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VES1724-56

24-port Temperature-Hardened VDSL2 Box DSLAM

Version 3.80
Edition 1, 9/2013

Quick Start Guide

Users Guide

Default Login Details


LAN IP Address http://192.168.1.1
User Name admin
Password
www.zyxel.com 1234

Copyright 2013 ZyXEL Communications Corporation


IMPORTANT!

READ CAREFULLY BEFORE USE.

KEEP THIS GUIDE FOR FUTURE REFERENCE.

Screenshots and graphics in this book may differ slightly from your product due to differences in
your product firmware or your computer operating system. Every effort has been made to ensure
that the information in this manual is accurate.

Related Documentation
Support Disc
Refer to the included CD for support documents.

2 VES1724-56 Users Guide


Contents Overview

Contents Overview

Users Guide ........................................................................................................................... 17

Getting to Know Your Switch ......................................................................................................19


Hardware Installation and Connection .......................................................................................23
Hardware Overview ....................................................................................................................26
The Web Configurator ................................................................................................................33
Initial Setup Example .................................................................................................................42
Tutorials .....................................................................................................................................46

Technical Reference .............................................................................................................. 51

System Status and Port Statistics ..............................................................................................53


Basic Setting .............................................................................................................................70
VDSL Setup ...............................................................................................................................97
VLAN ........................................................................................................................................129
Static MAC Forward Setup .......................................................................................................152
Static Multicast Forward Setup .................................................................................................154
Filtering ....................................................................................................................................158
Spanning Tree Protocol ............................................................................................................160
Broadcast Storm Control ..........................................................................................................176
Mirroring ...................................................................................................................................178
Link Aggregation ......................................................................................................................180
Port Authentication ...................................................................................................................186
MAC Limit .................................................................................................................................191
Classifier ..................................................................................................................................194
Policy Rule ..............................................................................................................................200
Queuing Method .......................................................................................................................205
VLAN Stacking .........................................................................................................................208
Multicast ...................................................................................................................................217
Authentication and Accounting .................................................................................................236
IP Source Guard ......................................................................................................................249
Loop Guard ..............................................................................................................................270
CFM .........................................................................................................................................274
VLAN Mapping .........................................................................................................................278
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling ......................................................................................................282
DoS Prevention ........................................................................................................................286
PPPoE IA .................................................................................................................................288
Static Route ..............................................................................................................................301
Differentiated Services .............................................................................................................304
DHCP ....................................................................................................................................... 311

VES1724-56 Users Guide 3


Contents Overview

Maintenance .............................................................................................................................327
Access Control .........................................................................................................................334
Diagnostic ................................................................................................................................356
Syslog ......................................................................................................................................358
Loop Diagnostic .......................................................................................................................361
MAC Table ................................................................................................................................365
ARP Table ................................................................................................................................367
Hardware Information ...............................................................................................................369
CFM Action ..............................................................................................................................370
IPv6 Cache ...............................................................................................................................372
Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................377
Product Specifications ..............................................................................................................381

4 VES1724-56 Users Guide


Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Contents Overview .................................................................................................................. 3

Table of Contents ..................................................................................................................... 5

Part I: Users Guide ................................................................................17

Chapter 1
Getting to Know Your Switch................................................................................................. 19

1.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................19


1.2 Applications ..........................................................................................................................19
1.2.1 MTU Application .........................................................................................................19
1.2.2 Curbside Application ...................................................................................................20
1.3 Ways to Manage the Switch .................................................................................................21
1.4 Good Habits for Managing the Switch ..................................................................................21

Chapter 2
Hardware Installation and Connection ................................................................................. 23

2.1 Installation Scenarios ...........................................................................................................23


2.2 Desktop Installation Procedure ...........................................................................................23
2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack ...........................................................................................24
2.3.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements ...................................................................24
2.3.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch ..........................................................24
2.3.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack ..................................................................................25
2.4 Connecting the Frame Ground ............................................................................................25

Chapter 3
Hardware Overview ................................................................................................................ 26

3.1 Front Panel ..........................................................................................................................26


3.1.1 Power Connector ........................................................................................................26
3.1.2 Gigabit Ethernet Ports ...............................................................................................27
3.1.3 Mini-GBIC Slots ..........................................................................................................28
3.1.4 Management Port .......................................................................................................29
3.1.5 Console Port ...............................................................................................................30
3.1.6 ALARM Slot ................................................................................................................30
3.2 LEDs ...................................................................................................................................31

Chapter 4
The Web Configurator ............................................................................................................ 33

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Table of Contents

4.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................33


4.2 System Login ....................................................................................................................33
4.3 The Port Status Screen ...................................................................................................34
4.3.1 Change Your Password ...........................................................................................39
4.4 Saving Your Configuration ...................................................................................................39
4.5 Switch Lockout .....................................................................................................................39
4.6 Resetting the Switch ............................................................................................................40
4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File .....................................................................................40
4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator .................................................................................41
4.8 Help .....................................................................................................................................41

Chapter 5
Initial Setup Example.............................................................................................................. 42

5.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................42


5.2 Configuring Switch Management IP Address .......................................................................42
5.2.1 Creating a VLAN .........................................................................................................43
5.2.2 Setting Port VID ..........................................................................................................44

Chapter 6
Tutorials ................................................................................................................................... 46

6.1 How to Use DHCP Relay Per VLAN on the Switch ..............................................................46
6.1.1 DHCP Relay Tutorial Introduction ...............................................................................46
6.1.2 Creating a VLAN .........................................................................................................46
6.1.3 Configuring Management IP Address .........................................................................48
6.1.4 Configuring DHCP VLAN Settings ..............................................................................49
6.1.5 Testing the Connection ...............................................................................................50

Part II: Technical Reference...................................................................51

Chapter 7
System Status and Port Statistics......................................................................................... 53

7.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................53


7.2 Port Status Summary ...........................................................................................................53
7.2.1 VDSL Port Status Change ..........................................................................................54
7.2.2 VDSL Port Details .......................................................................................................55
7.2.3 Bonding Group Details ...............................................................................................65
7.2.4 VDSL Summary ..........................................................................................................66
7.2.5 Port Details .................................................................................................................67

Chapter 8
Basic Setting .......................................................................................................................... 70

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Table of Contents

8.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................70


8.2 System Information ...........................................................................................................70
8.3 General Setup ..................................................................................................................72
8.4 Introduction to VLANs .........................................................................................................74
8.5 Switch Setup Screen .........................................................................................................75
8.6 IPv6 Introduction ..................................................................................................................76
8.6.1 IPv6 Addressing .........................................................................................................76
8.6.2 IPv6 Prefix and Prefix Length .....................................................................................77
8.6.3 IPv6 Subnet Masking ..................................................................................................77
8.6.4 Interface ID .................................................................................................................77
8.6.5 Link-local Address ......................................................................................................77
8.6.6 Global Address ...........................................................................................................77
8.6.7 Unspecified .................................................................................................................78
8.6.8 EUI-64 ........................................................................................................................78
8.6.9 Stateless Autoconfiguration ........................................................................................78
8.7 IP Setup ..............................................................................................................................79
8.7.1 Management IP Addresses ........................................................................................79
8.8 External Alarm Switch ..........................................................................................................81
8.9 Port Setup ...........................................................................................................................82
8.10 Rate Limit Profile Setup ....................................................................................................84
8.10.1 Per Queue Ratelimit Profile .....................................................................................85
8.11 Hardware Alarm Profile ......................................................................................................87
8.12 CPE Port Status .................................................................................................................87
8.13 IPv6 Setup ..........................................................................................................................88
8.13.1 IPv6 Setup: Configuration .........................................................................................90
8.13.2 IPv6 ND Setup ..........................................................................................................91
8.13.3 IPv6 Neighbor Setup ................................................................................................91
8.14 SFP Threshold Setup ........................................................................................................93

Chapter 9
VDSL Setup ............................................................................................................................. 97

9.1 VDSL Overview ...................................................................................................................97


9.1.1 VDSL Profile Example ..............................................................................................101
9.1.2 Primary and Fallback VDSL Templates Example .....................................................102
9.2 VDSL Line Setup ................................................................................................................103
9.3 VDSL Template Setup ........................................................................................................104
9.3.1 VDSL Line Profile Setup ...........................................................................................106
9.3.2 VDSL Line Profile Setup > Rate Adaptive ................................................................109
9.3.3 VDSL Line Profile Setup > MIB PSD Mask .............................................................. 111
9.3.4 VDSL Line Profile Setup > DPBO ............................................................................. 112
9.3.5 VDSL Line Profile Setup > RFI Band ........................................................................ 113
9.3.6 VDSL Line Profile Setup > Virtual Noise .................................................................. 115
9.3.7 VDSL Channel Profile Setup .................................................................................... 116

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Table of Contents

9.3.8 VDSL G.INP Setup ................................................................................................... 118


9.3.9 VDSL INM Profile Setup ........................................................................................... 119
9.4 VDSL Alarm Template Setup .............................................................................................121
9.4.1 VDSL Line Alarm Profile Setup ................................................................................122
9.4.2 VDSL Channel Alarm Profile Setup ..........................................................................124
9.5 VDSL Bonding Setup .........................................................................................................125

Chapter 10
VLAN ...................................................................................................................................... 129

10.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLANs ..............................................................129


10.1.1 Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames ............................................................129
10.1.2 VLAN Tagging Priority ............................................................................................130
10.2 Automatic VLAN Registration ..........................................................................................130
10.2.1 GARP .....................................................................................................................130
10.2.2 GVRP .....................................................................................................................130
10.3 Port VLAN Trunking ........................................................................................................131
10.4 Select the VLAN Type .....................................................................................................131
10.5 Static VLAN ......................................................................................................................132
10.5.1 Static VLAN Status ................................................................................................132
10.5.2 VLAN Details .........................................................................................................133
10.5.3 Configure a Static VLAN .....................................................................................134
10.5.4 Configure a VLAN Profile .......................................................................................135
10.5.5 Configure VLAN Port Settings ............................................................................137
10.6 Subnet Based VLANs .....................................................................................................138
10.7 Configuring Subnet Based VLAN ...................................................................................139
10.8 Protocol Based VLANs ....................................................................................................141
10.9 Configuring Protocol Based VLAN ...................................................................................142
10.10 Create an IP-based VLAN Example ...............................................................................143
10.11 Configuring MAC Based VLAN ......................................................................................144
10.12 Port Based VLAN Setup ................................................................................................146
10.12.1 Configure a Port Based VLAN .............................................................................147
10.13 VLAN Counter ................................................................................................................150

Chapter 11
Static MAC Forward Setup................................................................................................... 152

11.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................152


11.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding ..............................................................................152

Chapter 12
Static Multicast Forward Setup ........................................................................................... 154

12.1 Static Multicast Forwarding Overview ..............................................................................154


12.2 Configuring Static Multicast Forwarding ...........................................................................155

8 VES1724-56 Users Guide


Table of Contents

Chapter 13
Filtering.................................................................................................................................. 158

13.1 Configure a Filtering Rule .............................................................................................158

Chapter 14
Spanning Tree Protocol........................................................................................................ 160

14.1 STP/RSTP Overview .......................................................................................................160


14.1.1 STP Terminology ...................................................................................................160
14.1.2 How STP Works ....................................................................................................161
14.1.3 STP Port States .....................................................................................................161
14.1.4 Multiple RSTP ........................................................................................................162
14.1.5 Multiple STP ...........................................................................................................162
14.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Status Screen ............................................................................165
14.3 Spanning Tree Configuration ..........................................................................................165
14.4 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol ......................................................................166
14.5 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status ........................................................................167
14.6 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol ........................................................168
14.7 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status ...........................................................170
14.8 Configure Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol ...................................................................171
14.9 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Status ........................................................................173

Chapter 15
Broadcast Storm Control ..................................................................................................... 176

15.1 Broadcast Storm Control Setup .......................................................................................176

Chapter 16
Mirroring ................................................................................................................................ 178

16.1 Port Mirroring Setup ........................................................................................................178

Chapter 17
Link Aggregation .................................................................................................................. 180

17.1 Link Aggregation Overview .............................................................................................180


17.2 Dynamic Link Aggregation ..............................................................................................180
17.2.1 Link Aggregation ID ...............................................................................................181
17.3 Link Aggregation Status ..................................................................................................181
17.4 Link Aggregation Setting .................................................................................................182
17.5 Link Aggregation Control Protocol ................................................................................183
17.6 Static Trunking Example ..................................................................................................184

Chapter 18
Port Authentication .............................................................................................................. 186

18.1 Port Authentication Overview ..........................................................................................186


18.1.1 IEEE 802.1x Authentication ....................................................................................186

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Table of Contents

18.1.2 MAC Authentication ................................................................................................187


18.2 Port Authentication Configuration ....................................................................................188
18.2.1 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security ............................................................................188
18.2.2 Activate MAC Authentication .................................................................................189

Chapter 19
MAC Limit .............................................................................................................................. 191

19.1 MAC Limit Overview ........................................................................................................191


19.2 MAC Limit .........................................................................................................................191
19.2.1 MAC Limit: VLAN Security ......................................................................................192

Chapter 20
Classifier................................................................................................................................ 194

20.1 About the Classifier and QoS ...........................................................................................194


20.2 Configuring the Classifier ................................................................................................194
20.3 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration ...................................................................197
20.4 Classifier Example ...........................................................................................................199

Chapter 21
Policy Rule ........................................................................................................................... 200

21.1 Policy Rules Overview ....................................................................................................200


21.1.1 DiffServ ...................................................................................................................200
21.1.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior .................................................................................200
21.2 Configuring Policy Rules ..................................................................................................200
21.3 Policy Example .................................................................................................................204

Chapter 22
Queuing Method ................................................................................................................... 205

22.1 Queuing Method Overview ..............................................................................................205


22.1.1 Strictly Priority Queuing ..........................................................................................205
22.1.2 Weighted Fair Queuing ...........................................................................................205
22.1.3 Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) ............................................................205
22.2 Configuring Queuing ........................................................................................................206

Chapter 23
VLAN Stacking ...................................................................................................................... 208

23.1 VLAN Stacking Overview ................................................................................................208


23.1.1 VLAN Stacking Example .........................................................................................208
23.2 VLAN Stacking Port Roles ...............................................................................................209
23.3 VLAN Tag Format .............................................................................................................210
23.3.1 Frame Format .........................................................................................................210
23.4 Configuring VLAN Stacking .............................................................................................. 211
23.4.1 Port-based Q-in-Q ..................................................................................................212

10 VES1724-56 Users Guide


Table of Contents

23.4.2 Selective Q-in-Q ....................................................................................................214


23.4.3 Port-based InnerQ ..................................................................................................215

Chapter 24
Multicast ................................................................................................................................ 217

24.1 Multicast Overview ..........................................................................................................217


24.1.1 IP Multicast Addresses ...........................................................................................217
24.1.2 IGMP Filtering .........................................................................................................217
24.1.3 IGMP Snooping .....................................................................................................217
24.1.4 IGMP Snooping and VLANs ...................................................................................218
24.1.5 IGMP Proxy ............................................................................................................218
24.1.6 Multicast Listener Discovery ...................................................................................218
24.1.7 MLD Messages .......................................................................................................218
24.2 Multicast Status ...............................................................................................................219
24.3 Multicast Setting ..............................................................................................................224
24.4 IGMP Snooping VLAN ....................................................................................................226
24.5 IGMP Filtering Profile ......................................................................................................227
24.6 MVR Overview ................................................................................................................229
24.6.1 Types of MVR Ports ................................................................................................229
24.6.2 MVR Modes ............................................................................................................229
24.6.3 How MVR Works ....................................................................................................229
24.7 General MVR Configuration .............................................................................................230
24.8 MVR Group Configuration ...............................................................................................232
24.8.1 MVR Configuration Example ..................................................................................234

Chapter 25
Authentication and Accounting .......................................................................................... 236

25.1 Authentication, Authorization and Accounting .................................................................236


25.1.1 Local User Accounts ...............................................................................................236
25.1.2 RADIUS and TACACS+ .........................................................................................237
25.2 Authentication and Accounting Screens ..........................................................................237
25.2.1 RADIUS Server Setup ........................................................................................237
25.2.2 TACACS+ Server Setup .....................................................................................240
25.2.3 Authentication and Accounting Setup .................................................................242
25.2.4 Vendor Specific Attribute ........................................................................................244
25.3 Supported RADIUS Attributes ..........................................................................................245
25.3.1 Attributes Used for Authentication ..........................................................................245
25.3.2 Attributes Used for Accounting ...............................................................................246

Chapter 26
IP Source Guard.................................................................................................................... 249

26.1 IP Source Guard Overview ..............................................................................................249


26.1.1 DHCP Snooping Overview .....................................................................................249

VES1724-56 Users Guide 11


Table of Contents

26.1.2 ARP Inspection Overview .......................................................................................251


26.2 IP Source Guard ..............................................................................................................253
26.3 IP Source Guard Static Binding ........................................................................................253
26.4 DHCP Snooping ...............................................................................................................255
26.5 DHCP Snooping Configure ..............................................................................................257
26.5.1 DHCP Snooping Port Configure .............................................................................259
26.5.2 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure ..........................................................................260
26.6 ARP Inspection Status .....................................................................................................261
26.6.1 ARP Inspection VLAN Status .................................................................................263
26.6.2 ARP Inspection Log Status .....................................................................................264
26.7 ARP Inspection Configure ................................................................................................265
26.7.1 ARP Inspection Port Configure ...............................................................................266
26.7.2 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure ............................................................................268

Chapter 27
Loop Guard ........................................................................................................................... 270

27.1 Loop Guard Overview .....................................................................................................270


27.2 Loop Guard Setup ............................................................................................................272

Chapter 28
CFM ........................................................................................................................................ 274

28.1 CFM Overview ................................................................................................................274


28.1.1 How CFM Works .....................................................................................................274
28.2 CFM MA ...........................................................................................................................275
28.3 CFM MD ...........................................................................................................................277

Chapter 29
VLAN Mapping ...................................................................................................................... 278

29.1 VLAN Mapping Overview ................................................................................................278


29.1.1 VLAN Mapping Example ........................................................................................278
29.2 Enabling VLAN Mapping ..................................................................................................279
29.3 Configuring VLAN Mapping ..............................................................................................280

Chapter 30
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling.................................................................................................. 282

30.1 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Overview .............................................................................282


30.1.1 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Mode ...........................................................................283
30.2 Configuring Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling ...........................................................................284

Chapter 31
DoS Prevention ..................................................................................................................... 286

31.1 DoS Prevention Overview ...............................................................................................286


31.2 Configuring DoS Prevention .............................................................................................286

12 VES1724-56 Users Guide


Table of Contents

Chapter 32
PPPoE IA ............................................................................................................................... 288

32.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Overview .............................................................................288


32.1.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Tag Format .................................................................288
32.1.2 Sub-Option Format .................................................................................................289
32.1.3 PPPoE IA Configuration Options ............................................................................289
32.2 The PPPoE IA Status Screen ...........................................................................................290
32.3 PPPoE IA Port Tel Configuration ......................................................................................290
32.4 PPPoE IA Global Configuration ......................................................................................291
32.5 PPPoE IA VLAN Configuration .......................................................................................293
32.6 ADSL Fallback .................................................................................................................295
32.6.1 PVC Configuration ..................................................................................................295
32.6.2 IPPVC Configuration ..............................................................................................297
32.6.3 PAEPVC Configuration ...........................................................................................299

Chapter 33
Static Route ........................................................................................................................... 301

33.1 Static Routing Overview ...................................................................................................301


33.2 Configuring Static Routing ................................................................................................302

Chapter 34
Differentiated Services......................................................................................................... 304

34.1 DiffServ Overview ...........................................................................................................304


34.1.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior .................................................................................304
34.1.2 DiffServ Network Example .....................................................................................304
34.2 Two Rate Three Color Marker Traffic Policing .................................................................305
34.2.1 TRTCM-Color-blind Mode .......................................................................................306
34.2.2 TRTCM-Color-aware Mode ....................................................................................306
34.3 Activating DiffServ ...........................................................................................................306
34.3.1 Configuring 2-Rate 3 Color Marker Settings ..........................................................307
34.4 DSCP-to-IEEE 802.1p Priority Settings ......................................................................309
34.4.1 Configuring DSCP Settings ....................................................................................309

Chapter 35
DHCP...................................................................................................................................... 311

35.1 DHCP Overview .............................................................................................................. 311


35.1.1 DHCP Modes ......................................................................................................... 311
35.1.2 DHCP Configuration Options .................................................................................. 311
35.2 DHCP Status .................................................................................................................... 311
35.3 DHCP Port Tel ..................................................................................................................312
35.4 DHCP Relay ....................................................................................................................313
35.4.1 DHCP Relay Agent Information ..............................................................................313
35.4.2 DHCP Relay Agent Information Format .................................................................313

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Table of Contents

35.4.3 Sub-Option Format .................................................................................................313


35.4.4 Configuring DHCP Global Relay ............................................................................314
35.4.5 Global DHCP Relay Configuration Example ..........................................................317
35.5 Configuring DHCP VLAN Settings ................................................................................318
35.5.1 Example: DHCP Relay for Two VLANs ..................................................................320
35.6 DHCPv6 LDRA .................................................................................................................321
35.6.1 DHCPv6 Counter ....................................................................................................324
35.6.2 Snooping Configure ................................................................................................324

Chapter 36
Maintenance .......................................................................................................................... 327

36.1 The Maintenance Screen ...............................................................................................327


36.2 Firmware Upgrade ...........................................................................................................328
36.2.1 Dual Firmware Image .............................................................................................328
36.3 Restore a Configuration File ............................................................................................329
36.4 Backup a Configuration File .............................................................................................330
36.5 Load Factory Default .......................................................................................................330
36.6 Save Configuration ...........................................................................................................331
36.7 Reboot System .................................................................................................................331
36.8 FTP Command Line .........................................................................................................331
36.8.1 Filename Conventions ...........................................................................................331
36.8.2 FTP Command Line Procedure .............................................................................332
36.8.3 GUI-based FTP Clients ...........................................................................................333
36.8.4 FTP Restrictions ....................................................................................................333

Chapter 37
Access Control ..................................................................................................................... 334

37.1 Access Control Overview ................................................................................................334


37.2 The Access Control Main Screen .....................................................................................334
37.3 About SNMP ..................................................................................................................334
37.3.1 SNMP v3 and Security ...........................................................................................335
37.3.2 Supported MIBs ......................................................................................................336
37.3.3 SNMP Traps ...........................................................................................................336
37.3.4 Configuring SNMP .................................................................................................342
37.3.5 Configuring SNMP Trap Group ............................................................................344
37.3.6 Setting Up Login Accounts .................................................................................344
37.4 SSH Overview ..................................................................................................................346
37.5 How SSH works ...............................................................................................................346
37.6 SSH Implementation on the Switch ..................................................................................347
37.6.1 Requirements for Using SSH ..................................................................................347
37.7 Introduction to HTTPS ......................................................................................................347
37.8 HTTPS Example ..............................................................................................................348
37.8.1 Internet Explorer Warning Messages .....................................................................348

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Table of Contents

37.8.2 Mozilla Firefox Warning Messages .........................................................................351


37.8.3 The Main Screen ....................................................................................................352
37.9 Service Port Access Control .........................................................................................353
37.10 Remote Management ...................................................................................................354

Chapter 38
Diagnostic ............................................................................................................................. 356

38.1 Diagnostic .......................................................................................................................356

Chapter 39
Syslog .................................................................................................................................... 358

39.1 Syslog Overview ..............................................................................................................358


39.2 Syslog Setup ...................................................................................................................359
39.3 Syslog Server Setup .......................................................................................................360

Chapter 40
Loop Diagnostic.................................................................................................................... 361

40.1 Dual-End Loop Test ..........................................................................................................361


40.2 Single-End Loop Test (SELT) ...........................................................................................363

Chapter 41
MAC Table ............................................................................................................................. 365

41.1 MAC Table Overview .......................................................................................................365


41.2 Viewing the MAC Table ...................................................................................................366

Chapter 42
ARP Table .............................................................................................................................. 367

42.1 ARP Table Overview .......................................................................................................367


42.1.1 How ARP Works .....................................................................................................367
42.2 Viewing the ARP Table .....................................................................................................367

Chapter 43
Hardware Information........................................................................................................... 369

43.1 Hardware Information .......................................................................................................369

Chapter 44
CFM Action............................................................................................................................ 370

44.1 CFM Action ......................................................................................................................370

Chapter 45
IPv6 Cache............................................................................................................................. 372

45.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................372


45.2 Neighbor Cache ...............................................................................................................373

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Table of Contents

45.3 Router .............................................................................................................................374


45.4 Path MTU ........................................................................................................................375

Chapter 46
Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................... 377

46.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs .......................................................................377


46.2 Switch Access and Login .................................................................................................378
46.3 Switch Configuration ........................................................................................................380

Chapter 47
Product Specifications ......................................................................................................... 381

Appendix A Common Services ............................................................................................ 397

Appendix B Legal Information.............................................................................................. 401

Index ...................................................................................................................................... 403

16 VES1724-56 Users Guide


P ART I
Users Guide

17
18
C HAPT ER 1
Getting to Know Your Switch

This chapter introduces the main features and applications of the Switch.

1.1 Introduction
The Switch is a stand-alone layer-2 VDSL over Ethernet switch with one Telco-50 connector for
VDSL connections and another for POTS connections. The switch also comes with one 10/100Base-
TX Ethernet management port, two Gigabit/mini-GBIC uplink ports and a console management
port.

With its built-in Web Configurator, managing and configuring the Switch is easy. In addition, the
Switch can also be managed via Telnet, any terminal emulator program on the console port, or
third-party SNMP management.

See Chapter 47 on page 381 for a full list of software features available on the Switch.

This section shows a few examples of using the Switch in various network environments.

1.2 Applications
These are the main applications for the switch:

Internet access and multimedia services for Multiple Tenant Units (MTU).
Other applications include telemedicine, surveillance systems, remote servers systems, cellular
base stations and high-quality teleconferencing.

1.2.1 MTU Application


The following diagram depicts a typical application of the switch with the VDSL modems, in a large
residential building, or multiple tenant unit (MTU), that leverages existing phone line wiring to

VES1724-56 Users Guide 19


Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch

provide Internet access to all tenants. Note that VDSL service can coexist with voice service on the
same line.

Figure 1 MTU Application

1.2.2 Curbside Application


The switch can also be used by an Internet Service Provider (ISP) in a street cabinet to form a mini
POP (Point-of-Presence) to provide broadband services to residential areas that are too far away

20 VES1724-56 Users Guide


Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch

from the ISP to avail of DSL services. Residents need a VDSL modem connected as shown in the
previous figure.

Figure 2 Curbside Application

1.3 Ways to Manage the Switch


Use any of the following methods to manage the Switch.

Web Configurator. This is recommended for everyday management of the Switch using a
(supported) web browser. See Chapter 4 on page 33.
Command Line Interface. Line commands offer an alternative to the Web Configurator and in
some cases are necessary to configure advanced features. See the CLI Reference Guide.
FTP. Use FTP for firmware upgrades and configuration backup/restore. See Section 36.8 on page
331.
SNMP. The Switch can be monitored by an SNMP manager. See Section 37.3 on page 334.

1.4 Good Habits for Managing the Switch


Do the following things regularly to make the Switch more secure and to manage the Switch more
effectively.

Change the password. Use a password thats not easy to guess and that consists of different
types of characters, such as numbers and letters.
Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it). Restoring an earlier
working configuration may be useful if the device becomes unstable or even crashes. If you
forget your password, you will have to reset the Switch to its factory default settings. If you
backed up an earlier configuration file, you would not have to totally re-configure the Switch. You
could simply restore your last configuration.

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Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch

22 VES1724-56 Users Guide


C HAPT ER 2
Hardware Installation and Connection

This chapter shows you how to install and connect the Switch.

2.1 Installation Scenarios


The Switch can be placed on a desktop or rack-mounted on a standard EIA rack. Use the rubber
feet in a desktop installation and the brackets in a rack-mounted installation.

Note: For proper ventilation, allow at least 4 inches (10 cm) of clearance at the front and
3.4 inches (8 cm) at the back of the Switch. Reserve at least 1.5U space above and
below the Switch. This is especially important for enclosed rack installations.

2.2 Desktop Installation Procedure


1 Make sure the Switch is clean and dry.

2 Set the Switch on a smooth, level surface strong enough to support the weight of the Switch and
the connected cables. Make sure there is a power outlet nearby.

3 Make sure there is enough clearance around the Switch to allow air circulation and the attachment
of cables and the power cord.

4 Remove the adhesive backing from the rubber feet.

5 Attach the rubber feet to each corner on the bottom of the Switch. These rubber feet help protect
the Switch from shock or vibration and ensure space between devices when stacking.
Figure 3 Attaching Rubber Feet

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Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection

Note: Do NOT block the ventilation holes. Leave space between devices when stacking.

2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack


The Switch can be mounted on an EIA standard size, 19-inch rack or in a wiring closet with other
equipment. Follow the steps below to mount your Switch on a standard EIA rack using a rack-
mounting kit.

2.3.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements


Two mounting brackets.
Eight M3 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.
Four M5 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.

Failure to use the proper screws may damage the unit.

2.3.1.1 Precautions
Make sure the rack will safely support the combined weight of all the equipment it contains.
Make sure the position of the Switch does not make the rack unstable or top-heavy. Take all
necessary precautions to anchor the rack securely before installing the unit.

2.3.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch

1 Position a mounting bracket on one side of the Switch, lining up the four screw holes on the bracket
with the screw holes on the side of the Switch.
Figure 4 Attaching the Mounting Brackets

2 Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M3 flat head screws through the mounting bracket holes
into the Switch.

3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 to install the second mounting bracket on the other side of the Switch.

4 You may now mount the Switch on a rack. Proceed to the next section.

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Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection

2.3.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack

1 Position a mounting bracket (that is already attached to the Switch) on one side of the rack, lining
up the two screw holes on the bracket with the screw holes on the side of the rack.
Figure 5 Mounting the Switch on a Rack

2 Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M5 flat head screws through the mounting bracket holes
into the rack.

3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 to attach the second mounting bracket on the other side of the rack.

2.4 Connecting the Frame Ground


Connect the frame ground on the front panel using an M4 x 6mm machine screw with 2 suitable
lock washers to a buildings protective earthing terminals.

Use a 18 AWG or larger green-and-yellow frame ground wire.

Connect the frame ground before you connect any other cables or
wiring.

Figure 6 Frame Ground

Frame Ground

VES1724-56 Users Guide 25


C HAPT ER 3
Hardware Overview

This chapter describes the front panel and rear panel of the Switch and shows you how to make the
hardware connections.

To protect yourself from the Switchs high operating temperatures, wear


protective gloves before you touch the Switch.

3.1 Front Panel


The following figure shows the front panel of the Switch.

Figure 7 Front Panel

The following table describes the port labels on the front panel.

Table 1 Front Panel Connections


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Power Connect an appropriate power supply to one and only one of the ports.
Connection
Two Dual Each interface has one 1000 Base-T copper RJ-45 port and one mini-GBIC slot, with one port
Personality active at a time.
Interfaces (25,
100/1000 Mbps RJ-45 GbE Ports:
26)
Connect these Gigabit Ethernet ports to high-bandwidth backbone network Ethernet
switches.
Mini-GBIC Slots:
Use mini-GBIC transceivers in these slots for fiber-optic or copper connections to
backbone Ethernet switches.
POTS LINE This Telco-50 port connect to the central office or a PBX .
CONSOLE The console port is for local configuration of the Switch.
VDSL LINE This Telco-50 port connect to the user (subscriber) VDSL equipment.
ALARM This port is for alarm.
MGMT Connect to a computer using an RJ-45 Ethernet cable for local configuration of the Switch.

3.1.1 Power Connector


Note: Make sure you are using the correct power source as shown on the panel.

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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview

To connect power to the Switch, insert the female end of the power cord to either the AC or DC
power receptacle on the front panel, depending on your power source. Connect the other end of the
supplied power cord to a power outlet.

The dual power connector model has both AC and DC power connectors. See Figure 7. In this
model,

for the AC power connection, use AC power supply input of 100 VAC to 120 VAC with 50/60 Hz
3 Hz, 1.4 A maximum no tolerance or 220 VAC to 240 VAC with 50/60Hz 3 Hz, 1 A maximum
no tolerance.
for the DC power connection, use DC power supply input of -36 VDC to -72 VDC, 2 A maximum
no tolerance.

Note: Do NOT make both AC and DC power connections at the same time. Turn the DC
power off if you are using the AC power connection or are not using the device.
Disconnect the AC power before you install the DC power module.

See Chapter 47 on page 381 for information on the Switchs power supply requirements.

3.1.2 Gigabit Ethernet Ports


The Switch has 1000Base-T auto-negotiating, auto-crossover Ethernet ports. In 10/100/1000 Mbps
Fast Ethernet, the speed can be 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps and the duplex mode can be half
duplex or full duplex.

An auto-negotiating port can detect and adjust to the optimum Ethernet speed (10/100/1000
Mbps) and duplex mode (full duplex or half duplex) of the connected device.

An auto-crossover (auto-MDI/MDI-X) port automatically works with a straight-through or crossover


Ethernet cable.

Two of the 1000Base-T Ethernet ports are paired with a mini-GBIC slot to create a dual personality
interface. The Switch uses up to one connection for each mini-GBIC and 1000Base-T Ethernet pair.
The mini-GBIC slots have priority over the Gigabit ports. This means that if a mini-GBIC slot and
the corresponding GbE port are connected at the same time, the GbE port will be disabled.

When auto-negotiation is turned on, a Ethernet port negotiates with the peer automatically to
determine the connection speed and duplex mode. If the peer Ethernet port does not support auto-
negotiation or turns off this feature, the Switch determines the connection speed by detecting the
signal on the cable and using half duplex mode. When the Switchs auto-negotiation is turned off,
an Ethernet port uses the pre-configured speed and duplex mode when making a connection, thus
requiring you to make sure that the settings of the peer Ethernet port are the same in order to
connect.

3.1.2.1 Default Ethernet Negotiation Settings


The factory default negotiation settings for the Gigabit ports on the Switch are:

Speed: Auto
Duplex: Auto
Flow control: Off
Link Aggregation: Disabled

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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview

3.1.2.2 Auto-crossover
All ports are auto-crossover, that is auto-MDIX ports (Media Dependent Interface Crossover), so
you may use either a straight-through Ethernet cable or crossover Ethernet cable for all Gigabit port
connections. Auto-crossover ports automatically sense whether they need to function as crossover
or straight ports, so crossover cables can connect both computers and switches/hubs.

3.1.3 Mini-GBIC Slots


These are slots for mini-GBIC (Gigabit Interface Converter) transceivers. A transceiver is a single
unit that houses a transmitter and a receiver. The Switch does not come with transceivers. You
must use transceivers that comply with the Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) Transceiver
MultiSource Agreement (MSA). See the SFF committees INF-8074i specification Rev 1.0 for details.

You can change transceivers while the Switch is operating. You can use different transceivers to
connect to Ethernet switches with different types of fiber-optic or even copper cable connectors.

To avoid possible eye injury, do not look into an operating fiber-optic


modules connectors.

Type: SFP connection interface


Connection speed: 1 Gigabit per second (Gbps)

3.1.3.1 Transceiver Installation


Use the following steps to install a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).

1 Insert the transceiver into the slot with the exposed section of PCB board facing down.

2 Press the transceiver firmly until it clicks into place.

3 The Switch automatically detects the installed transceiver. Check the LEDs to verify that it is
functioning properly.

4 Close the transceivers latch (latch styles vary).

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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview

5 Connect the fiber optic cables to the transceiver.


Figure 8 Transceiver Installation Example

Figure 9 Connecting the Fiber Optic Cables

3.1.3.2 Transceiver Removal


Use the following steps to remove a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).

1 Remove the fiber optic cables from the transceiver.

2 Open the transceivers latch (latch styles vary).

3 Pull the transceiver out of the slot.


Figure 10 Removing the Fiber Optic Cables

Figure 11 Opening the Transceivers Latch Example

Figure 12 Transceiver Removal Example

3.1.4 Management Port


The MGMT (management) port is used for local management. Connect directly to this port using an
Ethernet cable. You can configure the Switch via Telnet or the Web Configurator.

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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview

The default IP address of the management port is 192.168.0.1 with a subnet mask of
255.255.255.0.

3.1.5 Console Port


For local management, you can use a computer with terminal emulation software configured to the
following parameters:

VT100
Terminal emulation
115200 bps
No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit
No flow control

Connect the male 9-pin end of the console cable to the console port of the Switch. Connect the
female end to a serial port (COM1, COM2 or other COM port) of your computer.

3.1.6 ALARM Slot


The ALARM port is a male 9-pin connector. The following figure shows the pin assignments.

Figure 13 Alarm Port: Pin Assignment

The following table describes the alarm pins.

Table 2 Alarm Port: Pin Assignment

ALARM INPUT PIN DESCRIPTION


1 Pin 2 and Pin 6 An open circuit for pins 2 and 6 indicates no alarm status. A closed
circuit indicates an alarm status.
2 Pin 3 and Pin 7 An open circuit for pins 3 and 7 indicates no alarm status. A closed
circuit indicates an alarm status.
3 Pin 4 and Pin 8 An open circuit for pins 4 and 8 indicates no alarm status. A closed
circuit indicates an alarm status.
4 Pin 5 and Pin 9 An open circuit for pins 5 and 9 indicates no alarm status. A closed
circuit indicates an alarm status.

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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview

3.2 LEDs
After you connect the power to the Switch, view the LEDs to ensure proper functioning of the
Switch and as an aid in troubleshooting.

Table 3 LED Descriptions


LED COLOR STATUS DESCRIPTION
PWR Green On The system is turned on.
Off The system is off.
SYS Green On The system is on and functioning properly.

Blinking The system is rebooting and performing self-diagnostic tests.

Off The power is off or the system is not ready/malfunctioning.

ALM Red On A hardware failure is detected, or an external alarm is active.


Off The system is functioning normally.
Ethernet Ports
LNK/ACT Green Blinking The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 10 Mbps Ethernet
network.
On The link to a 10 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Amber Blinking The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 100 Mbps Ethernet
network.
On The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Off The link to an Ethernet network is down.
Mini-GBIC Slots
LNK Green On The link to this port is up.
Off The link to this port is not connected.
ACT Green Blinking This port is receiving or transmitting data.
1000Base-T Ethernet Ports (in Dual Personality Interface)
LNK/ACT Green Blinking The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 10 Mbps Ethernet
network.
On The link to a 10 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Amber Blinking The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 100 Mbps Ethernet
network.
On The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Amber + Blinking The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 1000 Mbps
Green Ethernet network.
On The link to a 1000 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Off The link to an Ethernet network is down.
FDX Amber On The Gigabit port is negotiating in full-duplex mode.
Off The Gigabit port is negotiating in half-duplex mode.

MGMT

10 Green Blinking The system is transmitting/receiving to/from an Ethernet device.


On The port is connected at 10 Mbps.
Off The port is not connected at 10 Mbps or to an Ethernet device.

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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview

Table 3 LED Descriptions (continued)


LED COLOR STATUS DESCRIPTION
100 Amber Blinking The system is transmitting/receiving to/from an Ethernet device.
On The port is connected at 100 Mbps.
Off The port is not connected at 100 Mbps or to an Ethernet device.

32 VES1724-56 Users Guide


C HAPT ER 4
The Web Configurator

This section introduces the configuration and functions of the Web Configurator.

4.1 Introduction
The Web Configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy Switch setup and
management via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 8 or Mozilla Firefox 6.0.

In order to use the Web Configurator you need to allow:

Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by default in
Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
JavaScript (enabled by default).
Java permissions (enabled by default).

4.2 System Login


1 Configure your computer's IP address in the same network as the Switch's management port. (For
example, 192.168.0.x/24)

2 Start your web browser.

3 Type "http://" and the IP address of the Switch (for example, the default management IP address is
192.168.0.1 through the MGMT port) in the Location or Address field. Press [ENTER].

4 The login screen appears. The default username is admin and associated default password is
1234.

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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator

Note: Alternatively, you can log into the Web Configurator through an in-band (non-
MGMT) port. The default in-band management IP address is 192.168.1.1.

