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KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS ENGINEERING

MSE 359- MATERIALS ENGINEERING LABORATORY 1

INSTRUCTORS NAME: MR. ATI FELIX


EXPERIMENT NAME: PARTICLE SIZE REDUCTION, SCREENING AND SIZE
ANALYSIS.

Name of student: DZIKUNU PERSEVERANCE


Index number: 2196014
Submission date: 9TH NOVEMBER, 2016

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ABSTRACT
Size reduction is the breaking down of particles of larger sizes to produce particles of smaller sizes
through the use of various equipment and methods. Size-reducing equipment relies on compression
or impact. These are some of the equipment that can be used in size reduction, Impact mills, Mortar
and pestle, Ball pebble and rod mills. The report aims at examining the particles reduction of silica
sand using manual and automatic grinding methods and subsequent separation and size analysis of
polydispersed powders.

INTRODUCTION

Size reduction is major unit operation in industries handling particulate solid. The industries like
mineral dressing, paint, cement, bauxite, pharmaceutical as well as black powder handles large
amount solid materials which need to be grinded to fine size. The equipment usually used for
size reduction are,
1. Cutting machines like knife cutters, slitters, dicers
2. Crushers like jaw crushers, gyratory crushers, etc. Crushers are used for coarse and fine
size reduction.
3. Grinders like hammer mills, rolling-compression mills, tumbling mills, etc. Grinders are
used for intermediate and fine size reduction.
4. Ultrafine grinders like hammer mills, agitated mills, fluid-energy mills, etc.

The basic motive behind performing the size-reduction is to make too large to be used solid
materials usable. It leads to an increase in surface area per unit volume which enhances the rate
of the reaction by allowing more sites for the reaction to take place. Moreover handling of
smaller size particles is much easier as compared to that of bigger particles.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

Sieve Analysis

Probably, the most common method of particle-sized analysis used is sieve analysis.
Standardized sieves are available to cover a wide range of sizes. These sieves are generally
round and designed to sit in a stack so that material fall through smaller and smaller mashes
until it reaches a mesh, which is too fine for it to pass through. The stack of sieves is
mechanically shaken or tapped to promote the passage of the solids. The finest material is
caught in a pan at bottom of the stack.

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When carrying out the sieve analysis it is important to maintain a standard method. The
result achieved will depend on the duration of agitation and the manner of the agitation. Care
needed when collecting the fractions from the sieves that the meshes are not damaged by rough
handling.

Mortar and pestle - grinding can be accomplished with either manual or automated systems.
The sample is loaded into a heavy walled bowl. The sample is crushed between the bowl wall
and the pestle by manually pushing the pestle or spinning the bowl with a fixed pestle in an
automated system.
Ball Mill:
The equipment to be used for size reduction is ball mill. The ball mill is kind of grinder used for
intermediate or fine grinding. Ball mill is a metal cylinder which rotates about its horizontal axis.
The coarse material charged along with the metal balls breaks to fine powder by impact of metal
balls.

Screening - The sieve analysis, commonly known as the gradation test, is a basic essential test for
determination of the gradation of a polydispersed aggregate. Gradation is the term used for the
distribution of aggregate particles, by size, within a given sample

Compression this is applied via moving jaws, rolls or a gyratory cone. The maximum discharge
size is set by the clearance, which is adjustable. Impact-based equipment commonly uses
hammers or media. Rolls, in particular, can produce very fine particles.
Impact mills - use revolving hammers to strike incoming particles and to break or fling them
against the machine case. For the initial reduction of large materials, a rotating drum propels the
feed into the air where the pieces strike each other and fracture.

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT


1. silica sand
2. Balance
3. Sieves
4. Mechanical sieve shaker
5. Oven
6. Mortar and pestle
7. Ball mill
8. Optical microscope
9. Timer
10. 250 ml beakers
11. 1 L graduated cylinder
12. 50 ml technical ethanol

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. Weigh 200g of the prepared sample and record the value
2. Arrange the sieves by stacking them on top of each other with the smallest opening at the
base and the largest opening at the top
3. Empty the entire sample onto the top of the stacked sieves
4. Place the stacked sieves on the shaker, cover the top of the sieve and securely fasten the
stack in the shaker
5. Set the time limit and start the shaker
6. When the shaking is done, remove the stack and weigh the sample retained on each sieve
and record the values

PRECAUTIONS

The sample should be free from any moisture content.


Clean the sieves to ensure that all stacked particles in the apertures are removed
Arrange the sieves in a descending order with the largest sieve aperture at the top
Cover the sieve
Ensure that the stack is well fastened in the shaker

RESULTS AND CALCULAIONS


Weight of sample 200g

Sieve sizes Weight retained %weight retained Cumulative % Cumulative %


on sieve/g weight retained weight passing
2.8mm 52 26 100 0
2.0mm 43 21.5 74 26
1.4mm 33 16.5 57.5 42.7
1.0mm 30 15 42.5 57.5
0.63mm 32 16 26.5 73.5
80 9 4.5 22 78
50 0 0 0 100
26 0 0 0 100

weight retained on each sieve


Percentage weight retain = original sample weight x 100

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CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

1. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe, Smith, and Harriott.


2. Some Direct Measurements of the Surface Energy of Quartz and Orthoclase , WF Brace
and JB Walsh , The American Mineralogist, Vol.47, September-October, 1962.
3. Dr. Emmanuel Gikunoo, lab manual on particle size reduction, screening and analysis,
Department of Materials Engineering, KNUST, Kumasi, 2016.

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ANSWERS TO POST LAB QUESTION