0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

40 Aufrufe61 SeitenIntro to Modling

Apr 10, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Intro to Modling

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

40 Aufrufe

Intro to Modling

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- ICE(I)
- Sap2000 V14 Step by Step Based on a Structure Model
- (1982 Newmark & Hall - EERI) Earthquake Spectra and Design
- Pin vs Fixed Joints in Truss
- ENGM054 Year 2011 - Revised
- Monorail Crane Beam
- Structural Engineering
- Membrane 04
- Minimum Potential Energy
- 7022 Eng Advanced Steel Structures Griffith
- Structural Analysis Software and Milsoft Utility Solution Integration - Wil Schulze, PE
- Chapter 2_AUS.pdf
- Trusses
- CE201 Statics Chap6
- nbc Training schedule.xls
- Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Concentrically a Braced Frames
- Mechanical Intro 17.0 M03 Structural Analysis
- 0Basic Structural Analysis- Second Edition
- Catia and Fea
- Red Dragon

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 61

Preface

Structural analysis is a key part of design in civil structural engineering. The

structural analysis is the procedure that enables the determination of the

structural response (the internal forces and the movement components)

considering the applied external effects (loads, displacements, thermal) and

the boundary conditions. It was not too long ago that structural analysis

methods were performed manually using the various conventional theory of

structures methods such as the moment distribution method, the slope

deflection method, the matrix method.

with difficulties when conducting complex structural analysis such as the study

of three dimensional structures, the dynamic analysis, the non-linear

behaviorMoreover, these methods require long time for calculation and may

result in inaccuracy of the obtained results.

Another method of calculation is the finite element method (FEM). The FEM,

developed long time ago from the matrix analysis method, provides high level

of accuracy when used in the structural analysis, but the mathematical

complexity of the method made it impractical for manual analysis. The

development of the computers and the evolution of their capacity in the

previous decades allowed for the integration of the FEM as numerical method

for the use in the structural analysis. Accordingly, the FEM became typically the

base for the modern structural analysis.

The FEM software represent powerful and flexible means to model a wide

range of structures and straining effects on the structures. However, the use of

this powerful means may embrace important peril within the obtained

solutions if some precautions are not properly incorporated in the numerical

model.

the FEM and strong theoretical structural background (Theory of Structures,

structural behavior of Tall Buildings). In other words, The behavior of a

structure ,when subjected to more or less complex effects (dynamic, non-

linearity), should be predictable by the user based on his former theoretical

2

knowledge and experience in the structural domain. ACI Presidents Memo

Jos M. Izquierdo- Encarnacin 2003 highlighted the importance of the above

concept:

As a rule, a program should be used only if engineers can predict the general

deflection and distribution of moments in the structure prior to obtaining a

solution. The computed solution is used to verify the results previously

predicted by the engineers. If the solution is significantly different from the

prediction, engineers should use the results only if they can satisfactorily

explain the reason for the discrepancy and find it acceptable.

the slabs/beams deflections or the sway/drifts buildings. The

approximate values may be obtained from simplified theory of

structures methods (moment distributions...)

Recognizing the deformed shape of the whole structure and the

structural elements under the applied loads

have practical limitations such as the size limitation of the model and the linear

behavior of materials. Commonly a single model of the structure cannot be

used to provide all aspects of a structural behavior. For the same structure,

several analysis models are often needed, each with different set of

parameters or different elements type, to generate a specific structural

response (elements forces, deformations...).

Since most of the software manuals provide guidelines for the use of specific

software assuming the user has already the required theoretical knowledge

and adequate experience, the intent of this manual is to provide simplified

basic guidelines of the structural modeling techniques combining:

(FEM).

The systematic procedures to use these software that are stated in the

software help manuals.

However, the user manuals of software do not include all necessary modeling

techniques, tips, and the adequate assumptions for specific cases of study.

3

The aim is to enable the user to construct a numerical model that properly

generate the expected responses of a structure.

structural engineers including fresh graduates and undergraduate students. It

presents clarifications and answers that help the user comprehend the

different aspects of structural modeling by understanding the concepts of

analysis of the structural elements and the various ways to reflect this analysis

as given inputs within the software.

It tackles the structural elements as separate subjects clarifying the different

ways to deal with these elements based on given criteria.

Hoping this manual to serve its purpose, it is only the first edition. Your

comments, feedbacks, suggestions and queries are all welcomed to bring out

the best of and enhance the editions yet to come.