Figure 14 Web Configurator: Login

5 Click OK to view the first Web Configurator screen.

4.3 The Port Status Screen


The Port Status screen is the first screen that displays when you access the Web Configurator.

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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator

The following figure shows the navigating components of a Web Configurator screen.

Figure 15 Web Configurator Home Screen (Port Status)

B C D E
A

A - Click the menu items to open submenu links, and then click on a submenu link to open the
screen in the main window.

B, C, D, E - These are quick links which allow you to perform certain tasks no matter which screen
you are currently working in.

B - Click this link to save your configuration into the Switchs nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile
memory is the configuration of your Switch that stays the same even if the Switchs power is turned
off.

C - Click this link to go to the status page of the Switch.

D - Click this link to logout of the Web Configurator.

E - Click this link to display web help pages. The help pages provide descriptions for all of the
configuration screens.

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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator

In the navigation panel, click a main link to reveal a list of submenu links.

Table 4 Navigation Panel Sub-links Overview


ADVANCED
BASIC SETTING VDSL SETUP IP APPLICATION MANAGEMENT
APPLICATION

The following table describes the links in the navigation panel.

Table 5 Navigation Panel Links


LINK DESCRIPTION
Basic Settings
System Info This link takes you to a screen that displays general system and hardware monitoring
information.
General Setup This link takes you to a screen where you can configure general identification information
about the Switch.
Switch Setup This link takes you to a screen where you can set up global Switch parameters such as
VLAN type, MAC address learning, GARP and priority queues.
IP Setup This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the management IPv4/IPv6
address, subnet mask (necessary for Switch management) and DNS (domain name server)
and set up to 64 IPv4 routing domains.
External Alarm This link takes you to a screen where you can view the status of each external alarm input
Switch and configure their settings.
Port Setup This link takes you to a screen where you can configure settings for individual Switch ports.
Rate Limit Profile This link takes you to screens where you can configure the ingress and egress rate limit
Setup profiles to apply to ports. You can use this setting in the Basic Setting > Port Setup later.
Hardware Alarm This link takes you to a screen where you can configure alarm thresholds.
Profile
CPE Port Status This link takes you to a screen where you can view all DSL port status and details about the
connected CPE devices.
IPv6 Setup This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the IPv6 settings.
SFP Threshold This link takes you to a screen where you can configure warning or alarm thresholds for the
Setup SFP slots of the Switch.

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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator

Table 5 Navigation Panel Links (continued)


LINK DESCRIPTION
VDSL Setup
VDSL Line Setup This link takes you to a screen where you can assign a VDSL template, VDSL fallback
template, and VDSL alarm template for each VDSL port.
VDSL Profile This link takes you to screens where you can create, modify and delete VDSL templates,
VDSL line profiles, VDSL channel profiles and VDSL INM profiles. A VDSL template contains
a VDSL line profile, a VDSL channel profile and a VDSL INM profile.
VDSL Alarm This link takes you to screens where you can create, modify and delete VDSL alarm
Profile templates, VDSL line alarm profiles and VDSL channel alarm profiles. A VDSL alarm
template contains a VDSL line alarm profile and a VDSL channel alarm profile.
VDSL Bonding This link takes you to a screen where you can configure VDSL port bonding that increases
Setup the total bandwidth for subscribers by combining two DSL lines.
Advanced Application
VLAN This link takes you to screens where you can configure port-based or 802.1Q VLAN
(depending on what you configured in the Switch Setup menu). You can also configure a
protocol based VLAN, a subnet based VLAN or a MAC based VLAN in these screens.
Static MAC This link takes you to a screen where you can configure static MAC addresses for a port.
Forwarding These static MAC addresses do not age out.
Static Multicast This link takes you to a screen where you can configure static multicast MAC addresses for
Forwarding port(s). These static multicast MAC addresses do not age out.
Filtering This link takes you to a screen to set up filtering rules.
Spanning Tree This link takes you to screens where you can configure the RSTP/MRSTP/MSTP to prevent
Protocol network loops.
Broadcast Storm This link takes you to a screen to set up broadcast filters.
Control
Mirroring This link takes you to screens where you can copy traffic from one port or ports to another
port in order that you can examine the traffic from the first port without interference.
Link Aggregation This link takes you to a screen where you can logically aggregate physical links to form one
logical, higher-bandwidth link.
Port This link takes you to a screen where you can configure IEEE 802.1x port authentication as
Authentication well as MAC authentication for clients communicating via the Switch.
MAC Limit This link takes you to a screen where you can activate MAC address learning and set the
maximum number of MAC addresses to learn on a port and/or in a VLAN.
Classifier This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the Switch to group packets based
on the specified criteria.
Policy Rule This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the Switch to perform special
treatment on the grouped packets.
Queuing Method This link takes you to a screen where you can configure queuing with associated queue
weights for each port.
VLAN Stacking This link takes you to a screen where you can configure VLAN stacking.
Multicast This link takes you to screens where you can configure various multicast features, IGMP
snooping and create multicast VLANs.
Auth and Acct This link takes you to a screen where you can configure authentication and accounting
service via external servers. The external servers can be either RADIUS (Remote
Authentication Dial-In User Service) or TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-
Control System Plus).
IP Source Guard This link takes you to screens where you can configure filtering of unauthorized DHCP and
ARP packets in your network.
Loop Guard This link takes you to a screen where you can configure protection against network loops
that occur on the edge of your network.

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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator

Table 5 Navigation Panel Links (continued)


LINK DESCRIPTION
CFM This link takes you to screens where you can configure Connectivity Fault Management
(CFM), MD (maintenance domain), and MA (maintenance association).
VLAN Mapping This link takes you to screens where you can configure VLAN mapping settings on the
Switch.
Layer 2 Protocol This link takes you to a screen where you can configure L2PT (Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling)
Tunneling settings on the Switch.
DoS Prevention This link takes you to a screen where you can configure filtering actions on the Switch to
determine when to drop packets that may potentially be associated with a DoS attack.
PPPoE IA This link takes you to screens where you can configure how the Switch gives a PPPoE
Configuration termination server additional subscriber information that the server can use to identify and
authenticate a PPPoE client.
ADSL Fallback This link takes you to a screen where you can configure PVC settings for individual DSL
ports, which are applied when the Switch falls back to use ADSL/ADSL2/ADSL2+ on a DSL
line.
IP Application
Static Routing This link takes you to a screen where you can configure static routes. A static route defines
how the Switch should forward traffic by configuring the TCP/IP parameters manually.
DiffServ This link takes you to screens where you can enable DiffServ, configure marking rules and
set DSCP-to-IEEE802.1p mappings.
DHCP This link takes you to screens where you can configure the DHCP settings.
DHCPv6 LDRA This link takes you to screens where you can configure the Lightweight DHCPv6 Relay
Agent (LDRA) settings.
Management
Maintenance This link takes you to screens where you can perform firmware and configuration file
maintenance as well as reboot the system.
Access Control This link takes you to screens where you can change the system login password and
configure SNMP and remote management.
Diagnostic This link takes you to a screen where you can view system logs and test port(s).
Syslog This link takes you to screens where you can setup system logs and a system log server.
Loop Diagnostic This link takes you to a screen where you can perform single-end loop test (SELT) and
dual-end loop test (DELT) for each port.
MAC Table This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC addresses (and types) of
devices attached to what ports and VLAN IDs.
ARP Table This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC addresses IP address
resolution table.
Hardware This link takes you to a screen where you can check hardware detailed information such as
Information CPU, packet buffer, memory utilization.
CFM Action This link takes you to a screen where you can perform connectivity tests and see testing
reports.
IPv6 Cache This link takes you to screens where you can view IPv6 caches.

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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator

4.3.1 Change Your Password


After you log in for the first time, it is recommended you change the default administrator
password. Click Management > Access Control > Logins to display the next screen.

Figure 16 Change Administrator Login Password

4.4 Saving Your Configuration


When you are done modifying the settings in a screen, click Apply to save your changes back to
the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost when the Switchs power is turned
off.

Click the Save link in the upper right hand corner of the Web Configurator to save your
configuration to nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile memory refers to the Switchs storage that
remains even if the Switchs power is turned off.

Note: Use the Save link when you are done with a configuration session.

4.5 Switch Lockout


You could block yourself (and all others) from using in-band-management (managing through the
data ports) if you do one of the following:

1 Delete the management VLAN (default is VLAN 1).

2 Delete all port-based VLANs with the CPU port as a member. The CPU port is the management
port of the Switch.

3 Filter all traffic to the CPU port.

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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator

4 Disable all ports.

5 Misconfigure the text configuration file.

6 Forget the password and/or IP address.

7 Prevent all services from accessing the Switch.

8 Change a service port number but forget it.

Note: Be careful not to lock yourself and others out of the Switch. If you do lock yourself
out, try using out-of-band management (via the management port) to configure
the Switch.

4.6 Resetting the Switch


If you lock yourself (and others) from the Switch or forget the administrator password, you will
need to reload the factory-default configuration file or reset the Switch back to the factory defaults.

4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File


Uploading the factory-default configuration file replaces the current configuration file with the
factory-default configuration file. This means that you will lose all previous configurations and the
speed of the console port will be reset to the default of 115200 bps with 8 data bits, no parity, one
stop bit and flow control set to none. The password will also be reset to 1234 and the IP address
to 192.168.1.1.

To upload the configuration file, do the following:

1 Connect to the console port using a computer with terminal emulation software.

2 Disconnect and reconnect the Switchs power to begin a session. When you reconnect the Switchs
power, you will see the initial screen.

3 When you see the message Press any key to enter Debug Mode within 3 seconds ... press
any key to enter debug mode.

4 Type atlc after the Enter Debug Mode message.

5 Wait for the Starting XMODEM upload message before activating XMODEM upload on your
terminal.

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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator

6 After a configuration file upload, type atgo to restart the Switch.


Figure 17 Resetting the Switch: Via the Console Port

Bootbase Version: V56Fanless | 10/23/2012 11:00:25


RAM: Size = 131072 Kbytes
DRAM POST: Testing: 23488K
OK
FLASH: AMD 128M *1

ZyNOS Version: V56_Fanless130626 | 06/26/2013 10:21:50

Press any key to enter debug mode within 3 seconds.


ras> atlc
Starting XMODEM upload (CRC mode)....
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
Total 393216 bytes received.
Erasing..
................................................................
OK
ras> atgo

The Switch is now reinitialized with a default configuration file including the default password of
1234.

4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator


Click Logout in a screen to exit the Web Configurator. You have to log in with your password again
after you log out. This is recommended after you finish a management session for security reasons.

Figure 18 Web Configurator: Logout Screen

4.8 Help
The Web Configurators online help has descriptions of individual screens and some supplementary
information.

Click the Help link from a Web Configurator screen to view an online help description of that
screen.

VES1724-56 Users Guide 41


C HAPT ER 5
Initial Setup Example

This chapter shows how to set up the Switch for an example network.

5.1 Overview
The following lists the configuration steps for the initial setup:

Configure the Switch IP management address


Create a VLAN
Set port VLAN ID

5.2 Configuring Switch Management IP Address


The default management IP address of the Switch is 192.168.1.1. You can configure another IP
address in a different subnet for management purposes. The following figure shows an example.

Figure 19 Initial Setup Example: Management IP Address

Internet

192.168.1.x 192.168.2.x

VLAN1 VLAN2

1 Connect your computer to an in-band Ethernet port on the Switch. Make sure your computer is in
the same subnet as the Switch.

2 Open your web browser and enter 192.168.1.1 (the default IP address) in the address bar to access
the Web Configurator. See Section 4.2 on page 33 for more information.

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Chapter 5 Initial Setup Example

3 Click Basic Setting > IP Setup in the


navigation panel.

4 Configure the related fields in the IP Setup


screen.

5 For the VLAN2 network, enter 192.168.2.1


as the IP address and 255.255.255.0 as the
subnet mask.

6 In the VID field, enter the ID of the VLAN


group to which you want this management IP
address to belong. This is the same as the
VLAN ID you configure in the Static VLAN
screen.

7 Click Add to save your changes back to the


run-time memory. Settings in the run-time
memory are lost when the Switchs power is
turned off.

5.2.1 Creating a VLAN


VLANs confine broadcast frames to the VLAN group in which the port(s) belongs. You can do this
with port-based VLAN or tagged static VLAN with fixed port members.

In this example, you want to configure port 1 and port 2 as members of VLAN 2.

Figure 20 Initial Setup Network Example: VLAN

Internet

port1

192.168.1.x 192.168.1.x

VLAN1 VLAN2

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Chapter 5 Initial Setup Example

1 Click Advanced Application > VLAN in the navigation panel and click the Static VLAN link.

2 In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE,


enter a descriptive name in the Name field
and enter 2 in the VLAN Group ID field for
the VLAN2 network.

Note: The VLAN Group ID field in this


screen and the VID field in the IP Setup
screen refer to the same VLAN ID.

3 Since the VLAN2 network is connected to


port 1 on the Switch, select Fixed to
configure port 1 to be a permanent member
of the VLAN only.

4 To ensure that VLAN-unaware devices (such


as computers and hubs) can receive frames
properly, clear the TX Tagging check box to
set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before
sending.

5 Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost
when the Switchs power is turned off.

5.2.2 Setting Port VID


Use PVID to add a tag to incoming untagged frames received on that port so that the frames are
forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.

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Chapter 5 Initial Setup Example

In the example network, configure 2 as the port VID on port 1 so that any untagged frames
received on that port get sent to VLAN 2.

Figure 21 Initial Setup Network Example: Port VID

1 Click Advanced Application >


VLAN in the navigation panel. Then
click the VLAN Port Setting link.

2 Enter 2 in the PVID field for port 1


and click Apply to save your
changes back to the run-time
memory. Settings in the run-time
memory are lost when the Switchs
power is turned off.

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C HAPT ER 6
Tutorials

This chapter provides some examples of using the Web Configurator to set up and use the Switch.
The tutorial describes:

How to Use DHCP Relay Per VLAN on the Switch

6.1 How to Use DHCP Relay Per VLAN on the Switch


This tutorial describes how to configure your Switch to forward DHCP client requests from a client to
a DHCP server in a specific VLAN. The DHCP server can then assign a specific IP address based on
the information in the DHCP requests.

6.1.1 DHCP Relay Tutorial Introduction


In this example, you have configured your DHCP server (say 172.16.1.18) and want to have it
assign a specific IP address (say 192.168.2.3) to DHCP client A based on the system name, VLAN
ID and port number in the DHCP request. Client A connects to the Switchs port 2 and the DHCP
server connects to port 18. Both port 2 and port 18 are in VLAN 102.

Figure 22 Tutorial: DHCP Relay Per VLAN Scenario


172.16.1.254 192.168.2.254

DHCP Server Port 2


172.16.1.18 PVID=102
Port 18
PVID=102
A
CPE
192.168.2.3

6.1.2 Creating a VLAN


Follow the steps below to configure ports 2 and 18 as a member of VLAN 102.

1 Access the Web Configurator through the Switchs management port.

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Chapter 6 Tutorials

2 Go to Basic Setting > Switch Setup and set the VLAN type to 802.1Q. Click Apply to save the
settings to the run-time memory.
Figure 23 Tutorial: Set VLAN Type to 802.1Q

3 Click Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN.

4 In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE, enter a descriptive name (VLAN 102 for example) in
the Name field and enter 102 in the VLAN Group ID field.

5 Select Fixed to configure ports 2 and 18 to be a permanent member of this VLAN. To ensure the
VLAN-unaware devices, such as computers can receive frames properly, clear the Tx Tagging
check box for port 2 to have the Switch remove VLAN tags before sending. Click Add.
Figure 24 Tutorial: Create a Static VLAN

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Chapter 6 Tutorials

6 Click the VLAN Status link in the Static VLAN screen and then the VLAN Port Setting link in the
VLAN Status screen.
Figure 25 Tutorial: Click the VLAN Port Setting Link

7 Enter 102 in the PVID field for ports 2 and 18 to add a tag to incoming untagged frames received
on these ports so that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines. Click
Apply.
Figure 26 Tutorial: Set PVID for untagged frames received on Ports 2 and 18

8 Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the Web Configurator to save your configuration
permanently.

6.1.3 Configuring Management IP Address


Follow the steps below to specify a management IP address for VLAN 102 and the IP address of the
default gateway, an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-aware layer-3 switch or router that helps forward DHCP
packets to the DHCP server.

1 Click Basic Setting > IP Setup.

2 For the VLAN 102 network, enter 192.168.2.1 as the IP address and 255.255.255.0 as the subnet
mask.

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Chapter 6 Tutorials

3 In the VID field, enter the ID of the VLAN group (102 in this example) to which you want this
management IP address to belong.

4 Enter the IP address of the default gateway (192.168.2.254 for example) in the Default Gateway
field.

5 Click Add.
Figure 27 Tutorial: Set Management IP Address for VLAN 102

6 Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the Web Configurator to save your configuration
permanently.

6.1.4 Configuring DHCP VLAN Settings


Follow the steps below to have the Switch act as a DHCP relay agent for the specified VLAN and
allow the Switch to add relay agent information (such as the VLAN ID) to DHCP requests.

Note: Make sure you have disabled global DHCP relay in the IP Application > DHCP >
Global screen before you configure DHCP relay per VLAN settings.

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Chapter 6 Tutorials

1 Click IP Application > DHCP and then the VLAN link to open the VLAN Setting screen.

2 Enter 102 in the VID field.

3 Enter the DHCP servers IP address (172.16.1.18 in this example) in the Remote DHCP Server 1
field.

4 Select Option 82 and enter the Switchs model name in the Information field.

5 Leave the Relay Remote ID and Remote ID Information fields empty unless something needs
to be specified.

6 Click Add.
Figure 28 Tutorial: Set DHCP Server and Relay Information

7 Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the Web Configurator to save your configuration
permanently.

8 The Switch can then forward the DHCP packets between the clients and DHCP server in VLAN 102.

6.1.5 Testing the Connection


Check the client A's IP address. If it did not receive the IP address 192.168.2.3, make sure the
devices are connected and configured properly.

50 VES1724-56 Users Guide


P ART II
Technical Reference

51
52
C HAPT ER 7
System Status and Port Statistics

This chapter describes the system status (Web Configurator home page) and port details screens.

7.1 Overview
The home screen of the Web Configurator displays a port statistical summary with links to each port
showing statistical details.

7.2 Port Status Summary


To view the port statistics, click Status in all Web Configurator screens to display the Status screen
as shown next.

Figure 29 Port Status

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 6 Port Status

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port This identifies a VDSL or Ethernet port. Click a port number to display the Port Details
screen (refer to Figure 35 on page 67).
Name This is the name you assigned to this port in the Basic Setting > Port Setup screen.
Group This is the name of the VDSL port bonding group if the port is a member of one. Click the
link to view more information about the group.

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

Table 6 Port Status (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Link For an Ethernet port, this field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for
100Mbps or 1000M for 1000Mbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half). It also
shows the cable type (Copper or Fiber) for the combo ports.

For a VDSL port, this field displays the VDSL transmission rate on the port.
State For VDSL ports, this field displays Showtime when the VDSL connection is up. Otherwise, it
displays Idle, Handshake or Training during the VDSL line establishment. If you perform
a DELT test, this field will display LD_Testing or LD_DONE. See Section 7.2.1 on page 54
for more information.

For Ethernet ports, if STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP
state of the port (see Section 14.1 on page 160 for more information). If STP is disabled,
this field displays FORWARDING if the link is up, otherwise, it displays STOP.
LACP This fields displays whether LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol) has been enabled on
the port.
TxPkts This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port.
RxPkts This field shows the number of received frames on this port.
Errors This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s This field shows the number of kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
Up Time This field shows the total amount of time in hours, minutes and seconds the port has been
up.
Retrain Click Retrain to re-establish the line connection.
Clear Counter Select Port, enter a port number and then click Clear Counter to erase the recorded
statistical information for that port, or select Any to clear statistics for all ports.

7.2.1 VDSL Port Status Change


The VDSL port status change is shown as the following flow chart. Only when the status is
"Showtime", the VDSL connection is up.

Note: Its suggested to perform the Dual-End-Loop-Test (DELT) when there is bad line
quality even though the VDSL connection is up. It brings the connection down right
away and takes several minutes to complete the whole test before re-negotiating
the connection.

Figure 30 VDSL Port Status change

Idle Handshake Training Showtime

Perform
DELT Test

LD_DONE LD_TEST

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

7.2.2 VDSL Port Details


Click a VDSL port's index number in the Port column of the Port Status screen to display
individual port statistics. Use this screen to check status and detailed performance data for an
individual port on the Switch.

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

Note: This screen refreshes automatically every several minutes if the port is in any
status other than in "Showtime".

Figure 31 Status: VDSL Port Details

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 7 Status: VDSL Port Details

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port Info
Number This field displays the selected port number.
Name This field displays the descriptive name of the port.
Link Type This field displays the type of the port.
State This field displays whether the port is connected (Showtime), not connected (Idle), is
searching for any CPE device (Handshake), is negotiating a connection with a CPE
device (Training), is under loop diagnostic testing (LD_Testing), or has completed the
loop diagnostic testing (LD_Done). See Section 7.2.1 on page 54 for more information.
Up Time This field displays the total amount of time the line has been up.
Actual Template This field displays the VDSL template the line is currently using.
Transmission This field displays the VDSL transmission mode the port is negotiating or has negotiated
System with the connected CPE device.
Init Result This field displays the outcome of when the line was last initiated. The possible results
are shown next.

noFail: The initialization was successful.

configError: The initialization failed because of a configuration error.

configNotFeasible: The initialization failed because a setting is not supported on both


the Switch and the CPE.

commFail: The initialization failed because of a communication error between the


Switch and the CPE.

noPeerAtu: The initialization failed because the Switch cannot detect the connected CPE
device.

otherCause: The initialization failed because of another reason.


Limit Mask To reduce the impact of interference and attenuation, ITU-T 993.2 specifies a limit PSD
(Power Spectrum Density) mask that limits the VDSL2 transmitters PSD for both
downstream and upstream traffic.

This field displays a standard-defined limit PSD mask that the line is currently using.
US0 Mask This field displays the PSD mask used for upstream band 0.

The possible masks are shown next. (See ITU-T G.993.2 Annex A for more information.)

EU-32, EU-36, EU-40, EU-44, EU-48, EU-52, EU-56, EU-60, EU-64, EU-128
Electrical Length This field displays the final electrical length of the cable negotiated by the Switch and the
connected CPE device. See UPBO/DPBO Electrical Length on page 100.
Cyclic Extension Cyclic extension is a method that adds a redundant data into each DMT symbol. This
helps to reduce interference on a line.

This field displays the length of the redundant data used on the line.
VDSL Status
Attainable net This parameter indicates the maximum upstream/downstream net data rate currently
data rate attainable by the Switch transmitter and the CPE receiver or by the CPE transmitter and
the Switch receiver.
SNR Margin This field displays the upstream/downstream SNR (Signal-to-Noise Rate) margin.
Signal This field displays the upstream/downstream loss of power (in dB) traveling along the
Attenuation line.

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

Table 7 Status: VDSL Port Details (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Line Attenuation This field displays the upstream/downstream line attenuation the Switch detects
according to the line length, frequency and the line wire diameter.

Line attenuation increases with line length and frequency. Bigger wires reduce
attenuation.
Transmit Power This field displays the upstream/downstream transmission power of the line. It ranges
from 0 to 25.5 dBm, with 0.1 dB steps for downstream. It ranges from 0 to 25.5 dBm,
with 0.1 dB steps for upstream.
Trellis This field displays whether trellis coding is used in the upstream/downstream
transmission.
Snr Mode This field displays whether the upstream/downstream transmitter referred virtual noise
is enabled or disabled.
Last State This field displays the last successful transmitted initialization state for upstream and
downstream directions through the line. The possible states are as shown next.

vtucG9941, vtucQuiet1, vtucChDiscov1, vtucSynchro1, vtucPilot1, vtucQuiet2,


vtucPeriodic1, vtucSynchro2, vtucChDiscov2, vtucSynchro3, vtucTraining1,
vtucSynchro4, vtucPilot2, vtucTeq, vtucEct, vtucPilot3, vtucPeriodic2,
vtucTraining2, vtucSynchro5, vtucMedley, vtucSynchro6, vtucShowtime,
vturG9941, vturQuiet1, vturChDiscov1, vturSynchro1, vturLineprobe,
vturPeriodic1, vturSynchro2, vturChDiscov2, vturSynchro3, vturQuiet2,
vturTraining1, vturSynchro4, vturTeq, vturQuiet3, vturEct, vturPeriodic2,
vturTraining2, vturSynchro5, vturMedley, vturSynchro6, vturShowtime.
Current State This field displays any existing upstream/downstream failure for the line.

NoDefect: No failure was detected.

LossOfFraming: A loss of frame synchronization was detected.

LossOfSignal: A loss of signal was detected.

LossOfPower: A loss of power was detected.

InitFailure: The most recent initialization failed.


Actual net data This field displays the actual upstream/downstream data transmission rate.
rate
Prev net data This field displays the previous upstream/downstream data transmission rate just before
rate the rate changed.
Actual Delay This field displays the actual upstream/downstream interleave delay (in milliseconds)
used on the line.
Actual INP This field displays the actual impulse noise protection (INP).
Receive Power This field displays the upstream/downstream receiving power of the line. The range is
from 0 to 25.5 dBm with 0.1 dB steps for both downstream and upstream traffic.
INP Report This field displays the method used to compute the actual INP above. Formula displays
if the value is computed according to an INP_no_erasure formula defined in the ITU-T
G.993.2 standard.
Codeword Size This field displays the actual size of Reed-Solomon codeword used in this line. Reed-
Solomon (RS) Code is an error-correction code.
RFEC RFEC refers to Redundancy Forward Error Correction. This field displays the actual
number of Reed-Solomon redundancy bytes. The Reed-Solomon code has the capability
to correct errors by adding redundancy bytes. The longer the Reed-Solomon redundancy
bytes the higher the error correction capability.
LSYMB LSYMB refers to Latency SYMbol Bit. This field displays the actual number of bits per
symbol.

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

Table 7 Status: VDSL Port Details (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Interleaving This field displays the actual interleaving depth. The value ranges from 1 to 4096 with an
Depth increment of 1. The value 1 indicates no interleaving.
Interleaving This field displays the actual interleaving block length. The value ranges from 4 to 255
Block with an increment of 1.
Actual Latency This field displays the ID of the channel the Switch is using for that port. All the following
Path fields describe the status for this channel.
Ptm Status Packet Transfer Mode is a packet-based (for example, for Ethernet packets, IP packets,
etc.) transmission method applied in VDSL2. It can highly increase the efficiency of
packet transmission.

This field displays the current state of the VDSL channel in packet transfer mode.

noDefect: means both Switch and CPE device did not detect any failure or the channel is
not using packet transfer mode.

outOfSync: means an out of synchronization failure was detected.


Actual RA Mode This field displays actual rate adaptive mode.

n/a: no CPE device is connected to this port.

RA mode at init: the Switch keeps the transmission rate negotiated between the Switch
and CPE devices. It ranges from the configured minimum to the maximum net data rate
(set in the VDSL Setup > VDSL Profile > ChanProfile screen) based on the initial line
condition. The Switch automatically resumes a dropped link and adjusts the data rate
back to the allowed range.

Fixed rate mode: the Switch fixes the transmission rate as the minimum net data rate
and disables transmission rate adjustment. If the attainable speeds cannot match
configured speeds, then the VDSL link may go down or link communications may be
sporadic due to line errors and consequent retransmissions. The Switch does not
automatically resume a dropped link if you use this mode.

Dynamic rate adaptation: the Switch dynamically changes the transmission rate
negotiated between the Switch and CPE devices during initialization as well as during
SHOWTIME status. This mode increases the lines stability and avoid the line being easily
dropped when noise occurs. However, it may cause crosstalk noise during transmission
rate adjustment.

SOS enabled: the Switch uses the emergency rate adjustment system for immediate
rate adjustment to avoid crosstalk noise. See SOS on page 100 for more information.
Retransmission This field displays G.INP retransmission mode.
Mode
n/a: no CPE device is connected to this port.

RTX in use: G.INP retransmission is enabled on the Switch.

Mode Forbidden: G.INP retransmission is disabled on the Switch.

CPE not support: The connected CPE device does not support G.INP retransmission.
G.INP Framing This field displays the DTU (Data Transfer Unit) framing type used when G.INP is
Type enabled.

0: G.INP is disabled on the Switch.

1: The DTU doesnt contain an 8-bit CRC.

2: There is an additional 8-bit CRC inserted at the end of the DTU.

3: An 8-bit CRC is inserted as the first octet of the DTU.

4: An 8-bit CRC is inserted as the first byte of the DTU.

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

Table 7 Status: VDSL Port Details (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Actual INP This field displays the actual impulse noise protection (INP) levels guaranteed on the
against REIN latency path against REIN (Repetitive Electrical Impulse Noise) which is related to AC
power frequency.
RS CW per DTU This field displays the number of Reed-Solomon codewords per DTU (Data Transfer Unit).
VDSL Band Status

The fields in this section display the status for upstream bands 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 (U0, U1, U2, U3, U4) and
downstream bands 1, 2, 3, 4 (D1, D2, D3, D4).
SNR margin This field displays signal-to-noise ratio margin for each upstream and downstream
bands. NA displays when the band is not used.
Signal This field displays the signal attenuation status for each upstream and downstream
Attenuation bands. NA displays when the band is not used.
Line Attenuation This field displays the line attenuation status for each upstream and downstream bands.
NA displays when the band is not used.
Transmit Power This field displays the transmission power for each upstream and downstream bands. NA
displays when the band is not used.
Receive Power This field displays the receiving power for each upstream and downstream bands. NA
displays when the band is not used.
VDSL Performance

This section displays current VDSL performance measured from the Switch (Vtuc) and CPE side (Vtur) for the
following three measurement durations.

Since Link: This field displays the VDSL performance information recorded since the line was last up.
Curr 15 Min: This field displays the VDSL performance information recorded in the last 15 minutes.
Curr 1 Day: This field displays the VDSL performance information recorded in the past one day.
Full Inits This field displays how many full initialization attempts on the line (successful and failed)
there were.
Failed Full Inits This field displays the number of failed full initialization attempts on the line.
FECS This field displays the number of seconds at least one FEC (Forward Error Correction)
event occurred on this line.
ES This field displays the number of seconds the following events occurred on this line:

The Switch: CRC-8, LOS, SEF or LPR value greater than or equal to 1 on the line.
CPE side: FEBE, LOS-FE, RDI or LPR-FE value greater than or equal to 1 on the line.
SES This field displays the number of seconds during this interval that:

The Switch: LOS, SEF or LPR value was greater than or equal to 1 or the number of
CRC-8 anomalies greater than or equal to 18 times on the line.
CPE side: LOS-FE, RDI or LPR-FE value was greater than or equal to 1 or the number
of FEBE anomalies greater than or equal to 18 times on the line.
LOSs This field displays the count of 1-second intervals containing one or more Loss of Signal
(LOS) failures.
LOFs This field displays the count of 1-second intervals containing one or more Loss of
Framing (LOF) failures.
UAS This field displays the count of 1-second intervals for which the line is unavailable. Use
this to define this line tolerance to allow how long for a period of Unavailable Seconds
(UAS). Refer to ITU-T G997.1 chapter 7.2.1.1.5 for more detailed information.
Code Violation This field displays the number of code words containing one or more anomalies.
Corrected This field displays the number of code words containing one or more error blocks that
have been corrected.

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

Table 7 Status: VDSL Port Details (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Uncorrected This field displays the number of code words containing one or more error blocks that
can not be corrected.
Rtx This field displays the number of RS (Reed-Solomon) codewords or DTUs (Data Transfer
Units) retransmitted through PhyR or G.INP retransmissions.
RtxCorrected This field displays the number of RS codewords or DTUs that have been corrected
through PhyR or G.INP retransmissions.
RtxUncorrected This field displays the number of RS codewords or DTUs that were not corrected
successfully through PhyR or G.INP retransmissions.
LEFTRs This field displays the number of seconds during which the Error Free Throughput went
below the pre-configured threshold.
MinEFTR This field displays the lowest value of the Error Free Throughput within the current
interval.
ErrFreeBits This field displays the number of bits that passed through the alpha1/beta1 interface
(bits that are available to carry user payload).
LOLs/LOL This field displays the count of 1-second intervals containing one or more Loss Of Link
(LOL) failures and the number of times an LOL failure occurred.
LPRs/LPR This field displays the count of 1-second intervals containing one or more PoweR (LPR)
failures and the number of times an LPR failure occurred.
Time Elapsed This field displays how many seconds has elapsed currently in this 15-minute (900
seconds) time segment. The counter restarts to zero after entering the next time
segment.
VDSL Performance Click the 15 Min Interval link to display a screen listing VDSL performance information
History for the previous 15-minute periods.

Click the One Day Interval link to display a screen listing VDSL performance
information for the previous 24-hour periods.
VDSL INM Click the Current link to display a screen listing INM (Impulse Noise Monitor) counters
Performance recorded since the link was last up or counters for the current 15-minute and 24-hour
History periods.

Click the 15 Min Interval link to display a screen listing INM counters for the previous
15-minute periods.

Click the One Day Interval link to display a screen listing INM counters for the previous
24-hour periods.

See Section 9.3.9 on page 119 on how to configure VDSL INM profiles which define INM
control parameters.
VDSL sub-carrier This section allows you to select the criteria below and display you the status in a raw
status data list or in a graph.
Items Select Hlog (Channel Transfer Function) to see the lines capability against interference
and attenuation.

Select QLN (Quiet Line Noise) to see the lines noise level.

Select SNR (Signal-to-Noise-Ratio) to see the lines signal strength level.

Select BitAlloc to display the number of bits allocated to each tone. The higher the bit
allocated, the higher the data transmission rate.

Select GainAlloc to display the gain allocated to each tone. Normally, each tone gets a
different gain value allocated to avoid interference.
Direction Select Downstream or Upstream for the direction. Select Both for both downstream
and upstream directions.

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

Table 7 Status: VDSL Port Details (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Display Select Graph or Text to display the graph or statistic data of the VDSL sub-carrier
status. This field is not configurable and the Switch only displays the status in a graph
when you select Both in the Direction field.
Show Select the criteria above and click Show to display a screen where displays you port
detail information in raw data or in a graph.
Measure Click Measure to display the latest VDSL port details in this screen.
MEDLEY PSD This section displays the final PSD the Switch proposes to the connected CPE during line
initialization.
Break Point This field displays the index number for each incremental break point.
Tone Index This field displays the corresponding tone according to the specified break point.

A tone is a sub-channel of a VDSL band. DMT divides VDSL bands into many 4.3125 kHz
tones.
PSD Level This field displays the final PSD level the Switch proposes for the specified tone.
Poll Interval(s) The text box displays how often (in seconds) this screen refreshes. You may change the
refresh interval by typing a new number in the text box and then clicking Set Interval.
Stop Click Stop to stop refreshing this screen.

The following figures show you examples of each graph type that can be displayed when you click
Show in the VDSL sub-carrier status section. Downstream information is in blue and upstream
in red.

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

Figure 32 Graph Examples

Hlog

QLN

SNR

BitAlloc

GainAlloc

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

7.2.3 Bonding Group Details


Click a VDSL port's bonding group name in the Group column of the Port Status screen to display
the following screen. Use this screen to check status for an individual VDSL bonding group on the
Switch.

Figure 33 Port Status: Bonding Group Details

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 8 Port Status: Bonding Group Details

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Group Status
Group Name This shows the name of the VDSL port bonding group.
Member Port This shows the ports in this bonding group.
Active Port This shows the port(s) with connections up in this bonding group.
Main Port This field displays the lower-numbered port in the VDSL port bonding group. This is the
main port. The Switch records data sent and received counters based on this port.
Transfer Mode This field displays the traffic type (PTM or ATM) of this bonding group.

Packet Transfer Mode (PTM) is packet-oriented and supported by the VDSL2 standard.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a connection-oriented and cell-switching


technology. It is supported by the ADSL/ADSL2/ADSL2+ standards.
Bonding Rate US This field displays the current upstream rate for this bonding group.
Bonding Rate DS This field displays the current downstream rate for this bonding group.
Group Counter
Group Name This shows the name of the VDSL port bonding group.
rxSmallFragments The size of all data fragments should be the same and it is negotiated by the Switch and
individual VDSL CPEs.

This shows the number of data fragments this group dropped due to being smaller than
the negotiated size..

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Chapter 7 System Status and Port Statistics

Table 8 Port Status: Bonding Group Details (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
rxLargeFragments This shows the number of data fragments this group dropped due to being bigger than
the negotiated size.
rxBadFragments This shows the number of data fragments this group received out of sequence.
rxLostFragments This shows the number of missing data fragments that the Switch should have received.
rxLostStarts This shows the number of beginning data fragments (with StartOfPacket indicator) that
the Switch should have received but were lost.
rxLostEnds This shows the number of ending data fragments (with EndOfPackets indicator) that the
Switch should have received but were lost.

7.2.4 VDSL Summary


To view VDSL statistics, click VDSL Summary in the Status screen. Click Clear next to an entry to
reset that connection. All values for that connection will be reset to 0.

Figure 34 Status: VDSL Summary

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7.2.5 Port Details


Click the Port Details link in the VDSL Port Details screen or an Ethernet port's index number in
the Port Status screen to display the selected ports transmission statistics. Use this screen to
check detailed transmission statistics for a selected VDSL port on the Switch.

Figure 35 Port Details

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 9 Port Details

LABEL DESCRIPTION
VDSL Port Details Click this link to take you to a screen where you can view VDSL transmission statistics for
the selected port.
Port Info
Port NO. This field displays the port number you are viewing.
Name This field displays the name of the port.

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Table 9 Port Details (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Link This field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for 100Mbps or 1000M for
1000Mbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half duplex). This field displays Down
if the port is not connected to any device. This field also shows the cable type (Copper or
Fiber).
Status This field shows the training state of the ports. FORWARDING displayed if the link is
functioning normally. Otherwise, it displays STOP.

When STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP state of the port
(see Section 14.1 on page 160 for more information).
LACP This field shows if LACP is enabled on this port or not.
TxPkts This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port
RxPkts This field shows the number of received frames on this port
Errors This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s This field shows the number kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
Bonding Up This field shows the total amount of time the ports link has been up.
Time
Up Time This field shows the total amount of time the connection has been up.
Tx Packet

The following fields display detailed information about packets transmitted.


TX Packets This field shows the number of good packets (unicast, multicast and broadcast)
transmitted.
Multicast This field shows the number of good multicast packets transmitted.
Broadcast This field shows the number of good broadcast packets transmitted.
Pause This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets transmitted.
OutDiscards This field shows the number of outgoing packets discarded.
Tagged This field shows the number of 802.1Q VLAN tagged packets transmitted.
RateLimitDro This field shows the number of outgoing packets dropped due to the guaranteed and/or
p maximum bandwidth limit are reached. You can configure the limit setting in the Egress
Rate field of the Basic Setting > Rate Limit Profile Setup screen.
Rx Packet

The following fields display detailed information about packets received.


RX Packets This field shows the number of good packets (unicast, multicast and broadcast) received.
Multicast This field shows the number of good multicast packets received.
Broadcast This field shows the number of good broadcast packets received.
Pause This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets received.
InDiscards This field shows the number of incoming packets discarded.
Control This field shows the number of control packets received (including those with CRC error)
but it does not include the 802.3x Pause packets.
RateLimitDro This field shows the number of incoming packets dropped due to the minimum bandwidth
p limit is reached. You can configure the limit setting in the Ingress Commit Rate and
Ingress Peak Rate fields of the Basic Setting > Rate Limit Profile Setup screen.
MeteringDrop This field shows the number of the packets dropped due to the desired maximum
bandwidth limit is reached. You can configure the limit setting in the Management >
Policy Rule screen. 0 displays if you did not configure the bandwidth limit in the
associated policy or traffic amount is under the desired limit so far.

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Table 9 Port Details (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
TX Collision

The following fields display information on collisions while transmitting.


