,500 kN-m Total : 4,580 kN-m

## Creep Secondary Moment behaves similar to the case of Dead Load.

Creep Secondary In the total sum of positive moment F.C.M. shows efficiency but, in the negative moment
since the Creep Secondary acts F.S.M. show efficiency.

## Moment after 10,000 days

Method F. S. M F. C. M

Creep
Secondary

Mid-Point 4,639 kN-m Total : 16,469 kN-m 0 kN-m Total : 8,670 kN-m

Support -16,950 kN-m Total : -17,690 kN-m -35,730 kN-m Total : -31,150 kN-m

## Shrinkage Secondary Moment shows similarity in both method.

Shrinkage Similar to Creep Secondary moment the total sum of positive moment F.C.M. shows
Secondary efficiency but, in the negative moment since the Creep Secondary acts F.S.M. show
efficiency.

## Moment after 10,000 days

Method F. S. M F. C. M

Shrinkage
Secondary

Mid-point 9,980 kN-m Total : 26,449 kN-m 9,177 Kn-m Total : 17,847 kN-m

Support -13,230 kN-m Total : -30,920 kN-m -15,060 Kn-m Total : -46,210 kN-m

## c. Structural Analysis Comparison

Structural analysis shows that on the final combination both Method of construction has
Conclusion of similar results.
Stress analysis For stress aspect F.S.M. shows greater and conservative. However since the placement of
Continuity Tendon is functioned to greater section force, it is inefficient for placing tendon.

## Special Loads (D + CF + LI + PS1 + PS2 + CRSH2 + SD)

Method F. S. M F. C. M

Upper limit
stress
(MPa)

Bottom limit
stress
(MPa)

## d. Economic Comparison & Conclusion

Cost effective For applying F.S.M. there has been 10% reduction of the construction Cost.

## F.C.M has a long term of construction since it requires accuracy of managing

Construction Camber and several Seg. Construction stage.
Applying F.S.M workability increases and construction time can reduce

I. Introduction
II. Case Study

## IV. Initial Cable Forces

V. Construction Stage Analysis
VI. Nonlinear Effects
VII. Results

## Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Section Definition

Database

b. Bridge Wizard

## Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard

Manual modeling
Using Node/Element tab

I. Introduction
II. Case Study
III. Modeling

## V. Construction Stage Analysis

VI. Nonlinear Effects
VII. Results

a. Ideal State

b. Methods

## 1. Simple supported Beam

Bridge segment is a simple beam supported by cables.

2. Continuous Beam
Main girder is a continuous supported beam with inclined stay cables (Pendulum Rule).

b. Methods

Unit load cases equal to the number of fixed ideal moment points (for dead load) are defined. Xi is the
unknown to be multiplied to the unit load to achieve the ideal moment distribution.

Extension of Unit load method to time dependent effects and non-linear effects.

User defined displacement/reaction/force constraint. Using vector and matrix calculations the cables
forces are adjusted to satisfy the constrained condition(s).

## Importance of Cable Tuning

ULF calculates the value of cable pretension for a particular constraint. That cable pretension (or Load
Factor) might not be practical or might exceed the cable force tolerance limit. Thus force can be adjusted
using Cable Tuning.

Procedure

## 1. Use Unknown Load Factor to

calculate the cable pretension (or
factor) using the table or bar graph.
3. Select the result item for which the
effects of the cable pretension are to be
checked.
4. Produce the results graph for the result
item selected from step 3.
5. Save the adjusted pretension forces in
a load combination or apply the new
pretension forces to the cables directly
using the pre-programmed buttons.

I. Introduction
II. Case Study
III. Modeling
IV. Initial Cable Forces

VII. Results

## Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

Extradosed Bridge V. Construction Stage (CS) Analysis Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Backward CS Analysis

Significance

## Cable prestress, introduced during

the construction of cable-stayed
bridge, could be calculated by
Backward CS Analysis from the
final stage.

Limitations

## Does not consider Time Dependent

Effects and Non-Linearity Effects.
Extradosed Bridge V. Construction Stage (CS) Analysis Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Forward CS Analysis

1) Using Backward CS Analysis Results (Preferred for Multiple Pretension Loads for single cable)

factor and cable tuning after final stage analysis

## Perform Backward CS Analysis applying the

pretension load obtained from last step

## Obtain cable forces in each CS after performing

Backward construction stage analysis

## Apply cable forces as Pretension Loads in each

construction stage

## Perform CS analysis with cable pretension force

specified as External Force type and obtain results
Extradosed Bridge V. Construction Stage (CS) Analysis Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Forward CS Analysis

## 2) Using lack of fit force (No time dependent effects considered)

Factor on final stage

Tuning

## Apply initial prestress force to cables for

construction stage analysis

## Turn on Lack of fit force Control option in

construction stage analysis control

## Perform construction stage analysis to obtain

jacking forces of cables at each construction stage
Extradosed Bridge V. Construction Stage (CS) Analysis Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

b. Forward CS Analysis

## Calculate Unknown Load Factor for the stages of

cable force activation

## Perform iterative analysis using Unknown Load

Factor to modify the cable forces

tuning

## Check the jacking forces of cables at each CS in

results > forces > truss forces.

I. Introduction
II. Case Study
III. Modeling
IV. Initial Cable Forces
V. Construction Stage Analysis

VII. Results

a. P- Effects

## Considered for both construction stage and final stage.

Cant be run with Tension Only Cable Element in Final Stage Analysis.

## Construction Stage Final Stage

b. Large Deformations

## Considered for main span length generally longer than 600m.

Considered for both construction stage and final state.

## Construction Stage Final State

I. Introduction
II. Case Study
III. Modeling
IV. Initial Cable Forces
V. Construction Stage Analysis
VI. Nonlinear Effects

## Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

a. Deformation

Pylons

Pylon construction
tolerance is as shown:

a. Deformation

Pylons

## Pylon maximum lateral deformation

= 13.249mm < 38mm => OK

a. Deformation

Bridge Deck

a. Deformation

Bridge Deck

## b. Camber Computation : Construction Camber

Construction Camber

## Construction Camber is shown as the

net displacement results in Midas Civil

## b. Camber Computation : Manufacture Camber

Manufacture Camber

## To see real displacement in the results, check

Initial Tangent Displacement for Erected Structures
option in CS Analysis Control Data.