4

Contents

1. Introduction 7

2. Degrees of Freedom 8

3. Finite Elements for Structural Modeling 8

4. Global and Local Axis System 10

5. Basic Assumptions 12

6. Meshing of Area Elements (Slabs, Walls, Domes) 14

6.1 Shell Element Shapes 14

6.2 Mesh Refinement 16

6.3 Singular Points 18

7. Modeling of Columns 21

8. Vertical Alignment 21

8.1 Elements of centerlines along the same vertical axis 21

8.2. Use stiff rigid elements 22

8.3. Use of shell FE 23

8.4. Columns embedded or connected to Structural Walls 23

9. Modeling of Structural Walls and Core Walls 24

9.1 Meshing of Walls 25

9.2 Vertical Discontinuity in Walls 25

9.3 Openings in the Structural Walls 26

9.4 Pier assignment of shear walls and core Walls 26

9.5 Horizontal Alignment of Walls 28

9.6 Modeling of Walls and Core-Walls with Frame FE 30

9.7 Boundary Zones of Shear Walls and Core Walls 33

10. Modeling of Beams 35

11. Deep Beam (Wall-Beam) 36

12. Modeling of Floor Slabs 38

5

13. Modeling of Ramps and Stairs 39

14. Story Data 39

15.Lateral Earth Pressure on Basement Walls 40

16. Stiffness Modifiers 41

16.1 Stiffness modifiers for the FE direct results 42

16.2 Stiffness modifiers for the FE indirect shell results 42

17. Fixity level for Seismic Analysis 43

18. Diaphragm behavior of floor slabs 44

19. Connectivity of Vertical to Horizontal Structural Elements 47

20. Seismic additional eccentricity 49

21.Special Considerations For Tall Buildings 49

21.1 Elastic Shortening and Inelastic Time-Dependent

Shortening 49

21.2 P-Delta analysis of buildings 51

23. Modeling of Piles 53

24. Modeling of Pile-Raft foundation 55

25. warnings 55

25.1 Boundary Conditions 56

25.2 Loss of Accuracy 57

25.3 Negative Stiffness 57

26. Import of geometrical data from AutoCAD Files 58

6

1. Introduction

The structural study of new or existing structures aims to design or assess the

structures capacity to support the effects of the straining effects as applied

external loads, imposed movements, temperature, acceleration transmitted

from supports.

consists of determining the structural responses (movements and internal

forces) resulting from the straining effects and boundary conditions

(supporting systems). This may be performed manually using the conventional

methods of the theory of structures yet will be approximate, or by more

accurate methods such as the use of Finite Elements Method (FEM). To carry

out the analysis of a given structure by using FE, its structural elements are

divided into finite number of small elements of shapes like lines (frame

elements) or areas (triangles or quadrangle elements). FE forms

interconnected with their boundary nodes.

dimensional (2D shell elements) or three-dimensional (3D solid elements).

7

2. Degrees of Freedom

(translations and rotations) of an element from an initial to a final position. The

movement components for an element in space consist of:

represents the rotation around the j axis.

The finite elements that are commonly used for the structural analysis are:

The Frame (or bar) elements with various D.O.F, such as the frame

elements with 1 D.O.F (along translation D.O.F direction) to represent tie

beams, or frame elements with 3 D.O.F (one translation and 2 rotation

D.O.F) to represent beams subjected to non-axial loads within one plane

(local x-z or local x-y), or with 6 D.O.F to represent columns subjected to

axial forces and shear forces along both (X & Y) horizontal directions

8

Frame elements may be also used to represent structural walls (column

with equivalent section), or slabs (the grillage method) where the slab is

represented by a grid of 3 D.O.F frame elements along the length and the

width of the slab.

the generated internal forces include axial forces and flexural moments

(shear walls, prestressed concrete floor slabs, water tank walls and

slabs,).

o The plate elements (shell elements with 3 D.O.F UZ, RX, & RY) are used

to represent slabs.

o The membrane elements (shell elements with 3 D.O.F UX, UY, and RZ)

are used to represent structural elements in the case where the axial

forces represent the major internal force components (as the domes and

arched roof).

of volumetric structures such as dams, thick transfer slabs....

9

4. Global and Local Axis System

global axis system. The structural response is not affected by the location

of the global axis origin (0,0,0).

Figure 5.a. Frame Local Axis Figure 5.b. Shell Local Axis

local axis system (independent from the global system and the local

systems of the other elements), where typically:

The local x (or 1) axis is parallel to the element neutral axis, from

origin joint to end joint

The local y ( 2 or 3) axis is the second planar axis, perpendicular to x

axis

The local z (2 or 3) axis is perpendicular to xy (1-2 or 1-3) plane

The right hand rule may also helps in defining the local axis system shown

in the next figure.

10

The analysis results for FE are obtained according to the local axis systems.

For example the internal forces of the frame element parallel to local axis 1

(or x) represents the axial force (FX), V2 (or FZ) the vertical shear, V3 (or

FY) the horizontal shear, T (Mx) the torsion moment, M2 (MZ) the

horizontal flexural moment, M3 (MY)the vertical flexural moment.

For the shell elements F11, F12 and F22 represent the in-plane internal

forces, whereas V11, V12, V22, M11, M22, & M12 represent the out-of-

plane internal forces.

11

The internal forces and stresses and stresses in the above figure may also

be given as:

S11 SXX; S22SYY; S12SXY

M11 MXX; M22MYY; M12MXY

5. Basic Assumptions

performed taking into consideration the following:

of the rigidly interconnected structural systems (framing systems,

dual system, coupled system.). Rigid default connectivity type

may however be modified with total or partial releases of one or

more than one D.O.F

enhancement of the material behavior may be induced with the

modification of the elements stiffness

at the base level are assigned pin support type. The type of

supports may be modified to a fixed type in order to enable a

transmission of moments to the foundations. More realistic

system of foundation may be adopted with plate elements

(representing the foundations) supported by springs (elastic

foundations)

geometrically extended to the connectivity joint or line of these

elements.

12

Figure 9. Extended Elements at Connections

In the case of large difference between the clear length and the FE

length, rigid elements may be added to account for this difference.

13

6. Meshing of Area Elements (Slabs, Walls, Domes)

dome...) into a set of FE (shell, membrane, or plate) type triangles,

quadrangles, or combination of both. The meshed area represents an

assemble of discrete elements (and not a continuous medium) where the

FE analysis is carried out.

6.1- Shell Element shapes

The regularity of the FE shapes and their size affect the accuracy of the

analysis results. The most regular FE shapes are the square for quadrangle

FE and the equilateral triangle for the triangular FE. However, it is

recommended to consider the ratio of shape to be 1:2 (the minimum

length to maximum length). This ratio be increased 1:4 max.

14

The next figures show a rectangular (8x8m) solid slab, 20 cm thick meshed

with regular rectangular mesh than with an irregular mesh respectively.

The moment value at the center of area for the regularly meshed slab was

32.7 KNm whereas the irregular mesh generated 30.4 KNm moment at the

same point.