Single This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission is inhibited by
exactly one collision.
Multiple This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission was inhibited by
more than one collision.
Excessive This is a count of packets for which transmission failed due to excessive collisions.
Excessive collision is defined as the number of maximum collisions before the
retransmission count is reset.
Late This is the number of times a late collision is detected, that is, after 512 bits of the packets
have already been transmitted.
Error Packet The following fields display detailed information about packets received that were in error.
RX CRC This field shows the number of packets received with CRC (Cyclic Redundant Check)
error(s).
Runt This field shows the number of packets received that were too short (shorter than 64
octets), including the ones with CRC errors.
Distribution
64 This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were 64
octets in length.
65 to 127 This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
65 and 127 octets in length.
128 to 255 This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
128 and 255 octets in length.
256 to 511 This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
256 and 511 octets in length.
512 to 1023 This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
512 and 1023 octets in length.
1024 to 1518 This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
1024 and 1518 octets in length.
Giant This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
1519 octets and the maximum frame size.

The maximum frame size varies depending on your switch model. See Chapter 47 on page
381.

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C HAPT ER 8
Basic Setting

This chapter describes how to view and configure the Switchs basic settings for such as IP address,
ports, hardware alarms.

8.1 Overview
The System Info screen displays general Switch information (such as firmware version number)
and hardware polling information (such as fan speeds). The General Setup screen allows you to
configure general Switch identification information. The General Setup screen also allows you to
set the system time manually or get the current time and date from an external server when you
turn on your Switch. The real time is then displayed in the Switch logs. The Switch Setup screen
allows you to set up and configure global Switch features. The IP Setup screen allows you to
configure a Switch IP address in each routing domain, subnet mask(s) and DNS (domain name
server) for management purposes. The Port Setup screen allows you to enable or disable a port on
the Switch and configure the port settings, such as the speed and duplex mode.

8.2 System Information


In the navigation panel, click Basic Setting > System Info to display the screen as shown. You
can check the firmware version number and monitor the Switch temperature, fan speeds and
voltage in this screen. Note that the fan speed information in the Hardware Monitor table is not
available for this model.

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Figure 36 Basic Setting > System Info

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 10 Basic Setting > System Info

LABEL DESCRIPTION
System Name This field displays the descriptive name of the Switch for identification purposes.
ZyNOS F/W This field displays the version number of the Switch 's current firmware including the date
Version created.
Modem Code F/ This field displays the version number of the VDSL chip firmware used in the Switch.
W Version
Ethernet This field refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) address of the Switch.
Address
Power Module This field displays Dual when the Switch supports both AC and DC power input. Otherwise, it
displays AC or DC when the corresponding power module is connected and detected.
1st F/W This field displays the version number of the currently installed firmware on the first flash
Version memory.
2nd F/W This field displays the version number of the currently installed firmware on the second flash
Version memory.
Hardware Monitor
Temperature The Switch has temperature sensors that are capable of detecting and reporting if the
Unit temperature rises above the threshold. You may choose the temperature unit (Centigrade or
Fahrenheit) in this field.
Temperature BOARD, MAC and PHY refer to the location of the temperature sensors on the Switch
printed circuit board.
Current This shows the current temperature at this sensor.
MAX This field displays the maximum temperature measured at this sensor.
MIN This field displays the minimum temperature measured at this sensor.
Threshold This field displays the upper temperature limit at this sensor.
Status This field displays Normal for temperatures below the threshold and Error for those above.

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Table 10 Basic Setting > System Info (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Fan Speed A properly functioning fan is an essential component (along with a sufficiently ventilated, cool
(RPM) operating environment) in order for the device to stay within the temperature threshold.
Each fan has a sensor that is capable of detecting and reporting if the fan speed falls below
the threshold shown.
Current This field displays this fan's current speed in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
MAX This field displays this fan's maximum speed measured in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
MIN This field displays this fan's minimum speed measured in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
"<41" is displayed for speeds too small to measure.
Threshold This field displays the minimum speed at which a normal fan should work.
Status Normal indicates that this fan is functioning above the minimum speed. Error indicates that
this fan is functioning below the minimum speed.
Voltage(V) The power supply for each voltage has a sensor that is capable of detecting and reporting if
the voltage falls out of the tolerance range.
Current This is the current voltage reading.
MAX This field displays the maximum voltage measured at this point.
MIN This field displays the minimum voltage measured at this point.
Threshold This field displays the percentage tolerance of the voltage with which the Switch still works.
Status Normal indicates that the voltage is within an acceptable operating range at this point;
otherwise Error is displayed.

8.3 General Setup


Use this screen to configure general settings such as the system name and time. Click Basic
Setting > General Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.

Figure 37 Basic Setting > General Setup

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 11 Basic Setting > General Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
System Name Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. This name consists of up to 64
printable characters; spaces are allowed.
Location Enter the geographic location of your Switch. You can use up to 32 printable ASCII
characters; spaces are allowed.
Contact Person's Enter the name of the person in charge of this Switch. You can use up to 32 printable ASCII
Name characters; spaces are allowed.
Use Time Server Enter the time service protocol that your timeserver uses. Not all time servers support all
when Bootup protocols, so you may have to use trial and error to find a protocol that works. The main
differences between them are the time format.

When you select the Daytime (RFC 867) format, the Switch displays the day, month,
year and time with no time zone adjustment. When you use this format it is recommended
that you use a Daytime timeserver within your geographical time zone.

Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of seconds
since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.

NTP (RFC-1305) is similar to Time (RFC-868).

None is the default value. Enter the time manually. Each time you turn on the Switch, the
time and date will be reset to 1970-1-1 0:0.
Time Server IP Enter the IPv4 or IPv6 address of your timeserver. The Switch searches for the timeserver
Address for up to 60 seconds. If you select a timeserver that is unreachable, then this screen will
appear locked for 60 seconds. Please wait.
Current Time This field displays the time you open this menu (or refresh the menu).
New Time Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format. The new time then appears in the
(hh:mm:ss) Current Time field after you click Apply.
Current Date This field displays the date you open this menu.
New Date (yyyy- Enter the new date in year, month and day format. The new date then appears in the
mm-dd) Current Date field after you click Apply.
Time Zone Select the time difference between UTC (Universal Time Coordinated, formerly known as
GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and your time zone from the drop-down list box.
Daylight Saving Daylight saving is a period from late spring to early fall when many countries set their
Time clocks ahead of normal local time by one hour to give more daytime light in the evening.

Select this option if you use Daylight Saving Time.


Start Date Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you selected Daylight
Saving Time. The time is displayed in the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of examples:

Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the second Sunday of
March. Each time zone in the United States starts using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M.
local time. So in the United States you would select Second, Sunday, March and 2:00.

Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday of March. All of the
time zones in the European Union start using Daylight Saving Time at the same moment (1
A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select Last, Sunday, March and
the last field depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select 2:00
because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).

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Table 11 Basic Setting > General Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
End Date Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you selected Daylight
Saving Time. The time field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of examples:

Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the first Sunday of November. Each time
zone in the United States stops using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in the
United States you would select First, Sunday, November and 2:00.

Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of October. All of the
time zones in the European Union stop using Daylight Saving Time at the same moment (1
A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select Last, Sunday, October and
the last field depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select 2:00
because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

8.4 Introduction to VLANs


A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into multiple logical
networks. Devices on a logical network belong to one group. A device can belong to more than one
group. With VLAN, a device cannot directly talk to or hear from devices that are not in the same
group(s); the traffic must first go through a router.

In MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) applications, VLAN is vital in providing isolation and security among the
subscribers. When properly configured, VLAN prevents one subscriber from accessing the network
resources of another on the same LAN, thus a user will not see the printers and hard disks of
another user in the same building.

VLAN also increases network performance by limiting broadcasts to a smaller and more
manageable logical broadcast domain. In traditional switched environments, all broadcast packets
go to each and every individual port. With VLAN, all broadcasts are confined to a specific broadcast
domain.

Note: VLAN is unidirectional; it only governs outgoing traffic.

See Chapter 10 on page 129 for information on port-based and 802.1Q tagged VLANs.

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8.5 Switch Setup Screen


Click Basic Setting > Switch Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown. The
VLAN setup screens change depending on whether you choose 802.1Q or Port Based in the VLAN
Type field in this screen. Refer to the chapter on VLAN.

Figure 38 Basic Setting > Switch Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 12 Basic Setting > Switch Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
VLAN Type Choose 802.1Q or Port Based. The VLAN Setup screen changes depending on whether
you choose 802.1Q VLAN type or Port Based VLAN type in this screen. See Chapter 10 on
page 129 for more information.
Bridge Control Select Active to allow the Switch to handle bridging control protocols (STP for example).
Protocol You also need to define how to treat a BPDU in the Port Setup screen.
Transparency
MAC Address MAC address learning reduces outgoing traffic broadcasts. For MAC address learning to
Learning occur on a port, the port must be active.
Aging Time Enter a time from 10 to 3000 seconds. This is how long all dynamically learned MAC
addresses remain in the MAC address table before they age out (and must be relearned).

GARP Timer: Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join message
using GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All message terminates all
registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values. See the chapter on VLAN setup for more
background information.
Join Timer Join Timer sets the duration of the Join Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each port has
a Join Period timer. The allowed Join Time range is between 100 and 65535 milliseconds;
the default is 200 milliseconds. See the chapter on VLAN setup for more background
information.

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Table 12 Basic Setting > Switch Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Leave Timer Leave Time sets the duration of the Leave Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each port
has a single Leave Period timer. Leave Time must be two times larger than Join Timer;
the default is 600 milliseconds.
Leave All Timer Leave All Timer sets the duration of the Leave All Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each
port has a single Leave All Period timer. Leave All Timer must be larger than Leave Timer.
Priority Queue Assignment

IEEE 802.1p defines up to eight separate traffic types by inserting a tag into a MAC-layer frame that contains
bits to define class of service. Frames without an explicit priority tag are given the default priority of the
ingress port. Use the next fields to configure the priority level-to-physical queue mapping.

The Switch has eight physical queues that you can map to the 8 priority levels. On the Switch, traffic assigned
to higher index queues gets through faster while traffic in lower index queues is dropped if the network is
congested.
Priority Level (The following descriptions are based on the traffic types defined in the IEEE 802.1d standard
(which incorporates the 802.1p).
Level 7 Typically used for network control traffic such as router configuration messages.
Level 6 Typically used for voice traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter (jitter is the variations in
delay).
Level 5 Typically used for video that consumes high bandwidth and is sensitive to jitter.
Level 4 Typically used for controlled load, latency-sensitive traffic such as SNA (Systems Network
Architecture) transactions.
Level 3 Typically used for excellent effort or better than best effort and would include important
business traffic that can tolerate some delay.
Level 2 This is for spare bandwidth.
Level 1 This is typically used for non-critical background traffic such as bulk transfers that are
allowed but that should not affect other applications and users.
Level 0 Typically used for best-effort traffic.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields.

8.6 IPv6 Introduction


IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), is designed to enhance IP address size and features. The
increase in IPv6 address size to 128 bits (from the 32-bit IPv4 address) allows up to 3.4 x 1038 IP
addresses.

8.6.1 IPv6 Addressing


The 128-bit IPv6 address is written as eight 16-bit hexadecimal blocks separated by colons (:). This
is an example IPv6 address 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000.

IPv6 addresses can be abbreviated in two ways:

Leading zeros in a block can be omitted. So 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000 can


be written as 2001:db8:1a2b:15:0:0:1a2f:0.

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Any number of consecutive blocks of zeros can be replaced by a double colon. A double colon can
only appear once in an IPv6 address. So 2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f:0000:0000:0015 can be
written as 2001:0db8::1a2f:0000:0000:0015, 2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f::0015,
2001:db8::1a2f:0:0:15 or 2001:db8:0:0:1a2f::15.

8.6.2 IPv6 Prefix and Prefix Length


Similar to an IPv4 subnet mask, IPv6 uses an address prefix to represent the network address. An
IPv6 prefix length specifies how many most significant bits (start from the left) in the address
compose the network address. The prefix length is written as /x where x is a number. For
example,

2001:db8:1a2b:15::1a2f:0/32

means that the first 32 bits (2001:db8) is the subnet prefix.

8.6.3 IPv6 Subnet Masking


Both an IPv6 address and IPv6 subnet mask compose of 128-bit binary digits, which are divided
into eight 16-bit blocks and written in hexadecimal notation. Hexadecimal uses four bits for each
character (1 ~ 10, A ~ F). Each blocks 16 bits are then represented by four hexadecimal
characters. For example, FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FC00:0000:0000:0000.

The first 48 bits of the IPv6 subnet mask are for Internet routing or fixed for local address, the 49th
to the 54th bits are for subnetting and the last 64 bits are for interface identifying. The 16 binary
digits for subnetting allows an organization to set up to 65,535 individual subnets.

8.6.4 Interface ID
In IPv6, an interface ID is a 64-bit identifier. It identifies a physical interface (for example, an
Ethernet port) or a virtual interface (for example, the management IP address for a VLAN). One
interface should have a unique interface ID.

8.6.5 Link-local Address


A link-local address uniquely identifies a device on the local network (the LAN). It is similar to a
private IP address in IPv4. You can have the same link-local address on multiple interfaces on a
device. A link-local unicast address has a predefined prefix of fe80::/10. The link-local unicast
address format is as follows.

Table 13 Link-local Unicast Address Format

1111 1110 10 0 Interface ID


10 bits 54 bits 64 bits

8.6.6 Global Address


A global address uniquely identifies a device on the Internet. It is similar to a public IP address in
IPv4. A global unicast address starts with a 2 or 3. The global address format as follows.

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Table 14 Global Address Format

001 Global ID Subnet ID Interface ID


3 bits 45 bits 16 bits 64 bits

The global ID is the network identifier or prefix of the address and is used for routing. This may be
assigned by service providers.

The subnet ID is a number that identifies the subnet of a site.

8.6.7 Unspecified
An unspecified address (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 or ::) is used as the source address when a device does
not have its own address. It is similar to 0.0.0.0 in IPv4.

8.6.8 EUI-64
The EUI-64 (Extended Unique Identifier) defined by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers) is an interface ID format designed to adapt with IPv6. It is derived from the 48-bit (6-
byte) Ethernet MAC address as shown next. EUI-64 inserts the hex digits fffe between the third and
fourth bytes of the MAC address and complements the seventh bit of the first byte of the MAC
address. See the following example.

MAC 00 : 13 : 49 : 12 : 34 : 56

EUI-64 02 : 13 : 49 : FF : FE : 12 : 34 : 56

8.6.9 Stateless Autoconfiguration


With stateless autoconfiguration in IPv6, addresses can be uniquely and automatically generated.
Unlike DHCPv6 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version six) which is used in IPv6 stateful
autoconfiguration, the owner and status of addresses dont need to be maintained by a DHCP
server. Every IPv6 device is able to generate its own and unique IP address automatically when
IPv6 is initiated on its interface. It combines the prefix and the interface ID (generated from its own
Ethernet MAC address, see Interface ID and EUI-64) to form a complete IPv6 address.

When IPv6 is enabled on a device, its interface automatically generates a link-local address
(beginning with fe80).

When the interface is connected to a network with a router and the ipv6 address autoconfig
command is issued on the Switch, it generates 1another address which combines its interface ID
and global and subnet information advertised from the router. This is a routable global IP address.

1. In IPv6, all network interfaces can be associated with several addresses.

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8.7 IP Setup
Use the IP Setup screen to configure the Switch IP address, default gateway device, the default
domain name server and the management VLAN ID. The default gateway specifies the IP address of
the default gateway (next hop) for outgoing traffic.

8.7.1 Management IP Addresses


The Switch needs an IP address for it to be managed over the network. The factory default IP
address is 192.168.1.1. The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address.
The factory default subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.

You can configure up to 64 IP addresses which are used to access and manage the Switch from the
ports belonging to the pre-defined VLAN(s).

Note: You must configure a VLAN first.

Figure 39 Basic Setting > IP Setup

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 15 Basic Setting > IP Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Domain Name DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP
Server address and vice versa. Enter a domain name server IP address in order to be able to
use a domain name instead of an IP address.
Default Management Specify which traffic flow (In-Band or Out-of-band) the Switch is to send packets
originating from itself (such as SNMP traps) or packets with unknown source.

Select Out-of-band to have the Switch send the packets to the out-of-band
management port. This means that device(s) connected to the other port(s) do not
receive these packets.

Select In-Band to have the Switch send the packets to all ports except the out-of-band
management port to which connected device(s) do not receive these packets.
In-Band Management IP Address
DHCP Client Select this option if you have a DHCP server that can assign the Switch an IP address,
subnet mask, a default gateway IP address and a domain name server IP address
automatically.
DHCP Option 12 Select this and specify the Switchs name in the text box to have the Switch add the
information into the DHCP request messages the Switch sends.
DHCP Option 60 Select this and specify the Switchs vendor type to have the Switch add the information
into the DHCP request messages the Switch sends.
Static IP Address Select this option if you dont have a DHCP server or if you wish to assign static IP
address information to the Switch. You need to fill in the following fields when you select
this option.
IP Address Enter the IP address of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example 192.168.1.1.
IP Subnet Mask Enter the IP subnet mask of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
255.255.255.0.
Default Gateway Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation, for
example 192.168.1.254.
VID Enter the VLAN identification number associated with the Switch IP address. This is the
VLAN ID of the CPU and is used for management only. The default is "1". All ports, by
default, are fixed members of this "management VLAN" in order to manage the device
from any port. If a port is not a member of this VLAN, then users on that port cannot
access the device. To access the Switch make sure the port that you are connected to is
a member of Management VLAN.
Out-of-band Management IP Address
IP Address Enter the IP address of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example 192.168.0.1.

If you change this IP address, make sure the computer connected to this management
port is in the same subnet before accessing the Switch.
Subnet Mask Enter the IP subnet mask of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
255.255.255.0.
Default Gateway Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation, for
example 192.168.0.254.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring the fields again.

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Table 15 Basic Setting > IP Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
In-band IP Addresses (VPS)

You can create up to 64 IPv4 addresses, which are used to access and manage the Switch from the ports
belonging to the pre-defined VLANs. You must configure a VLAN first. VPS stands for Virtual Private Server
which virtually divides a device into several servers, each handling its own traffic independently.
IP Address (VPS) Enter the IP address for managing the Switch by the members of the VLAN specified in
the VID field below.
IP Subnet Mask Enter the IP subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
VID Type the VLAN group identification number.
Default Gateway Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation.
Manageable Select this to allow the Switch to be managed by connections to this specified IP
address in the specified VLAN.
Add Click Add to insert the entry to the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses
power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the
non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit the rule.
IP Address (VPS) This field displays the IP address.
IP Subnet Mask This field displays the subnet mask.
VID This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Default Gateway This field displays the IP address of the default gateway.
Manageable This field displays whether the Switch can be managed using this specified IP address.
Delete Check the management IP addresses that you want to remove in the Delete column,
then click the Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected check boxes in the Delete column.

8.8 External Alarm Switch


Use this screen to view the status of the external alarm inputs and configure their settings.

Figure 40 Basic Setting > External Alarm Switch

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 16 Basic Setting > External Alarm Switch

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Index This is the index number of the external alarm input.
Status This field displays whether the external alarm input has alarms (Alarm) or not (Normal).
Disable displays if the external alarm input is not in use.
Enable Select this check box to have the Switch use the external alarm input.
Name Enter a descriptive name that identifies this alarm input. You can enter up to 31 printable
characters. Spaces are also allowed.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

8.9 Port Setup


Use this screen to configure Switch port settings. Click Basic Setting > Port Setup in the
navigation panel to display the configuration screen.

Figure 41 Basic Setting > Port Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 17 Basic Setting > Port Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port This is the port index number.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active Select this check box to enable a port. The factory default for all ports is enabled. A port must
be enabled for data transmission to occur.

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Table 17 Basic Setting > Port Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Name Enter a descriptive name that identifies this port. You can enter up to 64 alpha-numerical
characters.

Note: Due to space limitation, the port name may be truncated in some Web Configurator
screens.
Type This field displays 10/100M for Fast Ethernet connections and 10/100/1000M for Gigabit
connections.
Speed/Duplex Select the speed and the duplex mode of the Ethernet connection on this port. Choices are
Auto, 10M/Half Duplex, 10M/Full Duplex, 100M/Half Duplex, 100M/Full Duplex and
1000M/Full Duplex (Gigabit connections only).

Selecting Auto (auto-negotiation) allows one port to negotiate with a peer port automatically
to obtain the connection speed and duplex mode that both ends support. When auto-
negotiation is turned on, a port on the Switch negotiates with the peer automatically to
determine the connection speed and duplex mode. If the peer port does not support auto-
negotiation or turns off this feature, the Switch determines the connection speed by detecting
the signal on the cable and using half duplex mode. When the Switchs auto-negotiation is
turned off, a port uses the pre-configured speed and duplex mode when making a connection,
thus requiring you to make sure that the settings of the peer port are the same in order to
connect.
Rate Limit These fields display the rate limit profile names you configure in the Rate Limit Profile
Profile Setup screens. Refer to Section 8.10 on page 84 for more information.
per Port Select a rate limit profile from the drop-down list box. You can define the maximum incoming
and outgoing transmission data rate on a per-port basis.
per Queue Select a per queue rate limit profile from the drop-down list box. You can define the maximum
incoming and outgoing transmission data rate on a per-queue basis.
Flow Control A concentration of traffic on a port decreases port bandwidth and overflows buffer memory
causing packet discards and frame losses. Flow Control is used to regulate transmission of
signals to match the bandwidth of the receiving port.

The Switch uses IEEE 802.3x flow control in full duplex mode and backpressure flow control in
half duplex mode.

IEEE 802.3x flow control is used in full duplex mode to send a pause signal to the sending
port, causing it to temporarily stop sending signals when the receiving port memory buffers
fill.

Back Pressure flow control is typically used in half duplex mode to send a "collision" signal to
the sending port (mimicking a state of packet collision) causing the sending port to
temporarily stop sending signals and resend later. Select Flow Control to enable it. This field
is available for an Ethernet port only.
802.1p Priority This priority value is added to incoming frames without a (802.1p) priority queue tag. See
Priority Queue Assignment in Table 12 on page 75 for more information.

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Table 17 Basic Setting > Port Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
BPDU Control Configure the way to treat BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) received on this port. You must
activate bridging control protocol transparency in the Switch Setup screen first.

Select Peer to look at the information in the received BPDUs. For example, the root bridges
existence, if any bridge was added or removed from the STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)
network, if any loop occurred in the STP network.

Select Tunnel to add the incoming ports PVID on the received BPDUs and then forward them
to the next Switch.

Select Discard to drop all BPDUs received on this port. Set this only on an edge port of a STP
network.

Select Network to forward VLAN-tagged BPDUs to the next Switch directly and handle VLAN-
untagged BPDUs as the Peer option.

See Section 14.1.2 on page 161 for more information about BPDU.
Force Agent Select force to allow the Switch to add/replace a DHCP option 82 tag in the corresponding
Information packets received by this port for the following applications:

PPPoE IA (See Section 32.4 on page 291 and Section 32.5 on page 293)
DHCP relay (See Section 35.4.4 on page 314)
DHCP VLAN (See Section 35.5 on page 318)
DHCP snooping (See Section 26.5.2 on page 260)
Select transparent to ignore the PPPoE IA and DHCP option 82 tag settings of packets
received on this port.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

8.10 Rate Limit Profile Setup


Rate limit profiles define ingress and egress data rate limits for the Switch port(s).

Click Basic Setting and Rate Limit Profile Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.

Figure 42 Rate Limit Profile Setup

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 18 Rate Limit Profile Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Name Enter a descriptive name (up to 20 characters) for identification purposes.
Ingress Commit Select the checkbox and enter the guaranteed bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second
Rate(Kbps) (Kbps) for the incoming traffic flow through a port. Enter a number between 64 and
1000000. Alternatively, clear the checkbox to not use the rate limit.

Note: The sum of commit rate cannot be greater than or equal to the uplink bandwidth.
Ingress Peak Select the checkbox and enter the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second
Rate(Kbps) (Kbps) for the incoming traffic flow through a port when burst traffic occurs. The incoming
traffic over this peak rate will be discarded. Enter a number between 64 and 1000000.
Alternatively, clear the checkbox to not use the rate limit.

Note: The peak rate should be greater than the commit rate.
Egress Rate(Kbps) Select the checkbox and enter the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second
(Kbps) for the outgoing traffic flow through a port. Enter a number between 64 and
1000000. Alternatively, clear the checkbox to not use the rate limit.
Add Click Add to save the new rule to the switch. Then a summary table displays in the bottom
of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for the rate limit profile.
Ingress Commit This field displays the ingress committed rate limit for the port(s)
Ingress Peak This field displays the ingress peak rate limit for the port(s)
Egress This field displays the egress rate limit for the port(s).
Applied Ports This field displays the port number(s) to which this profile is applied.

You can apply a rate limit profile to a port in the Port Setup screen.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

8.10.1 Per Queue Ratelimit Profile


You can also use per queue rate limit profiles to define ingress and egress data rate limits for each
queue on the Switch.

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Click the Per Queue link in the Rate Limit Profile Setup screen to display the screen as shown.

Figure 43 Rate Limit Profile Setup > Per Queue

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 19 Rate Limit Profile Setup > Per Queue

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Name Enter a descriptive name (up to 20 characters) for identification purposes.
Queue This is the index number of queues on the Switch. The Switch has eight physical queues.
CIR Select the checkbox and enter the guaranteed bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for
the incoming traffic flow assigned to this queue through a port. Enter a number between 64 and
1000000.

The sum of commit rate cannot be greater than or equal to the uplink bandwidth.
PIR Select the checkbox and enter the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for
the incoming traffic flow assigned to this queue through a port when burst traffic occurs. The
incoming traffic over this peak rate will be discarded. Enter a number between 64 and 1000000.

The peak rate should be greater than the commit rate.


Add Click Add to save the new rule to the Switch. Then a summary table displays in the bottom of the
screen.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit the profile.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for the profile.
Applied This field displays the port number(s) to which this profile is applied.
Ports
You can apply a rate limit profile to a port in the Port Setup screen.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

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8.11 Hardware Alarm Profile


Click Basic Setting > Hardware Alarm Profile to display the screen as shown. Hardware alarm
profile defines CPU, packet buffer, memory utilization thresholds and CPU, DSP, ADT temperature
thresholds. The Switch sends a hardware alarm once it detects one usage over its pre-defined
threshold. Configure the thresholds and click Apply to save your changes or click Cancel to reload
the previous settings for this screen.

Figure 44 Hardware Alarm Profile Setup

8.12 CPE Port Status


Use this screen to view all DSL port status and details about the connected CPE devices.

Figure 45 CPE Port Status

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 20 Basic Setting > CPE Port Status

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port This is the number of a port.
Link State This field displays Showtime when the DSL connection is up. Otherwise, it displays Idle,
Handshake or Training during the DSL line establishment. If you perform a DELT test, this
field will display LD_Testing. The state changes to LD_Done after the DELT test is
completed.
Actual NDR This field displays the actual upstream/downstream net data rate in Mbps.
US/DS(Mbps)
Model This field displays the model name of the CPE device connected to this port. NA displays if it
is not available.

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Table 20 Basic Setting > CPE Port Status (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Modem Code This field displays the chip firmware version number of the CPE device connected to this port.
NA displays if it is not available.
FW Version This field displays the firmware version number of the DSL CPE device connected to this port.
NA displays if it is not available.
Wireless This field displays whether or not the CPE device has the wireless function enabled. NA
displays if it is not available.
VDSL Template This field displays the name of the VDSL profile applied to this DSL connection.
Line Profile This field displays the name of the line profile applied to this DSL connection.
Channel Profile This field displays the name of the channel profile applied to this DSL connection.
Inm Profile This field displays the name of the INM profile applied to this DSL connection.

8.13 IPv6 Setup


Use this screen to configure Switchs management IPv6 addresses. Click Basic Setting > IP Setup
> IPv6 Setup to display the configuration screen. See Section 8.6 on page 76 for more
information about IPv6.

Figure 46 Basic Setting > IPv6 Setup

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 21 Basic Setting > IPv6 Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
IPv6 Default Management Setup
IPv6 Interface Select an in-band interface (VLAN1~VLAN4094) or an out-of-band interface (MGMT0) to
forward IPv6 packets for which the Switch cannot find a specific interface to route. Select
NONE to not specify the default IPv6 interface.

You have to first configure an IPv6 interface in the IPv6 Interface Setup section below
before setting it as the default interface here.
Apply Click Apply to save your change to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses the
change if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
IPv6 Interface Setup
IPv6 Group Select to configure IPv6 settings for the in-band or the out-of-band IPv6 interface.
VID This field is available when you select Inband in the IPv6 Group field above.

Enter the VLAN identification number associated with the Switchs IPv6 address. This is the
VLAN ID of the CPU and is used for management only. The default is "1". All ports, by default,
are fixed members of this "management VLAN" in order to manage the Switch from any port.
If a port is not a member of this VLAN, then users on that port cannot manage the Switch. To
access the Switch make sure the port that you are connected to is a member of the
management VLAN.
IPv6 Enable or disable IPv6 for this interface.
Default Enter the IPv6 address of the default outgoing gateway using colon (:) hexadecimal notation.
Gateway
Enable IPv6 Select Enable to allow the IPv6 hosts connected to this interface to automatically generate
autoconfig unique IPv6 addresses by combining the network prefix advertised from the router and their
interface IDs.
Add Click Add to save the new settings to the Switch. They then display in the summary table at
the bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index This is the index number of the entry.
Interface This is the name of the interface. Click the link to view the details.
IPv6 Status This displays whether IPv6 is enabled or not on this interface.
Default This displays the IPv6 address of the default gateway.
Gateway
AutoConfig This displays whether IPv6 stateless autoconfiguration is enabled or not. Yes displays if this
interface allows the connected IPv6 hosts to automatically generate unique IPv6 addresses by
combining the network prefix advertised from the router and their interface IDs. Otherwise,
this field displays No.
Configuration Click the Click Here link to configure additional IPv6 settings for this interface.
Delete Select entries to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete button to remove
them.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es) in the Delete column.

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8.13.1 IPv6 Setup: Configuration


Click the Click Here link in the Configuration field at the bottom of the Basic Setting > IPv6
Setup screen to display the configuration screen. Use this screen to view and configure static IPv6
addresses for the interface.

Figure 47 Basic Setting > IPv6 Setup > Configuration: Click Here

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 22 Basic Setting > IPv6 Setup > Configuration: Click Here

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Interface This field displays the name of the IPv6 interface.
Name
IPv6 Address Enter an IPv6 address for this interface. An IPv6 interface can have multiple IPv6 addresses.
IPv6 Prefix Enter the IPv6 prefix length (1~128) for this interface. For a link-local IPv6 address, enter 64
Length here.
EUI-64 format If you are configuring an IPv6 global address, select this to use the EUI-64 format to generate
an interface ID from the MAC address of the interface. See Section 8.6.8 on page 78 for more
information.
Add Click Add to save the new settings to the Switch. The setting displays in the summary table at
the bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index This field displays the index number of an entry. Click the link to display the settings in the
Static IPv6 Addresses section above so you can view and modify the settings.
Delete Select entries to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete button to remove
them.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

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8.13.2 IPv6 ND Setup


Click the IPv6 ND Setup link in the Basic Setting > IPv6 Setup > Configuration: Click Here
screen to display the configuration screen. Use this screen to view and configure the neighbor
discover settings for the interface.

Figure 48 Basic Setting > IPv6 Setup > Configuration: Click Here > IPv6 ND Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 23 Basic Setting > IPv6 Setup > Configuration: Click Here > IPv6 ND Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Interface This field displays the name of the IPv6 interface.
DAD Attempts Enter the number of DAD (Duplicate Address Detection) messages the Switch can send for
checking whether an IPv6 address is available before assigning it to the interface. Possible
values are 1-7. Enter 0 here to have the Switch not send any DAD messages.
NS Enter the time in milliseconds between neighbor solicitation packet retransmissions. Possible
Interval(ms) values are 1000-4294967295.
Reachable Enter the time in milliseconds that can elapse before a neighbor is detected. Possible values
Time(ms) for this field are 0-3600000.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

8.13.3 IPv6 Neighbor Setup


Use this screen to configure a static entry in the IPv6 neighbor discovery cache, which lists the MAC
addresses of the Switchs interfaces and neighboring devices. This cache table is similar to a MAC
address table in IPv4. You can only configure static entries on an IPv6-enabled interface.

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Click the IPv6 Neighbor Setup link in the Basic Setting > IPv6 Setup screen to display the
configuration screen.

Figure 49 Basic Setting > IPv6 Setup > IPv6 Neighbor Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 24 Basic Setting > IPv6 Setup > IPv6 Neighbor Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Static Neighbor Cache Setting
IPv6 Group Select whether the Switch uses the inband or the outband interface to reach the neighbor
device.
VID This field is available when you select Inband in the IPv6 Group field above.

Enter the VLAN ID (1~4094) associated with the specified IPv6 address below.
IPv6 Address Enter an IPv6 address for a static neighbor entry.
MAC Address Enter the MAC address for the static neighbor entry.
Add Click Add to save the new settings to the Switch. The setting displays in the summary table at
the bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index This field displays the index number of a neighbor entry.
Interface This field displays the name of the interface the Switch uses to reach the neighboring
interface.
IPv6 Address This field displays the IPv6 address of the neighboring interface.
MAC Address This field displays the MAC address of the neighboring interface.

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Table 24 Basic Setting > IPv6 Setup > IPv6 Neighbor Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
State This field displays whether the neighboring IPv6 interface is reachable. In IPv6, reachable
means an IPv6 packet can be correctly forwarded to a neighboring node (host or router) and
the neighbor can successfully receive and handle the packet. This field can display:

Reachable: The interface of the neighboring device is reachable. (The Switch has received a
response to its neighbor solicitation.)

Stale: The last reachable time has expired or the Switch received an unrequested
advertisement that updates the cached link-layer address from the neighboring interface.

Delay: A packet is being sent to the neighboring interface in Stale state. The Switch delays
sending request packets for a short time to give upper-layer protocols a chance to determine
reachability. If no reachability confirmation is received within the delay timer, the Switch
sends a neighbor solicitation and changes the state to Probe.

Probe: The Switch is sending neighbor solicitations and waiting for the neighbors response.

Invalid: The neighbor address is an invalid IPv6 address.

Unknown: The status of the neighboring interface can not be determined.

Incomplete: Address resolution is in progress and the link-layer address of the neighbor has
not yet been determined (see RFC 4861). The interface of the neighboring device did not give
a complete response.
Link Type This field displays the type of the IPv6 address.

Local: The IPv6 address belongs to an interface on the Switch.

Static: The IPv6 address belongs to a neighboring interface and it has been configured
manually on the Switch.

Dynamic: The IPv6 address belongs to a neighboring interface and the Switch has learned it
dynamically.

Other: The IPv6 address belongs to none of the types above.


Delete Select entries to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete button to remove
them.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

8.14 SFP Threshold Setup


Use this screen to view the status of the Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) mini-GBIC transceivers
installed in the Switch's SFP slots. You can also set thresholds for sending traps based on the SFP
module's operating parameters such as transceiver temperature, laser bias current, transmitted
optical power, received optical power and transceiver supply voltage. N/A displays if the Switch
does not detect a mini-GBIC transceiver in an SFP slot.

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Click Basic Setting > SFP Threshold Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.

Figure 50 Basic Setting > SFP Threshold Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 25 Basic Setting > SFP Threshold Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
User Input Select this option if you want to apply the threshold settings configured at the bottom of the
Enable screen.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Port Index Select an SFP slot of the Switch for which you want to configure the thresholds.
Type This is the type of device operating parameters.
Current This shows the current value of each parameter measured for the installed transceiver.

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Table 25 Basic Setting > SFP Threshold Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
High Alarm Specify the first upper limit for each parameter. The Switch sends an alarm trap when one of
Threshold the parameter values goes over this value.
High Warning Specify the second upper limit for each parameter. The Switch sends a warning trap when
Threshold one of the parameter values goes over this value. This value should be smaller than the
High Alarm Threshold and greater than the Low Warning Threshold.
Low Warning Specify the first lower limit for each parameter. The Switch sends a warning trap when one of
Threshold the parameter values falls below this value. This value should be smaller than the High
Warning Threshold and greater than the Low Alarm Threshold.
Low Alarm Specify the second lower limit for each parameter. The Switch sends an alarm trap when one
Threshold of the parameter values falls below this value. This value should be smaller than the Low
Warning Threshold.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
SFP Transceiver Per Port Status
Port This field displays the port number of the SFP slots.
Vendor This field displays the vendor of the transceiver installed in the slot.
Part Number This field displays the part number defined by the transceiver vendor.
Series Number This field displays the serial number of the transceiver.
Revision This field displays the version of the transceiver.
Transceiver This field displays the name of the transceiver.
Current This field displays the current temperature inside the SFP module.
Temperature(C)
Voltage(V) This field displays the level of voltage currently being supplied to the SFP module.
Tx Bias(mA) This field displays the current in milliamps (mA) being supplied to the SFP modules Laser
Diode Transmitter. Track the Tx bias to know how the laser component is aging relative to
your networks other SFP modules. This helps you know when to do preventative
maintenance instead of having to deal with an unexpected SFP module failure.
Tx Power(dBm) This field displays the amount of light (in dBm) the SFP module is currently transmitting.
This value does not reflect the condition of the cable. Refer to this number to monitor the
lasers health.
Rx Power(dBm) This field displays the amount of light (in dBm) currently being received from the fiber optic
cable.

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C HAPT ER 9
VDSL Setup

9.1 VDSL Overview


Very High Bit Rate DSL is an asymmetric version of DSL that is used as the final drop from a fiber
optic junction point to nearby customers. VDSL lets an apartment or office complex obtain high-
bandwidth services using existing copper wires without having to replace the infrastructure with
optical fiber. Like ADSL, VDSL can share the line with the telephone.

Your Switch supports VDSL2 (Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line 2) which is the second
generation of the VDSL standard (which is currently denoted VDSL1). VDSL2 allows a frequency
band of up to 30MHz and transmission rates of up to 100 Mbps in each direction. VDSL2 is defined
in G.993.2.

VDSL Parameters
The following sections describe the VDSL parameters you configure in the following screens:

VDSL Template Setup (see Section 9.3 on page 104).


VDSL Alarm Template Setup (see Section 9.4 on page 121).

PSD
PSD (Power Spectral Density) defines the distribution of a VDSL lines power in the frequency
domain. A PSD mask is a template that specifies the maximum allowable PSD for a line.

Frequency Band Plan


Each VDSL mode operates in a different frequency band allocation, resulting in different upstream
and downstream speeds. Your VES switch automatically changes the band plan based on the loop
condition and loop length.

Band plans include an optional band (between 25 kHz and 276 kHz) controlled by "limit PSD mask".
The optional band is used for upstream transmission which is to be negotiated during line initiation.
A sample of limit PSD mask and associated frequency band is shown next.

Table 26 Limit PSD Mask

TRANSMISSION MODE CLASS MASK US0 MASK LIMIT MASK FREQUENCY BAND
G.993.2 Annex A 998 EU-32 D-32 = 25 ~ 138 kHz
G.993.2 Annex A 998 EU-36 D-48 = 25 ~ 155.25 kHz
G.993.2 Annex A 998 EU-40 D-48 = 25 ~ 172.5 kHz
G.993.2 Annex A 998 .... ... = ...

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VDSL2 Profiles
Eight VDSL2 frequency profiles (8a, 8b, 8c, 8d, 12a, 12b, 17a, and 30a) are defined in G.993.2.
They are based on each annex specifying spectral characters (Annexes A, B and C). Each profile
covers certain settings and parameters, such as maximum aggregate transmit power. The higher-
frequency profiles (17a and 30a) are mostly used to deliver high speed at shorter distances.

Note: At the time of writing, the Switch supports the Annex A with 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d, 12a,
12b, 17a, and 30a. The following table summarizes the VDSL2 profiles supported
by the Switch.

Table 27 VDSL2 Profiles on this Switch

PARAMETER VALUE FOR PROFILE


FREQUENCY PARAMETER
PLAN 8A 8B 8C 8D 12A 12B 17A 30A
Annex A Maximum aggregate +17.5 +20.5 +11.5 +14.5 +14.5 +14.5 +14.5 +14.5
downstream transmit power
(dBm)
Index of highest supported 1971 1971 1971 1971 1971 1971 N/A N/A
downstream data-bearing sub-
carrier (upper band edge (8.5) (8.5) (8.5) (8.5) (8.5) (8.5)
frequency in MHz (informative))
Index of highest supported 1205 1205 1205 1205 2782 2782 N/A N/A
upstream data-bearing sub-
carrier (upper band edge (5.2) (5.2) (5.2) (5.2) (12) (12)
frequency in MHz (informative))

Configured Versus Actual Rate


You configure the maximum rate of an individual VDSL port by modifying its profile (see the VDSL
Line Profile Setup screen) or assigning the port to a different profile (see the VDSL Line Setup
screen). However, the actual rate varies depending on factors such as transmission range and
interference.

Impulse Noise Protection (INP)


Short impulses from external sources may cause bursts of errors which could impact the
multimedia (ex. voice, video, or picture) quality. VDSL2 supports Impulse Noise Protection (INP)
which provides the ability to correct errors regardless of the number of errors in an error DMT
(Discrete Multi-Tone) symbol.

UPBO
In a network with varying telephone wiring lengths, the PSD on each line is different. This causes
crosstalk between the lines. Enable UPBO (Upstream Power Back Off) to allow the device to adjust
the transmit PSD of all lines based on a reference line length. This mitigates the upstream crosstalk
on shorter loops to longer loops. It allows the switch to provide better service in a network
environment with telephone wiring of varying lengths.

An example is shown below. Line 1 and Line 2 are in the same cable binder. Crosstalk occurs when
the signal flows and is near to CPE (A)s location. Besides, higher Line 1 PSD causes higher

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interference to the Line 2. CO receives signal with higher attenuation. With UPBO enabled on the
CPE (A), it decreases the PSD level and reduces the crosstalk impact on long loops.

Figure 51 UPBO Resolves Upstream Far-End Crosstalk

CPE (B) Line2 (600m)


Central
Site (CO)
CPE (A) Line1 (150m)

No-UPBO

UPBO

DPBO
VDSL signal may interfere with other services (such as ISDN, ADSL or ADSL2 provided by other
devices) on the same bundle of lines due to downstream far-end crosstalk. DPBO (Downstream
Power Back Off) can reduce performance degradation by changing the PSD level on the VDSL
switch(es) at street cabinet level.

ISDN in Europe uses a frequency range of up to 80 kHz, while ISDN in Japan uses a frequency
range of up to 640 kHz. ADSL utilizes the 1.1 MHz band. Both ADSL2 and ADSL 2+ utilize the 2.2
MHz band.

An example is shown next. VDSL Line 1 and ADSL Line 2 are in the same binder. Crosstalk occurs
when the ADSL signal flows from CO (B) and is near to CO (A)s ONU (Optical Network Unit)
location. Besides, higher Line 1 PSD causes higher interference to the Line 2. CPE (B) receives

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signal with higher attenuation. With DPBO enabled on the CO (A), it decreases the PSD level and
reduces the crosstalk impact on other service lines.

Figure 52 DPBO Resolves Downstream Far-End Crosstalk

ADSL ADSL
CO (B) Line2 (600m)
CPE (B)
VDSL VDSL
CO (A) Line1 (150m) CPE (A)

No-DPBO

DPBO

UPBO/DPBO Electrical Length


The distance between a cabinet and the central office is an important parameter in UPBO/DPBO
settings as we mentioned in the DPBO section on page 99. The electrical length is used instead of
the real physical distance according to G.997.1 format. Depending on the cable type the line used
and physical line length, you can calculate the electrical length (in dB). For example, the distance is
1 kilometer and you use 24 AWG cable type, the electrical length 20.5 dB is suggested to be used.

The following table displays the calculation from a real length to an electrical length.

Table 28 Real Length to Electrical Length

CABLE TYPE REAL LENGTH TO ELECTRICAL LENGTH A B C


22 AWG =16.2 x (cable length in kilometer) 0 0 0
24 AWG =20.5 x (cable length in kilometer) 0 1 0
26 AWG =25.8 x (cable length in kilometer) 0 1.0039065 -0.0039065

Rate Adaption
Rate adaption is the ability of a device to adjust from the configured transmission rate to the
attainable transmission rate automatically depending on the line quality. The VDSL transmission
rate then stays at the new rate or adjusts if line quality improves or deteriorates.

The switch determines line quality using the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). SNR is the ration of signal
power to noise power. A low SNR indicates poor line quality.

SOS
SOS is a system for realizing emergency rate reduction. In a DSL system, especially in VDSL2 that
uses wider frequency bandwidth and is deployed in the shorter loop than ADSL, far-end crosstalk
(FEXT) may cause bursts of CRC errors and force CPE devices to retrain. SOS efficiently removes or

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reduces crosstalk interference that leads to service interruption. When there is a burst of CRC
errors, the receiver initiates a simple OLR (On-line reconfiguration) request for switching to a pre-
determined adjustment transmission reference to the transmitter over an ROC (Robust Overhead
Channel), then the transmitter sends a synchronous signal (SyncFlag). The receiver and transmitter
synchronizes switching without exchanging the bit/gain table during SOS to avoid failure and new
noise.

G.INP
G.998.4 is also known as G.INP, which defines how data is retransmitted in an ADSL(+) or VDSL2
system to correct errors when impulse noise occurs. G.INP is similar to PhyR, Broadcoms
proprietary physical layer retransmission scheme to improve impulse noise protection. In G.INP, the
smallest amount of data that may be retransmitted is called DTU (Data Transfer Unit).

The differences between G.INP and PhyR includes:

DTU is a set of an integer number of ATM cells or PTM 65B codewords.


The overhead (indicator bit (IB), embedded operations channel (EOC)) information is carried on
a separate latency path.
A time stamp is appended to each DTU to provide better jitter control if necessary.

RFI (Radio Frequency Interference)


RFI is induced noise on the lines by surrounding radio frequency electromagnetic radiation from
sources such as AM and HAM radio stations. Since VDSL uses a much larger frequency range that
overlaps with other radio frequency systems, signals from VDSL lines and other radio systems
interfere with each other. To avoid performance degradation due to RFI, set the switch to not
transmit VDSL signals in the RFI band.

VDSL Profiles
A profile is a table that contains a list of pre-configured VDSL line settings or VDSL alarm threshold
settings. Each VDSL port has one (and only one) line and alarm profile assigned to it at any given
time.

Profiles allow you to configure VDSL ports efficiently. You can configure all of the VDSL ports with
the same profile, thus removing the need to configure the VDSL ports one-by-one. You can also
change an individual VDSL port by assigning it a different profile.

For example, you could set up different profiles for different kinds of accounts (for example,
economy, standard and premium). Assign the appropriate profile to a VDSL port and it takes care of
a large part of the ports configuration.

9.1.1 VDSL Profile Example


This example shows you the configuration relationships between VDSL templates, VDSL line
profiles, VDSL line channel profiles, and subscriber ports.

Since each VDSL line may have different loop conditions, you need to configure several VDSL line
profiles and channel profiles in the VDSL Setup > VDSL Profile > VDSL Line Profile and VDSL
Channel Profile screens. For example, you have 3 VDSL line profiles (LinProfile-1, LinProfile-2 and
LinProfile-3) and 3 channel profiles (ChanProfile-1, ChanProfile-2 and ChanProfile-3).

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Secondly, you need to create several VDSL templates and configure their VDSL line profiles and
channel profiles in the VDSL Setup > VDSL Profile screen. Examples are shown next.

Table 29 VDSL Template Examples

VDSL TEMPLATE VDSL LINE PROFILE VDSL CHANNEL PROFILE


Template-A LineProfile-2 ChanProfile-1
Template-B LineProfile-1 ChanProfile-3
Template-C LineProfile-2 ChanProfile-2
Template-D LineProfile-3 ChanProfile-1

Then you can assign VDSL templates to VDSL ports in the VDSL Setup > VDSL Line Setup screen
(see Section 9.2 on page 103).

Table 30 VDSL Template Examples

PORT PRIMARY TEMPLATE FALLBACK TEMPLATE


1 Template-A Template-B
2 Template-C Template-D
3 Template-E Template-F
4 Template-G Template-H

9.1.2 Primary and Fallback VDSL Templates Example


On this Switch, you can specify a primary and a fallback VDSL template for each subscriber port. A
subscriber port uses the parameters defined in the primary VDSL template when the line is
initialized. When the actual line condition is too poor to use the primary template (for example, the
defined minimum transmission rate cannot be reached), the Switch then uses the fallback template
instead. You should select a looser fallback template for a line. See an example as shown next.

Table 31 Primary and Fallback VDSL Template Settings Example

PRIMARY TEMPLATE (P) FALLBACK TEMPLATE (F)


MIN RATE DS: 10 Mbps, US: 2 Mbps DS: 9 Mbps, US: 1.5 Mbps
TARGET SNR MARGIN 6 dB 5 dB
US0 MASK EU32 EU128

The template F differs from templates P as follows.

A lower transmission rate is allowed.


Has higher tolerance against noise.
Uses a wider band for US0 mask.
Using F can get higher bandwidth for upstream traffic when the line has poor quality or in a long
distance.

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9.2 VDSL Line Setup


Click VDSL Setup > VDSL Line Setup to display the screen as shown next. Use this screen to
select the primary VDSL template, secondary VDSL template, and alarm template for each
subscriber port.

Configure VDSL templates in VDSL Setup > VDSL Profile (see Section 9.3 on page 104).
Configure VDSL alarm templates in VDSL Setup > VDSL Alarm Profile (see Section 9.4 on page
121).

Figure 53 VDSL Line Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 32 VDSL Line Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port This is the port number of a subscriber port.
Primary Template Select a VDSL template for a port. The template is used when the line is first
initiated.
Fallback Template Select a VDSL template for a port. This template is used when the line failed
to be initialized using the primary template. See Primary and Fallback VDSL
Templates Example on page 102.
Alarm Template Select a VDSL alarm template for a port. The Switch sends an SNMP trap
(alarm) when a parameter value is over one of the pre-defined thresholds on
the line.
Apply Click this to save the settings to the Switch.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

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9.3 VDSL Template Setup


The Switch supports one line profile and one channel profile configured in a VDSL template. Use this
screen to add, modify or delete a VDSL template.

To configure or view VDSL templates, click VDSL Setup > VDSL Profile to display the screen as
shown next.

Note: You can configure up to 60 VDSL templates.

Figure 54 VDSL Template Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 33 VDSL Template Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Name Enter a descriptive name to identify this template.
Line Profile Select a line profile for this VDSL template. You can configure line profiles by
clicking the LineProfile link in the right-top corner of the screen.
Channel Profile Select a channel profile for this VDSL template. You can configure channel
profiles by clicking the ChanProfile link in the right-top corner of the screen.
Inm Profile Select an INM profile for this VDSL template. You can configure channel profiles
by clicking the InmProfile link in the right-top corner of the screen.
Rate Adaption Ratio
Channel1 This field displays the transmission rate distribution ratio between upstream
and downstream traffic for channel 1 in this template.
Add Click Add to save the new VDSL template to the Switch. It then displays in the
summary table at the bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for each configured VDSL template.
Line Profile This field displays the line profile name configured in each VDSL template.
Channel Profile This field displays the channel profile name configured in each VDSL template.

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Table 33 VDSL Template Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Applied Ports This field displays the VDSL port number(s) to which this template is applied.

You can apply templates to VDSL ports in the VDSL Setup > VDSL Line
Setup screen.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click
the Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

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9.3.1 VDSL Line Profile Setup


Click VDSL Setup > VDSL Profile and click the LineProfile link to open the screen as shown
next. Use the screen to add, edit or delete a VDSL line profile.

Figure 55 VDSL Line Profile Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 34 VDSL Line Profile Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Name Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
VDSL2 Profile Specify the VDSL2 profile you want to apply to this template. See VDSL2 Profiles on
page 98 for more information.

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Table 34 VDSL Line Profile Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Max SNR Margin Enter the maximum SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) margin allowed on the line. When the
actual SNR margin is going to reach this specified value, this mechanism forces
connected CPE device(s) to lower its transmission power level and maintains the actual
SNR margin equal to or less than this value. Select noLimit to turn this mechanism off.
Target SNR Margin Enter the target upstream and downstream SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) margin.
Min SNR Margin Enter the minimum upstream and downstream SNR margin accepted on the line to
which this profile applies.
Bitswap Select On to allow on-line bits and power (for example, margin) reallocation among the
allowed sub-carriers without service interruption or errors. This helps to keep
transmission data rate on a high SNR VDSL line.

Select Off to disable it.


Max Rx Power Enter the maximum receiving power in dBm for UpStream traffic. Select noLimit if
there is no limit.
Max Tx Power Enter the maximum transmission power in dBm the Switch uses for DownStream
traffic. Enter the maximum transmission power the CPE uses for UpStream traffic.
Min Overhead Rate Enter the minimum transmission rate (4~248 kbps) reserved for a lines overhead
channel. Both the Switch and CPE device use the overhead channel of a line to get VDSL
transmission statistics with each other.
Limit PSD Mask To reduce the impact of interference and attenuation, ITU-T G.993.2 specifies a limit
PSD mask that limits the VDSL2 transmitters PSD at both downstream and upstream.
Transmission Select an appropriate transmission standard (according to your territory) you want to
Mode apply for this profile. At the time of writing, the Switch supports G.993.2 Annex A
mode for countries which follow the North American VDSL2 standard.
ADSL/VDSL Select the ADSL (G.992.1, G.992.2, G.992.3, G.992.5, ANSI, and ETSI) and VDSL
Protocol (G.993.2) protocols this profile uses.
Class Mask A class mask is a combination of several PSD masks according to the PSD mask types.
The available options vary depending on your selection in the Transmission Mode
field. At the time of writing, 998 is the only option in this field when you select G.993.2
Annex A in the Transmission Mode field.
Limit Mask Select a downstream limit mask you want the Switch to use.
US0 Mask Select a limit mask you want the Switch to use for the upstream band 0.
UPBO UPBO (Upstream Power Back-Off) mitigates far-end crosstalk (FEXT) caused by
upstream transmission on shorter loops to longer loops. See UPBO on page 98.

Select Auto to enable UPBO and CPE devices PSD adjustment based on the negotiation
result with the Switch.

Select Override to force CPE devices to use the electrical length defined by the Switch
(in the UPBOKL field below) to compute their UPBO. See UPBO/DPBO Electrical Length
on page 100.

Select Disable to turn UPBO off.

Enter variable A and B values of upstream band 1 and band 2 for UPBO PSD mask
calculation.
UPBOKL Specify the electrical length (0~128 dB) of the cable between the Switch and CPE
devices. See UPBO/DPBO Electrical Length on page 100.
UpStream Band Specify 40~80.95 (dBm/Hz) for parameter A which defines the original band shape.
1~4 Specify 0~40.95 for parameter B which defines the power back-off degree.
PM Mode Select allowTransitionsToIdle to have the Switch or CPE devices autonomously enter
an idle state for power management (PM).

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Table 34 VDSL Line Profile Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
US0 Specify whether you want the Switch to automatically activate the upstream band 0
(Allow) or not (Disable) when necessary. Select Allow to have CPE and the Switch use
the upstream band 0 for upstream traffic over long distances. If you select Disable, the
CPE may not able to transmit data over long distances.
Rate Adaptive This field displays downstream (DS) and upstream (US) rate adaptive settings.

Manual displays if the Switch fixes the transmission rate as the minimum net data rate
and disables transmission rate adjustment. If the attainable speeds cannot match
configured speeds, then the VDSL link may go down or link communications may be
sporadic due to line errors and consequent retransmissions.

AdaptInit displays if the Switch keeps the transmission rate negotiated between the
Switch and CPE devices. It ranges from the configured minimum to the maximum net
data rate based on the initial line condition.

Dynamic displays if the Switch dynamically changes the transmission rate negotiated
between the Switch and CPE devices during initialization as well as during SHOWTIME
status.

SOS displays if the Switch uses the emergency rate adjustment system for immediate
rate adjustment to reduce crosstalk noise.

Click the Modify link to take you to a screen where you can configure detailed rate
adaptive settings.
MIB PSD MASK The MIB PSD mask allows you to further adjust PSD level for tones according to the limit
PSD mask you have configured.

This field displays how many break points are configured for the downstream (DS) and
upstream (US) MIB PSD mask. For example,DS:4 BP US:5 BP displays after you have
configure 4 break points for downstream and 5 break points for upstream in the MIB
PSD mask.

Click the Modify link to take you to a screen where you can configure the MIB PSD
mask.
DPBO This field displays whether DPBO is enabled or disabled in this profile.

Click the Modify link to take you to a screen where you can configure detailed DPBO
settings.
RFI BAND This field displays the RFI band setting in this profile.

Click the Modify link to take you to a screen where you can configure detailed RFI band
settings.
Virtual Noise This field displays whether virtual noise is enabled or disabled in the downstream and
upstream transmissions.

Click the Modify link to take you to a screen where you can configure detailed virtual
noise settings.
Add Click Add to save the new rule to the switch. It then displays in the summary table at
the bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for this profile. Click a profile name in this field
to edit that profile.
VDSL2 Profile This field displays the VDSL2 profile(s) applied to a VDSL line profile.
SNR Margin This field displays the configured upstream and downstream signal to noise ration in
decibels.

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Table 34 VDSL Line Profile Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Applied Ports This field displays the VDSL port number(s) to which this profile is applied.

You can apply a VDSL line profile to a VDSL template in the VDSL Setup > VDSL
Profile > VDSL Template Setup screen.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

9.3.2 VDSL Line Profile Setup > Rate Adaptive


Click the Modify link next to the Rate Adaptive field in the VDSL Line Profile Setup screen to
open the screen as shown next. Use the screen to configure detailed VDSL rate adaptive settings.

Figure 56 VDSL Rate Adaptive Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 35 VDSL Rate Adaptive Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
DownStream Configure the following settings for the Switch-to-CPEs direction.
UpStream Configure the following settings for the CPEs-to-the-Switch direction.

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Table 35 VDSL Rate Adaptive Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Rate Adaptive Select the rate adaptive modes for downstream and upstream transmissions.

Select Manual to fix the transmit rate as the minimum net data rate and disable
transmission rate adjustment. If the attainable speeds cannot match configured speeds,
then the VDSL link may go down or link communications may be sporadic due to line
errors and consequent retransmissions.

Select AdaptInit to keep the transmit rate negotiated between CO and CPE devices. It
ranges from the configured minimum to the maximum net data rate based on the initial
line condition.

Select Dynamic to dynamically change the transmission rate negotiated between the
Switch and CPE devices during initialization as well as during SHOWTIME status.

Select SOS to use the emergency rate adjustment system for immediate rate
adjustment to reduce crosstalk noise.
DynamicDepth Select Enable to allow the Switch to dynamically change interleaving depth for
downstream or upstream traffic. In addition, this enables the Switch to change the
lower and upper boundaries of the net data rate and improve the ability of SRA
(Seamless Rate Adaptation). Alternatively, select Diable to have the Switch use a fixed
interleaving depth.
Up-Shift SNR Margin Enter the number of decibels (dB) for the lines up-shift SNR margin threshold. When
the lines signal-to-noise margin goes above this number, the Switch attempts to use a
higher transmission rate.
Up-Shift Time Enter the number of seconds the Switch has to wait before using a higher transmission
rate when the lines SNR margin is over the up-shift SNR margin threshold.
Down-Shift SNR Enter the number of decibels (dB) for the lines down-shift SNR margin threshold. When
Margin the lines signal-to-noise margin goes below this number, the Switch attempts to use a
lower transmission rate.
Down-Shift Time Enter the number of seconds the Switch waits before using a lower transmission rate
when the lines SNR margin is less the down-shift SNR margin threshold.
Modify Click this to save the settings to the Switch and return to the previous screen.
SOS Time Specify the time interval (from 64 to 16320) at which the Switch initiates an SOS
request.
SOS CRC Specify the maximum number of CRC errors which are allowed during the specified SOS
time interval before the Switch initiates an SOS request.
SOS nTones Specify the maximum percentage (from 0 to 100) of persistently degraded tones in the
MEDLEY set which are allowed during the specified SOS time interval before the Switch
initiates an SOS request.
SOS Max Specify the maximum number (from 0 to 15) of successful SOS processes which are
allowed within 120 seconds before the Switch goes to the L3 link state. An SOS process
is considered successful when the Switch receives a synchronous signal (SyncFlag).
SOS Multi-Step Select to adjust bits for all tones in an SOS request.
Tones
ROC enable A ROC (robust overhead channel) is a latency path that carries only overhead data.

Select Enable to use a ROC to transmit SOS information to ensure that the message
can be received correctly. Otherwise, select Disable.
ROC SNR Margin Specify the (Signal to Noise Ratio) margin allowed for a robust overhead channel. When
the actual SNR margin is going to reach this specified value, a robust overhead channel
is negotiated for reliable transmission.
ROC min INP Specify the level of impulse noise (burst) protection for a robust overhead channel.
Select a number between 0 and 16.

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Table 35 VDSL Rate Adaptive Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.

9.3.3 VDSL Line Profile Setup > MIB PSD Mask


Click the Modify link next to the MIB PSD MASK field in the VDSL Line Profile Setup screen to
open the screen as shown next. Use this screen to adjust PSD levels for tones based on the scope
down the limit PSD mask you have configured.

Figure 57 VDSL MIB PSD Mask Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 36 VDSL MIB PSD Mask Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
MIB PSD Mask This displays the PSD mask result in a graph. The MIB PSD mask is defined only within
the operating bands and lies at or below the limit PSD mask. You may choose not to
specify a MIB PSD mask for one or both transmission directions or in specific bands of
the operating bands.
Preview Click this to display the PSD mask result in the graph you configured at the bottom of
the screen.
DownStream Configure the following settings for the Switch-to-CPEs direction.
UpStream Configure the following settings for the CPEs-to-the-Switch direction.
Break Point This index number identifies each incremental break point.
Tone Index A tone is a sub-channel of VDSL band. DMT divides VDSL bands into many 4.3125 kHz
tones.

Enter an increased number (than previous row) from 0 to 4096 in this field that is also
the horizontal of the MIB PSD Mask graph.

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Table 36 VDSL MIB PSD Mask Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Frequency (kHz) This read-only field displays a frequency that equals the tone index multiple 4.3125
dBm/Hz. This field automatically calculates after a Tone Index value is entered.
PSD level (dBm/Hz) Enter the PSD levels (-127.5~0 dBm/Hz) for your specified tones to restrict the transmit
PSD to levels below these. Your input value will be displayed as the Y-axis of the MIB
PSD Mask graph after you click Preview.
Modify Click this to save the settings to the Switch and return to the previous screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.

9.3.4 VDSL Line Profile Setup > DPBO


Click the Modify link next to the DPBO field in the VDSL Line Profile Setup screen to open the
screen as shown next. Use this screen to configure Downstream Power Back-Off (DPBO) settings.
See DPBO on page 99.

Figure 58 VDSL DPBO Setup

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 37 VDSL DPBO Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
DPBOESEL Specify the electrical length of the cable between the Switch and CPE devices. See
UPBO/DPBO Electrical Length on page 100.
DPBOESCMA, These parameters define a cable model that is used to describe the frequency
DPBOESCMB, dependent loss of exchange-side cables.
DPBOESCMC
DPBOMUS This defines the assumed minimum usable receives PSD mask (in dBm/Hz) for
exchange based services, used to modify parameter DPBOFMAX defined below. Enter
from 0 to -127.5 dBm/Hz in steps of 0.5 dB.
DPBOFMIN This defines the minimum frequency from which the DPBO shall be applied. Enter from 0
kHz to 8832 kHz in steps of 4.3125 kHz.
DPBOFMAX This defines the maximum frequency at which DPBO may be applied. Enter from 138
kHz to 29997.75 kHz in steps of 4.3125 kHz.
DPBOEPSD DPBOEPSD (Assumed Exchange PSD Mask) defines the PSD mask that is assumed to be
exchanged at CO. Use this graph to view PSD level to frequency relationship. The
horizontal is frequency in MHz and vertical is power level in dBm/Hz.

Click Custom to have the breakpoints and PSD levels configured in the bottom of the
screen updated to this DPBOEPSD graph.

Alternatively, you can click one of the others (CAB_ANSI, EX_ANSI, CO_PSD,
CAB_ETSI, EX_ETSI, Flat_PSD) to use a pre-defined PSD mask.
DPBOESEL Specify the electrical length of the cable between the Switch and CPE. See UPBO/DPBO
Electrical Length on page 100.
Break Point This index number identifies each incremental break point.
Tone Index A tone is a sub-channel of a VDSL band. DMT divides VDSL bands into many 4.3125 kHz
tones.

Enter an increased number (than previous row) from 0 to 4096 in this field that is also
the horizontal of the DPBOEPSD graph.
Frequency (kHz) This read-only field displays a frequency that equals the tone index multiple 4.3125
dBm/Hz. This field automatically calculates after a Tone Index value is entered.
PSD level (dBm/Hz) Enter the PSD level for the Y-axis of DPBOEPSD graph.
Modify Click this to save the settings to the Switch and return to the previous screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.

9.3.5 VDSL Line Profile Setup > RFI Band


Click the Modify link next to the RFI BAND field in the VDSL Line Profile Setup screen to open
the screen as shown next. Use this screen to specify the RFI bands through which the Switch and

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VDSL CPE devices should avoid to transmit data according to your location. See RFI (Radio
Frequency Interference) on page 101.

Figure 59 VDSL RFI Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 38 VDSL RFI Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Start Use these columns below this field to specify the starting frequencies for each RFI band.
Stop Use these columns below this field to specify the ending frequencies for each RFI band.
Band This index number identifies each RFI Band.
Tone Index A tone is a sub-channel of a VDSL band. DMT divides VDSL bands into many 4.3125 kHz
tones.

Enter an increased number (than previous row) from 0 to 4096.


Frequency (kHz) This read-only field displays a frequency that equals the tone index multiple 4.3125
dBm/Hz. This field automatically calculates after a Tone Index value is entered.
Modify Click this to save the settings to the Switch and return to the previous screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.

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9.3.6 VDSL Line Profile Setup > Virtual Noise


Click the Modify link next to the Virtual Noise field in the VDSL Line Profile Setup screen to
open the screen as shown next. Use the screen to configure VDSL virtual noise settings for a VDSL
line profile.

Figure 60 VDSL Virtual Noise Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 39 VDSL Virtual Noise Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Virtual Noise This displays the virtual noise setting result in a graph.

If there is too much noise on a line, the allowed line speed may be reduced or the line may
not initialized. Virtual noise is the noise allowed on the line before the first line speed
adjustment occurs. Switch then uses a lower data rate on tones which you added a noise
level for the line initialization. A lower data rate increases a lines stability and avoid the
line being easily dropped when actual noise occurs.
Preview Click this to update the virtual noise setting result according to your setting configured at
the bottom of the screen.
Downstream, Select whether you want to enable virtual noise (Enable) or not (Disable) for downstream
Upstream and upstream transmissions.

Note: For a poor quality subscriber line, you should enable this and configure virtual noise on
tones where noise may occur.

Note: The higher the virtual noise, the lower the line speed.
Break Point This index number identifies each incremental break point.

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Table 39 VDSL Virtual Noise Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Tone Index A tone is a sub-channel of VDSL band. DMT divides VDSL bands into many 4.3125 kHz
tones.

Enter an increased number (than previous row) from 0 to 4096 in this field that is also the
horizontal of the DPBOEPSD graph.
Frequency (kHz) This read-only field displays a frequency that equals the tone index multiple 4.3125 dBm/
Hz. This field automatically calculates after a Tone Index value is entered.
Noise level (dBm/ Enter the noise level for the specified tone(s) where you expect noise may occur. This
Hz) setting is then reflected in the Y-axis of the virtual noise graph after you click Preview.
Modify Click this to save the settings to the Switch and return to the previous screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.

9.3.7 VDSL Channel Profile Setup


Click the ChanProfile link at the top-right corner of the VDSL Template Setup screen to open the
screen shown below. Use this screen to view, add, modify and delete VDSL channel profiles.

Figure 61 VDSL Channel Profile Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 40 VDSL Channel Profile Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Name Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
DownStream The parameters in this column relate to downstream transmissions.
Upstream The parameters in this column relate to upstream transmissions.

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Table 40 VDSL Channel Profile Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Net Data Rate Type maximum and minimum upstream/downstream transmission rates in kbps for this
profile.
MaxInterleave Type the number of milliseconds of interleave delays used for downstream and upstream
Delay transmissions. It is recommended that you configure the same latency delays for both
upstream and downstream.
Min INP Specify the level of impulse noise (burst) protection for a slow (or interleaved) channel.
Select a number between 0 and 16.

This parameter is defined as the number of consecutive DMT symbols or fractions thereof.
The number of symbols decides how long in one period errors can be completely
corrected. A higher symbol value provides higher error correction capability, but it causes
overhead and higher delay which may impact multimedia data receiving quality.
Min INP8 Specify the level of impulse noise (burst) protection for a slow (or interleaved) channel for
VDSL2 profile 30a. Enter a number between 0 and 16.

The DMT symbols with a sub-carrier spacing for DS/US min INP8 is 8.625 kHz (DS/US min
INP is 4.3125 kHz).
PhyR Select Enable to use the VDSL physical layer for data re-transmission when impulse noise
occurs. This helps to get better link connection quality.

Select Disable to turn this feature off.

Select Auto to have the Switch enable this feature when there is no impact to the data
rate.
SOS Min Data Specify the minimum upstream/downstream data rates (guaranteed data rates) if you set
Rate the Switch to use SOS for immediate rate adjustment. The Switch drops the line if the
upstream or downstream data rate goes down below the set data rate.
GINP This field displays the upstream/downstream G.INP mode. Click Modify to change the
G.INP settings.
Add Click Add to save the new settings to the Switch. It then displays in the summary table at
the bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Name This field displays the descriptive name of a profile.
Payload Rate This field displays the configured maximum upstream and downstream data transmission
rates in megabits per second in a profile.
Min INP This field displays the configured minimum upstream and downstream impulse noise
protection levels in a profile.
Max Delay This field displays the configured maximum upstream and downstream interleave delays
in a profile.
Applied Ports This field displays the VDSL port number(s) to which this profile is applied.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

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9.3.8 VDSL G.INP Setup


Click the Modify link in the VDSL Channel Profile Setup screen to open the screen shown below.
Use this screen to modify the G.INP settings.

Figure 62 VDSL Channel Profile Setup > G.INP

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 41 VDSL Channel Profile Setup > G.INP

LABEL DESCRIPTION
DownStream The parameters in this column relate to downstream transmissions.
Upstream The parameters in this column relate to upstream transmissions.
G.INP Mode Select G.INP retransmission mode.

Forbidden: G.INP is disabled on the Switch.

Preferred: G.INP is enabled if the far-end (CPE device) supports it.

Forced: The VDSL connection can be established only if the far-end supports G.INP mode.

Test: G.INP is enabled only in test mode.


Effective Specify the maximum and minimum value allowed for the ETR (Effective Throughput
Throughput Rate).
Net Data Specify the maximum downstream/upstream net data rate.
Rate(NDR)
Shine Ratio Specifies the loss of data rate you predict to occur within 1 second due to SHINEs (Single
high impulse noise events).

The valid values are all multiples of 0.001 and between 0 and 0.1.
LEFTR Threshold Specify the lower rate limit (fraction of NDR). A Low Error Free Rate (LEFTR) defect is
declared when the rate falls below the threshold.
Max Delay Specify the maximum delay (from 1 to 63 in ms) that is added to the retransmission delay
caused by retransmissions.
Min Delay Specify the minimum delay (from 0 to 63 in ms) that is added to the retransmission delay
caused by retransmissions.
Min INP Specify the minimum level of impulse noise (burst) protection.

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Table 41 VDSL Channel Profile Setup > G.INP (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
REIN Config Specify the major REIN (Repetitive Electrical Impulse Noise) with how many consecutive
DMT symbols long and the operating frequency (100 or 120 Hz) in your territory. The
Switch can completely correct the impulse noise by using the retransmission function.
Modify Click Modify to save the new settings to the Switch.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.

9.3.9 VDSL INM Profile Setup


Click the InmProfile link at the top-right corner of the VDSL Template Setup screen to open the
screen shown below.

In Impulse Noise Monitoring (INM), a cluster contains one or more groups of one single or
consecutive severely degraded data symbols caused by impulse noise. Each cluster starts and ends
with a severely degraded data symbol. Groups in a cluster are separated by a gap. A gap is a group
of non-severely degraded data symbols between two severely degraded data symbols. Gaps
between the groups in a cluster are smaller then or equal to the specified INM Cluster Continuation
(INMCC). Gaps between the clusters are greater than the specified INMCC.

Figure 63 INM Cluster Example


Gap ( INMCC)

Gap Gap Gap


(> INMCC) (> INMCC) (> INMCC)

Cluster Gap Severely Degraded Data Symbol(s) Group

Use this screen to view, add, modify and delete VDSL INM profiles. An INM profile defines the
control parameters used to generate the Equivalent INP (Eq INP or INP_Eq) and Inter-Arrival Time
(IAT) histograms. The IAT represents the number of data symbols from the start of one cluster to

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the start of the next cluster. The Eq_INP histogram shows the level of INP required to prevent data
errors and the IAT histogram shows time intervals between the impulse noise events.

Figure 64 Impulse Noise Monitor Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 42 Impulse Noise Monitor Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Name Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
NearEnd The parameters in this column relate to upstream transmissions.
FarEnd The parameters in this column relate to downstream transmissions.
InpEqMode Select the way of computating equivalent INP in this profile. See ITU-T G.993.2 for more
information.

0: In this mode, the INMCC value is 0 and the cluster length (the number of data symbols
from the first to the last severely degraded data symbols in a cluster) is used to generate
the histogram. Each set of consecutive severely degraded data symbols is considered as a
separate impulse noise event.

1: In this mode, the specified INMCC value and cluster length are used to generate the
histogram. This provides an upper bound on the level of the required INP.

2: In this mode, the specified INMCC value and the number of the severely degraded data
symbols in a cluster are used to generate the histogram. This provides a lower bound on
the level of the required INP.

3: In this mode, the specified INMCC value, cluster length, the number of the severely
degraded data symbols in a cluster and the number of gaps in a cluster are used to
generate the histogram. This provides the best estimate of the required INP level.
INMCC Specify the cluster continuation value (0 to 64 DMT symbols) used for INM cluster
indication.

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Table 42 Impulse Noise Monitor Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
IAT Offset Specify the IAT offset from 3 to 511 DMT symbols. This is to determine in which bin
(category) of the IAT histogram the IAT is reported.

There are eight bins (0 to 7) in an IAT histogram. An IAT is logged in bin y (where y can be
from 1 to 6) if the reported IAT value is in the range from (IAT Offset + (y -1) x (2IATStep))
to ((IAT Offset - 1) + (y) x (2IATStep)). If an impulse event occurs at an interval less than
the specified IAT offset, the IAT will be logged in bin 0 of the IAT histogram. Any IAT
greater than or equal to (IAT Offset + 6 x 2IATStep) will be recorded in bin 7.
IAT Step Specify the IAT step from 0 to 7. This is to determine in which bin (category) of the IAT
histogram the IAT is reported.
ISDD Sensitivity Specify the Impulse noise threshold of Severely Degraded symbol Detection from -12.8dB
to +12.7 dB in steps of 0.1 dB. The smaller the value, the more sensitive the signal
against impulse noise. For example, -12.8 dB is more sensitive to the symbol affected by
impulse noise than +12.7 dB.
Add Click Add to save the new settings to the Switch. It then displays in the summary table at
the bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Name This field displays the descriptive name of a profile.
InpEqMode This field displays the configured upstream and downstream INPEq modes in a profile.
INMCC This field displays the configured upstream and downstream INMCC values in a profile.
IATO This field displays the configured upstream and downstream IAT offsets in a profile.
IATS This field displays the configured upstream and downstream IAT steps in a profile.
Applied Ports This field displays the VDSL port number(s) to which this profile is applied.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

9.4 VDSL Alarm Template Setup


Alarm profiles define VDSL port alarm thresholds. The device sends an alarm trap and generates a
syslog entry when the thresholds of the alarm profile are exceeded.

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Click VDSL Setup and VDSL Alarm Profile in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Use this screen to view, add, edit, and delete VDSL alarm profile templates. One VDSL alarm profile
template specifies one VDSL line alarm profile and one VDSL channel alarm profile.

Figure 65 VDSL Alarm Template Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 43 VDSL Alarm Template Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Name Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Line Alarm Profile Select a line alarm profile for this VDSL alarm profile template. You can configure line
alarm profiles by clicking the LineAlarmProfile link in the top-right corner of the screen.
Channel Alarm Select a channel alarm profile for this VDSL alarm profile template. You can configure
Profile channel alarm profiles by clicking the ChanAlarmProfile link in the top-right corner of the
screen.
Add Click Add to save the new VDSL template to the Switch. It then displays in the summary
table at the bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for each configured VDSL template.
LineAlarmprofile This field displays the line alarm profile name for each VDSL alarm profile template.
ChannelAlarmprofi This field displays the channel alarm profile name for each VDSL alarm profile template.
le
Applied Ports This field displays the VDSL port number(s) to which this template is applied.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

9.4.1 VDSL Line Alarm Profile Setup


Click the LineAlarmProfile link at the top-right corner of the VDSL Alarm Template Setup
screen to display the screen as shown. Use this screen to view, add, edit, or delete a VDSL line
alarm profile.

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The device sends an alarm trap and generates a syslog entry when the thresholds of the alarm
profile are exceeded.

Figure 66 VDSL Line Alarm Profile Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 44 VDSL Line Alarm Profile Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Name Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
VTUC Configure the thresholds in this column for the Switch (VTUC).
VTUR Configure the thresholds in this column for CPE devices (VTUR).
15 Minute FECS Enter the number of Forward Error Correction Seconds (FECS) that are permitted to occur
Threshold within 15 minutes.
15 Minute ES Enter the number of Errored Seconds (ES) that are permitted to occur within 15 minutes.
Threshold
15 Minute SES Enter the number of Severely Errored Seconds (SES) that are permitted to occur within 15
Threshold minutes.
15 Minute LOSS Enter the number of Loss Of Signals Seconds (LOSS) that are permitted to occur within 15
Threshold minutes.
15 Minute UAS Enter the number of UnAvailable Seconds (UAS) that are permitted to occur within 15
Threshold minutes.
15 Minute LOFS Enter the number of Loss Of Framing Seconds (LOFS) that are permitted to occur within
Threshold 15 minutes.
15 Minute LPRS Enter the number of times a Loss of PoweR Seconds (LPRS) is permitted to occur within 15
Threshold minutes.
15 Minute Enter the number of times a full initialization is allowed to fail within 15 minutes.
FailedFullInt
Threshold

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Table 44 VDSL Line Alarm Profile Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Add Click Add to save the new rule to the switch. It then displays in the summary table at the
bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for the alarm profile.
FECS This field displays the number of Forward Error Correction Seconds (FECS) that are
permitted to occur within 15 minutes.
ES This field displays the number of Errored Seconds (ES) that are permitted to occur within
15 minutes.
SES This field displays the number of Severely Errored Seconds (SES) that are permitted to
occur within 15 minutes.
LOSS This field displays the number of Loss Of Signal Seconds (LOSS) that are permitted to
occur within 15 minutes.
UAS This field displays the number of seconds the interface is permitted to be unavailable
within 15 minutes.
Applied Ports This field displays the VDSL port number(s) to which this profile is applied.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

9.4.2 VDSL Channel Alarm Profile Setup


Click the ChanAlarmProfile link at the top-right corner of the VDSL Alarm Template Setup
screen to display the screen as shown. Use this screen to view, add, edit, modify a VDSL channel
alarm profile.

The device sends an alarm trap and generates a syslog entry when the thresholds of the alarm
profile are exceeded.