15

6.2 Mesh Refinement

The "mesh refinement" transforms the FE into smaller element sizes and

therefore increases the FE number in a contour area. Theoretically the

smaller the element size (the finer the mesh), the smaller the discretisation

error, and the accuracy of the analysis results increases, but computation

time increases.

of stresses are expected i.e. zones of the slab near supports or where

subjected to concentrated loads or moments. It is advisable to use mesh

size with the ratio 2:2:1 (the size of the element in its plane directions is 2

times the thickness). Another recommendation is to consider the elements

size not greater than 0.5m, or the span divided by 10.

The below figure 14 shows the layout of 20cm concrete solid slab

supported by 9 columns with 8.0 m spacing, whereas figures 2, 3, and 4

show the moment maps due to the self weight of the slab meshed with

elements size (1.6x1.6m), (0.4x0.4 m), and (0.1x0.1 m) respectively.

16

Figure 14. Coarse Mesh Moments Map

(1.6x1.6m) for the fine mesh (0.4x0.4m) -from 68.669 KNm/m to

73.313 KNm/m-.The fine mesh represents the recommended ratio

(2:2:1).

KNm/m) slightly different from the moment of the fine mesh.

(variation of 0.13%).

17

The increase in analysis results with the mesh refinement may be

represent schematically with the next figure 16.

refinement further than the recommended values has no significant effect

of the accuracy of the obtained results.

In brief, when the structural study targets the global behavior of the

building -as in Etabs- and the design of the structural elements (except the

floor slabs design), the refinement of the floor slabs mesh is not of major

importance since the results will not be used for the design of the slabs.

The refinement becomes of importance when the study targets the slabs

analysis and design (as in SAFE).

aspect of the analysis results tends toward infinity value. The singular

points can be typically encountered in the following cases:

The reentrant corners and sharp corners where the strain becomes

unbounded since the D.O.F are the displacement, and unless limited by

the material model, the stresses will be also infinite.

18

Figure 17. Reentrant Corners and Sharp corners

Extremely high stresses may result from finite element model including

singularity and typically the refinement of mesh around the singular

points increases the stresses. This may raise a problem when the

requirement of stress upper limit (say 70% of the yield stress) is defined.

The common trend of ignoring the small red spots (small zones of

extremely high analysis result values) may not be adequate.

This type of singularity may be avoided considering the following steps:

as the stress will dominate and obscure the rest of the solution.

In static load analysis, the stress results at singularities may be

excluded. Whereas under cyclic loads or when the analysis

involves material non-linear behavior for the creep effect, the

singularity effect becomes of concern and should be carefully

studied.

19

Fillet of the sharp corner (as the perfect sharp corners are rare in

reality).

Removing or modifying the small details that are not important

within the analysis and may generate singularities.

Applying point load in the plan of shells produces singularly effect and

generates local infinite stresses. This is due to the inverse variation of

stress to the distance of the point load, The point load does not exist in

reality, and under static loads both point load and the equivalent area load

give the same results. Same singularity effects may be generated from

boundary condition (edge wall supporting slab, point support,

unsymmetrical line support....) as illustrated in the next figure 18.

conditions is moved outside of the area of interest

20

Replacing the infinitely rigid supports by elastic sports(springs)

Ignoring the localized results at these red spots points. The analysis

results may be evaluated at a distance from the singular points.

Extremely high stresses may result from finite element model including

singularity and typically the refinement of mesh around the singular points

increases the stresses. This may raise a problem when the requirement of

stress upper limit (say 70% of the yield stress) is defined. The common

trend of ignoring the small red spots (small zones of extremely high

analysis result values) may not be adequate.

7 . Modeling of Columns

The frame FE analysis results, namely the internal forces, are directly used

for the design of sections, or the determination of the capacity, of the

columns.

8. Vertical Alignment

the upper floors as the internal forces decrease, the centerlines (CL) of

these elements become non-vertically aligned; therefore, the frame FE

will be disconnected at the floor levels.

following methods:

Vertical elements can be considered aligned if their center lines are at the

same vertical "Z" axis or if their center lines are slightly shifted. Slight

difference in the vertical alignment of the center lines may be ignored in

order to avoid the complexity related to the use of short rigid elements to

connect the CL at the floor levels.

21

Architectural layout (eccentric CL of Columns) Vertical Alignment

the use of stiff rigid elements at the floor levels (applicable for both

columns and walls). Rigid Element is a weightless frame FE with extremely

high flexural and shear stiffness.

22

8.3. Use of shell FE

Compared to the frame FE, higher geometrical and analytical accuracy are

generated with the use of shell elements because more joints are used to

define the column (4 FE instead of 2). However, the design of the column

in this case should not be performed in the same software since shell

elements are considered as shear walls in the design process (as in ETABS).

for the cases shown in figure 20.

The part of the core-wall going along the retaining wall may be

considered same as a part of the retaining wall with different thickness

(as previously explained in paragraph 9).

The implanted column need not to be assigned within the shell core-wall

element, as the internal forces in the embedded columns decrease due

to the shell stiffness. The internal forces of the column section above the

shell element commonly govern the design of the column. Typically, the

reinforcement of the critical section at the bottom of the column (at the

link with the shell element) is extended to the floor below in the shell

element.

23

The columns linked to a structural wall may be shifted to the wall center

line (or the wall center line shifted to the columns c.g ), or a rigid stiff

beam element may be used to connect the column c.g to the wall center

line.

Structural (shear) Walls and core-walls are commonly represented by shell FE.

The internal forces generated in these elements include in-plane and out-of-

plane components (Axial and shear forces, torsion and biaxial flexural

moments).

of the wall out of-plane stiffness since in the membrane FE only 3 (in-plane)

DOF are involved in the analysis. The analysis results of shear walls will not

include out of-plane internal forces.