Figure 67 VDSL Channel Alarm Profile Setup

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 45 VDSL Channel Alarm Profile Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Name Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
VTUC Configure the thresholds in this column for the Switch (VTUC).
VTUR Configure the thresholds in this column for CPE devices (VTUR).
15Min Enter the number of Code Violation (incorrect cyclic redundancy check) that are permitted
CodeViolation to occur within 15 minutes.
Threshold
15Min Corrected Enter the number of error blocks that can be corrected within 15 minutes.
Blocks Threshold
Add Click Add to save the new rule to the switch. It then displays in the summary table at the
bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for the VDSL channel alarm profile.
CV This field displays the number of Code Violation (incorrect cyclic redundancy check) that
are permitted to occur within 15 minutes.
Corrected This field displays the number of error blocks that can be corrected within 15 minutes.
Applied Ports This field displays the VDSL port number(s) to which this profile is applied.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

9.5 VDSL Bonding Setup


VDSL port bonding allows you to connect subscribers to an ISP using data streams spread
over multiple DSL lines. The total available bandwidth for the subscriber then becomes
the sum of the bandwidth available for each of the subscribers line connections.

The next figure shows a subscriber using port bonding on two DSL lines between a CPE
that supports VDSL bonding (A) (using a Y-connector) and the Switch to connect to the
Internet.

Figure 68 VDSL Port Bonding Example

INTERNET

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Click VDSL Setup and VDSL Bonding Setup in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown. Use this screen to view, add, edit, and delete VDSL port bonding
groups.

Figure 69 VDSL Bonding Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 46 VDSL Bonding Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select the check box to enable this group.
Name Enter a descriptive name for this group.
Group ID Select an identifier number for this group from the drop-down list box.
Port Select a pair of ports to be used by this DSL line group.

A port can be in up to one bonding group at a time.


Template Profile Select Mode 1 and a single template profile to set a total data rate for the entire
bonding group. The total data rate is divided equally for each port.

Select Mode 2 and select a separate template profile for each individual port in
the bonding group to set each port's data rate independently.
Transmission Select a transmission standard (ATM for ADSL or PTM for VDSL) to use for this
Mode group.
Add Click Add to save the new group of DSL lines on which to use port bonding. It
then displays in the summary table at the bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Group ID This field displays a VDSL bonding groups ID. Click the ID to modify this groups
settings.
Name This field displays the name of the group.
Active This field displays whether this group is enabled (Yes) or not (No).
Port This field displays the port numbers in this group.
Protocol This field displays the transmission mode protocol (PTM or ATM) this group
uses.

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Table 46 VDSL Bonding Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Mode This field displays the template profile mode this group uses.

This field displays 1 if a single template profile is set to have each port in the
bonding group share a set total data rate equally.

This field displays 2 if a separate template profile is set for each individual port
in the bonding group. Each port uses a data rate independently.
Group Rate This field displays the upstream and downstream data rates for the entire
bonding group.
Port Rate This column displays the upstream and downstream data rates for individual
ports in this group.
Template This field displays the name of the template applied to this group.
Delete Select the groups to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button to remove them.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.

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C HAPTER 10
VLAN

The type of screen you see here depends on the VLAN Type you selected in the Switch Setup
screen. This chapter shows you how to configure 802.1Q tagged and port-based VLANs.

10.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLANs


A tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN ID) in the MAC header to identify the VLAN membership
of a frame across bridges - they are not confined to the switch on which they were created. The
VLANs can be created statically by hand or dynamically through GVRP. The VLAN ID associates a
frame with a specific VLAN and provides the information that switches need to process the frame
across the network. A tagged frame is four bytes longer than an untagged frame and contains two
bytes of TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier, residing within the type/length field of the Ethernet frame)
and two bytes of TCI (Tag Control Information, starts after the source address field of the Ethernet
frame).

The CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) is a single-bit flag, always set to zero for Ethernet switches. If
a frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should not be forwarded as
it is to an untagged port. The remaining twelve bits define the VLAN ID, giving a possible maximum
number of 4,096 VLANs. Note that user priority and VLAN ID are independent of each other. A
frame with VID (VLAN Identifier) of null (0) is called a priority frame, meaning that only the priority
level is significant and the default VID of the ingress port is given as the VID of the frame. Of the
4096 possible VIDs, a VID of 0 is used to identify priority frames and value 4095 (FFF) is reserved,
so the maximum possible VLAN configurations are 4,094.

TPID User Priority CFI VLAN ID

2 Bytes 3 Bits 1 Bit 12 bits

10.1.1 Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames


Each port on the Switch is capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. To forward a frame from
an 802.1Q VLAN-aware switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-unaware switch, the Switch first decides where
to forward the frame and then strips off the VLAN tag. To forward a frame from an 802.1Q VLAN-
unaware switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-aware switch, the Switch first decides where to forward the
frame, and then inserts a VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port's default VID. The default PVID is
VLAN 1 for all ports, but this can be changed.

A broadcast frame (or a multicast frame for a multicast group that is known by the system) is
duplicated only on ports that are members of the VID (except the ingress port itself), thus confining
the broadcast to a specific domain.

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10.1.2 VLAN Tagging Priority


When the Switch is IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-enabled, all incoming tagged traffic is forwarded according
to the VLAN table on the Switch. If the incoming traffic is untagged, the Switch applies the VLAN
rules based on the following priority:

MAC-based VLAN > Subnet-based VLAN > Protocol-based VLAN > PVID

10.2 Automatic VLAN Registration


GARP and GVRP are the protocols used to automatically register VLAN membership across switches.

10.2.1 GARP
GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) allows network switches to register and de-register
attribute values with other GARP participants within a bridged LAN. GARP is a protocol that provides
a generic mechanism for protocols that serve a more specific application, for example, GVRP.

10.2.1.1 GARP Timers


Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join message
using GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All message
terminates all registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values.

10.2.2 GVRP
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a way for switches to
register necessary VLAN members on ports across the network. Enable this function to permit VLAN
groups beyond the local Switch.

Please refer to the following table for common IEEE 802.1Q VLAN terminology.

Table 47 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Terminology

VLAN PARAMETER TERM DESCRIPTION


VLAN Type Permanent VLAN This is a static VLAN created manually.

Dynamic VLAN This is a VLAN configured by a GVRP registration/deregistration


process.
VLAN Administrative Registration Fixed Fixed registration ports are permanent VLAN members.
Control
Registration Ports with registration forbidden are forbidden to join the
Forbidden specified VLAN.
Normal Registration Ports dynamically join a VLAN using GVRP.
VLAN Tag Control Tagged Ports belonging to the specified VLAN tag all outgoing frames
transmitted.
Untagged Ports belonging to the specified VLAN don't tag all outgoing
frames transmitted.

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Table 47 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Terminology (continued)

VLAN PARAMETER TERM DESCRIPTION


VLAN Port Port VID This is the VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames that this port
received.
Acceptable Frame You may choose to accept both tagged and untagged incoming
Type frames, just tagged incoming frames or just untagged incoming
frames on a port.
Ingress filtering If set, the Switch discards incoming frames for VLANs that do not
have this port as a member

10.3 Port VLAN Trunking


Enable VLAN Trunking on a port to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN groups to pass
through that port. This is useful if you want to set up VLAN groups on end devices without having to
configure the same VLAN groups on intermediary devices.

Refer to the following figure. Suppose you want to create VLAN groups 1 and 2 (V1 and V2) on
devices A and B. Without VLAN Trunking, you must configure VLAN groups 1 and 2 on all
intermediary switches C, D and E; otherwise they will drop frames with unknown VLAN group tags.
However, with VLAN Trunking enabled on a port(s) in each intermediary switch you only need to
create VLAN groups in the end devices (A and B). C, D and E automatically allow frames with VLAN
group tags 1 and 2 (VLAN groups that are unknown to those switches) to pass through their VLAN
trunking port(s).

Figure 70 Port VLAN Trunking


C E

A B

V1 V2 V1 V2

10.4 Select the VLAN Type


Select a VLAN type in the Basic Setting > Switch Setup screen.

Figure 71 Switch Setup > Select VLAN Type

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10.5 Static VLAN


Use a static VLAN to decide whether an incoming frame on a port should be

sent to a VLAN group as normal depending on its VLAN tag.


sent to a group whether it has a VLAN tag or not.
blocked from a VLAN group regardless of its VLAN tag.

You can also tag all outgoing frames (that were previously untagged) from a port with the specified
VID.

10.5.1 Static VLAN Status


See Section 10.1 on page 129 for more information on Static VLAN. Click Advanced Application >
VLAN from the navigation panel to display the VLAN Status screen as shown next.

Figure 72 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 48 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status

LABEL DESCRIPTION
The Number of This is the number of VLANs configured on the Switch.
VLAN
Index This is the VLAN index number. Click on an index number to view more VLAN details.
VID This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN screen.

Elapsed Time This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a static VLAN
was set up.

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Table 48 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Status This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch.

dynamic: using GVRP

static: added as a permanent entry

other: added in another way such as via Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR)
Change Pages Click Previous or Next to show the previous/next screen if all status information cannot be
seen in one screen.

10.5.2 VLAN Details


Use this screen to view detailed port settings and status of the VLAN group. See Section 10.1 on
page 129 for more information on static VLAN. Click on an index number in the VLAN Status
screen to display VLAN details.

Figure 73 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 49 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail

LABEL DESCRIPTION
VLAN Status Click this to go to the VLAN Status screen.

VID This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN screen.

Port Number This column displays the ports that are participating in a VLAN. A tagged port is marked as T,
an untagged port is marked as U and ports not participating in a VLAN are marked as .
Elapsed Time This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a static VLAN
was set up.
Status This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch.

dynamic: using GVRP

static: added as a permanent entry

other: added in another way such as via Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR)

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10.5.3 Configure a Static VLAN


Use this screen to configure and view 802.1Q VLAN parameters for the Switch. See Section 10.1 on
page 129 for more information on static VLAN. To configure a static VLAN, click Static VLAN in the
VLAN Status screen to display the screen as shown next.

Figure 74 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN

The following table describes the related labels in this screen.

Table 50 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN

LABEL DESCRIPTION
ACTIVE Select this check box to activate the VLAN settings.
Name Enter a descriptive name for the VLAN group for identification purposes. This name consists
of up to 64 printable characters.
VLAN Group ID Enter the VLAN ID for this static entry; the valid range is between 1 and 4094.
VLAN Profile Select a VLAN profile in which you can specify the action the Switch takes on incoming
unknown multicast frames and whether to enable MAC address learning for this VLAN.
Port The port number identifies the port you are configuring.

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Table 50 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Control Select Normal for the port to dynamically join this VLAN group using GVRP. This is the
default selection.

Select Fixed for the port to be a permanent member of this VLAN group.

Select Forbidden if you want to prohibit the port from joining this VLAN group.
Tagging Select Tx Tagging if you want the port to tag all outgoing frames transmitted with this
VLAN Group ID.
Add Click Add to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to change the fields back to their last saved values.
Clear Click Clear to start configuring the screen again.
VID This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group. Click the number to edit the VLAN
settings.
Active This field indicates whether the VLAN settings are enabled (Yes) or disabled (No).
Name This field displays the descriptive name for this VLAN group.
VLAN Profile This field displays the name of the VLAN profile applied to this VLAN.
Delete Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.

10.5.4 Configure a VLAN Profile


Click the VLAN Profile link at the top-right corner of the Static VLAN screen to open the screen
shown below. Use this screen to view, add, modify and delete VLAN profiles.

Figure 75 VLAN > Static VLAN > VLAN Profile

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 51 VLAN > Static VLAN> VLAN Profile

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Name Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Mac Learning MAC address learning reduces outgoing broadcast traffic. Select the check box to enable
MAC address learning in a VLAN.
Unknown Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives an unknown multicast frame for a
Multicast VLAN. Select flooding to send the frame(s) to all ports in the VLAN.
Add Click Add to save the new settings to the Switch. It then displays in the summary table at
the bottom of the screen.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index This field displays the index number of a profile.
Name This field displays the descriptive name of a profile. Click an index number to edit the
profile.
Mac Learning This field displays whether MAC address learning is enabled.
Unknown This field displays the action the Switch takes on an unknown multicast frame received for
Multicast the VLAN.
Delete Check the profile(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es) in the Delete column.

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10.5.5 Configure VLAN Port Settings


Use the VLAN Port Setting screen to configure the static VLAN (IEEE 802.1Q) settings on a port.
See Section 10.1 on page 129 for more information on static VLAN. Click the VLAN Port Setting
link in the VLAN Status screen.

Figure 76 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 52 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting

LABEL DESCRIPTION
GVRP GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a way for
switches to register necessary VLAN members on ports across the network.

Select this check box to permit VLAN groups beyond the local Switch.
Port Isolation Port Isolation allows each port to communicate only with the CPU management port and
the dual personality GbE interfaces but not communicate with each other. This option is
the most limiting but also the most secure.
Port This field displays the port number.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Ingress Check If this check box is selected for a port, the Switch discards incoming frames for VLANs that
do not include this port in its member set.

Clear this check box to disable ingress filtering.


PVID A Port VLAN ID (PVID) is a tag that the Switch adds to incoming untagged frames received
on a port so that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.

Enter a number between 1 and 4094 as the port VLAN ID.

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Table 52 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
GVRP Select this check box to allow GVRP on this port.
Acceptable Frame Specify the type of frames allowed on a port. Choices are All and Tag Only.
Type
Select All from the drop-down list box to accept all untagged or tagged frames on this
port. This is the default setting.

Select Tag Only to accept only tagged frames on this port. All untagged frames will be
dropped.
VLAN Trunking Enable VLAN Trunking on ports connected to other switches or routers (but not ports
directly connected to end users) to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN groups to
pass through the Switch.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

10.6 Subnet Based VLANs


Subnet based VLANs allow you to group traffic into logical VLANs based on the source IP subnet you
specify. When a frame is received on a port, the Switch checks if a tag is added already and the IP
subnet it came from. The untagged packets from the same IP subnet are then placed in the same
subnet based VLAN. One advantage of using subnet based VLANs is that priority can be assigned to
traffic from the same IP subnet.

For example, an ISP (Internet Services Provider) may divide different types of services it provides
to customers into different IP subnets. Traffic for voice services is designated for IP subnet
172.16.1.0/24, video for 192.168.1.0/24 and data for 10.1.1.0/24. The Switch can then be
configured to group incoming traffic based on the source IP subnet of incoming frames.

You configure a subnet based VLAN with priority 6 and VID of 100 for traffic received from IP subnet
172.16.1.0/24 (voice services). You also have a subnet based VLAN with priority 5 and VID of 200
for traffic received from IP subnet 192.168.1.0/24 (video services). Lastly, you configure VLAN with
priority 3 and VID of 300 for traffic received from IP subnet 10.1.1.0/24 (data services). All

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untagged incoming frames will be classified based on their source IP subnet and prioritized
accordingly. That is video services receive the highest priority and data the lowest.

Figure 77 Subnet Based VLAN Application Example


Tagged Frames

Internet
Internet

Untagged
Frames

172.16.1.0/24 192.168.1.0/24 10.1.1.0/24


VID = 100 VID = 200 VID = 300

10.7 Configuring Subnet Based VLAN


Click Subnet Based VLAN in the VLAN Port Setting screen to display the configuration screen as
shown.

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Note: Subnet based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when you
use IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.

Figure 78 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 53 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Check this box to activate this subnet based VLANs on the Switch.
DHCP-Vlan When DHCP snooping is enabled, DHCP clients can renew their IP address through the DHCP
Override VLAN or via another DHCP server on the subnet based VLAN.

Select this checkbox to force the DHCP clients in this IP subnet to obtain their IP addresses
through the DHCP VLAN.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Active Check this box to activate the IP subnet VLAN you are creating or editing.
Name Enter up to 32 alpha numeric characters to identify this subnet based VLAN.
IP Type Select to configure an IPv4 or IPv6 address.
IP Enter the IPv4 or IPv6 address of the subnet for which you want to configure this subnet
based VLAN.
Mask-Bits Enter the bit number of the subnet mask. To find the bit number, convert the subnet mask to
binary format and add all the 1s together. Take 255.255.255.0 for example. 255 converts to
eight 1s in binary. There are three 255s, so add three eights together and you get the bit
number (24).
VID Enter the ID of a VLAN with which the untagged frames from the IP subnet specified in this
subnet based VLAN are tagged. This must be an existing VLAN which you defined in the
Advanced Application > VLAN screens.
Priority Select the priority level that the Switch assigns to frames belonging to this VLAN.

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Table 53 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Add Click Add to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to change the fields back to their last saved values.
Index This is the index number identifying this subnet based VLAN. Click on any of these numbers to
edit an existing subnet based VLAN.
Active This field shows whether the subnet based VLAN is active or not.
Name This field shows the name the subnet based VLAN.
IP This field shows the IP address of the subnet for this subnet based VLAN.
Mask-Bits This field shows the subnet mask in bit number format for this subnet based VLAN.
VID This field shows the VLAN ID of the frames which belong to this subnet based VLAN.
Priority This field shows the priority which is assigned to frames belonging to this subnet based VLAN.
Delete Click this to delete the subnet based VLANs which you marked for deletion.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Paging Select Prev or Next to show the previous/next screen or select a page number from the
drop-down list box to display a specific page if all entries cannot be seen in one screen.

10.8 Protocol Based VLANs


Protocol based VLANs allow you to group traffic into logical VLANs based on the protocol you
specify. When an upstream frame is received on a port (configured for a protocol based VLAN), the
Switch checks if a tag is added already and its protocol. The untagged packets of the same protocol
are then placed in the same protocol based VLAN. One advantage of using protocol based VLANs is
that priority can be assigned to traffic of the same protocol.

Note: Protocol based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when you
use IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.

For example, port 1, 2, 3 and 4 belong to static VLAN 100, and port 4, 5, 6, 7 belong to static VLAN
120. You configure a protocol based VLAN A with priority 3 for ARP traffic received on port 1, 2 and
3. You also have a protocol based VLAN B with priority 2 for Apple Talk traffic received on port 6 and
7. All upstream ARP traffic from port 1, 2 and 3 will be grouped together, and all upstream Apple

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Talk traffic from port 6 and 7 will be in another group and have higher priority than ARP traffic,
when they go through the uplink port to a backbone switch C.

Figure 79 Protocol Based VLAN Application Example

10.9 Configuring Protocol Based VLAN


Click Protocol Based VLAN in the VLAN Port Setting screen to display the configuration screen
as shown.

Note: Protocol-based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when you
use IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.

Figure 80 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Protocol Based VLAN

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 54 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Protocol Based VLAN Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Check this box to activate this protocol based VLAN.
Port Type a port to be included in this protocol based VLAN.

This port must belong to a static VLAN in order to participate in a protocol based VLAN. See
Chapter 10 on page 129 for more details on setting up VLANs.
Name Enter up to 32 alpha numeric characters to identify this protocol based VLAN.
Ethernet-type Use the drop down list box to select a predefined protocol to be included in this protocol based
VLAN or select Others and type the protocol number in hexadecimal notation. For example
the IP protocol in hexadecimal notation is 0800, and Novell IPX protocol is 8137.

Note: Protocols in the hexadecimal number range of 0x0000 to 0x05ff are not allowed to be
used for protocol based VLANs.
VID Enter the ID of a VLAN to which the port belongs. This must be an existing VLAN which you
defined in the Advanced Application > VLAN screens.
Priority Select the priority level that the Switch will assign to frames belonging to this VLAN.
Add Click Add to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to change the fields back to their last saved values.
Index This is the index number identifying this protocol based VLAN. Click on any of these numbers
to edit an existing protocol based VLAN.
Active This field shows whether the protocol based VLAN is active or not.
Port This field shows which port belongs to this protocol based VLAN.
Name This field shows the name the protocol based VLAN.
Ethernet Type This field shows which Ethernet protocol is part of this protocol based VLAN.
VID This field shows the VLAN ID of the port.
Priority This field shows the priority which is assigned to frames belonging to this protocol based
VLAN.
Delete Click this to delete the protocol based VLANs which you marked for deletion.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

10.10 Create an IP-based VLAN Example


This example shows you how to create an IP VLAN which includes ports 1, 4 and 8. Follow these
steps:

1 Activate this protocol based VLAN.

2 Type the port number you want to include in this protocol based VLAN. Type 1.

3 Give this protocol-based VLAN a descriptive name. Type IP-VLAN.

4 Select the protocol. Leave the default value IP.

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5 Type the VLAN ID of an existing VLAN. In our example we already created a static VLAN with an ID
of 5. Type 5.

6 Leave the priority set to 0 and click Add.


Figure 81 Protocol Based VLAN Configuration Example

To add more ports to this protocol based VLAN.

1 Click the index number of the protocol based VLAN entry. Click 1

2 Change the value in the Port field to the next port you want to add.

3 Click Add.

10.11 Configuring MAC Based VLAN


MAC based VLANs allow you to group traffic into logical VLANs based on the MAC address you
specify. When a frame is received on a port, the Switch checks if a tag is added already and the
MAC address it came from. The untagged packets from the same MAC address(es) are then placed
in the same MAC based VLAN. One advantage of using MAC based VLANs is that priority can be
assigned to traffic from the same MAC address(es).

Click MAC Based VLAN in the VLAN Port Setting screen to display the configuration screen as
shown.

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Note: MAC based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when you use
IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.

Figure 82 VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > MAC Based VLAN

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 55 VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > MAC Based VLAN

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Check this box to activate this MAC based VLAN.
Name Enter up to 32 alpha numeric characters to identify this MAC based VLAN.
MAC Address Enter the MAC address in valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character pairs.
VID Enter the ID of a VLAN with which the untagged frames from the MAC address specified in this
MAC based VLAN are tagged. This must be an existing VLAN which you defined in the
Advanced Application > VLAN screens.
Priority Select the priority level that the Switch will assign to frames belonging to this VLAN.
Add Click Add to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to change the fields back to their last saved values.
Index This is the index number identifying this MAC based VLAN. Click on any of these numbers to
edit an existing MAC based VLAN.
Active This field shows whether the MAC based VLAN is active or not.
Name This field shows the name the MAC based VLAN.
MAC Address This field shows the MAC address for this MAC based VLAN.
VID This field shows the VLAN ID of the frames which belong to this MAC based VLAN.
Priority This field shows the priority which is assigned to frames belonging to this MAC based VLAN.
Delete Click this to delete the protocol based VLANs which you marked for deletion.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Paging Select Prev or Next to show the previous/next screen or select a page number from the
drop-down list box to display a specific page if all entries cannot be seen in one screen.

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10.12 Port Based VLAN Setup


Port based VLANs are VLANs where the packet forwarding decision is based on the destination MAC
address and its associated port.

Port based VLANs require allowed outgoing ports to be defined for each port. Therefore, if you wish
to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, for example, between conference rooms in a
hotel, you must define the egress (an egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port through which
a data packet leaves) for both ports.

Port based VLANs are specific only to the Switch on which they were created.

Note: When you activate port based VLAN, the Switch uses a default VLAN ID of 1. You
cannot change it.

Note: In screens (such as IP Setup and Filtering) that require a VID, you must enter 1
as the VID.

The port based VLAN setup screen is shown next. The CPU management port forms a VLAN with all
Ethernet ports.

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10.12.1 Configure a Port Based VLAN


Select Port Based as the VLAN Type in the Basic Setting > Switch Setup screen and then click
Advanced Application > VLAN from the navigation panel to display the next screen.

Figure 83 Port Based VLAN Setup (All Connected)

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Figure 84 Port Based VLAN Setup (Port Isolation)

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 56 Port Based VLAN Setup

label Description
Setting Wizard Choose All connected or Port isolation.

All connected means all ports can communicate with each other, that is, there are no virtual
LANs. All incoming and outgoing ports are selected. This option is the most flexible but also
the least secure.

Port isolation means that each VDSL port can only communicate with the CPU management
port and the uplink ports and cannot communicate with each other. All incoming ports are
selected while only the CPU and uplink outgoing ports are selected. This option is the most
limiting but also the most secure.

After you make your selection, click Apply (top right of screen) to display the screens as
mentioned above. You can still customize these settings by adding/deleting incoming or
outgoing ports, but you must also click Apply at the bottom of the screen.
Incoming These are the ingress ports; an ingress port is an incoming port, that is, a port through which
a data packet enters. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, you must
define the ingress port for both ports. The numbers in the top row denote the incoming port
for the corresponding port listed on the left (its outgoing port). CPU refers to the Switch
management port. By default it forms a VLAN with all Ethernet ports. If it does not form a
VLAN with a particular port then the Switch cannot be managed from that port.
Outgoing These are the egress ports; an egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port through which a
data packet leaves. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, you must
define the egress port for both ports. CPU refers to the Switch management port. By default
it forms a VLAN with all Ethernet ports. If it does not form a VLAN with a particular port then
the Switch cannot be managed from that port.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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10.13 VLAN Counter


Click the VLAN Counter link in the VLAN Status screen to display the screen as shown next. Use
this screen to view the frame statistics on uplink Ethernet ports.

Figure 85 Vlan Counter

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 57 Vlan Counter

Label Description
VID Enter a VLAN identification number.
Port Enter an uplink Ethernet port number.
Start Click this to start the frame statistics calculation for the specified VLAN, port, and direction.
Stop This button appears after you start a frame statistics calculation.

Click this to stop the frame statistics calculation and reset the VID and Port fields to their
default settings.
Update This button appears after you start a frame statistics calculation.

Click this to get the latest frame statistics for the port shown in this screen.
Clear This button appears after you start a frame statistics calculation.

Click this to have the frame statistics for the port reset.
Vlan Info
Vlan Id. This field displays the VLAN ID you are viewing.
System up This field shows the total amount of time the Switch has been up.
time
Port Info
Port number This field displays the port number you are viewing.
Direction

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Table 57 Vlan Counter (continued)

Label Description
Direction This field displays the traveling direction of the packets you are viewing.
Packet

This field shows the number of transmitted and received frames on this port
KBs/s This field shows the number kilobytes per second the Switch has transmitted and received on
this port.
Bytes This field shows the number of bytes the Switch has transmitted and received.
Packets The following fields display detailed information about packets the Switch has transmitted and
received.
Multicast This field shows the number of good multicast packets the Switch has transmitted and
received.
Broadcast This field shows the number of good broadcast packets the Switch has transmitted and
received.
Distribution
64 This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted and received that
were 64 octets in length.
65 to 127 This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted and received that
were between 65 and 127 octets in length.
128 to 255 This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted and received that
were between 128 and 255 octets in length.
256 to 511 This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted and received that
were between 256 and 511 octets in length.
512 to This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted and received that
1023 were between 512 and 1023 octets in length.
1024 to This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted and received that
1518 were between 1024 and 1518 octets in length.
Giant This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted and received that
were between 1519 octets and the maximum frame size.

The maximum frame size varies depending on your switch model. See Chapter 47 on page
381.

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C HAPTER 11
Static MAC Forward Setup

Use these screens to configure static MAC address forwarding.

11.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure forwarding rules based on MAC addresses of devices on
your network.

11.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding


A static MAC address is an address that has been manually entered in the MAC address table. Static
MAC addresses do not age out. When you set up static MAC address rules, you are setting static
MAC addresses for a port. This may reduce the need for broadcasting.

Static MAC address forwarding together with port security allow only computers in the MAC address
table on a port to access the Switch. See Chapter 19 on page 191 for more information about MAC
limit.

Click Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding in the navigation panel to display the
configuration screen as shown.

Figure 86 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 58 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule without
deleting it by clearing this check box.
Name Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC address forwarding
rule.
MAC Address Enter the MAC address in valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character pairs.

Note: Static MAC addresses do not age out.


VID Enter the VLAN identification number.
Port Enter the port where the MAC address entered in the previous field will be automatically
forwarded.
Add Click Add to save your rule to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses this rule if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Clear Click Clear to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index Click an index number to modify a static MAC address rule for a port.
Active This field displays whether this static MAC address forwarding rule is active (Yes) or not (No).
You may temporarily deactivate a rule without deleting it.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC address-
forwarding rule.
MAC Address This field displays the MAC address that will be forwarded and the VLAN identification number
to which the MAC address belongs.
VID This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Port This field displays the port where the MAC address shown in the next field will be forwarded.
Delete Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
Paging Select Prev or Next to show the previous/next screen or select a page number from the
drop-down list box to display a specific page if all entries cannot be seen in one screen.

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C HAPTER 12
Static Multicast Forward Setup

Use these screens to configure static multicast address forwarding.

12.1 Static Multicast Forwarding Overview


A multicast MAC address is the MAC address of a member of a multicast group. A static multicast
address is a multicast MAC address that has been manually entered in the multicast table. Static
multicast addresses do not age out. Static multicast forwarding allows you (the administrator) to
forward multicast frames to a member without the member having to join the group first.

If a multicast group has no members, then the switch will either flood the multicast frames to all
ports or drop them. You can configure this in the Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast
Setting screen (see Section 24.3 on page 224). Figure 87 shows such unknown multicast frames
flooded to all ports. With static multicast forwarding, you can forward these multicast frames to

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port(s) within a VLAN group. Figure 88 shows frames being forwarded to devices connected to port
3. Figure 89 shows frames being forwarded to ports 2 and 3 within VLAN group 4.

Figure 87 No Static Multicast Forwarding

Figure 88 Static Multicast Forwarding to A Single Port

Figure 89 Static Multicast Forwarding to Multiple Ports

12.2 Configuring Static Multicast Forwarding


Use this screen to configure rules to forward specific multicast frames, such as streaming or control
frames, to specific port(s).

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Click Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding to display the configuration screen
as shown.

Figure 90 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 59 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule without
deleting it by clearing this check box.
Name Type a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for this static multicast MAC
address forwarding rule. This is for identification only.
MAC Address Enter a multicast MAC address which identifies the multicast group. The last binary bit of the
first octet pair in a multicast MAC address must be 1. For example, the first octet pair
00000001 is 01 and 00000011 is 03 in hexadecimal, so 01:00:5e:00:00:0A and
03:00:5e:00:00:27 are valid multicast MAC addresses.
VID You can forward frames with matching destination MAC address to port(s) within a VLAN
group. Enter the ID that identifies the VLAN group here. If you dont have a specific target
VLAN, enter 1.
Port Enter the port(s) where frames with destination MAC address that matched the entry above
are forwarded. You can enter multiple ports separated by (no space) comma (,) or hyphen (-
). For example, enter 3-5 for ports 3, 4, and 5. Enter 3,5,7 for ports 3, 5, and 7.
Add Click Add to save your rule to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses this rule if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Clear Click Clear to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index Click an index number to modify a static multicast MAC address rule for port(s).
Active This field displays whether a static multicast MAC address forwarding rule is active (Yes) or
not (No). You may temporarily deactivate a rule without deleting it.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for a static multicast MAC
address-forwarding rule.
MAC Address This field displays the multicast MAC address that identifies a multicast group.
VID This field displays the ID number of a VLAN group to which frames containing the specified
multicast MAC address will be forwarded.
Port This field displays the port(s) within a identified VLAN group to which frames containing the
specified multicast MAC address will be forwarded.

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Table 59 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Pre. Page Click this to show the previous screen if all entries cannot be seen in one screen.
Next Page Click this to show the next screen if all entries cannot be seen in one screen.
Delete Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.

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C HAPTER 13
Filtering

This chapter discusses MAC address port filtering.

13.1 Configure a Filtering Rule


Filtering means sifting traffic going through the Switch based on the source and/or destination MAC
addresses and VLAN group (ID).

Click Advanced Application > Filtering in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown
next.

Figure 91 Advanced Application > Filtering

The following table describes the related labels in this screen.

Table 60 Advanced Application > Filtering

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Make sure to select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule
without deleting it by deselecting this check box.
Name Type a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for this rule. This is for
identification only.
Action Select Discard source to drop the frames from the source MAC address (specified in the MAC
field). The Switch can still send frames to the MAC address.

Select Discard destination to drop the frames to the destination MAC address (specified in
the MAC address). The Switch can still receive frames originating from the MAC address.

Select Discard source and Discard destination to block traffic to/from the MAC address
specified in the MAC field.

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Table 60 Advanced Application > Filtering (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
MAC Type a MAC address in valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character pairs.
VID Type the VLAN group identification number.
Add Click Add to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to change the settings.
Active This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purpose only.
MAC Address This field displays the source/destination MAC address with the VLAN identification number to
which the MAC address belongs.
VID This field displays the VLAN group identification number.
Action This field displays the filtering action.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es) in the Delete column.

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C HAPTER 14
Spanning Tree Protocol

The Switch supports Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) as defined in the following standards.

IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol


IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol

The Switch also allows you to set up multiple STP configurations (or trees). Ports can then be
assigned to the trees.

14.1 STP/RSTP Overview


(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. It allows a switch to interact with other (R)STP -compliant switches in your network to
ensure that only one path exists between any two stations on the network.

The Switch uses IEEE 802.1w RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) that allows faster convergence
of the spanning tree than STP (while also being backwards compatible with STP-only aware
bridges). In RSTP, topology change information is directly propagated throughout the network from
the device that generates the topology change. In STP, a longer delay is required as the device that
causes a topology change first notifies the root bridge that then notifies the network. Both RSTP
and STP flush unwanted learned addresses from the filtering database. In RSTP, the port states are
Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding.

Note: In this users guide, STP refers to both STP and RSTP.

14.1.1 STP Terminology


The root bridge is the base of the spanning tree.

Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame onto a LAN through that port. The recommended cost
is assigned according to the speed of the link to which a port is attached. The slower the media, the
higher the cost.

Table 61 STP Path Costs

LINK SPEED RECOMMENDED VALUE RECOMMENDED RANGE ALLOWED RANGE


Path Cost 4Mbps 250 100 to 1000 1 to 65535
Path Cost 10Mbps 100 50 to 600 1 to 65535
Path Cost 16Mbps 62 40 to 400 1 to 65535
Path Cost 100Mbps 19 10 to 60 1 to 65535

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Table 61 STP Path Costs

LINK SPEED RECOMMENDED VALUE RECOMMENDED RANGE ALLOWED RANGE


Path Cost 1Gbps 4 3 to 10 1 to 65535
Path Cost 10Gbps 2 1 to 5 1 to 65535

On each bridge, the root port is the port through which this bridge communicates with the root. It is
the port on this switch with the lowest path cost to the root (the root path cost). If there is no root
port, then this switch has been accepted as the root bridge of the spanning tree network.

For each LAN segment, a designated bridge is selected. This bridge has the lowest cost to the root
among the bridges connected to the LAN.

14.1.2 How STP Works


After a bridge determines the lowest cost-spanning tree with STP, it enables the root port and the
ports that are the designated ports for connected LANs, and disables all other ports that participate
in STP. Network packets are therefore only forwarded between enabled ports, eliminating any
possible network loops.

STP-aware switches exchange Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) periodically. When the bridged
LAN topology changes, a new spanning tree is constructed.

Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello BPDUs (Bridge
Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the root bridge. If a bridge does not get a Hello BPDU after a
predefined interval (Max Age), the bridge assumes that the link to the root bridge is down. This
bridge then initiates negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to re-establish a
valid network topology.

14.1.3 STP Port States


STP assigns five port states to eliminate packet looping. A bridge port is not allowed to go directly
from blocking state to forwarding state so as to eliminate transient loops.

Table 62 STP Port States

PORT STATE DESCRIPTION


Disabled STP is disabled (default).
Blocking Only configuration and management BPDUs are received and processed.
Listening All BPDUs are received and processed.

Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.


Learning All BPDUs are received and processed. Information frames are submitted to the learning
process but not forwarded.
Forwarding All BPDUs are received and processed. All information frames are received and forwarded.

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14.1.4 Multiple RSTP


MRSTP (Multiple RSTP) is ZyXELs proprietary feature that is compatible with RSTP and STP. With
MRSTP, you can have more than one spanning tree on your Switch and assign port(s) to each tree.
Each spanning tree operates independently with its own bridge information.

In the following example, there are two RSTP instances (MRSTP 1 and MRSTP2) on switch A.

To set up MRSTP, activate MRSTP on the Switch and specify which port(s) belong to which spanning
tree.

Note: Each port can belong to one STP tree only.

Figure 92 MRSTP Network Example

14.1.5 Multiple STP


Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s) is backward compatible with STP/RSTP and
addresses the limitations of existing spanning tree protocols (STP and RSTP) in networks to include
the following features:

One Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) that represents the entire networks
connectivity.
Grouping of multiple bridges (or switching devices) into regions that appear as one single bridge
on the network.
A VLAN can be mapped to a specific Multiple Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI). MSTI allows
multiple VLANs to use the same spanning tree.
Load-balancing is possible as traffic from different VLANs can use distinct paths in a region.

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14.1.5.1 MSTP Network Example


The following figure shows a network example where two VLANs are configured on the two
switches. If the switches are using STP or RSTP, the link for VLAN 2 will be blocked as STP and RSTP
allow only one link in the network and block the redundant link.

Figure 93 STP/RSTP Network Example


A

VLAN 1 VLAN 2

With MSTP, VLANs 1 and 2 are mapped to different spanning trees in the network. Thus traffic from
the two VLANs travel on different paths. The following figure shows the network example using
MSTP.

Figure 94 MSTP Network Example


A

VLAN 1 VLAN 2

14.1.5.2 MST Region


An MST region is a logical grouping of multiple network devices that appears as a single device to
the rest of the network. Each MSTP-enabled device can only belong to one MST region. When
BPDUs enter an MST region, external path cost (of paths outside this region) is increased by one.
Internal path cost (of paths within this region) is increased by one when BPDUs traverse the region.

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Devices that belong to the same MST region are configured to have the same MSTP configuration
identification settings. These include the following parameters:

Name of the MST region


Revision level as the unique number for the MST region
VLAN-to-MST Instance mapping

14.1.5.3 MST Instance


An MST Instance (MSTI) is a spanning tree instance. VLANs can be configured to run on a specific
MSTI. Each created MSTI is identified by a unique number (known as an MST ID) known internally
to a region. Thus an MSTI does not span across MST regions.

The following figure shows an example where there are two MST regions. Regions 1 and 2 have 2
spanning tree instances.

Figure 95 MSTIs in Different Regions

14.1.5.4 Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST)


A CIST represents the connectivity of the entire network and it is equivalent to a spanning tree in
an STP/RSTP. The CIST is the default MST instance (MSTID 0). Any VLANs that are not members of
an MST instance are members of the CIST. In an MSTP-enabled network, there is only one CIST
that runs between MST regions and single spanning tree devices. A network may contain multiple
MST regions and other network segments running RSTP.

Figure 96 MSTP and Legacy RSTP Network Example

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14.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Status Screen


The Spanning Tree Protocol status screen changes depending on what standard you choose to
implement on your network. Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol to see the
screen as shown.

Figure 97 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol

This screen differs depending on which STP mode (RSTP, MRSTP or MSTP) you configure on the
Switch. This screen is described in detail in the section that follows the configuration section for
each STP mode. Click Configuration to activate one of the STP standards on the Switch.

14.3 Spanning Tree Configuration


Use the Spanning Tree Configuration screen to activate one of the STP modes on the Switch.
Click Configuration in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol.

Figure 98 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 63 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Spanning Tree You can activate one of the STP modes on the Switch.
Mode
Select Rapid Spanning Tree, Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree or Multiple Spanning
Tree. See Section 14.1 on page 160 for background information on STP.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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14.4 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol


Use this screen to configure RSTP settings, see Section 14.1 on page 160 for more information on
RSTP. Click RSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol screen.

Figure 99 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 64 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Status Click Status to display the RSTP Status screen (see Figure 100 on page 167).
Active Select this check box to activate RSTP. Clear this checkbox to disable RSTP.

Note: You must also activate Rapid Spanning Tree in the Advanced Application >
Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable RSTP on the Switch.
Bridge Priority Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port. The
switch with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root switch. If all
switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC address will then become
the root switch. Select a value from the drop-down list box.

The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.

Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time, Max Age
and Forwarding Delay.
Hello Time This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10
seconds.
Max Age This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a BPDU
before attempting to reconfigure. All Switch ports (except for designated ports) should
receive BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the
last BPDU) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new
root port is selected from among the Switch ports attached to the network. The allowed
range is 6 to 40 seconds.

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Table 64 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Forwarding Delay This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch will wait before changing states. This
delay is required because every switch must receive information about topology changes
before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise, temporary data loops
might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds.

As a general rule:

Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)


Port This field displays the port number.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active Select this check box to activate RSTP on this port.
Priority Configure the priority for each port here.

Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in a
switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range is
between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the
media, the higher the cost-see Table 61 on page 160 for more information.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

14.5 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status


Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the
status screen as shown next. See Section 14.1 on page 160 for more information on RSTP.

Note: This screen is only available after you activate RSTP on the Switch.

Figure 100 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 65 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Configuration Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click RSTP to edit
RSTP settings on the Switch.
Bridge Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this switch.
This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address.
This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.

Hello Time This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
(second) message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and Forwarding Delay.

Max Age (second) This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is,
(second) listening to learning to forwarding).

Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.


Cost to Bridge This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology Changed This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Times
Time Since Last This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
Change

14.6 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol


To configure MRSTP, click MRSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol
screen. See Section 14.1 on page 160 for more information on MRSTP.

Figure 101 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 66 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Status Click Status to display the MRSTP Status screen (see Figure 100 on page 167).
Tree This is a read only index number of the STP trees.
Active Select this check box to activate an STP tree. Clear this checkbox to disable an STP tree.

Note: You must also activate Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree in the Advanced Application
> Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable MRSTP on the Switch.
Bridge Priority Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port. The
switch with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root switch. If all
switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC address will then become
the root switch. Select a value from the drop-down list box.

The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.

Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time, Max Age
and Forwarding Delay.
Hello Time This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10
seconds.
Max Age This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a BPDU
before attempting to reconfigure. All Switch ports (except for designated ports) should
receive BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the
last BPDU) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new
root port is selected from among the Switch ports attached to the network. The allowed
range is 6 to 40 seconds.
Forwarding Delay This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch will wait before changing states. This
delay is required because every switch must receive information about topology changes
before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise, temporary data loops
might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds.

As a general rule:

Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)


Port This field displays the port number.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active Select this check box to activate STP on this port.
Priority Configure the priority for each port here.

Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in a
switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range is
between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the
media, the higher the cost-see Table 61 on page 160 for more information.
Tree Select which STP tree configuration this port should participate in.

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Table 66 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

14.7 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status


Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the
status screen as shown next. See Section 14.1 on page 160 for more information on MRSTP.

Note: This screen is only available after you activate MRSTP on the Switch.

Figure 102 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 67 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Configuration Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click MRSTP to edit
MRSTP settings on the Switch.
Tree Select which STP tree configuration you want to view.
Bridge Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this switch.
This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address.
This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.

Hello Time This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
(second) message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and Forwarding Delay.

Max Age (second) This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is,
(second) listening to learning to forwarding).

Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.


Cost to Bridge This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.

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Table 67 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port ID This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology Changed This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Times
Time Since Last This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
Change

14.8 Configure Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol


To configure MSTP, click MSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol screen.
See Section 14.1.5 on page 162 for more information on MSTP.

Figure 103 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 68 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Status Click Status to display the MSTP Status screen (see Figure 104 on page 174).
Active Select this to activate MSTP on the Switch. Clear this to disable MSTP on the Switch.

Note: You must also activate Multiple Spanning Tree in the Advanced Application >
Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable MSTP on the Switch.
Hello Time This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10
seconds.
MaxAge This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a BPDU
before attempting to reconfigure. All Switch ports (except for designated ports) should
receive BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the
last BPDU) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new
root port is selected from among the Switch ports attached to the network. The allowed
range is 6 to 40 seconds.
Forwarding Delay This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch will wait before changing states. This
delay is required because every switch must receive information about topology changes
before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise, temporary data loops
might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds. As a general rule:

Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)


Maximum hops Enter the number of hops (between 1 and 255) in an MSTP region before the BPDU is
discarded and the port information is aged.
Configuration Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 characters) of an MST region.
Name
Revision Number Enter a number to identify a regions configuration. Devices must have the same revision
number to belong to the same region.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Instance Use this section to configure MSTI (Multiple Spanning Tree Instance) settings.
Instance Enter the number you want to use to identify this MST instance on the Switch. The Switch
supports instance numbers 0-16.
Bridge Priority Set the priority of the Switch for the specific spanning tree instance. The lower the
number, the more likely the Switch will be chosen as the root bridge within the spanning
tree instance.

Enter priority values between 0 and 61440 in increments of 4096 (thus valid values are
4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152,
53248, 57344 and 61440).
VLAN Range Enter the start of the VLAN ID range that you want to add or remove from the VLAN range
edit area in the Start field. Enter the end of the VLAN ID range that you want to add or
remove from the VLAN range edit area in the End field.

Next click:

Add - to add this range of VLAN(s) to be mapped to the MST instance.


Remove - to remove this range of VLAN(s) from being mapped to the MST instance.
Clear - to remove all VLAN(s) from being mapped to this MST instance.
Enabled VLAN(s) This field displays which VLAN(s) are mapped to this MST instance.

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Table 68 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port This field displays the port number.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active Select this check box to add this port to the MST instance.
Priority Configure the priority for each port here.

Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in a
switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range is
between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the
media, the higher the cost-see Table 61 on page 160 for more information.
Add Click Add to save this MST instance to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
this change if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Instance This field displays the ID of an MST instance.
VLAN This field displays the VID (or VID ranges) to which the MST instance is mapped.
Active Port This field display the ports configured to participate in the MST instance.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

14.9 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Status


Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the
status screen as shown next. See Section 14.1.5 on page 162 for more information on MSTP.

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Note: This screen is only available after you activate MSTP on the Switch.

Figure 104 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 69 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Configuration Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click MSTP to edit
MSTP settings on the Switch.
CST This section describes the Common Spanning Tree settings.
Bridge Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this switch.
This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address.
This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.

Hello Time This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
(second) message.

Max Age (second) This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is,
(second) listening to learning to forwarding).
Cost to Bridge This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.

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Table 69 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Configuration This field displays the configuration name for this MST region.
Name
Revision Number This field displays the revision number for this MST region.
Configuration A configuration digest is generated from the VLAN-MSTI mapping information.
Digest
This field displays the 16-octet signature that is included in an MSTP BPDU. This field
displays the digest when MSTP is activated on the system.
Topology Changed This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Times
Time Since Last This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
Change
Instance: These fields display the MSTI to VLAN mapping. In other words, which VLANs run on each
spanning tree instance.

Instance This field displays the MSTI ID.


VLAN This field displays which VLANs are mapped to an MSTI.
MSTI Select the MST instance settings you want to view.
Bridge Regional Root refers to the base of the MST instance. Our Bridge is this switch. This
Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address.
This ID is the same for Regional Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.

Internal Cost This is the path cost from the root port in this MST instance to the regional root switch.
Port ID This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the MST instance.

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C HAPTER 15
Broadcast Storm Control

This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the broadcast storm control feature.

15.1 Broadcast Storm Control Setup


Broadcast storm control limits the number of broadcast, multicast and destination lookup failure
(DLF) packets the Switch receives per second on the ports. When the maximum number of
allowable broadcast, multicast and/or DLF packets is reached per second, the subsequent packets
are discarded. Enable this feature to reduce broadcast, multicast and/or DLF packets in your
network. You can specify limits for each packet type on each port.

Click Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown next.

Figure 105 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 70 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this check box to enable traffic storm control on the Switch. Clear this check box to
disable this feature.
Port This field displays the port number.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.

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Table 70 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Broadcast (pkt/ Select this option and specify how many broadcast packets the port receives per second.
s)
Multicast (pkt/s) Select this option and specify how many multicast packets the port receives per second.
DLF (pkt/s) Select this option and specify how many destination lookup failure (DLF) packets the port
receives per second.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields.

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C HAPTER 16
Mirroring

This chapter discusses port mirroring setup screens.

16.1 Port Mirroring Setup


Port mirroring allows you to copy a traffic flow to a monitor port (the port you copy the traffic to) in
order that you can examine the traffic from the monitor port without interference.

Click Advanced Application > Mirroring in the navigation panel to display the Mirroring screen.
Use this screen to select a monitor port and specify the traffic flow to be copied to the monitor port.

Figure 106 Advanced Application > Mirroring

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 71 Advanced Application > Mirroring

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this check box to activate port mirroring on the Switch. Clear this check box to disable the
feature.
Monitor The monitor port is the port you copy the traffic to in order to examine it in more detail without
Port interfering with the traffic flow on the original port(s). Enter the port number of the monitor port.
Egress Enter the VLAN ID that the Switch adds to the mirrored traffic before forwarding it out. This
VLAN allows you to separate the mirrored traffic from the non-mirrored traffic on the monitor port.

The tag will be added even the mirrored traffic is double-tagged.


Port This field displays the port number.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Mirrored Select this option to mirror the traffic on a port.
Direction Specify the direction of the traffic to mirror by selecting from the drop-down list box. Choices are
Egress (outgoing), Ingress (incoming) and Both.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields.

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C HAPTER 17
Link Aggregation

This chapter shows you how to logically aggregate physical links to form one logical, higher-
bandwidth link.

17.1 Link Aggregation Overview


Link aggregation (trunking) is the grouping of physical ports into one logical higher-capacity link.
You may want to trunk ports if for example, it is cheaper to use multiple lower-speed links than to
under-utilize a high-speed, but more costly, single-port link.

However, the more ports you aggregate then the fewer available ports you have. A trunk group is
one logical link containing multiple ports.

The beginning port of each trunk group must be physically connected to form a trunk group.

The Switch supports both static and dynamic link aggregation.

Note: In a properly planned network, it is recommended to implement static link


aggregation only. This ensures increased network stability and control over the
trunk groups on your Switch.

See Section 17.6 on page 184 for a static port trunking example.

17.2 Dynamic Link Aggregation


The Switch adheres to the IEEE 802.3ad standard for static and dynamic (LACP) port trunking.

The Switch supports the link aggregation IEEE802.3ad standard. This standard describes the Link
Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), which is a protocol that dynamically creates and manages
trunk groups.

When you enable LACP link aggregation on a port, the port can automatically negotiate with the
ports at the remote end of a link to establish trunk groups. LACP also allows port redundancy, that
is, if an operational port fails, then one of the standby ports become operational without user
intervention. Please note that:

You must connect all ports point-to-point to the same Ethernet switch and configure the ports for
LACP trunking.
LACP only works on full-duplex links.
All ports in the same trunk group must have the same media type, speed, duplex mode and flow
control settings.

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Configure trunk groups or LACP before you connect the Ethernet switch to avoid causing network
topology loops.

17.2.1 Link Aggregation ID


LACP aggregation ID consists of the following information2:

Table 72 Link Aggregation ID: Local Switch

SYSTEM PRIORITY MAC ADDRESS KEY PORT PRIORITY PORT NUMBER


0000 00-00-00-00-00-00 0000 00 0000

Table 73 Link Aggregation ID: Peer Switch

SYSTEM PRIORITY MAC ADDRESS KEY PORT PRIORITY PORT NUMBER


0000 00-00-00-00-00-00 0000 00 0000

17.3 Link Aggregation Status


Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation in the navigation panel. The Link Aggregation
Status screen displays by default. See Section 17.1 on page 180 for more information.

Figure 107 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 74 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Index This field displays the trunk ID to identify a trunk group, that is, one logical link containing
multiple ports.
Enabled Port These are the ports you have configured in the Link Aggregation screen to be in the trunk
group.
Synchronized These are the ports that are currently transmitting data as one logical link in this trunk
Ports group.
Aggregator ID Link Aggregator ID consists of the following: system priority, MAC address, key, port priority
and port number. Refer to Section 17.2.1 on page 181 for more information on this field.
Status This field displays how these ports were added to the trunk group. It displays:

Static - if the ports are configured as static members of a trunk group.


LACP - if the ports are configured to join a trunk group via LACP.

2. Port Priority and Port Number are 0 as it is the aggregator ID for the trunk group, not the individual port.

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17.4 Link Aggregation Setting


Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting to display the
screen shown next. See Section 17.1 on page 180 for more information on link aggregation.

Figure 108 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 75 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port Selection Specify the way to choose a port in the trunk group (multiple ports) to transmit/receive
criteria packets for different type of traffic. Select one of the following criteria for the port selection.

Source MAC Address: Uses packets source MAC address as the criteria.

Destination MAC Address: Uses packets destination MAC address as the criteria.

Source+Destination MAC Address: Uses packets both source and destination MAC
address as the criteria.

Source IP Address: Uses packets source IP address as the criteria. This can be only used
for IPv4 packets.

Destination IP Address: Uses packets destination IP address as the criteria. This can be
only used for IPv4 packets.

Source+Destination IP Address: Uses packets both source and destination IP address as


the criteria.
Group ID The field identifies the link aggregation group, that is, one logical link containing multiple
ports.
Active Select this option to activate a trunk group.
Port This field displays the port number.
Group Select the trunk group to which a port belongs.

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Table 75 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

17.5 Link Aggregation Control Protocol


Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP to
display the screen shown next. See Section 17.2 on page 180 for more information on dynamic link
aggregation.

Note: Do not configure this screen unless you want to enable dynamic link aggregation.

Figure 109 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 76 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this checkbox to enable Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).
System LACP system priority is a number between 1 and 65,535. The switch with the lowest system
Priority priority (and lowest port number if system priority is the same) becomes the LACP server.
The LACP server controls the operation of LACP setup. Enter a number to set the priority of
an active port using Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). The smaller the number, the
higher the priority level.
Group ID The field identifies the link aggregation group, that is, one logical link containing multiple
ports.
LACP Active Select this option to enable LACP for a trunk.
Port This field displays the port number.

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Table 76 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
LACP Timeout Timeout is the time interval between the individual port exchanges of LACP packets in order to
check that the peer port in the trunk group is still up. If a port does not respond after three
tries, then it is deemed to be down and is removed from the trunk. Set a short timeout (one
second) for busy trunked links to ensure that disabled ports are removed from the trunk
group as soon as possible.

Select either 1 second or 30 seconds.


Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

17.6 Static Trunking Example


This example shows you how to create a static port trunk group for ports 25-26.

1 Make your physical connections - make sure that the ports that you want to belong to the trunk
group are connected to the same destination. The following figure shows ports 25-26 on switch A
connected to switch B.
Figure 110 Trunking Example - Physical Connections

B
A

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2 Configure static trunking-Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link
Aggregation Setting. In this screen activate trunking group T1 and select the ports that should
belong to this group as shown in the figure below. Click Apply when you are done.
Figure 111 Trunking Example - Configuration Screen

Your trunk group 1 (T1) configuration is now complete; you do not need to go to any additional
screens.

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C HAPTER 18
Port Authentication

This chapter describes the IEEE 802.1x and MAC authentication methods.

18.1 Port Authentication Overview


Port authentication is a way to validate access to ports on the Switch to clients based on an external
server (authentication server). The Switch supports the following methods for port authentication:

IEEE 802.1x3 - An authentication server validates access to a port based on a username and
password provided by the user.
MAC - An authentication server validates access to a port based on the MAC address and
password of the client.

Both types of authentication use the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC
2138, 2139) protocol to validate users. See Section 25.1.2 on page 237 for more information on
configuring your RADIUS server settings.

Note: If you enable IEEE 802.1x authentication and MAC authentication on the same
port, the Switch performs IEEE 802.1x authentication first. If a user fails to
authenticate via the IEEE 802.1x method, then access to the port is denied.

18.1.1 IEEE 802.1x Authentication


The following figure illustrates how a client connecting to a IEEE 802.1x authentication enabled port
goes through a validation process. The Switch prompts the client for login information in the form of
a user name and password. When the client provides the login credentials, the Switch sends an

3. At the time of writing, IEEE 802.1x is not supported by all operating systems. See your operating system documentation. If
your operating system does not support 802.1x, then you may need to install 802.1x client software.

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Chapter 18 Port Authentication

authentication request to a RADIUS server. The RADIUS server validates whether this client is
allowed access to the port.

Figure 112 IEEE 802.1x Authentication Process

1
New Connection
2
Login Info Request
3
Login Credentials 4
Authentication Request
5
Authentication Reply
Session Granted/Denied

18.1.2 MAC Authentication


MAC authentication works in a very similar way to IEEE 802.1x authentication. The main difference
is that the Switch does not prompt the client for login credentials. The login credentials are based
on the source MAC address of the client connecting to a port on the Switch along with a password
configured specifically for MAC authentication on the Switch.

Figure 113 MAC Authentication Process

1
New Connection
2
Authentication Request
3
Authentication Reply

Session Granted/Denied

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Chapter 18 Port Authentication

18.2 Port Authentication Configuration


To enable port authentication, first activate the port authentication method(s) you want to use
(both on the Switch and the port(s)) then configure the RADIUS server settings in the Advanced
Application > Auth setup > Radius Server Setup screen.

Click Advanced Application > Port Authentication in the navigation panel to display the screen
as shown.

Figure 114 Advanced Application > Port Authentication

18.2.1 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security


Use this screen to activate IEEE 802.1x security. In the Port Authentication screen click 802.1x to
display the configuration screen as shown.

Figure 115 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 77 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this check box to permit 802.1x authentication on the Switch.

Note: You must first enable 802.1x authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each
port.
Port This field displays the port number.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.

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Table 77 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this to permit 802.1x authentication on this port. You must first allow 802.1x
authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each port.
Reauthentication Specify if a subscriber has to periodically re-enter his or her username and password to
stay connected to the port.
Reauthentication Specify how often a client has to re-enter his or her username and password to stay
Timer connected to the port.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

18.2.2 Activate MAC Authentication


Use this screen to activate MAC authentication. In the Port Authentication screen click MAC
Authentication to display the configuration screen as shown.

Figure 116 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 78 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this check box to permit MAC authentication on the Switch.

Note: You must first enable MAC authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each
port.
Name Prefix Type the prefix that is appended to all MAC addresses sent to the RADIUS server for
authentication. You can enter up to 32 printable ASCII characters.

If you leave this field blank, then only the MAC address of the client is forwarded to the
RADIUS server.
Password Type the password the Switch sends along with the MAC address of a client for
authentication with the RADIUS server. You can enter up to 32 printable ASCII characters.

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Table 78 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Timeout Specify the amount of time before the Switch allows a client MAC address that fails
authentication to try and authenticate again. Maximum time is 3000 seconds.

When a client fails MAC authentication, its MAC address is learned by the MAC address
table with a status of denied. The timeout period you specify here is the time the MAC
address entry stays in the MAC address table until it is cleared. If you specify 0 for the
timeout value, then this entry will not be deleted from the MAC address table.

Note: If the Aging Time in the Switch Setup screen is set to a lower value, then it
supersedes this setting. See Section 8.5 on page 75.
Port This field displays the port number.
* Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active Select this to permit MAC authentication on this port. You must first allow MAC
authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each port.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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C HAPTER 19
MAC Limit

This chapter shows you how to set up port or vlan security by limiting learned MAC addresses.

19.1 MAC Limit Overview


MAC limit allows only packets from a limited number of dynamically learned MAC addresses and/or
configured static MAC addresses to pass through a port or a VLAN network on the Switch. The
Switch can learn up to 16K (16384) MAC addresses in total with no limit on individual ports.

For maximum port security, enable either port security or VLAN security, disable MAC address
learning and configure static MAC address(es) for a port or a VLAN.

19.2 MAC Limit


Click Advanced Application and MAC Limit in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.

Note: For maximum port security, enable this feature, disable MAC address learning and
configure static MAC address(es) for a port. It is not recommended to disable both
Port Security and MAC address learning as this will result in many broadcasts.

Figure 117 Advanced Application > MAC Limit

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Chapter 19 MAC Limit

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 79 MAC Limit

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this check box to enable the MAC limit feature on the Switch. Clear the check box to
disable the feature. You must enable this for the Switch to apply the MAC limit settings for
individual ports.
Port This field displays the number of the port. Use the * entry to configure settings for all of the
subscriber ports.
Active SLF drop SLF stands for Source MAC address Look up Fail (SLF), which means the source MAC does
not exist on the Switch. Select this check box to enable the MAC limit feature on this port.
The Switch only forwards packets whose source MAC addresses can be found in the MAC
address table and drops the other packets.
Clear this check box to have the Switch also forward the packets whose source MAC
addresses do not exist in the MAC address table.
MAC Spoofing Select this check box to have the Switch detect whether a MAC address is connected to more
than one port. When the Switch detects a spoofed MAC address on a subscriber port, it drops
all the packets from the MAC address.
Address MAC address learning reduces outgoing broadcast traffic. Select this to have the Switch
Learning dynamically learn MAC addresses on the port.
Limited Number Specify how many MAC addresses the Switch can dynamically learn on this port. For
of Learnt MAC example, if you set this field to "5" on port 2, then only the devices with the first five learned
Address MAC addresses can access port 2 at any one time. A sixth device would have to wait until
one of the five learned MAC addresses aged out. MAC address aging time can be set in the
Basic Setting > Switch Setup screen.
The valid range is from 0 to 16K (16384). 0 means this feature is disabled, so the switch
will learn MAC addresses up to the global limit of 16K.

19.2.1 MAC Limit: VLAN Security


Click the VLAN Security link in the Advanced Application > MAC Limit screen to display VLAN
security settings as the following screen. Use this screen to limit how many MAC addresses the
Switch can dynamically learn on individual VLANs.

Figure 118 MAC Limit: VLAN Security

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 80 MAC Limit: VLAN Security

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this to limit the number of MAC addresses the Switch can dynamically learn on
individual VLANs.

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Table 80 MAC Limit: VLAN Security (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Vlan ID This field displays available VLAN IDs configured in this Switch.
Limited Number Specify how many MAC addresses the Switch can dynamically learn on this VLAN. For
of Learned MAC example, if you set this field to "5" on VLAN 2, then only the devices with the first five
Address learned MAC addresses can access VLAN 2 at any one time. A sixth device would have to
wait until one of the five learned MAC addresses aged out. MAC address aging time can be
set in the Basic Setting > Switch Setup screen.
The valid range is from 0 to 16K (16384 bytes). 0 means this feature is disabled, so the
switch will learn MAC addresses up to the global limit of 16K.

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C HAPTER 20
Classifier

This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the packet classifier on the Switch.

20.1 About the Classifier and QoS


Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network's ability to deliver data with minimum delay, and
the networking methods used to control the use of bandwidth. Without QoS, all traffic data is
equally likely to be dropped when the network is congested. This can cause a reduction in network
performance and make the network inadequate for time-critical application such as video-on-
demand.

A classifier groups traffic into data flows according to specific criteria such as the source address,
destination address, source port number, destination port number or incoming port number. For
example, you can configure a classifier to select traffic from the same protocol port (such as Telnet)
to form a flow.

Configure QoS on the Switch to group and prioritize application traffic and fine-tune network
performance. Setting up QoS involves two separate steps:

1 Configure classifiers to sort traffic into different flows.

2 Configure policy rules to define actions to be performed on a classified traffic flow (refer to Chapter
21 on page 200 to configure policy rules).

20.2 Configuring the Classifier


Use the Classifier screen to define the classifiers. After you define the classifier, you can specify
actions (or policy) to act upon the traffic that matches the rules. To configure policy rules, refer to
Chapter 21 on page 200.

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Chapter 20 Classifier

Click Advanced Application > Classifier in the navigation panel to display the configuration
screen as shown.

Figure 119 Advanced Application > Classifier

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 81 Advanced Application > Classifier

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this option to enable this rule.
Name Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Packet Specify the format of the packet. Choices are All, 802.3 tagged, 802.3 untagged, Ethernet II
Format tagged and Ethernet II untagged.

A value of 802.3 indicates that the packets are formatted according to the IEEE 802.3 standards.

A value of Ethernet II indicates that the packets are formatted according to RFC 894, Ethernet II
encapsulation.

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Table 81 Advanced Application > Classifier (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Layer 2

Specify the fields below to configure a layer 2 classifier.


VLAN Select Any to classify traffic from any VLAN or select the second option and specify the source
VLAN ID in the field provided.
Priority Select Any to classify traffic from any priority level or select the second option and specify a
priority level in the field provided.
Ethernet Select an Ethernet type or select Other and enter the Ethernet type number in hexadecimal
Type value. Refer to Table 83 on page 198 for information.
Source
MAC Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
Address
To specify a source, select the second choice and type a MAC address in valid MAC address format
(six hexadecimal character pairs).

This field is not configurable if you set IP Type to IPv6.


Port Type the port number to which the rule should be applied. You may choose one port only or all
ports (Any).
Destination
MAC Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
Address
To specify a destination, select the second choice and type a MAC address in valid MAC address
format (six hexadecimal character pairs).

This field is not configurable if you set IP Type to IPv6.


Layer 3

Specify the fields below to configure a layer 3 classifier.


DSCP Select Any to classify traffic from any DSCP or select the second option and specify a DSCP
(DiffServ Code Point) number between 0 and 63 in the field provided.
IP Protocol Select an IP protocol type or select Other and enter the protocol number in decimal value. Refer
to Table 84 on page 198 for more information.

You may select Establish Only for TCP protocol type. This means that the Switch will pick out the
packets that are sent to establish TCP connections.

The Establish Only option is not selectable if you set IP Type to IPv6.
IP Type Select to configure an IPv4 or IPv6 address.
Source
IP Enter a source IP address in dotted decimal notation.
Address/
Address Specify the address prefix by entering the number of ones in the subnet mask.
Prefix
An IPv4 subnet mask can be represented in a 32-bit notation. For example, the subnet mask
255.255.255.0 can be represented as 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000, and
counting up the number of ones in this case results in 24.
Socket
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before you configure the socket
Number
numbers.

Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers or select the second option
and enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number. Refer to Table 85 on page 198 for more information.

Destination

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Table 81 Advanced Application > Classifier (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
IP Enter a destination IP address in dotted decimal notation.
Address/
Address Specify the address prefix by entering the number of ones in the subnet mask.
Prefix

Socket
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before you configure the socket
Number
numbers.

Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers or select the second option
and enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number. Refer to Table 85 on page 198 for more information.

Add Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the Switchs
run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the
Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields back to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.

20.3 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration


To view a summary of the classifier configuration, scroll down to the summary table at the bottom
of the Classifier screen. To change the settings of a rule, click a number in the Index field.

Note: When two rules conflict with each other, a higher layer rule has priority over lower
layer rule.

Figure 120 Advanced Application > Classifier: Summary Table

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 82 Classifier: Summary Table

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Index This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit the rule.
Active This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when it is deactivated.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purpose only.
Rule This field displays a summary of the classifier rules settings.
Delete Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.

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The following table shows some other common Ethernet types and the corresponding protocol
number.

Table 83 Common Ethernet Types and Protocol Numbers

ETHERNET TYPE PROTOCOL NUMBER


IP ETHII 0800
X.75 Internet 0801
NBS Internet 0802
ECMA Internet 0803
Chaosnet 0804
X.25 Level 3 0805
XNS Compat 0807
Banyan Systems 0BAD
BBN Simnet 5208
IBM SNA 80D5
AppleTalk AARP 80F3

In the Internet Protocol there is a field, called Protocol, to identify the next level protocol. The
following table shows some common protocol types and the corresponding protocol number. Refer
to http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers for a complete list.

Table 84 Common IP Protocol Types and Protocol Numbers

PROTOCOL TYPE PROTOCOL NUMBER


ICMP 1
TCP 6
UDP 17
EGP 8
L2TP 115

Some of the most common TCP and UDP port numbers are:

Table 85 Common TCP and UDP Port Numbers

PROTOCOL NAME TCP/UDP PORT NUMBER


FTP 21
Telnet 23
SMTP 25
DNS 53
HTTP 80
POP3 110

See Appendix A on page 397 for information on commonly used port numbers.

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20.4 Classifier Example


The following screen shows an example where you configure a classifier that identifies all traffic
from MAC address 00:50:ba:ad:4f:81 on port 2.

After you have configured a classifier, you can configure a policy (in the Policy screen) to define
action(s) on the classified traffic flow.

Figure 121 Classifier: Example

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C HAPTER 21
Policy Rule

This chapter shows you how to configure policy rules.

21.1 Policy Rules Overview


A classifier distinguishes traffic into flows based on the configured criteria (refer to Chapter 20 on
page 194 for more information). A policy rule ensures that a traffic flow gets the requested
treatment in the network.

21.1.1 DiffServ
DiffServ (Differentiated Services) is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they
receive specific per-hop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on
the application types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs)
indicating the level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network
devices to handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to
negotiate paths or remember state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have
to request a particular service or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.

21.1.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior


DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (TOS) field
in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and a 6-bit DSCP field which can define
up to 64 service levels. The following figure illustrates the DS field.

DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that non-DiffServ
compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.

DSCP (6 bits) Unused (2 bits)

The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each packet
gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule, different kinds of traffic can be
marked for different kinds of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated according to the DSCP
values and the configured policies.

21.2 Configuring Policy Rules


You must first configure a classifier in the Classifier screen. Refer to Section 20.2 on page 194 for
more information.

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Click Advanced Application > Policy Rule in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.

Figure 122 Advanced Application > Policy Rule

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 86 Advanced Application > Policy Rule

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this option to enable the policy.
Name Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Classifier(s) This field displays the active classifier(s) you configure in the Classifier screen.

Select the classifier(s) to which this policy rule applies. To select more than one classifier,
press [SHIFT] and select the choices at the same time.
Parameters

Set the fields below for this policy. You only have to set the field(s) that is related to the action(s) you
configure in the Action field.
General
VLAN ID Specify a VLAN ID number.
Egress Port Type the number of an outgoing port.
Priority Specify a priority level.
DSCP Specify a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number between 0 and 63.
TOS Specify the type of service (TOS) priority level.
Metering You can configure the desired bandwidth available to a traffic flow. Traffic that exceeds the
maximum bandwidth allocated (in cases where the network is congested) is called out-of-
profile traffic.
Bandwidth Specify the bandwidth in kilobit per second (Kbps). Enter a number between 1 and 1000000.
Out-of- Specify a new DSCP number (between 0 and 63) if you want to replace or remark the DSCP
Profile DSCP number for out-of-profile traffic.

Action

Specify the action(s) the Switch takes on the associated classified traffic flow.
Forwarding Select No change to forward the packets.

Select Discard the packet to drop the packets.

Select Do not drop the matching frame previously marked for dropping to retain the
frames that were marked to be dropped before.
Priority Select No change to keep the priority setting of the frames.

Select Set the packets 802.1 priority to replace the packets 802.1 priority field with the
value you set in the Priority field.

Select Send the packet to priority queue to put the packets in the designated queue.

Select Replace the 802.1 priority field with the IP TOS value to replace the packets
802.1 priority field with the value you set in the TOS field.
Diffserv Select No change to keep the TOS and/or DSCP fields in the packets.

Select Set the packets TOS field to set the TOS field with the value you configure in the
TOS field.

Select Replace the IP TOS with the 802.1 priority value to replace the TOS field with
the value you configure in the Priority field.

Select Set the Diffserv Codepoint field in the frame to set the DSCP field with the value
you configure in the DSCP field.

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Table 86 Advanced Application > Policy Rule (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Outgoing Select Send the packet to the mirror port to send the packet to the mirror port.

Select Send the packet to the egress port to send the packet to the egress port.

Select Set the packets VLAN ID to add a VLAN ID to the matched packet or replace the
VLAN ID of the packets with the value you configure in the VLAN ID field.
Metering Select Enable to activate bandwidth limitation on the traffic flow(s) then set the actions to
be taken on out-of-profile packets.
Out-of-profile Select the action(s) to be performed for out-of-profile traffic.
action
Select Drop the packet to discard the out-of-profile traffic.

Select Change the DSCP value to replace the DSCP field with the value specified in the Out
of profile DSCP field.

Select Set Out-Drop Precedence to mark out-of-profile traffic and drop it when network is
congested.

Select Do not drop the matching frame previously marked for dropping to queue the
frames that are marked to be dropped.
Add Click Add to inset the entry to the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power,
so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile
memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields back to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
Index This field displays the policy index number. Click an index number to edit the policy.
Active This field displays Yes when policy is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name This field displays the name you have assigned to this policy.
Classifier(s) This field displays the name(s) of the classifier to which this policy applies.
Delete Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.

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21.3 Policy Example


The figure below shows an example Policy screen where you configure a policy to limit bandwidth
and discard out-of-profile traffic on a traffic flow classified using the Example classifier (refer to
Section 20.4 on page 199).

Figure 123 Policy Example

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C HAPTER 22
Queuing Method

This chapter introduces the queuing methods supported.

22.1 Queuing Method Overview


Queuing is used to help solve performance degradation when there is network congestion. Use the
Queuing Method screen to configure queuing algorithms for outgoing traffic. See also Priority
Queue Assignment in Switch Setup and 802.1p Priority in Port Setup for related information.

Queuing algorithms allow switches to maintain separate queues for packets from each individual
source or flow and prevent a source from monopolizing the bandwidth.

22.1.1 Strictly Priority Queuing


Strictly Priority Queuing (SPQ) services queues based on priority only. As traffic comes into the
Switch, traffic on the highest priority queue, Q7 is transmitted first. When that queue empties,
traffic on the next highest-priority queue, Q6 is transmitted until Q6 empties, and then traffic is
transmitted on Q5 and so on. If higher priority queues never empty, then traffic on lower priority
queues never gets sent. SP does not automatically adapt to changing network requirements.

22.1.2 Weighted Fair Queuing


Weighted Fair Queuing is used to guarantee each queue's minimum bandwidth based on its
bandwidth weight (portion) (the number you configure in the Weight field) when there is traffic
congestion. WFQ is activated only when a port has more traffic than it can handle. Queues with
larger weights get more guaranteed bandwidth than queues with smaller weights. This queuing
mechanism is highly efficient in that it divides any available bandwidth across the different traffic
queues. By default, the weight for Q0 is 1, for Q1 is 2, for Q2 is 3, and so on. Guaranteed quantum
is calculated as Queue Weight x 2048 bytes.

22.1.3 Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR)


Round Robin Scheduling services queues on a rotating basis and is activated only when a port has
more traffic than it can handle. A queue is a given an amount of bandwidth irrespective of the
incoming traffic on that port. This queue then moves to the back of the list. The next queue is given
an equal amount of bandwidth, and then moves to the end of the list; and so on, depending on the
number of queues being used. This works in a looping fashion until a queue is empty.

Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) uses the same algorithm as round robin scheduling, but
services queues based on their priority and queue weight (the number you configure in the queue
Weight field) rather than a fixed amount of bandwidth. WRR is activated only when a port has
more traffic than it can handle. Queues with larger weights get more service than queues with

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smaller weights. This queuing mechanism is highly efficient in that it divides any available
bandwidth across the different traffic queues and returns to queues that have not yet emptied.

22.2 Configuring Queuing


Click Advanced Application > Queuing Method in the navigation panel.

Figure 124 Advanced Application > Queuing Method

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 87 Advanced Application > Queuing Method

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Method Select SPQ (Strictly Priority Queuing), WFQ (Weighted Fair Queuing) or WRR (Weighted Round
Robin).

Strictly Priority services queues based on priority only. When the highest priority queue empties,
traffic on the next highest-priority queue begins. Q7 has the highest priority and Q0 the lowest.

Weighted Fair Queuing is used to guarantee each queue's minimum bandwidth based on their
bandwidth portion (weight) (the number you configure in the Weight field). Queues with larger
weights get more guaranteed bandwidth than queues with smaller weights.

Weighted Round Robin Scheduling services queues on a rotating basis based on their queue
weight (the number you configure in the queue Weight field). Queues with larger weights get
more service than queues with smaller weights.
VDSL Port This field is applicable only when you select WFQ or WRR.
SPQ
Enable Select a queue (Q0 to Q7) to have the Switch use SPQ to service the subsequent queue(s) after
and including the specified queue for the VDSL ports. For example, if you select Q5, the Switch
services traffic on Q5, Q6 and Q7 using SPQ.

Select None to always use WFQ or WRR for the VDSL ports.
Port This label shows the port you are configuring.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Weight When you select WFQ or WRR enter the queue weight here. Bandwidth is divided across the
different traffic queues according to their weights.
GE Port This field is applicable only when you select WFQ or WRR.
SPQ
Enable Select a queue (Q0 to Q7) to have the Switch use SPQ to service the subsequent queue(s) after
and including the specified queue for the gigabit ports. For example, if you select Q5, the Switch
services traffic on Q5, Q6 and Q7 using SPQ.

Select None to always use WFQ or WRR for the gigabit ports.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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C HAPTER 23
VLAN Stacking

This chapter shows you how to configure VLAN stacking on your Switch. See the chapter on VLANs
for more background information on Virtual LAN.

23.1 VLAN Stacking Overview


A service provider can use VLAN stacking to allow it to distinguish multiple customers VLANs, even
those with the same (customer-assigned) VLAN ID, within its network.

Use VLAN stacking to add an outer VLAN tag to the inner IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames that enter the
network. By tagging the tagged frames (double-tagged frames), the service provider can manage
up to 4,094 VLAN groups with each group containing up to 4,094 customer VLANs. This allows a
service provider to provide different service, based on specific VLANs, for many different
customers.

A service providers customers may require a range of VLANs to handle multiple applications. A
service providers customers can assign their own inner VLAN tags on ports for these applications.
The service provider can assign an outer VLAN tag for each customer. Therefore, there is no VLAN
tag overlap among customers, so traffic from different customers is kept separate.

23.1.1 VLAN Stacking Example


In the following example figure, both A and B are Service Providers Network (SPN) customers with
VPN tunnels between their head offices and branch offices respectively. Both have an identical VLAN
tag for their VLAN group. The service provider can separate these two VLANs within its network by

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adding tag 37 to distinguish customer A and tag 48 to distinguish customer B at edge device 1 and
then stripping those tags at edge device 2 as the data frames leave the network.

Figure 125 VLAN Stacking Example

23.2 VLAN Stacking Port Roles


Each port can have three VLAN stacking roles, Normal, Access Port and Tunnel (the latter is for
Gigabit ports only).

Note: Some devices do not support all roles.

Select Normal for regular (non-VLAN stacking) IEEE 802.1Q frame switching.
Select Access Port for ingress ports on the service provider's edge devices (1 and 2 in the VLAN
stacking example figure). The incoming frame is treated as "untagged", so a second VLAN tag
(outer VLAN tag) can be added.

Note: Static VLAN Tx Tagging MUST be disabled on a port where you choose Normal or
Access Port.

Select Tunnel Port (available for Gigabit ports only) for egress ports at the edge of the service
provider's network. All VLANs belonging to a customer can be aggregated into a single service
provider's VLAN (using the outer VLAN tag defined by SP VID).

Note: Static VLAN Tx Tagging MUST be enabled on a port where you choose Tunnel
Port.

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23.3 VLAN Tag Format


A VLAN tag (service provider VLAN stacking or customer IEEE 802.1Q) consists of the following
three fields.

Table 88 VLAN Tag Format

TPID Priority VID

TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier) is a standard Ethernet type code identifying the frame and indicates
whether the frame carries IEEE 802.1Q tag information. The value of this field is 0x8100 as defined
in IEEE 802.1Q. Other vendors may use a different value, such as 0x9100.

Tunnel TPID is the VLAN stacking tag type the Switch adds to the outgoing frames sent through a
Tunnel Port of the service provider's edge devices (1 and 2 in the VLAN stacking example figure).

Priority refers to the IEEE 802.1p standard that allows the service provider to prioritize traffic
based on the class of service (CoS) the customer has paid for.

On the Switch, configure priority level of inner IEEE 802.1Q tag in the Port Setup screen.
"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.

VID is the VLAN ID. SP VID is the VID for the second (service providers) VLAN tag.

23.3.1 Frame Format


The frame format for an untagged Ethernet frame, a single-tagged 802.1Q frame (customer) and a
double-tagged 802.1Q frame (service provider) is shown next.

Configure the fields as highlighted in the Switch VLAN Stacking screen.

Table 89 Single and Double Tagged 802.11Q Frame Format

DA SA Len/Etype Data FCS Untagged


Ethernet frame
DA SA TPID Priority VID Len/Etype Data FCS IEEE 802.1Q
customer
tagged frame
DA SA Tunnel Priorit VID TPID Priority VID Len/Etype Data FCS Double-tagged
TPID y frame

Table 90 802.1Q Frame

DA Destination Address Priority 802.1p Priority


SA Source Address Len/Etype Length and type of Ethernet frame
Tunnel TPID Tag Protocol IDentifier added on a tunnel port Data Frame data
VID VLAN ID FCS Frame Check Sequence

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23.4 Configuring VLAN Stacking


Click Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking to display the screen as shown.

Note: You can not enable VLAN mapping and VLAN stacking at the same time.