Modeling the shear walls with 6 DOF shell FE, results in in-plan and out of-

plane 6 components of internal forces.

24

9.1 Meshing of Walls

shell element in each floor. In Etabs, it has by default the local axis system

as shown in the next figure21.

For a higher accuracy of the analysis results, its highly advisable to mesh

wall elements as previously recommended (the single wall shell element is

not automatically meshed by default in Etabs).

vertical shell elements.

25

To ensure the continuity of the wall, shell elements may be assigned auto edge

constraints (Etabs assigns by default auto-edge constraints). A better approach

of this case may be obtained by subdividing the longer element into several

elements as shown in the next figure.

Openings in the structural walls may be ignored if the area of the openings

is smaller than 15% of the wall area at the same floor (an exception is to be

considered for the case of longitudinal or transversal strip openings).

Larger openings shall be included within the wall shell elements.

When shell elements are used for the walls and core-walls, the generated

results are distributed per unit length of the element (forces/ unit length,

moments/unit length...). For design purposes, it may be preferable to

obtain the resultants of wall internal forces as concentrated along the

neutral axis, similarly to the frame FE results. This may be achieved with

different ways in the software (as advanced "reduced results" in Robot

Millennium or as pier results in Etabs....)

The pier function (or the reduced results) generates internal forces

including an important component for the design of the wall section that is

the in-plane moment of the wall (this component is not directly obtained

as FE shell result).

26

The in-plane moment (M3 or MY) is calculated from the summation of the

couples of axial forces generated from the normal stresses of the shell

element (s22 or syy).

Walls and core walls(1) may be assigned same pier label at all floor levels

except for the case were the wall is subdivided in more than one shell

within the same floor (case for large wall opening(2) ), in such case each

shell is assigned a different pier label.

The core wall maybe assigned several pier labels for each shell element.

Whatever is the assignment method of the core wall, the design results will

be the same (the area of reinforcement of the whole pier section =

summation of the reinforcement area of the different piers) since the pier

results -or the reduced results- are generated from the same FE shell

analysis.

27

Figure 25. Pier Assignment

(1)

When a wall is assigned an opening, the shell element shall be

subdivided into elements connected at boundary joints as illustrated

in the next figures.

with opening shell elements

28

9.5. Horizontal Alignment of walls

The walls and core-wall may have different thicknesses of their parts as

shown in the next figures. These differences lead to discontinuity of the

neutral axis of the wall and the core wall parts and therefore

disconnected wall section and core-wall section when shell elements are

used to represent these structural elements.

AutoCAD Polyline to structural wall elements may result in improper

connections of the shell elements.

the continuity between the parts, it is advisable to consider an idealized

wall or core wall sections as shown in the next figures.

29

Walls with variable thickness

in the next figure showing planar views of corner connected walls.

adjustment of the wall neutral axis, than subdividing the variable

thickness of the wall into segments each is represented by FE. The

thickness of the FE may be taken as the average thickness of the

adjusted wall segment.

30

9.6 Modeling of Walls and Core-Walls with Frame FE

simplified analysis as follow:

gravity1 (CG) line of the wall sections.

o The first frame element is going along the neutral axis of the core-

wall, and assigned the section properties related to axial stiffness

(namely the area and the modulus of elasticity).

o The second frame is located along the vertical axis of the shear

center and assigned the section properties related to the flexural

and torsion stiffness properties (Ix, Iy, and Iz) 2,3 .

31

The main advantage of using the Frame FE approach is the direct use of the

results (the internal forces) in the design of the wall/ core-wall sections,

whereas the use of shell elements requires followed by a pier assignment

(or reduced results) to generate results similar to the frame. The main

disadvantage is related to the disregard of the warping stresses of the

core-wall section behaving as thin-walled.

(1)

The Center of Gravity (CG) -or the center of area- is structurally defined

as the point of the cross section of an element that causes uniform

stresses and shortening -or elongation- of the element when subjected

to normal forces. When the applied normal force is eccentric with

respect to the CG, it generates different axial shortening (or elongation)

of the section points.

(2)

The Shear Center (SC) is structurally defined as the point of the cross

section of an element that causes lateral displacement for the case of

vertical elements (in-plane displacement of the element cross sections),

when a lateral force is applied at the SC. When the lateral force is

applied eccentrically to the SC the element, sections displace

horizontally and rotate (twist).

32

Figure 33. a. Wall Translation Figure 33. b. Wall Rotation due

due to Force along the S.C to Torsion From Eccentric Force

when the normal stresses at the wall boundaries exceed certain limit. The

boundary zones length from the of shear wall edge is varying from 0.15Lw

to 0.25Lw as shown in the next figure34.

For the core wall sections the boundary zones may be defined as the

corner zones of the walls intersection as the sections type U-shape, L-

shape, box-shape ... However in the case of complex section shape not all

walls intersection constitutes boundary zones.

33

Figure 35. Boundary Zones of Core Walls

The end zone in core-wall sections may be identified with as the zones

maximum normal stress values within the simplified normal stress

equation for a section subjected to axial force (N), and biaxial moments

(Mx and My) as explained in the following procedure.

- The datum of the stress diagram (line 0f zero stress) is obtained for = 0,

which lead to:

- The extreme values of stresses for a given (N, Mx, and My) are obtained

for the points at the far points of the section on the datum line as shown in

the next figure.

the extreme stresses, whereas the stresses at all section parts (including

the interior walls intersections) are within the extreme values.