Figure 126 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 91 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this to enable VLAN stacking on the Switch.
Port The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.

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Table 91 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Role Select Normal to have the Switch ignore frames received (or transmitted) on this port with VLAN
stacking tags. Anything you configure in SPVID and Priority of the Port-based QinQ or the
Selective QinQ screen are ignored.

Select Access Port for ingress ports at the edge of the service provider's network.

Select Tunnel Port (available for Gigabit ports only) for egress ports at the edge of the service
provider's network. Select Tunnel Port to have the Switch add the Tunnel TPID tag to all
outgoing frames sent on this port.

In order to support VLAN stacking on a port, the port must be able to allow frames of 1526 Bytes
(1522 Bytes + 4 Bytes for the second tag) to pass through it.
Tunnel TPID is a standard Ethernet type code identifying the frame and indicates whether the frame
TPID carries IEEE 802.1Q tag information. Enter a four-digit hexadecimal number from 0000 to FFFF
that the Switch adds in the outer VLAN tag of the frames sent on the tunnel port(s). The Switch
also uses this to check if the received frames are double-tagged.

The value of this field is 0x8100 as defined in IEEE 802.1Q. If the Switch needs to communicate
with other vendors devices, they should use the same TPID.

Note: You can define up to four different tunnel TPIDs (including 8100) in this screen at a time.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

23.4.1 Port-based Q-in-Q


Port-based Q-in-Q lets the Switch treat all frames received on the same port as the same VLAN
flows and add the same outer VLAN tag to them, even they have different customer VLAN IDs.

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Click Port-based QinQ in the Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking screen to display the
screen as shown.

Figure 127 VLAN Stacking > Port-based QinQ

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 92 VLAN Stacking > Port-based QinQ

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
SPVID SPVID is the service providers VLAN ID (the outer VLAN tag). Enter the service provider ID (from
1 to 4094) for frames received on this port. See Chapter 10 on page 129 for more background
information on VLAN ID.
Copy Select the checkbox to set the priority in the service provider (outer) VLAN tag to be the same as
Ctag the priority in the customer (inner) VLAN tag for the frames received on this port.
Priority
Priority Select a priority level (from 0 to 7). This is the service providers priority level that adds to the
frames received on this port. This field is not applicable if the Copy Ctag Priority checkbox is
selected.

"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.


Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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23.4.2 Selective Q-in-Q


Selective Q-in-Q is VLAN-based. It allows the Switch to add different outer VLAN tags to the
incoming frames received on one port according to their inner VLAN tags.

Note: Selective Q-in-Q rules are only applied to single-tagged frames received on the
access ports. If the incoming frames are untagged or single-tagged but received on
a tunnel port or cannot match any selective Q-in-Q rules, the Switch applies the
port-based Q-in-Q rules to them.

Click Selective QinQ in the Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking screen to display the
screen as shown.

Figure 128 VLAN Stacking > Selective QinQ

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 93 VLAN Stacking > Selective QinQ

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Check this box to activate this rule.
Name Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Port The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
CVID Enter a customer VLAN ID (the inner VLAN tag) from 1 to 4094. This is the VLAN tag carried in the
packets from the subscribers.
SPVID SPVID is the service providers VLAN ID (the outer VLAN tag). Enter the service provider ID (from
1 to 4094) for frames received on this port. See Chapter 10 on page 129 for more background
information on VLAN ID.
Priority Select the Active checkbox and a priority level (from 0 to 7). This is the service providers priority
level that adds to the frames received on this port. If you clear the Active checkbox, the SPVID
priority will be 0.

"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.


Add Click Add to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index This is the number of the selective VLAN stacking rule.

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Table 93 VLAN Stacking > Selective QinQ (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active This shows whether this rule is activated or not.
Name This is the descriptive name for this rule.
Port This is the port number to which this rule is applied.
CVID This is the customer VLAN ID in the incoming packets.
SPVID This is the service providers VLAN ID that adds to the packets from the subscribers.
Priority This is the service providers priority level in the packets.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
Paging Select Prev or Next to show the previous/next screen or select a page number from the drop-
down list box to display a specific page if all entries cannot be seen in one screen.

23.4.3 Port-based InnerQ


Port-based InnerQ allows you to add a customer VLAN (the inner tag) tag to untagged incoming
frames before adding the service providers VLAN tag (the outer tag) and forwarding them out. This
feature is not applicable on a tunnel port.

Click Port-based InnerQ in the Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking screen to display the
screen as shown.

Figure 129 VLAN Stacking > Port-based InnerQ

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 94 VLAN Stacking > Port-based InnerQ

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active Check this box to activate this rule.
CPVID CPVID is the customer port VLAN ID (the inner VLAN tag). Enter the customer VLAN ID (from 1 to
4094) for frames received on this port. See Chapter 10 on page 129 for more background
information on VLAN ID.
Priority Select a priority level (from 0 to 7). This is the priority level in the customer VLAN tag that adds to
the frames received on this port.

"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.


Remove Select the check box to remove the customer VLAN tag from outgoing traffic on this port.
InnerQ
This feature is not applicable on a tunnel port.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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C HAPTER 24
Multicast

This chapter shows you how to configure various multicast features.

24.1 Multicast Overview


Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender to 1 recipient)
or Broadcast (1 sender to everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to just a group
of hosts on the network.

IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish


membership in a multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. Refer to RFC 1112, RFC 2236
and RFC 3376 for information on IGMP versions 1, 2 and 3 respectively.

24.1.1 IP Multicast Addresses


In IPv4, a multicast address allows a device to send packets to a specific group of hosts (multicast
group) in a different subnetwork. A multicast IP address represents a traffic receiving group, not
individual receiving devices. IP addresses in the Class D range (224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255) are
used for IP multicasting. Certain IP multicast numbers are reserved by IANA for special purposes
(see the IANA web site for more information).

24.1.2 IGMP Filtering


With the IGMP filtering feature, you can control which IGMP groups a subscriber on a port can join.
This allows you to control the distribution of multicast services (such as content information
distribution) based on service plans and types of subscription.

You can set the Switch to filter the multicast group join reports on a per-port basis by configuring
an IGMP filtering profile and associating the profile to a port.

24.1.3 IGMP Snooping


A Switch can passively snoop on IGMP packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches
and IP multicast hosts to learn the IP multicast group membership. It checks IGMP packets passing
through it, picks out the group registration information, and configures multicasting accordingly.
IGMP snooping allows the Switch to learn multicast groups without you having to manually
configure them.

The Switch forwards multicast traffic destined for multicast groups (that it has learned from IGMP
snooping or that you have manually configured) to ports that are members of that group. IGMP
snooping generates no additional network traffic, allowing you to significantly reduce multicast
traffic passing through your Switch.

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24.1.4 IGMP Snooping and VLANs


The Switch can perform IGMP snooping on up to 16 VLANs. You can configure the Switch to
automatically learn multicast group membership of any VLANs. The Switch then performs IGMP
snooping on the first 16 VLANs that send IGMP packets. This is referred to as auto mode.
Alternatively, you can specify the VLANs that IGMP snooping should be performed on. This is
referred to as fixed mode. In fixed mode the Switch does not learn multicast group membership of
any VLANs other than those explicitly added as an IGMP snooping VLAN.

24.1.5 IGMP Proxy


IGMP proxy enables a layer-2 switch to maintain a joined member list for each IGMP group on the
switch. This switch automatically and periodically sends queries to the VDSL ports to get the
subscribing information and response the upper layer routers query for the member list. In
addition, it enables the switch not to report the leave request sent from one subscriber to upper
layer router if there are still other subscriber(s) in the same IGMP group. It also allows the switch
not to report the join request sent from one subscriber to upper layer router if any subscriber is still
in the same IGMP group. In other words, an IGMP proxy switch only forward the first join request
and the last leave request in an IGMP network to its upper layer router. It can reduce multicast
traffic significantly.

Note: Note: You must set one of Gigabit Ethernet ports to Fixed mode before enabling
IGMP proxy.

24.1.6 Multicast Listener Discovery


The Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) protocol (defined in RFC 2710) is derived from IPv4's
Internet Group Management Protocol version 2 (IGMPv2). MLD uses ICMPv6 message types, rather
than IGMP message types. MLDv1 is equivalent to IGMPv2 and MLDv2 is equivalent to IGMPv3.

MLD allows an IPv6 switch or router to discover the presence of MLD hosts who wish to receive
multicast packets and the IP addresses of multicast groups the hosts want to join on its network.

MLD snooping and MLD proxy are analogous to IGMP snooping and IGMP proxy in IPv4.

MLD filtering controls which multicast groups a port can join.

24.1.7 MLD Messages


A multicast router or switch periodically sends general queries to MLD hosts to update the multicast
forwarding table. When an MLD host wants to join a multicast group, it sends an MLD Report
message for that address.

An MLD Done message is equivalent to an IGMP Leave message. When an MLD host wants to leave
a multicast group, it can send a Done message to the router or switch. If the leave mode is not set
to immediate, the router or switch sends a group-specific query to the port on which the Done
message is received to determine if other devices connected to this port should remain in the
group.

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24.2 Multicast Status


Click Advanced Application > Multicast to display the screen as shown. This screen shows the
multicast group information. See Section 24.1 on page 217 for more information on multicasting.

Figure 130 Advanced Application > Multicast Status

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 95 Advanced Application > Multicast Status

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port This column displays the numbers of the ports belonging to a multicast group and the
ports bonding group ID if it is a member of one. A star (*) displays if the port is the main
port in the bonding group.
Total This field displays to how many multicast groups this port belongs. In the IPTV application,
a multicast group represents a TV channel. This field shows how many TV channels have
been subscribed to on this port.
VID This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Multicast Group This field displays the multicast group source address and source filtering mode. In IPTV,
(Filter Mode) the multicast group source address means the address of a media server which provides
Source Address media content.

IGMPv3 and MLDv2 supports multicast source filtering.

In INCLUDE mode, the client listens to the specified sources only.

In EXCLUDE mode, the client listens to all sources other than the specified address.

When the Switch receives a multicast packet destined to a configured multicast group and
the packets source address is in the INCLUDE list or not in the EXCLUDE list, the Switch
forwards the packets to the clients that join this group.
Client IP This field displays an IP address which is a member in this multicast group. In IPTV, this
means the IP address of a set-top box connected to this port.

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Table 95 Advanced Application > Multicast Status (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Up Time This field displays how long (in hh:mm:ss format) this port has been a member of the
multicast group since the last time it joined. In IPTV, this means how long a user has been
watching this channel.
Multicast Group Member
VID This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Total This field displays how many ports in this VLAN.
Multicast Group This field displays the IP multicast group addresses in this VLAN.
Number This field displays how many ports belong to this multicast group.
Member This field displays the port number(s) that belong to the multicast group. The port's bonding
group ID also displays in brackets if the port has joined one.
Clear IGMP Counter
Any Select this, select Port or Vlan from the drop-down list box and then click Clear Counter
to have the Switch clear IGMP counters for all ports or for all VLANs.
Port Select this, select a port number from the drop-down list box and then click Clear
Counter to have the Switch clear IGMP counters for the port.
IGMP Per Port Receive Counter

This section displays incoming multicast traffic statistics per port.


Port This field displays a port number and the ports bonding group ID if it has joined one. A
star (*) displays if the port is the main port in the bonding group.
Report In This column displays how many V1, V2, and V3 multicast join messages and multicast
Leave messages the port has received since the last start up or clearing of the IGMP
counters. V1, V2, and V3 means IGMP versions 1, 2 and 3.
Query In This column displays how many V1, V2, and V3 multicast queries the port has received.
Dropped By This column displays the number of multicast queries this port has dropped due to the
following reasons:

Rate: the receiving rate exceeds the configured rate limit setting. You can configure the
limit setting for the port in the Basic Setting > Port Setup and Basic Setting > Rate
Limit Profile Setup screen.

Others: packets are dropped due to reasons other than the previous one.
IGMP Per Port Specific Counter

This section displays multicast traffic statistics per port.


Port This field displays a port number and the ports bonding group ID if it has joined one. A
star (*) displays if the port is the main port in the bonding group.
Total GroupNum This field displays the total number of multicast groups this port has learned since the last
start up or clearing of the IGMP counters.
Join This field displays the number of multicast groups in Join messages this port has received.
Leave This field displays the number of multicast groups in Leave messages this port has
received.

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Table 95 Advanced Application > Multicast Status (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Dropped By This column displays the number of multicast queries this port has dropped due to the
following reasons:

MaxGroup: the number of multicast groups the port has joined exceeds the per-port Max
Group Limit configured in the Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting
screen.

Filter: the port is not allowed to join a multicast group in a multicast join message this
port received. You can configure the filtering list in the Advanced Application >
Multicast > Multicast Setting and Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering
Profile screens.

MVR: this port is not configured as a receiver port in the MVR multicast VLAN. You can
configure the MVR settings in the Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast
Setting > MVR screen.

Others: reasons other than the ones described above, such as the Switch has insufficient
memory.
IGMP Per Port Transmit Counter

This section displays outgoing multicast traffic statistics per port.


Port This field displays a port number and the ports bonding group ID if it has joined one. A
star (*) displays if the port is the main port in the bonding group.
Report Out This column displays how many V1, V2, and V3 multicast join messages and multicast
Leave messages the port has transmitted. V1, V2, and V3 means IGMP versions 1, 2 and
3.
Query Out This column displays how many valid V1, V2, and V3 multicast queries the port has
transmitted.
IGMP Per VLAN Receive Counter

This section displays incoming multicast traffic statistics per VLAN network.
VID This field displays a multicast VLAN ID.
Report In This column displays how many V1, V2, and V3 multicast join messages and multicast
Leave messages this VLAN network has received. V1, V2, and V3 means IGMP versions
1, 2 and 3.
Query In This column displays how many valid V1, V2, and V3 multicast queries this VLAN network
has received.
Dropped By This column displays how many multicast queries that have been dropped in this VLAN
due to the following reasons:

Rate: the receiving rate of the ports in this VLAN exceeds the configured rate limits. You
can configure the limit settings in the Basic Setting > Port Setup and Basic Setting >
Rate Limit Profile Setup screens.

Others: reasons other than the previous one.


IGMP Per VLAN Specific Counter

This section displays multicast traffic statistics per VLAN network.


Total GroupNum This field displays the total number of multicast groups this VLAN network has learned
since the last start up or clearing of the IGMP counters.

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Table 95 Advanced Application > Multicast Status (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Dropped By This column displays how many multicast queries that have been dropped in this VLAN
due to the following reasons:

MaxGroup: the number of multicast groups the ports in this VLAN have joined exceeds
the per-port Max Group Limit configured in the Advanced Application > Multicast >
Multicast Setting screen.

Filter: the VLAN is not allowed to join a multicast group in a multicast join message the
ports in this VLAN received. You can configure the filtering list in the Advanced
Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting and Multicast > Multicast Setting >
IGMP Filtering Profile screens.

MVR: the receiving ports in this VLAN are not the receiver ports in the MVR multicast
VLANs. You can configure the MVR settings in the Advanced Application > Multicast >
Multicast Setting > MVR screen.

Others: reasons other than the ones described above, such as the Switch has insufficient
memory.
IGMP Per VLAN Transmit Counter

This section displays outgoing multicast traffic statistics per VLAN network.
Report Out This column displays how many V1, V2, and V3 multicast join messages and multicast
Leave messages sent on a VLAN network. V1, V2, and V3 means IGMP versions 1, 2 and
3.
Query Out This column displays how many valid V1, V2, and V3 multicast queries sent on a VLAN
network.
IGMP Per Port Querier Source IP
Index The index number of an entry in this table.
Port The number of a port which has received multicast queries.
VID The VLAN ID to which the received multicast queries belong.
Querier Source IP The IP address of the device which sent the multicast queries.

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24.3 Multicast Setting


Click Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting link to display the screen as
shown. See Section 24.1 on page 217 for more information on multicasting.

Figure 131 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 96 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting

LABEL DESCRIPTION
IGMP Action Use these settings to configure multicast group membership discovery.
Active Select None to disable multicast group membership discovery on the Switch.

Select Snooping to enable IGMP/MLD snooping to forward group multicast traffic only to
ports that are members of that group.

Select Proxy to enable IGMP/MLD proxy to decrease subscriber's join/leave messages


forwarding in a group.
Enable MLD Enables Multicast Listener Discovery version one (MLD v1) and version two (MLD v2) on
the Switch. See Section 24.1.6 on page 218 for information about MLD.
Host Timeout Specify the time (from 1 to 16,711,450) in seconds that elapses before the Switch
removes an IGMP group membership entry if it does not receive report messages from the
port.
Leave Timeout Enter an IGMP leave timeout value (from 1 to 16,711,450) in seconds. This defines how
many seconds the Switch waits for an IGMP report before removing an IGMP snooping
membership entry when an IGMP leave message is received from a host.
802.1p Priority Select a priority level (0-7) to which the Switch changes the priority in outgoing IGMP
control packets. Otherwise, select No-Change to not replace the priority.

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Table 96 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
IGMP Filtering Select Active to enable IGMP filtering to control which IGMP groups a subscriber on a port
can join.

Note: If you enable IGMP filtering, you must create and assign IGMP filtering profiles for the
ports that you want to allow to join multicast groups.
Proxy Select MGMDv3 Mode to enable Multicast Group Membership Discovery version three
(MGMDv3) and have the Switch send IGMPv3 or MLDv2 queries instead of IGMPv2 or
MLDv1 queries.

MGMDv2 indicates IGMPv2 in IPv4 networks and MLDv1 in IPv6 networks. MGMDv3
indicates IGMPv3 in IPv4 networks and MLDv2 in IPv6 networks.

Note: MGMDv3 only applies in IGMP proxy mode.


Unknown Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives an unknown multicast frame.
Multicast Frame Select Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send the frame(s) to all ports.
Reserved Multicast Multicast addresses (224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255) are reserved for the local scope. For
Group examples, 224.0.0.1 is for all hosts in this subnet, 224.0.0.2 is for all multicast routers in
this subnet, etc. A router will not forward a packet with the destination IP address within
this range. See the IANA web site for more information.

Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives a frame with a reserved multicast
address. Select Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send the frame(s) to all
ports.
Port This field displays the port number.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Immed. Leave Select this option to set the Switch to remove this port from the multicast tree when an
IGMP version 2 leave message is received on this port.

Select this option if there is only one host connected to this port.
Max Group Num. Select Enable and enter a number (0~255) to limit the number of multicast groups this
port is allowed to join. Once a port is registered in the specified number of multicast
groups, any new IGMP join report frame(s) is dropped on this port.
IGMP Msg Limit Select Enable and enter a number (0~255) to limit the number of multicast frames this
port is allowed to flow though. New multicast frames are dropped once more than the
specified number of multicast frames flow into a port at one time.
IGMP Filtering Select the name of the IGMP filtering profile to use for this port. Otherwise, select Default
Profile to prohibit the port from joining any multicast group.

You can create IGMP filtering profiles in the Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP
Filtering Profile screen.
IGMP Querier The Switch treats an IGMP query port as being connected to an IGMP multicast router (or
Mode server). The Switch forwards IGMP join or leave packets to an IGMP query port.

Select Auto to have the Switch use the port as an IGMP query port if the port receives
IGMP query packets.

Select Fixed to have the Switch always use the port as an IGMP query port. Select this
when you connect an IGMP multicast server to the port.

Select Edge to stop the Switch from using the port as an IGMP query port. The Switch will
not keep any record of an IGMP router being connected to this port. The Switch does not
forward IGMP join or leave packets to this port.

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Table 96 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

24.4 IGMP Snooping VLAN


Click Advanced Application > Multicast in the navigation panel. Click the Multicast Setting link
and then the IGMP Snooping VLAN link to display the screen as shown. See Section 24.1.4 on
page 218 for more information on IGMP Snooping VLAN.

Figure 132 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Snooping VLAN

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 97 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Snooping VLAN

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Mode Select auto to have the Switch learn multicast group membership information of any VLANs
automatically.

Select fixed to have the Switch only learn multicast group membership information of the VLAN(s)
that you specify below.

In either auto or fixed mode, the Switch can learn up to 16 VLANs (including up to three VLANs you
configured in the MVR screen). For example, if you have configured one multicast VLAN in the MVR
screen, you can only specify up to 15 VLANs in this screen.

The Switch drops any IGMP control messages which do not belong to these 16 VLANs.

Note: You must also enable IGMP snooping in the Multicast Setting screen first.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.

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Table 97 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Snooping VLAN (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VLAN Use this section of the screen to add VLANs upon which the Switch is to perform IGMP snooping.
Name Enter the descriptive name of the VLAN for identification purposes.
VID Enter the ID of a static VLAN; the valid range is between 1 and 4094.

Note: You cannot configure the same VLAN ID as in the MVR screen.
Add Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the Switchs run-
time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link
on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click this to clear the fields.
Index This is the number of the IGMP snooping VLAN entry in the table.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for this VLAN group.
VID This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.

24.5 IGMP Filtering Profile


An IGMP filtering profile specifies a range of multicast groups that clients connected to the Switch
are able to join. A profile contains a range of multicast IP addresses which you want clients to be
able to join. Profiles are assigned to ports (in the Multicast Setting screen). Clients connected to
those ports are then able to join the multicast groups specified in the profile. Each port can be
assigned a single profile. A profile can be assigned to multiple ports.

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Click Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile link to
display the screen as shown.

Figure 133 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 98 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Profile Name Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes.

To configure additional rule(s) for a profile that you have already added, enter the profile
name and specify a different IP multicast address range.
Start Address Type the starting multicast IPv4 or IPv6 address for a range of multicast IP addresses that
you want to belong to the IGMP filter profile.
End Address Type the ending multicast IPv4 or IPv6 address for a range of IP addresses that you want
to belong to the IGMP filter profile.

If you want to add a single multicast IP address, enter it in both the Start Address and
End Address fields.
Add Click Add to save the profile to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Clear Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Profile Name This field displays the descriptive name of the profile.
Start Address This field displays the start of the multicast address range.
End Address This field displays the end of the multicast address range.
Delete To delete the profile(s) and all the accompanying rules, select the profile(s) that you want
to remove in the Delete Profile column, then click the Delete button.

To delete a rule(s) from a profile, select the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete
Rule column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete Profile/Delete Rule check boxes.

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24.6 MVR Overview


Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) is designed for applications (such as Media-on-Demand (MoD))
that use multicast traffic across an Ethernet ring-based service provider network.

MVR allows one single multicast VLAN to be shared among different subscriber VLANs on the
network. While isolated in different subscriber VLANs, connected devices can subscribe to and
unsubscribe from the multicast stream in the multicast VLAN. This improves bandwidth utilization
with reduced multicast traffic in the subscriber VLANs and simplifies multicast group management.

MVR only responds to IGMP join and leave control messages from multicast groups that are
configured under MVR. Join and leave reports from other multicast groups are managed by IGMP
snooping.

The following figure shows a network example. The subscriber VLAN (1, 2 and 3) information is
hidden from the streaming media server, S. In addition, the multicast VLAN information is only
visible to the Switch and S.

Figure 134 MVR Network Example


VLAN 1
Multicast VLAN

VLAN 2 S

VLAN 3

24.6.1 Types of MVR Ports


In MVR, a source port is a port on the Switch that can send and receive multicast traffic in a
multicast VLAN while a receiver port can only receive multicast traffic. Once configured, the Switch
maintains a forwarding table that matches the multicast stream to the associated multicast group.

24.6.2 MVR Modes


You can set your Switch to operate in either dynamic or compatible mode.

In dynamic mode, the Switch sends IGMP leave and join reports to the other multicast devices
(such as multicast routers or servers) in the multicast VLAN. This allows the multicast devices to
update the multicast forwarding table to forward or not forward multicast traffic to the receiver
ports.

In compatible mode, the Switch does not send any IGMP reports. In this case, you must manually
configure the forwarding settings on the multicast devices in the multicast VLAN.

24.6.3 How MVR Works


The following figure shows a multicast television example where a subscriber device (such as a
computer) in VLAN 1 receives multicast traffic from the streaming media server, S, via the Switch.
Multiple subscriber devices can connect through a port configured as the receiver on the Switch.

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When the subscriber selects a television channel, computer A sends an IGMP report to the Switch
to join the appropriate multicast group. If the IGMP report matches one of the configured MVR
multicast group addresses on the Switch, an entry is created in the forwarding table on the Switch.
This maps the subscriber VLAN to the list of forwarding destinations for the specified multicast
traffic.

When the subscriber changes the channel or turns off the computer, an IGMP leave message is sent
to the Switch to leave the multicast group. The Switch sends a query to VLAN 1 on the receiver port
(in this case, a DSL port on the Switch). If there is another subscriber device connected to this port
in the same subscriber VLAN, the receiving port will still be on the list of forwarding destination for
the multicast traffic. Otherwise, the Switch removes the receiver port from the forwarding table.

Figure 135 MVR Multicast Television Example


VLAN 1
Multicast VLAN

S
A

24.7 General MVR Configuration


Use the MVR screen to create multicast VLANs and select the receiver port(s) and a source port for
each multicast VLAN. Click Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR link
to display the screen as shown next.

Note: You can create up to three multicast VLANs and up to 256 multicast rules on the
Switch.

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Note: Your Switch automatically creates a static VLAN (with the same VID) when you
create a multicast VLAN in this screen.

Figure 136 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR

The following table describes the related labels in this screen.

Table 99 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Behavior Select Snooping to use the IGMP/MLD snooping mechanism for multicast VLAN traffic in
this MVR network. IGMP/MLD snooping enables the Switch to handle multicast traffic more
efficiently and effectively.

Select Proxy to use the IGMP/MLD proxy mechanism for multicast VLAN traffic in this MVR
network. Select this to have the Switch reduce multicast traffic by sending IGMP/MLD host
messages to a multicast router or server on behalf of all multicast hosts connected to the
Switch.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Active Select this check box to enable MVR to allow one single multicast VLAN to be shared among
different subscriber VLANs on the network.
Name Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Multicast VLAN Enter the VLAN ID (1 to 4094) of the multicast VLAN.
ID
802.1p Priority Select a priority level (0-7) with which the Switch replaces the priority in outgoing IGMP
control packets (belonging to this multicast VLAN).

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Table 99 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Mode Specify the MVR mode on the Switch. Choices are Dynamic and Compatible.

Select Dynamic to send IGMP reports to all MVR source ports in the multicast VLAN.

Select Compatible to set the Switch not to send IGMP reports.


Port This field displays the port number on the Switch.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Source Port Select this option to set this port as the MVR source port that sends and receives multicast
traffic. All source ports must belong to a single multicast VLAN.
Receiver Port Select this option to set this port as a receiver port that only receives multicast traffic.
None Select this option to set the port not to participate in MVR. No MVR multicast traffic is sent
or received on this port.
Tagging Select this checkbox if you want the port to tag the VLAN ID in all outgoing frames
transmitted.
Add Click Add to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VLAN This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Active This field displays whether the multicast group is enabled or not.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Mode This field displays the MVR mode.
Source Port This field displays the source port number(s).
Receiver Port This field displays the receiver port number(s).
802.1p This field displays the priority level.
Delete To delete a multicast VLAN(s), select the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete
column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.

24.8 MVR Group Configuration


All source ports and receiver ports belonging to a multicast group can receive multicast data sent to
this multicast group.

Configure MVR IP multicast group address(es) in the Group Configuration screen. Click Group
Configuration in the MVR screen.

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Note: A port can belong to more than one multicast VLAN. However, IP multicast group
addresses in different multicast VLANs cannot overlap.

Figure 137 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR: Group Configuration

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 100 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR: Group Configuration

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Multicast VLAN Select a multicast VLAN ID (that you configured in the MVR screen) from the drop-down list
ID box.
Name Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Start Address Enter the starting IPv4 or IPv6 multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal
notation.

Refer to Section 24.1.1 on page 217 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
End Address Enter the ending IPv4 or IPv6 multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal
notation.

Enter the same IP address as the Start Address field if you want to configure only one IP
address for a multicast group.

Refer to Section 24.1.1 on page 217 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
Add Click Add to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
MVLAN This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Start Address This field displays the starting IP address of the multicast group.
End Address This field displays the ending IP address of the multicast group.
Delete Select Delete Group and click Delete to remove the selected entry(ies) from the table.

Select Delete All next to a multicast VLAN ID and click Delete to remove all multicast groups
for that multicast VLAN from the table.
Cancel Select Cancel to clear the checkbox(es) in the table.

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24.8.1 MVR Configuration Example


The following figure shows a network example where ports 1, 2 and 3 on the Switch belong to VLAN
1. In addition, port 7 belongs to the multicast group with VID 200 to receive multicast traffic (the
News and Movie channels) from the remote streaming media server, S. Computers A, B and C in
VLAN are able to receive the traffic.

Figure 138 MVR Configuration Example


VLAN 1 News: 224.1.4.10 ~ 224.1.4.50
Movie: 230.1.2.50 ~ 230.1.2.60
Multicast VLAN 200

1
A B 2 7
S
3

To configure the MVR settings on the Switch, create a multicast group in the MVR screen and set
the receiver and source ports.

Figure 139 MVR Configuration Example

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To set the Switch to forward the multicast group traffic to the subscribers, configure multicast group
settings in the Group Configuration screen. The following figure shows an example where two
multicast groups (News and Movie) are configured for the multicast VLAN 200.

Figure 140 MVR Group Configuration Example

Figure 141 MVR Group Configuration Example

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C HAPTER 25
Authentication and Accounting

This chapter describes how to configure authentication and accounting settings on the Switch.

25.1 Authentication, Authorization and Accounting


Authentication is the process of determining who a user is and validating access to the Switch. The
Switch can authenticate users who try to log in based on user accounts configured on the Switch
itself. The Switch can also use an external authentication server to authenticate a large number of
users

Authorization is the process of determining what a user is allowed to do. Different user accounts
may have higher or lower privilege levels associated with them. For example, user A may have the
right to create new login accounts on the Switch but user B cannot. The Switch can authorize users
based on user accounts configured on the Switch itself or it can use an external server to authorize
a large number of users.

Accounting is the process of recording what a user is doing. The Switch can use an external server
to track when users log in, log out, execute commands and so on. Accounting can also record
system related actions such as boot up and shut down times of the Switch.

The external servers that perform authentication, authorization and accounting functions are known
as AAA servers. The Switch supports RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service, see
Section 25.1.2 on page 237) and TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System
Plus, see Section 25.1.2 on page 237) as external authentication, authorization and accounting
servers.

Figure 142 AAA Server

Client Auth Server

25.1.1 Local User Accounts


By storing user profiles locally on the Switch, your Switch is able to authenticate and authorize
users without interacting with a network authentication server. However, there is a limit on the
number of users you may authenticate in this way (See Chapter 36 on page 327).

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25.1.2 RADIUS and TACACS+


RADIUS and TACACS+ are security protocols used to authenticate users by means of an external
server instead of (or in addition to) an internal device user database that is limited to the memory
capacity of the device. In essence, RADIUS and TACACS+ authentication both allow you to validate
an unlimited number of users from a central location.

The following table describes some key differences between RADIUS and TACACS+.

Table 101 RADIUS vs. TACACS+

RADIUS TACACS+
Transport Protocol UDP (User Datagram Protocol) TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
Encryption Encrypts the password sent for All communication between the client (the
authentication. Switch) and the TACACS server is encrypted.

25.2 Authentication and Accounting Screens


To enable authentication on the Switch. First, configure your authentication server settings
(RADIUS, TACACS+ or both) and then set up the authentication priority and accounting settings.

Click Advanced Application > Auth and Acct in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.

Figure 143 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct

25.2.1 RADIUS Server Setup


Use this screen to configure your RADIUS server settings. See Section 25.1.2 on page 237 for more
information on RADIUS servers and Section 25.3 on page 245 for RADIUS attributes utilized by the

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authentication and accounting feature on the Switch. Click on the RADIUS Server Setup link in
the Auth and Acct screen to view the screen as shown.

Figure 144 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > RADIUS Server Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 102 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > RADIUS Server Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Authentication Use this section to configure your RADIUS authentication settings.
Server
Mode This field is only valid if you configure multiple RADIUS servers.

Select index-priority and the Switch tries to authenticate with the first configured RADIUS
server, if the RADIUS server does not respond then the Switch tries to authenticate with
the second RADIUS server.

Select round-robin to alternate between the RADIUS servers that it sends authentication
requests to.
Timeout Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an authentication request
response from the RADIUS server.

If you are using index-priority for your authentication and you are using two RADIUS
servers then the timeout value is divided between the two RADIUS servers. For example, if
you set the timeout value to 30 seconds, then the Switch waits for a response from the first
RADIUS server for 15 seconds and then tries the second RADIUS server.
Index This is a read-only number representing a RADIUS server entry.
IP Address Enter the IPv4 or IPv6 address of an external RADIUS server in dotted decimal notation.
UDP Port The default port of a RADIUS server for authentication is 1812. You need not change this
value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.

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Table 102 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > RADIUS Server Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Shared Secret Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between
the external RADIUS server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network. This key
must be the same on the external RADIUS server and the Switch.
Delete Check this box if you want to remove an existing RADIUS server entry from the Switch.
This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Accounting Use this section to configure your RADIUS accounting server settings.
Server
Timeout Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an accounting request
response from the RADIUS accounting server.
Index This is a read-only number representing a RADIUS accounting server entry.
IP Address Enter the IPv4 or IPv6 address of an external RADIUS accounting server in dotted decimal
notation.
UDP Port The default port of a RADIUS server for accounting is 1813. You need not change this
value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between
the external RADIUS accounting server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the
network. This key must be the same on the external RADIUS accounting server and the
Switch.
Delete Check this box if you want to remove an existing RADIUS accounting server entry from the
Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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25.2.2 TACACS+ Server Setup


Use this screen to configure your TACACS+ server settings. See Section 25.1.2 on page 237 for
more information on TACACS+ servers. Click on the TACACS+ Server Setup link in the Auth and
Acct screen to view the screen as shown.

Figure 145 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > TACACS+ Server Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 103 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > TACACS+ Server Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Authentication Use this section to configure your TACACS+ authentication settings.
Server
Mode This field is only valid if you configure multiple TACACS+ servers.

Select index-priority and the Switch tries to authenticate with the first configured
TACACS+ server, if the TACACS+ server does not respond then the Switch tries to
authenticate with the second TACACS+ server.

Select round-robin to alternate between the TACACS+ servers that it sends


authentication requests to.
Timeout Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an authentication request
response from the TACACS+ server.

If you are using index-priority for your authentication and you are using two TACACS+
servers then the timeout value is divided between the two TACACS+ servers. For example,
if you set the timeout value to 30 seconds, then the Switch waits for a response from the
first TACACS+ server for 15 seconds and then tries the second TACACS+ server.
Index This is a read-only number representing a TACACS+ server entry.
IP Address Enter the IPv4 or IPv6 address of an external TACACS+ server in dotted decimal notation.
TCP Port The default port of a TACACS+ server for authentication is 49. You need not change this
value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.

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Table 103 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > TACACS+ Server Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Shared Secret Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between
the external TACACS+ server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network. This
key must be the same on the external TACACS+ server and the Switch.
Delete Check this box if you want to remove an existing TACACS+ server entry from the Switch.
This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Accounting Use this section to configure your TACACS+ accounting settings.
Server
Timeout Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an accounting request
response from the TACACS+ server.
Index This is a read-only number representing a TACACS+ accounting server entry.
IP Address Enter the IPv4 or IPv6 address of an external TACACS+ accounting server in dotted
decimal notation.
TCP Port The default port of a TACACS+ server for accounting is 49. You need not change this value
unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between
the external TACACS+ accounting server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the
network. This key must be the same on the external TACACS+ accounting server and the
Switch.
Delete Check this box if you want to remove an existing TACACS+ accounting server entry from
the Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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25.2.3 Authentication and Accounting Setup


Use this screen to configure authentication and accounting settings on the Switch. Click on the
Auth and Acct Setup link in the Auth and Acct screen to view the screen as shown.

Figure 146 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > Auth and Acct Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 104 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > Authentication Setup

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Authentication Use this section to specify the methods used to authenticate users accessing the Switch.
Privilege Enable These fields specify which database the Switch should use (first, second and third) to
authenticate access privilege level for administrator accounts (users for Switch
management).

Configure the access privilege of accounts via commands (See the CLI Reference Guide) for
local authentication. The TACACS+ and RADIUS are external servers. Before you specify
the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding database correctly first.

You can specify up to three methods for the Switch to authenticate the access privilege
level of administrators. The Switch checks the methods in the order you configure them
(first Method 1, then Method 2 and finally Method 3). You must configure the settings in
the Method 1 field. If you want the Switch to check other sources for access privilege level
specify them in Method 2 and Method 3 fields.

Select local to have the Switch check the access privilege configured for local
authentication.

Select radius or tacacs+ to have the Switch check the access privilege via the external
servers.

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Table 104 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > Authentication Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Login These fields specify which database the Switch should use (first, second and third) to
authenticate administrator accounts (users for Switch management).

Configure the local user accounts in the Access Control > Logins screen. The TACACS+
and RADIUS are external servers. Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set
up the corresponding database correctly first.

You can specify up to three methods for the Switch to authenticate administrator accounts.
The Switch checks the methods in the order you configure them (first Method 1, then
Method 2 and finally Method 3). You must configure the settings in the Method 1 field. If
you want the Switch to check other sources for administrator accounts, specify them in
Method 2 and Method 3 fields.

Select local to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured in the Access
Control > Logins screen.

Select radius to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured via your
RADIUS server.

Select tacacs+ to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured via your
TACACS+ server.
Accounting Use this section to configure accounting settings on the Switch.
Update Period This is the amount of time in minutes before the Switch sends an update to the accounting
server. This is only valid if you select the start-stop option for the Exec or Dot1x entries.
Type The Switch supports the following types of events to be sent to the accounting server(s):

System: Configure the Switch to send information when the following system events
occur: system boots up, system shuts down, system accounting is enabled, system
accounting is disabled

Exec: Configure the Switch to send information when an administrator logs in and logs out
via the console port, Telnet or SSH.

Dot1x: Configure the Switch to send information when an IEEE 802.1x client begins a
session (authenticates via the Switch), ends a session as well as interim updates of a
session.

Commands: Configure the Switch to send information when commands of specified


privilege level and higher are executed on the Switch.
Active Select this to activate accounting for a specified event types.
Broadcast Select this to have the Switch send accounting information to all configured accounting
servers at the same time.

If you dont select this and you have two accounting servers set up, then the Switch sends
information to the first accounting server and if it doesnt get a response from the
accounting server then it tries the second accounting server.
Mode The Switch supports two modes of recording login events. Select:

start-stop: to have the Switch send information to the accounting server when a user
begins a session, during a users session (if it lasts past the Update Period), and when a
user ends a session.

stop-only: to have the Switch send information to the accounting server only when a user
ends a session.
Method Select whether you want to use RADIUS or TACACS+ for accounting of specific types of
events.

TACACS+ is the only method for recording Commands type of event.

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Table 104 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > Authentication Setup (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Privilege This field is only configurable for Commands type of event. Select the threshold command
privilege level for which the Switch should send accounting information. The Switch will
send accounting information when commands at the level you specify and higher are
executed on the Switch.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

25.2.4 Vendor Specific Attribute


RFC 2865 standard specifies a method for sending vendor-specific information between a RADIUS
server and a network access device (for example, the Switch). A company can create Vendor
Specific Attributes (VSAs) to expand the functionality of a RADIUS server.

The Switch supports VSAs that allow you to perform the following actions based on user
authentication:

Limit bandwidth on incoming or outgoing traffic for the port the user connects to.
Assign account privilege levels (See the CLI Reference Guide for more information on account
privilege levels) for the authenticated user.

The VSAs are composed of the following:

Vendor-ID: An identification number assigned to the company by the IANA (Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority). ZyXELs vendor ID is 890.
Vendor-Type: A vendor specified attribute, identifying the setting you want to modify.
Vendor-data: A value you want to assign to the setting.

Note: Refer to the documentation that comes with your RADIUS server on how to
configure VSAs for users authenticating via the RADIUS server.

The following table describes the VSAs supported on the Switch.