34

Figure 36. Distribution of Normal in Core Walls

numerical model as frame FE or with shell elements as for the cases listed

in the next paragraph. Due to the rigid -by default- connectivity type

between beam frame elements to the vertical (columns or walls) frame or

shell elements, the numerical analysis generates framing (beam-columns)

and coupling (beam-walls) behaviors.

Due to the complexity of the design, detailing, and execution of the beam-

column and the beam-wall connections, the beam elements may not be

included in the building numerical. The beams role as supporting elements

35

of the floor slabs may be included in the study of the slabs (using SAFE

software for example).

gravity loads, rotational releases should be assigned to the beam-column

and beam-wall connection to prevent framing or coupling behavior.

However, releases of all structure beams may lead to instability warning

messages due to excessive releases.

36

Figure 39. Rigid Frame and Cantilevered Columns Moments

accurate modeling approach) for the following cases of beams:

Deep beams (or the wall beams) where the beam depth may cover a

whole floor height. The deep beams may be used to support the loads of

implanted columns

The coupling beams which are beams connecting walls along their

strongest axis of inertia

Beams connecting slab parts of different levels within the same floor.

37

Similar to the case of pier assignment of shear walls, when beams are

represented by shell elements, they are assigned spandrel label to generate

design forces (or as reduced results) at the centerline of the beam.

Figure 41. Local Axis Systems for shell and Spandrel Beams

The internal forces include the in-plane flexural moments (M3 or My) that

are calculated from the summation of the couple of forces generated from

the normal stresses (s11 or sxx), in a way similar to the determination of

the in-plane moment of shear wall assigned as pier.

Floors slabs are represented by thin 6 DOF shell FE. However slabs may be

represented by either:

framing behavior ,with columns, or coupling behavior (with walls) due to

lateral forces.

Plate FE which includes the flexural out of-plane slab inertia in the

numerical analysis. In this condition, no temperature analysis can be

performed since no in-plane D.O.F are involved.

Shell FE, where all degrees of freedom are used to generate in-plane and

out of-plane internal forces (as the PT slabs).

38

13. Modeling of Ramps and Stairs

Ramps and Stairs are type of inclined slabs between story levels. However,

and since they do not affect significantly the gravity loads distribution or

the diaphragm behavior of the floor slabs when buildings are subjected to

lateral forces, an approximation may be considered as flat ramps and

stairs at each floor level.

The story data for the numerical model may be summarized with the

following points:

slabs.

The story height: is the distance between the floor slabs mid-

thickness, except for the floor directly above foundation where the

story height is considered as the distance from the top of the

foundation to the mid-thickness of the first slab.

39

When the foundation system in not included in the numerical model,

the first floor slab is the cover slab of the foundation level, i.e. if the

building consists of 2 basement floors, the first floor slab assigned is

the basement 1 architectural slab.

Unlike the architectural drawings of floor slabs that shows the slab

geometry ,including shafts, recessed zones, and the vertical

elements above this slab, in some software (as ETABS), slabs are

assigned the vertical elements below -supporting- the slab,

supporting it.

when subjected to lateral forces due to wind pressure or earthquakes.

The earth pressure on the basement walls may be ignored due to the

following reasons:

earth pressure. Thus, the corresponding resultant is equal to

null.

the floor slabs and commonly minor effects on the vertical

elements. However, in the case of non-rigid diaphragm of the

floor slabs (strip slab shape, or slab with opening 50% of the

floor area), the effect of the lateral pressure on the vertical

elements should be taken into consideration.

peripheral walls at one or more than one sides of the basement

floors), part of the lateral earth pressure is transmitted as story

shear to the vertical elements. In such case, the earth pressure

should be assigned to the basement walls.

40

16. Stiffness Modifiers

of concrete material (Hooks low: = E) as in the case of most

engineering software, the flexural cracking of concrete and the

corresponding reduction of the flexural stiffness is not taken into

consideration.

Since the vertical elements (columns and walls) are mostly subjected to

compressive axial forces, they crack less than horizontal elements

(beams and slabs) which are subjected mostly to flexural moments.

The elastic analysis results in:

Overestimation of the internal forces in the horizontal elements.

Underestimation of the building lateral displacements (sway and

drifts), and deflections of slabs and beams.

(6.6.3.1.1) reduced inertia for vertical and horizontal elements as

follow:

affect the direct FE analysis results, or to affect the indirect FE shell

results as explained hereafter:

41

16.1 Stiffness modifiers for the FE direct results

reduction of stiffness is assigned for the moments of inertia

about axis 2 (or z) and axis 3 (or y).

The slabs (represented by plate of shell FE) the reduction of

stiffness is assigned for the flexural movements m11 (or mxx) and

m22 (or myy).

m12 (or mxy) should be taken into consideration. If this is not

being done than the slab torsion stiffness should be reduced to

null (0.001). However, if the slab analysis and design are

performed in an integrated software which account for torsion,

than no modification of the torsion stiffness need to be done.

the stiffness modifier, the out of-plane bending along m11 (mxx)

and m22 (myy), will not affect the in-plane main flexural moment

M3 (My) generated from normal stresses s22 (syy) for the walls

(Figure 24), and s11 (sxx) for the wall-beam (Figure 41). The

modification of the stiffness modifier components should

therefore be as follow:

(sxx) direction.

assigned to membrane f22 (syy) direction (1), bending m22

(myy) direction, and bending m11 (mxx) direction (2).

(1)

It is to note that when reducing the membrane f22 (syy) modifier

in order to reduce the flexural stiffness for the in-plane moments,

this reduces also the axial stiffness of the walls; thus resulting in

an underestimation of design axial forces of the walls due to the

gravity (dead and live) loads. The columns axial stiffness should

42

be assigned same reduction as for the wall to account for the

reduction of the walls axial capacity.

(2)

Where the floor slabs are assigned rigid diaphragm behavior (no

in-plane moments are generated), m11 (mxx) has no significant

value and may be omitted.

When subjected to lateral earthquake forces, the fixity level of the building

may be defined as the level of maximum internal forces, or the level of

minimum displacements. Based on this definition, the fixity level may not

be necessarily the same as the foundations level, especially for buildings

with basement floors connected to the basement peripheral walls.

peripheral basement walls ( the retaining walls) the ground level

represents the fixity level of the building with the reduction of the

earthquake moments on the structural resisting system of the building,

due to the contribution of the basement wall flexural stiffness.

Lateral Forces

taken into account the fact that as the earthquake moment decreases

43

below the ground level, the axial gravity forces increase, and therefore

the design may be governed by maximum moment at ground level or

maximum axial at lower basement levels.

The effects of the lateral forces are commonly related to location of the

applied forces. This in turn is related to specific geometrical points such

as the center of mass (COM), and the center of rotation (COR).

The Center Of Mass represents the location of the resultant of floor mass

i.e. the center of slab area when the mass is uniformly distributed, and

the related vertical elements masses. The vertical element masses

include half the vertical elements height below the slab, and half the

height above slab as shown in the next figure. The vertical element mass

is considered as the center of gravity of the section.

resisting system to lateral forces consists of shear walls, core walls,

cantilevered columns) or the center of shear rigidity for the frame

resisting system. The COR location is defined as the resultant of vertical

elements inertia (or shear rigidity). The inertia of vertical elements is

located at the center area of solid sections (rectangular, circular.) or

the shear center for the thin walled sections (core walls).

44

The position of the COM or the COI may be determined considering

arbitrary origin as shown in the next figure 45 for the determination of

the COR.

For the study of the building response to lateral forces as wind pressure,

earthquakes, earth pressure. (Except the temperature effects),

diaphragm behavior is assigned to the floor slabs. The rigid diaphragm

behavior may be explained by the following figure 46.

Points A and B have original coordinates (xA, yA), (xB, yB) with respect

to a reference point O, and the angel AOB. When the floor slab is

subjected to horizontal force and torsion (in-plane) moment, the new

coordinates of A' (xA, yA),B' (xB, yB) and are defined in the deformed

slab.

45

If: xA= xA; yA= yA; xB= xB; yB= yB; and =, than A, B, O (and all

slab points) are moved with the same degrees of freedom (2

displacements UX, UY, and one rotation RZ) and the slab is behaving as

rigid diaphragm.

reducing the numbers of unknowns (degrees of freedom) for each slab

point from 6 times the number of joints to 3, which results in reduction

of the runtime of the analysis. In addition, the diaphragm extent is used

in Etabs to evaluate the wind forces at the different story slabs levels.

analysis of loads that generate in-plane forces or deformation such as

the temperature gradient and the prestressed forces.

the floor slab. When the in-plane stiffness is reduced by any factor, or in

case of uncertainty of the extremely in-plan slab stiffness, semi-rigid or

flexible diaphragm behavior should be assigned to the floor slab.

The strip slab shape

Another criteria for the use of rigid diaphragm behavior, is when the

maximum lateral displacement in a floor slab exceeds 20 percent the

average displacement at the same floor slab.

46

19. Connectivity of Vertical to Horizontal Structural Elements

numerical models is of rigid type, and may be transformed to released or

partially released connection types. However, these types of connectivity

do not effectively represent the accurate behavior of connections in the

executed structures (namely the concrete structures) due to the following

reasons:

perfect elastic behavior of the material (Hooks low) and gross

section properties of the connected elements. Yet at certain level of

stresses, the material behaves non-linearly, and cracks of concrete

sections start to appear leading to reduction of the sections inertia.

Same phenomena may be generated in plastic zones of the

elements, away from the connectivity joint, due to excessive reversal

shear or normal stresses.

of elements stiffness constitutes also an approximation since it is

based on the consideration of same uniform- reduction of the

stiffness along the element length. The realistic behavior generates

reduction of inertia (due to cracking) that varies within the same

element from section to another in accordance to the stresses

magnitude.

vertical connection where no continuity in reinforcement is

provided. The floor slabs and beams are typically detailed as pin

supported by the columns and walls, as shown in the next figures.

unless the development length of rebar is enough extended to allow

for fixed or partially fixed joint behavior.

47

Figure 48. Vertical to Horizontal Elements connectivity types

horizontal elements at top floor level generates moments that

govern the design of the vertical elements at this level. The ratio of

reinforcement of the vertical elements, at this level, commonly

exceeds the ratio at several floors below. The vertical element can

be assigned end release to prevent the generation of moments at

the connecting joint. In the case where direct end release for walls

(or slab) is not available in the software as in Etabs for example, a

reduction of the out-of plane stiffness modifier (m22) leads to same

release results.

Connectivity at Top Level

48

c) The release of rotation at an element edge cannot be achieved in the

common practice of construction unless special element, like bearing

pads is used. This is due to the requirement of real hinges to reduce

the section moment of inertia of connected element edge to enable

free rotational movements.

seismic forces, the torsion additional eccentricity (as minimum of 5% of

the floor projected length perpendicular to the story seismic shear force)

should be considered as positive and negative respectively. By

considering two cases of loading (positive and negative eccentricities)

the analysis generates an envelope of internal forces for the resisting

system elements.

is performed without considering the additional eccentricity, since the

base shear of the static equivalent method needed to scale the

dynamic base shear- is independent of the additional eccentricity.

gravity loads, and inelastic type due to creep (generated from the

sustained compressive stresses due to axial loads) and shrinkage (typical

concrete behavior namely function of the volume to surface ratio,

reinforcement ratio end environmental conditions).

49

Figure 55. Shortening of Vertical Elements

redistribution of the internal design forces, namely in the floor slab, due to

the difference of the vertical elements post-installation shortening.

The determination of the vertical elements shortening (elastic+ inelastic)

may be fully performed in some software, whereas part of shortening is

determined analytically and the remaining part numerically if the software

does not enable the whole procedure.

50

21.2 P-Delta analysis of buildings

linearity effects on the vertical elements. The next sketches show the

generated forces (Diagrams of normal forces, shear forces, and

moments respectively) of a vertical cantilever without geometrical

nonlinearity and with geometrical P-Delta analysis.

The effect of P-delta analysis may not have important effects on building

unless the stability coefficient ratio "" of the cumulative secondary to

main moment exceeds 0.1. According to the IBC 1617.4.6.2 "" is

determined by the equation:

= Px/VxhsxCd

Where:

= design story drift occurring simultaneously with Vx

Vx = seismic shear force acting between levels x and x-1

hsx = story height below level x

Cd = deflection amplification factor

The use of the P-Delta analysis should be carefully conducted, and the

related parameters shall be reviewed (which vertical loads have

been involved, the convergence to analysis for the given number of

iterations).

51

Figure 50. Internal Force Diagrams for Linear and Non-Linear Analysis

elastic supports. However, the following should be taken into

consideration The soil stiffness is determined with the soil subgrade

modulus "Ksub" that is commonly provided by the geotechnical study or

by approximate methods as equal to 120*qallowable or Es/B(1-2),.....

Where:

qallowable = soil bearing capacity (t/m2)

Es= soil modulus of elasticity

B = the least foundation planar size

= soil poisson's ratio

52

By using the subgrade modulus, the software generates springs

(representing the soil stiffness) with single partially restricted

degree of freedom parallel to the vertical global direction.

foundation to prevent instability of the structure

soil-structure interaction behavior, since it does not account for

the main important factors:

o The shear deformation of the soil

o the mutual interaction behavior of the soil-structure

(redistribution of stresses in the upper structural system

and the soil)

o The effects of load from adjacent structures

The bearing pile is commonly represented by spring with one -or multi-

D.O.F. The spring is assigned stiffness along the vertical and horizontal

directions for pile-foundation hinge connectivity, or springs along the

vertical, horizontal, and rotational directions for the pile-foundation rigid

connectivity type.

The vertical stiffness Kz of the spring represents the least value between

the reinforced concrete capacity and the geotechnical capacity (skin

capacity + end bearing capacity if exist).

which is commonly performed at the early stage of structure execution.

Therefore, a preliminary value of Kz should be adopted for the structural

study phase.

o From recommended geotechnical studies.

53

o Conservatively evaluated as the axial stiffness of the concrete pile

as:

F= Kz allowable Kz = F/ allowable

Where:

F= Apile*conc

Apile = Cross section area of pile = d2/4

d = Pile diameter

conc = Allowable normal stress of concrete assumed limited to 0.25f'c

f'c = Compressive strength of concrete

allowable = Allowable settlement of pile that may be assumed as 0.01d

Kz = d2* 0.25 f'c/(4*0.01d) 20*f'c*d

(Kx and Ky) it may be assigned an approximate value of 0.1 Kz.

from an interactive structural-geotechnical study.

points of the foundation on the circumference of the pile to the point

spring.

54

Higher accuracy of pile behavior may be obtained with non-linear Kz

spring.

in accordance to the above-mentioned approaches. However, the large

difference between the pile and the soil vertical spring stiffness should

be taken into consideration. Otherwise, the analysis results in

overestimation of the soil spring contribution to support the loads

transmitted to the soil.

There are several approximate ways to account for this difference, such

as:

Neglecting the soil vertical stiffness in the case where the piles are

grid-closely-type distributed

Neglecting the soil stiffness in the zones surrounding the piles and

considering full soil stiffness outside these zones in the case of

spaced distribution of piles

25. Warnings

reasons such as the boundary conditions, the F.E mesh (size, shape

irregularity, connectivity). In some cases, warnings do not affect the

structural response and may be ignored, nevertheless, its preferable to

eliminate this warnings. In other cases, warnings importantly affect the

analysis results and should be treated.

The structure may be unstable without warning massage during the run

of the analysis. This may be due to excessive movement of the structure

or a part of it. It is useful to run a preliminary modal analysis to check

the stability, if there is very large periods than the structure is unstable

to one (or more than one) of the following reasons:

55

Loss of stiffness

Defining of masses

Loss of accuracy

If caused by the loss of stiffness, the mode shape of the large period

indicates where the instability occurs.

structure or the supporting joints, and therefore warnings, as illustrated

in the following cases.

Case1

Figure

52. Single Span with by Sliding Supports

Case2

56

Case3

accuracy. 3 cases might be encountered:

by the software and won't be reported

error message and the running is aborted.

balance relative error should be checked for each load case to be

relatively small (within 1% for example). this can be checked in the

*.out file, the *.log file, or equivalent.

structure, or structures with P-Delta activated and there are short elements

in compression. The factors related to the stability (as the boundary

conditions and the stiffness) should be revised.

57

26. Import of geometrical data from AutoCAD Files

The geometrical structural data that are used for the numerical model

may be prepared from the architectural drawings following the below

recommended steps:

Four new layers are to be created in the AutoCAD architectural files for

th2e: slabs (S-Slab), Walls (S-Wall), Columns (S-Column), and Openings

(S-Opening).

The new structure layers are used to create the contour of the

corresponding elements i.e. Slabs, Walls, Columns, and Openings. All

contour lines are to be closed polyline type.

Each floor slab is exported into a new file with a reference point (same

horizontal coordinates point at all levels) at origin (coordinates 0, 0, 0).

The reference point should be architecturally fixed such as an inner

corner of the lift shaft or staircase.

version) with the same architectural floor slab label

geometry

58

Figure 58. Slab on Grade

59

Contact mail:

ytemsah@hotmail.com

60

61

- ICE(I)Hochgeladen vonsatydevsinghnegi
- Sap2000 V14 Step by Step Based on a Structure ModelHochgeladen vonjdfdferer
- (1982 Newmark & Hall - EERI) Earthquake Spectra and DesignHochgeladen vonsanpaz75
- Pin vs Fixed Joints in TrussHochgeladen vongazzafletch
- ENGM054 Year 2011 - RevisedHochgeladen vonFrancis Zigi
- Monorail Crane BeamHochgeladen vonConifer Yu
- Structural EngineeringHochgeladen vonNeesaun Naveed
- Membrane 04Hochgeladen vonCristian Bucata
- Minimum Potential EnergyHochgeladen vonAhmad Sultan
- 7022 Eng Advanced Steel Structures GriffithHochgeladen vonApril Ingram
- Structural Analysis Software and Milsoft Utility Solution Integration - Wil Schulze, PEHochgeladen vonMilsoft Utility Solutions
- Chapter 2_AUS.pdfHochgeladen vonMongi Ben Ouezdou
- TrussesHochgeladen vonsamadony
- CE201 Statics Chap6Hochgeladen vonFazelah Yakub
- nbc Training schedule.xlsHochgeladen vonSudan Shrestha
- Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Concentrically a Braced FramesHochgeladen vonPralhad Kore
- Mechanical Intro 17.0 M03 Structural AnalysisHochgeladen vonSamedŠkulj
- 0Basic Structural Analysis- Second EditionHochgeladen vonVu Duy
- Catia and FeaHochgeladen vonsantosh gorli
- Red DragonHochgeladen vonJohn Dell Tolentino
- An Innovative Method of Teaching Structural Analysis and DesignHochgeladen vonm
- Amie Syllabus Sec b CivilHochgeladen vonMaha Kalai
- IntroductionHochgeladen voneph
- ASPHochgeladen vonWesleykit Wong
- Seismic Analysis of Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges by an Integrated Finite Strip MethodHochgeladen vonEsakahn
- 3-Storey Building Load Analysis FinalHochgeladen vonJhon Philip Camayang
- integrated report for 4th year, 2011.xlsxHochgeladen vonephrem
- 1Hochgeladen vonNavin Jayswal
- MDM-SECTION-3&4&5.xlsxHochgeladen vonKeyvin dela Cruz
- Progressive Collapse Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structure With and Without Considering Actual Soil ConditionHochgeladen vonAnonymous GlDaR6gB

- Beam Design Formulas With Shear and MomentHochgeladen vonMuhammad Saqib Abrar
- Sap TutorHochgeladen vonBambang Purnomo
- Slab LayoutHochgeladen vonSuman Saha
- Introduction to Modeling-Dr TemsahHochgeladen vonAyman Trad
- Intro to ModlingHochgeladen vonTobias Nevarez
- Expansive Soils, Problems and Practice in Foundation and Pavement EngineeringHochgeladen vonTobias Nevarez

- Boq Mofa AG HVAC ElecrHochgeladen vonsloba68
- Aisc Clean Columns Worksheet.xlsHochgeladen vonscrbdgharavi
- AS3600-2009 Wall DesignHochgeladen vonMREFAAT
- CBP Wall.dwgHochgeladen vonsambasivamme
- YBVol2Part3ProductsNonReactiveSpraysMar13Hochgeladen vonGolgojan Ionel-Puiu
- Steel Composite 1 VERY GOOD MahfuzHochgeladen vonLivian Teddy
- 042200 Concrete Unit MasonryHochgeladen vonPonz Madiano
- Imperfection Analysis of Structures With Solved Examples - StructvilleHochgeladen vonDeRudy
- Tablas Para Metal DeckHochgeladen vonJoedu Pesantez
- Sw-2 Sections (Gang Form)Hochgeladen vonErik Ferrer
- Hanson Omnia Brochure FLOORING systemHochgeladen vonDC1234
- Doubly Reinforced Concrete Design.pdfHochgeladen vonJohn
- Desain Pci GirderHochgeladen vonFajrin Hernata
- GuidelinesforDetailingofReinforcementinConcreteStructures.pdfHochgeladen vonescalonaronald4788
- fema499_4_1Hochgeladen vonB
- Light Gauge Framing System LgfsHochgeladen vondeepakchukkala
- Methods of Steel Structure DesignHochgeladen vonJizelle De Leon Jumaquio
- 2014 NYC Building Code - CH 16Hochgeladen vonJen Park
- MasterRheobuild 1100 v1Hochgeladen vonVivek Gaur
- Paper.pdfHochgeladen vonsabareesan09
- 21 Case Study Capital Gate Abu DhabiHochgeladen vonRaunak Chaudhary
- Jobaid2 Checklist for Design of MasonryHochgeladen vonrmm99rmm99
- Backup Volume BoxHochgeladen vonAgung Prayoga
- COMBRI_Part_I_EN--9371282249e11d8d4e06fea6ebb347d7Hochgeladen vonAlin Salagean
- Sensitivity Analysis for Seismic ResponseHochgeladen vonbaba97k
- 64 - Basics of Post Installed Rebar Connections-hiltiHochgeladen vonjrobert123321
- Types of Partition Walls for Home and OfficesHochgeladen vonYogendra Patil
- IESL PR PresentationHochgeladen vonSubhawickrama Chamin
- 1509524703_214-mantaka_mahjabin.pdfHochgeladen vonmrmeraj
- Civil ContentHochgeladen vonRossi350

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.