Table 105 Supported VSAs

FUNCTION ATTRIBUTE
Ingress Bandwidth Vendor-Id = 890
Assignment Vendor-Type = 1
Vendor-data = ingress rate (Kbps in decimal format)
Egress Bandwidth Vendor-Id = 890
Assignment Vendor-Type = 2
Vendor-data = egress rate (Kbps in decimal format)

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Table 105 Supported VSAs

FUNCTION ATTRIBUTE
Privilege Vendor-ID = 890
Assignment Vendor-Type = 3
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
or

Vendor-ID = 9 (CISCO)
Vendor-Type = 1 (CISCO-AVPAIR)
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
where N is a privilege level (from 0 to 14).

Note: If you set the privilege level of a login account differently on the RADIUS server(s) and
the Switch, the user is assigned a privilege level from the database (RADIUS or local)
the Switch uses first for user authentication.

25.2.4.1 Tunnel Protocol Attribute


You can configure tunnel protocol attributes on the RADIUS server (refer to your RADIUS server
documentation) to assign a port on the Switch to a VLAN based on IEEE 802.1x authentication. The
port VLAN settings are fixed and untagged. This will also set the ports VID. The following table
describes the values you need to configure. Note that the bolded values in the table are fixed values
as defined in RFC 3580.

Table 106 Supported Tunnel Protocol Attribute

FUNCTION ATTRIBUTE
VLAN Assignment Tunnel-Type = VLAN(13)
Tunnel-Medium-Type = 802(6)
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID = VLAN ID

Note: You must also create a VLAN with the specified VID on the Switch.

25.3 Supported RADIUS Attributes


Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) attributes are data used to define specific
authentication and accounting elements in a user profile, which is stored on the RADIUS server.
This section lists the RADIUS attributes supported by the Switch.

Refer to RFC 2865 for more information about RADIUS attributes used for authentication. Refer to
RFC 2866 and RFC 2869 for more information about RADIUS attributes used for accounting.

This section lists the attributes used by authentication functions on the Switch. In cases where the
attribute has a specific format associated with it, the format is specified.

25.3.1 Attributes Used for Authentication


The following sections list the attributes sent from the Switch to the RADIUS server when
performing authentication.

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25.3.1.1 Attributes Used for Authenticating Privilege Access


User-Name
- The format of the User-Name attribute is $enab#$, where # is the privilege level (1-14).
User-Password
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address

25.3.1.2 Attributes Used to Login Users


User-Name
User-Password
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address

25.3.1.3 Attributes Used by the IEEE 802.1x Authentication


User-Name
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
NAS-Port
NAS-Port-Type
- This value is set to Ethernet(15) on the Switch.
Calling-Station-Id
Frame-MTU
EAP-Message
State
Message-Authenticator

25.3.2 Attributes Used for Accounting


The following sections list the attributes sent from the Switch to the RADIUS server when
performing authentication.

25.3.2.1 Attributes Used for Accounting System Events


NAS-IP-Address
NAS-Identifier
Acct-Status-Type
Acct-Session-ID
- The format of Acct-Session-Id is date+time+8-digit sequential number, for example,
2007041917210300000001. (date: 2007/04/19, time: 17:21:03, serial number: 00000001)
Acct-Delay-Time

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25.3.2.2 Attributes Used for Accounting Exec Events


The attributes are listed in the following table along with the time that they are sent (the difference
between Console and Telnet/SSH Exec events is that the Telnet/SSH events utilize the Calling-
Station-Id attribute):

Table 107 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Console

ATTRIBUTE START INTERIM-UPDATE STOP


User-Name Y Y Y
NAS-Identifier Y Y Y
NAS-IP-Address Y Y Y
Service-Type Y Y Y
Acct-Status-Type Y Y Y
Acct-Delay-Time Y Y Y
Acct-Session-Id Y Y Y
Acct-Authentic Y Y Y
Acct-Session-Time Y Y
Acct-Terminate-Cause Y

Table 108 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Telnet/SSH

ATTRIBUTE START INTERIM-UPDATE STOP


User-Name Y Y Y
NAS-Identifier Y Y Y
NAS-IP-Address Y Y Y
Service-Type Y Y Y
Calling-Station-Id Y Y Y
Acct-Status-Type Y Y Y
Acct-Delay-Time Y Y Y
Acct-Session-Id Y Y Y
Acct-Authentic Y Y Y
Acct-Session-Time Y Y
Acct-Terminate-Cause Y

25.3.2.3 Attributes Used for Accounting IEEE 802.1x Events


The attributes are listed in the following table along with the time of the session they are sent:

Table 109 RADIUS Attributes-Exec Events via 802.1x

ATTRIBUTE START INTERIM-UPDATE STOP


User-Name Y Y Y
NAS-IP-Address Y Y Y
NAS-Port Y Y Y
Class Y Y Y
Called-Station-Id Y Y Y

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Table 109 RADIUS Attributes-Exec Events via 802.1x

ATTRIBUTE START INTERIM-UPDATE STOP


Calling-Station-Id Y Y Y
NAS-Identifier Y Y Y
NAS-Port-Type Y Y Y
Acct-Status-Type Y Y Y
Acct-Delay-Time Y Y Y
Acct-Session-Id Y Y Y
Acct-Authentic Y Y Y
Acct-Input-Octets Y Y
Acct-Output-Octets Y Y
Acct-Session-Time Y Y
Acct-Input-Packets Y Y
Acct-Output-Packets Y Y
Acct-Terminate-Cause Y
Acct-Input-Gigawords Y Y
Acct-Output-Gigawords Y Y

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C HAPTER 26
IP Source Guard

Use IP source guard to filter unauthorized DHCP and ARP packets in your network.

26.1 IP Source Guard Overview


IP source guard uses a binding table to distinguish between authorized and unauthorized DHCP and
ARP packets in your network. A binding contains these key attributes:

MAC address
VLAN ID
IP address
Port number

When the Switch receives a DHCP or ARP packet, it looks up the appropriate MAC address, VLAN ID,
IP address, and port number in the binding table. If there is a binding, the Switch forwards the
packet. If there is not a binding, the Switch discards the packet.

The Switch builds the binding table by snooping DHCP packets (dynamic bindings) and from
information provided manually by administrators (static bindings).

IP source guard consists of the following features:

Static bindings. Use this to create static bindings in the binding table.
DHCP snooping. Use this to filter unauthorized DHCP packets on the network and to build the
binding table dynamically.
ARP inspection. Use this to filter unauthorized ARP packets on the network.

If you want to use dynamic bindings to filter unauthorized ARP packets (typical implementation),
you have to enable DHCP snooping before you enable ARP inspection.

26.1.1 DHCP Snooping Overview


Use DHCP snooping to filter unauthorized DHCP packets on the network and to build the binding
table dynamically. This can prevent clients from getting IP addresses from unauthorized DHCP
servers.

26.1.1.1 Trusted vs. Untrusted Ports


Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for DHCP snooping. This setting is
independent of the trusted/untrusted setting for ARP inspection. You can also specify the maximum
number for DHCP packets that each port (trusted or untrusted) can receive each second.

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Trusted ports are connected to DHCP servers or other switches. The Switch discards DHCP packets
from trusted ports only if the rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high. The Switch learns
dynamic bindings from trusted ports.

Note: If DHCP is enabled and there are no trusted ports, DHCP requests will not succeed.

Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers. The Switch discards DHCP packets from untrusted
ports in the following situations:

The packet is a DHCP server packet (for example, OFFER, ACK, or NACK).
The source MAC address and source IP address in the packet do not match any of the current
bindings.
The packet is a RELEASE or DECLINE packet, and the source MAC address and source port do not
match any of the current bindings.
The rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.

26.1.1.2 DHCP Snooping Database


The Switch stores the binding table in volatile memory. If the Switch restarts, it loads static
bindings from permanent memory but loses the dynamic bindings, in which case the devices in the
network have to send DHCP requests again. As a result, it is recommended you configure the DHCP
snooping database.

The DHCP snooping database maintains the dynamic bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP
inspection in a file on an external TFTP server. If you set up the DHCP snooping database, the
Switch can reload the dynamic bindings from the DHCP snooping database after the Switch
restarts.

You can configure the name and location of the file on the external TFTP server. The file has the
following format:

Figure 147 DHCP Snooping Database File Format

<initial-checksum>
TYPE DHCP-SNOOPING
VERSION 1
BEGIN
<binding-1> <checksum-1>
<binding-2> <checksum-1-2>
...
...
<binding-n> <checksum-1-2-..-n>
END

The <initial-checksum> helps distinguish between the bindings in the latest update and the
bindings from previous updates. Each binding consists of 72 bytes, a space, and another checksum
that is used to validate the binding when it is read. If the calculated checksum is not equal to the
checksum in the file, that binding and all others after it are ignored.

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26.1.1.3 DHCP Relay Option 82 Information


The Switch can add information to DHCP requests that it does not discard. This provides the DHCP
server more information about the source of the requests. The Switch can add the following
information:

Slot ID (1 byte), port ID (1 byte), and source VLAN ID (2 bytes)


System name (up to 32 bytes)

This information is stored in an Agent Information field in the option 82 field of the DHCP headers of
client DHCP request frames. See Chapter 35 on page 311 for more information about DHCP relay
option 82.

When the DHCP server responds, the Switch removes the information in the Agent Information field
before forwarding the response to the original source.

You can configure this setting for each source VLAN. This setting is independent of the DHCP relay
settings (Chapter 35 on page 311).

26.1.1.4 Configuring DHCP Snooping


Follow these steps to configure DHCP snooping on the Switch.

1 Enable DHCP snooping on the Switch.

2 Enable DHCP snooping on each VLAN, and configure DHCP relay option 82.

3 Configure trusted and untrusted ports, and specify the maximum number of DHCP packets that
each port can receive per second.

4 Configure static bindings.

26.1.2 ARP Inspection Overview


Use ARP inspection to filter unauthorized ARP packets on the network. This can prevent many kinds
of man-in-the-middle attacks, such as the one in the following example.

Figure 148 Example: Man-in-the-middle Attack

A B
X
In this example, computer B tries to establish a connection with computer A. Computer X is in the
same broadcast domain as computer A and intercepts the ARP request for computer A. Then,
computer X does the following things:

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It pretends to be computer A and responds to computer B.


It pretends to be computer B and sends a message to computer A.

As a result, all the communication between computer A and computer B passes through computer
X. Computer X can read and alter the information passed between them.

26.1.2.1 ARP Inspection and MAC Address Filters


When the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP packet, it automatically creates a MAC address
filter to block traffic from the source MAC address and source VLAN ID of the unauthorized ARP
packet. You can configure how long the MAC address filter remains in the Switch.

These MAC address filters are different than regular MAC address filters (Chapter 13 on page 158).

They are stored only in volatile memory.


They do not use the same space in memory that regular MAC address filters use.
They appear only in the ARP Inspection screens and commands, not in the MAC Address
Filter screens and commands.

26.1.2.2 Trusted vs. Untrusted Ports


Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for ARP inspection. This setting is
independent of the trusted/untrusted setting for DHCP snooping. You can also specify the maximum
rate at which the Switch receives ARP packets on untrusted ports.

The Switch does not discard ARP packets on trusted ports for any reason.

The Switch discards ARP packets on untrusted ports in the following situations:

The senders information in the ARP packet does not match any of the current bindings.
The rate at which ARP packets arrive is too high.

26.1.2.3 Syslog
The Switch can send syslog messages to the specified syslog server (Chapter 39 on page 358)
when it forwards or discards ARP packets. The Switch can consolidate log messages and send log
messages in batches to make this mechanism more efficient.

26.1.2.4 Configuring ARP Inspection


Follow these steps to configure ARP inspection on the Switch.

1 Configure DHCP snooping. See Section 26.1.1.4 on page 251.

Note: It is recommended you enable DHCP snooping at least one day before you enable
ARP inspection so that the Switch has enough time to build the binding table.

2 Enable ARP inspection on each VLAN.

3 Configure trusted and untrusted ports, and specify the maximum number of ARP packets that each
port can receive per second.

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26.2 IP Source Guard


Use this screen to look at the current bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection. Bindings are
used by DHCP snooping and ARP inspection to distinguish between authorized and unauthorized
packets in the network. The Switch learns the bindings by snooping DHCP packets (dynamic
bindings) and from information provided manually by administrators (static bindings). To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard.

Figure 149 IP Source Guard

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 110 IP Source Guard

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Index This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
MAC Address This field displays the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address This field displays the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
Lease This field displays how many days, hours, minutes, and seconds the binding is valid; for
example, 2d3h4m5s means the binding is still valid for 2 days, 3 hours, 4 minutes, and 5
seconds. This field displays infinity if the binding is always valid (for example, a static
binding).
Type This field displays how the Switch learned the binding.

static: This binding was learned from information provided manually by an administrator.

dhcp-snooping: This binding was learned by snooping DHCP packets.


VID This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the binding applies
to all ports.

26.3 IP Source Guard Static Binding


Use this screen to manage static bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection. Static bindings
are uniquely identified by the MAC address and VLAN ID. Each MAC address and VLAN ID can only
be in one static binding. If you try to create a static binding with the same MAC address and VLAN

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ID as an existing static binding, the new static binding replaces the original one. To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > Static Binding.

Figure 150 IP Source Guard Static Binding

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 111 IP Source Guard Static Binding

LABEL DESCRIPTION
MAC Address Enter the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address Enter the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
VLAN Enter the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port Specify the port(s) in the binding. If this binding has one port, select the first radio button and
enter the port number in the field to the right. If this binding applies to all ports, select Any.
Add Click this to create the specified static binding or to update an existing one.
Cancel Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected static binding or, if not
applicable, to clear the fields above.
Clear Click this to clear the fields above.
Index This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
MAC Address This field displays the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address This field displays the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
Lease This field displays how long the binding is valid.
Type This field displays how the Switch learned the binding.

static: This binding was learned from information provided manually by an administrator.
VLAN This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the binding applies to
all ports.
Delete Select this, and click Delete to remove the specified entry.
Cancel Click this to clear the Delete check boxes above.

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26.4 DHCP Snooping


Use this screen to look at various statistics about the DHCP snooping database. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping.

Figure 151 DHCP Snooping

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 112 DHCP Snooping

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Database Status This section displays the current settings for the DHCP snooping database. You can
configure them in the DHCP Snooping Configure screen. See Section 26.5 on
page 257.
Agent URL This field displays the location of the DHCP snooping database.
Write delay timer This field displays how long (in seconds) the Switch tries to complete a specific
update in the DHCP snooping database before it gives up.
Abort timer This field displays how long (in seconds) the Switch waits to update the DHCP
snooping database after the current bindings change.
This section displays information about the current update and the next update of
the DHCP snooping database.
Agent running This field displays the status of the current update or access of the DHCP snooping
database.

none: The Switch is not accessing the DHCP snooping database.

read: The Switch is loading dynamic bindings from the DHCP snooping database.

write: The Switch is updating the DHCP snooping database.


Delay timer expiry This field displays how much longer (in seconds) the Switch tries to complete the
current update before it gives up. It displays Not Running if the Switch is not
updating the DHCP snooping database right now.
Abort timer expiry This field displays when (in seconds) the Switch is going to update the DHCP
snooping database again. It displays Not Running if the current bindings have not
changed since the last update.
This section displays information about the last time the Switch updated the DHCP
snooping database.
Last succeeded time This field displays the last time the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
successfully.
Last failed time This field displays the last time the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
unsuccessfully.
Last failed reason This field displays the reason the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
unsuccessfully.
This section displays historical information about the number of times the Switch
successfully or unsuccessfully read or updated the DHCP snooping database.
Total attempts This field displays the number of times the Switch has tried to access the DHCP
snooping database for any reason.
Startup failures This field displays the number of times the Switch could not create or read the
DHCP snooping database when the Switch started up or a new URL is configured for
the DHCP snooping database.
Successful transfers This field displays the number of times the Switch read bindings from or updated
the bindings in the DHCP snooping database successfully.
Failed transfers This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to read bindings from
or update the bindings in the DHCP snooping database.
Successful reads This field displays the number of times the Switch read bindings from the DHCP
snooping database successfully.
Failed reads This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to read bindings from
the DHCP snooping database.
Successful writes This field displays the number of times the Switch updated the bindings in the DHCP
snooping database successfully.

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Table 112 DHCP Snooping (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Failed writes This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to update the
bindings in the DHCP snooping database.
Database detail
First successful This field displays the first time the Switch accessed the DHCP snooping database
access for any reason.
Last ignored bindings This section displays the number of times and the reasons the Switch ignored
counters bindings the last time it read bindings from the DHCP binding database. You can
clear these counters by restarting the Switch or using CLI commands. See the CLI
Reference Guide.
Binding collisions This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the Switch
already had a binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
Invalid interfaces This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the port
number was a trusted interface or does not exist anymore.
Parse failures This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the Switch
was unable to understand the binding in the DHCP binding database.
Expired leases This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the lease
time had already expired.
Unsupported vlans This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the VLAN ID
does not exist anymore.
Last ignored time This field displays the last time the Switch ignored any bindings for any reason from
the DHCP binding database.
Total ignored bindings This section displays the reasons the Switch has ignored bindings any time it read
counters bindings from the DHCP binding database. You can clear these counters by
restarting the Switch or using CLI commands. See the CLI Reference Guide.
Binding collisions This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the
Switch already had a binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
Invalid interfaces This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the port
number was a trusted interface or does not exist anymore.
Parse failures This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the
Switch was unable to understand the binding in the DHCP binding database.
Expired leases This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the lease
time had already expired.
Unsupported vlans This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the VLAN
ID does not exist anymore.

26.5 DHCP Snooping Configure


Use this screen to enable DHCP snooping on the Switch (not on specific VLAN), specify the VLAN
where the default DHCP server is located, and configure the DHCP snooping database. The DHCP
snooping database stores the current bindings on a secure, external TFTP server so that they are

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still available after a restart. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard
> DHCP Snooping > Configure.

Figure 152 DHCP Snooping Configure

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 113 DHCP Snooping Configure

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this to enable DHCP snooping on the Switch. You still have to enable DHCP snooping
on specific VLAN and specify trusted ports.

Note: If DHCP is enabled and there are no trusted ports, DHCP requests will not succeed.
DHCP Vlan Select a VLAN ID if you want the Switch to forward DHCP packets to DHCP servers on a
specific VLAN.

Note: You have to enable DHCP snooping on the DHCP VLAN too.

You can enable Option82 in the DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure screen (Section 26.5.2
on page 260) to help the DHCP servers distinguish between DHCP requests from different
VLAN.

Select Disable if you do not want the Switch to forward DHCP packets to a specific VLAN.
Database If Timeout interval is greater than Write delay interval, it is possible that the next
update is scheduled to occur before the current update has finished successfully or timed
out. In this case, the Switch waits to start the next update until it completes the current
one.
Agent URL Enter the location of the DHCP snooping database. The location should be expressed like
this: tftp://{domain name or IP address}/directory, if applicable/file name; for
example, tftp://192.168.10.1/database.txt.
Timeout Enter how long (10-65535 seconds) the Switch tries to complete a specific update in the
interval DHCP snooping database before it gives up.

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Table 113 DHCP Snooping Configure (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Write delay Enter how long (10-65535 seconds) the Switch waits to update the DHCP snooping
interval database the first time the current bindings change after an update. Once the next update
is scheduled, additional changes in current bindings are automatically included in the next
update.
Renew DHCP Enter the location of a DHCP snooping database, and click Renew if you want the Switch to
Snooping load it. You can use this to load dynamic bindings from a different DHCP snooping
URL database than the one specified in Agent URL.

When the Switch loads dynamic bindings from a DHCP snooping database, it does not
discard the current dynamic bindings first. If there is a conflict, the Switch keeps the
dynamic binding in volatile memory and updates the Binding collisions counter in the
DHCP Snooping screen (Section 26.4 on page 255).
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.

26.5.1 DHCP Snooping Port Configure


Use this screen to specify whether ports are trusted or untrusted ports for DHCP snooping.

Note: If DHCP snooping is enabled but there are no trusted ports, DHCP requests cannot
reach the DHCP server.

You can also specify the maximum number for DHCP packets that each port (trusted or untrusted)
can receive each second. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard >
DHCP Snooping > Configure > Port.

Figure 153 DHCP Snooping Port Configure

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 114 DHCP Snooping Port Configure

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port This field displays the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings are applied to all
of the ports.
Server Trusted Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).
state
Trusted ports are connected to DHCP servers or other switches, and the Switch discards DHCP
packets from trusted ports only if the rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.

Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers, and the Switch discards DHCP packets from
untrusted ports in the following situations:

The packet is a DHCP server packet (for example, OFFER, ACK, or NACK).

The source MAC address and source IP address in the packet do not match any of the current
bindings.

The packet is a RELEASE or DECLINE packet, and the source MAC address and source port do
not match any of the current bindings.

The rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.


Rate (pps) Specify the maximum number for DHCP packets (1-2048) that the Switch receives from each
port each second. The Switch discards any additional DHCP packets. Enter 0 to disable this
limit, which is recommended for trusted ports.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.

26.5.2 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure


Use this screen to enable DHCP snooping on each VLAN and to specify whether or not the Switch
adds DHCP relay agent option 82 information (Chapter 35 on page 311) to DHCP requests that the
Switch relays to a DHCP server for each VLAN. To open this screen, click Advanced Application >
IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping > Configure > VLAN.

Figure 154 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 115 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to manage in the section below.
Start VID Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
End VID Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
Apply Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure the
* VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
Enabled Select Yes to enable DHCP snooping on the VLAN. You still have to enable DHCP snooping on
the Switch and specify trusted ports.

If DHCP is enabled and there are no trusted ports, DHCP requests will not succeed.
Option82 Select this to have the Switch add the slot number, port number and VLAN ID to DHCP requests
that it broadcasts to the DHCP VLAN, if specified, or VLAN. You can specify the DHCP VLAN in
the DHCP Snooping Configure screen. See Section 26.5 on page 257.
SPV Select the variables that you want the Switch to generate and add in the DHCP requests. The
variable options include SP, SV, PV and SPV which indicate combinations of slot-port, slot-
VLAN, port-VLAN and slot-port-VLAN respectively in ASCII code. Alternatively, select private
to have the Switch use the DHCP relay option 82 old format (slot-port-VLAN) in binary. The
Switch uses a zero for the slot value in the DHCP requests. An example of the port number is 1
if you select private while it is 31 in ASCII code if you select SP, SV or SPV.
Delimiter Select a delimiter to separate the option 82 information, slot ID, port number and/or VLAN ID
from each other. You can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,), forward
slash (/) or space. Select none to not use any delimiter.
Information Select this to have the Switch add the system name to DHCP requests that it broadcasts to the
DHCP VLAN, if specified, or VLAN. You can configure the system name in the General Setup
screen. See Chapter 8 on page 70. You can specify the DHCP VLAN in the DHCP Snooping
Configure screen. See Section 26.5 on page 257.
Remote ID Select this to have the Switch also add the receiving port name as the remote ID to DHCP
requests. Clear this to not add remote IDs to DHCP requests.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.

26.6 ARP Inspection Status


Use this screen to look at the current list of MAC address filters that were created because the
Switch identified an unauthorized ARP packet. When the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP
packet, it automatically creates a MAC address filter to block traffic from the source MAC address

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and source VLAN ID of the unauthorized ARP packet. To open this screen, click Advanced
Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection.

Figure 155 ARP Inspection Status

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 116 ARP Inspection Status

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Total number of This field displays the current number of MAC address filters that were created because the
filters Switch identified unauthorized ARP packets.
Index This field displays a sequential number for each MAC address filter.
MAC Address This field displays the source MAC address in the MAC address filter.
VID This field displays the source VLAN ID in the MAC address filter.
Port This field displays the source port of the discarded ARP packet.
Expiry (sec) This field displays how long (in seconds) the MAC address filter remains in the Switch. You
can also delete the record manually (Delete).
Reason This field displays the reason the ARP packet was discarded.

MAC+VLAN: The MAC address and VLAN ID were not in the binding table.

IP: The MAC address and VLAN ID were in the binding table, but the IP address was not
valid.

Port: The MAC address, VLAN ID, and IP address were in the binding table, but the port
number was not valid.
Delete Select this, and click Delete to remove the specified entry.
Cancel Click this to clear the Delete check boxes above.
Change Pages Click Previous Page or Next Page to show the previous/next screen if all status
information cannot be seen in one screen.

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26.6.1 ARP Inspection VLAN Status


Use this screen to look at various statistics about ARP packets in each VLAN. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection > VLAN Status.

Figure 156 ARP Inspection VLAN Status

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 117 ARP Inspection VLAN Status

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN range Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to look at in the section below.
Enabled VLAN Select this to look at all the VLANs on which ARP inspection is enabled in the section
below.
Selected VLAN Select this to look at all the VLANs in a specific range in the section below. Then, enter the
lowest VLAN ID (Start VID) and the highest VLAN ID (End VID) you want to look at.
Apply Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above.
Received This field displays the total number of ARP packets received from the VLAN since the
Switch last restarted.
Request This field displays the total number of ARP Request packets received from the VLAN since
the Switch last restarted.
Reply This field displays the total number of ARP Reply packets received from the VLAN since
the Switch last restarted.
Forwarded This field displays the total number of ARP packets the Switch forwarded for the VLAN
since the Switch last restarted.
Dropped This field displays the total number of ARP packets the Switch discarded for the VLAN
since the Switch last restarted.

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26.6.2 ARP Inspection Log Status


Use this screen to look at log messages that were generated by ARP packets and that have not
been sent to the syslog server yet. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source
Guard > ARP Inspection > Log Status.

Figure 157 ARP Inspection Log Status

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 118 ARP Inspection Log Status

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Clearing log status table Click Apply to remove all the log messages that were generated by ARP packets
and that have not been sent to the syslog server yet.
Total number of logs This field displays the number of log messages that were generated by ARP packets
and that have not been sent to the syslog server yet. If one or more log messages
are dropped due to unavailable buffer, there is an entry called overflow with the
current number of dropped log messages.
Index This field displays a sequential number for each log message.
Port This field displays the source port of the ARP packet.
VID This field displays the source VLAN ID of the ARP packet.
Sender MAC This field displays the source MAC address of the ARP packet.
Sender IP This field displays the source IP address of the ARP packet.
Num Pkts This field displays the number of ARP packets that were consolidated into this log
message. The Switch consolidates identical log messages generated by ARP packets
in the log consolidation interval into one log message. You can configure this
interval in the ARP Inspection Configure screen. See Section 26.7 on page 265.
Reason This field displays the reason the log message was generated.

dhcp deny: An ARP packet was discarded because it violated a dynamic binding
with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.

static deny: An ARP packet was discarded because it violated a static binding with
the same MAC address and VLAN ID.

deny: An ARP packet was discarded because there were no bindings with the same
MAC address and VLAN ID.

dhcp permit: An ARP packet was forwarded because it matched a dynamic


binding.

static permit: An ARP packet was forwarded because it matched a static binding.

In the ARP Inspection VLAN Configure screen, you can configure the Switch to
generate log messages when ARP packets are discarded or forwarded based on the
VLAN ID of the ARP packet. See Section 26.7.2 on page 268.
Time This field displays when the log message was generated.

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26.7 ARP Inspection Configure


Use this screen to enable ARP inspection on the Switch. You can also configure the length of time
the Switch stores records of discarded ARP packets and global settings for the ARP inspection log.
To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection >
Configure.

Figure 158 ARP Inspection Configure

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 119 ARP Inspection Configure

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this to enable ARP inspection on the Switch. You still have to enable ARP
inspection on specific VLAN and specify trusted ports.
Filter Aging Time
Filter aging time This setting has no effect on existing MAC address filters.

Enter how long (1~2147483647 seconds) the MAC address filter remains in the Switch
after the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP packet. The Switch automatically
deletes the MAC address filter afterwards. Enter 0 if you want the MAC address filter to
be permanent.
Log Profile
Log buffer size Enter the maximum number (1~1024) of log messages that were generated by ARP
packets and have not been sent to the syslog server yet. Make sure this number is
appropriate for the specified Syslog rate and Log interval.

If the number of log messages in the Switch exceeds this number, the Switch stops
recording log messages and simply starts counting the number of entries that were
dropped due to unavailable buffer. Click Clearing log status table in the ARP
Inspection Log Status screen to clear the log and reset this counter. See Section
26.6.2 on page 264.

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Table 119 ARP Inspection Configure (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Syslog rate Enter the maximum number of syslog messages the Switch can send to the syslog
server in one batch. This number is expressed as a rate because the batch frequency is
determined by the Log Interval. You must configure the syslog server (Chapter 39 on
page 358) to use this. Enter 0 if you do not want the Switch to send log messages
generated by ARP packets to the syslog server.

The relationship between Syslog rate and Log interval is illustrated in the following
examples:

4 invalid ARP packets per second, Syslog rate is 5, Log interval is 1: the Switch
sends 4 syslog messages every second.

6 invalid ARP packets per second, Syslog rate is 5, Log interval is 2: the Switch
sends 5 syslog messages every 2 seconds.
Log interval Enter how often (1-86400 seconds) the Switch sends a batch of syslog messages to the
syslog server. Enter 0 if you want the Switch to send syslog messages immediately. See
Syslog rate for an example of the relationship between Syslog rate and Log
interval.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.

26.7.1 ARP Inspection Port Configure


Use this screen to specify whether ports are trusted or untrusted ports for ARP inspection. You can
also specify the maximum rate at which the Switch receives ARP packets on each untrusted port. To

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open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection >
Configure > Port.

Figure 159 ARP Inspection Port Configure

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 120 ARP Inspection Port Configure

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port This field displays the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings are applied to all
of the ports.
Trusted State Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).

The Switch does not discard ARP packets on trusted ports for any reason.

The Switch discards ARP packets on untrusted ports in the following situations:

The senders information in the ARP packet does not match any of the current bindings.

The rate at which ARP packets arrive is too high. You can specify the maximum rate at which
ARP packets can arrive on untrusted ports.
Limit These settings have no effect on trusted ports.
Rate (pps) Specify the maximum rate (1-2048 packets per second) at which the Switch receives ARP
packets from each port. The Switch discards any additional ARP packets. Enter 0 to disable
this limit.

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Table 120 ARP Inspection Port Configure (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Burst The burst interval is the length of time over which the rate of ARP packets is monitored for
interval each port. For example, if the Rate is 15 pps and the burst interval is 1 second, then the
(seconds) Switch accepts a maximum of 15 ARP packets in every one-second interval. If the burst
interval is 5 seconds, then the Switch accepts a maximum of 75 ARP packets in every five-
second interval.

Enter the length (1-15 seconds) of the burst interval.


Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.

26.7.2 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure


Use this screen to enable ARP inspection on each VLAN and to specify when the Switch generates
log messages for receiving ARP packets from each VLAN. To open this screen, click Advanced
Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection > Configure > VLAN.

Figure 160 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 121 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure

LABEL DESCRIPTION
VLAN Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to manage in the section below.
Start VID Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
End VID Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
Apply Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure the *
VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
Enabled Select Yes to enable ARP inspection on the VLAN. Select No to disable ARP inspection on the
VLAN.

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Table 121 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Log Specify when the Switch generates log messages for receiving ARP packets from the VLAN.

None: The Switch does not generate any log messages when it receives an ARP packet from the
VLAN.

Deny: The Switch generates log messages when it discards an ARP packet from the VLAN.

Permit: The Switch generates log messages when it forwards an ARP packet from the VLAN.

All: The Switch generates log messages every time it receives an ARP packet from the VLAN.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.

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C HAPTER 27
Loop Guard

This chapter shows you how to configure the Switch to guard against loops on the edge of your
network.

27.1 Loop Guard Overview


Loop guard allows you to configure the Switch to shut down a port if it detects that packets sent out
on that port loop back to the Switch. While you can use Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) to prevent
loops in the core of your network. STP cannot prevent loops that occur on the edge of your
network.

Figure 161 Loop Guard vs. STP

STP
Loop Guard

Loop guard is designed to handle loop problems on the edge of your network. This can occur when
a port is connected to a Switch that is in a loop state. Loop state occurs as a result of human error.
It happens when two ports on a switch are connected with the same cable. When a switch in loop
state sends out broadcast messages the messages loop back to the switch and are re-broadcast
again and again causing a broadcast storm.

If a switch (not in loop state) connects to a switch in loop state, then it will be affected by the
switch in loop state in the following way:

It will receive broadcast messages sent out from the switch in loop state.
It will receive its own broadcast messages that it sends out as they loop back. It will then re-
broadcast those messages again.

The following figure shows port N on the Switch A connected to another switch B. Switch B has
mistakenly two ports, x and y, connected to each other. It forms a loop. When switch B receives

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broadcast or multicast frames, they will be broadcasted again to senders including the port N on
the Switch A.

Figure 162 Switch in Loop State

B x y

N
The loop guard feature checks to see if a loop guard enabled port is connected to a switch in loop
state. This is accomplished by periodically sending a probe packet and seeing if the packet returns
on the same port. If this is the case, the Switch will shut down the port connected to the switch in
loop state.

Loop guard can be enabled on both Ethernet ports or xDSL ports. In the following figure, Ethernet
port N has loop guard enabled on the Switch A sending a probe packet P to switch B. Since switch
B is in loop state, the probe packet P returns to port N on A. The Switch then shuts down port N to
ensure that the rest of the network is not affected by the switch in loop state.

Figure 163 Loop Guard - Probe Packet


B

A
P
P

N
The Switch also shuts down port N if the probe packet returns to Switch A on any other port. In
other words loop guard also protects against standard network loops.

The following figure illustrates the Switch A, a subscriber device B and another switch C forming a
loop. A sample path of the loop guard probe packet is also shown. In this example, the probe
packet is sent from an xDSL port 1 and returns also on port 1. As long as loop guard is enabled on

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port 1, the Switch will shut down port 1 if it detects that the probe packet has returned to the
Switch.

Figure 164 Loop Guard - Network Loop


A

1 P B C

Note: After resolving the loop problem on your network you can re-activate the disabled
port via the Web Configurator (see Section 8.9 on page 82) or via commands (See
the CLI Reference Guide).

27.2 Loop Guard Setup


Click Advanced Application > Loop Guard in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.

Note: The loop guard feature can not be enabled on the ports that have Spanning Tree
Protocol (RSTP, MRSTP or MSTP) enabled.

Figure 165 Advanced Application > Loop Guard

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 122 Advanced Application > Loop Guard

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this option to enable loop guard on the Switch.

The Switch generates syslog, internal log messages as well as SNMP traps when it shuts
down a port via the loop guard feature.
Port This field displays the port number.
* Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active Select this check box to enable the loop guard feature on this port. The Switch sends probe
packets from this port to check if the switch it is connected to is in loop state. If the switch
that this port is connected is in loop state the Switch will shut down this port.

Clear this check box to disable the loop guard feature.


Mode Select the port mode for loop guard.

If you select Fix, the Switch shuts down the port when the Switch detects that packets sent
out on the port loop back to the Switch. To activate the port again, you need to manually
enable the port in the Port Setup screen.

If you select Dynamic, the Switch shuts down the port if the Switch detects that packets
sent out on the port loop back to the Switch. The port becomes active automatically after
the time you specified in the Recover Time field.
Recover Time Enter the time (in seconds) the port in dynamic mode waits to become active again after
shut down by the Switch.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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C HAPTER 28
CFM

This chapter explains the Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) screens.

28.1 CFM Overview


The route between a CO VDSL switch and one of its CPE may go through switches owned by
independent organizations. A connectivity fault point generally takes time to discover and impacts
subscribers network access. In order to eliminate the management and maintenance efforts, IEEE
802.1ag is a Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) specification which allows network
administrators to identify and manage connection faults. Through discovery and verification of the
path, CFM can detect, analyze and isolate connectivity faults in bridged LANs.

The figure shown below is an example of a connection fault between switches on the LAN. CFM can
be used to identify and management this kind of connection problem.

Figure 166 Management for any Fault in Bridges

CO
CPE

28.1.1 How CFM Works


To enable CFM, pro-active Connectivity Check Messages (CCMs) between two CFM-aware devices in
the same MD (Maintenance Domain) network. An MA (Maintenance Association) defines a VLAN and
associated ports on the device under an MD level. In this MA, a port can be an MEP (Maintenance
End Point) port or an MIP (Maintenance Intermediate Point) port.

MEP port - has the ability to send Connectivity Check Messages (CCMs) and get other MEP ports
information from neighbor switches CCMs within an MA.
MIP port - forwards the CCMs, Loop Back Messages (LBMs) and Link Trace Messages (LTMs).

CFM provides two tests to discover connectivity faults.

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Loopback test - checks if the MEP port receives its LBR (Loop Back Response) from its target
after it sends the LBM (Loop Back Message). If no response is received, there might be a
connectivity fault between them.
Link trace test - provides additional connectivity fault analysis to get more information on where
the fault is. In the link trace test, MIP ports also send the LTR (Link Trace Response) to
response the source MEP ports LTM (Link Trace Message). If an MIP or MEP port does not
respond to the source MEP, this may indicate a fault. Administrators can take further action to
check and resume services from the fault according to the line connectivity status report. Refer
to the Section 44.1 on page 370 to perform CFM actions.

An example is shown next. A user reports his VDSL line link down. To check the problem, the
administrator starts the link trace test from the A which is an MEP port to the B which is also an
MEP port. Each aggregation MIP port between switches response the LTM packets and also forwards
them to the next port. A fault occurs in the port C. A discovers the fault since it just gets the LTR
packets from the ports flowing before the port C.

Figure 167 MIP and MEP example

(port 2, MEP) A
(port 18, MIP) CPE
(port 17, MIP)

(port 18, MIP)

C (port 17, MIP)

B
(port 8, MEP)
00:19:cb:14:25:37

28.2 CFM MA
Click Advanced Application and CFM to open this screen. Use this screen to create an MA
(Maintenance Association) under an MD level. You have to specify a name, a VLAN ID and its
member ports. Refer to Section 28.1 on page 274 for more information about CFM.

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Note: You have to create a CFM MD first before you create an MA.

Figure 168 CFM MA

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 123 CFM MA

LABEL DESCRIPTION
MD level Select a level (0-7) you want to create an MA under.

Note: You have to create an MD first by clicking the CFM MD link.


MA Name Type a descriptive name (up to 40 printable ASCII characters) for this MA. This is for
identification purpose.
MA Vlan ID Type a VLAN ID (0-4096) for this MA.

Note: Make sure the VLAN ID has existed before you use it for the MA VLAN ID.
CFM Enable Select this to activate the CFM.
Port This field displays the port number.
Active Select this to activate a port in this MA.
Name This field displays the MA name.
MP Type Select a port type such as MEP (Maintenance End Point) or MIP (Maintenance Intermediate
Point). Or leave it as default (None).
MEP ID Enter an ID number (1-8191) for this MEP port. Each MEP port needs a unique ID number within
an MD. The MEP ID is to identify an MEP port used when you create a CFM action. See Section
44.1 on page 370.
Add Click Add to add the settings as a new entry in the summary table below.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields.
Clear Click Clear to start configuring the screen again.
Index This field displays the index number for the record in this summary table.

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Table 123 CFM MA

LABEL DESCRIPTION
MA Name This field displays the descriptive name of the MA.
MA VID This field displays the ID number of the MA VLAN group.
MEP Port This field lists individual MEP ports in this MA VLAN group.
MIP Port This field lists individual MIP ports in this MA VLAN group.
Delete Select rules to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete button to remove them.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.

28.3 CFM MD
Click the link CFM MD on the CFM MA screen to open this screen. Use this screen to create an MD
and specify an MD level. Refer to Section 28.1 on page 274 for more information about CFM.

Figure 169 CFM MD

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 124 CFM MD

LABEL DESCRIPTION
MD Name Type a name (up to 40 printable ASCII characters) for this MD. This is for identification
purposes.
MD Level Type a level number (0-7) for this MD.
Add Click Add to add the settings as a new entry in the summary table below.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields.
Clear Click Clear to start configuring the screen again.
Index This field displays the index number for the record in this summary table.
MD Name This field displays the descriptive name of the MD.
MD Level This field displays the level number of the MD.
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.

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C HAPTER 29
VLAN Mapping

This chapter shows you how to configure VLAN mapping on the Switch.

29.1 VLAN Mapping Overview


With VLAN mapping enabled, the Switch can map the VLAN ID and priority level of packets received
from a private network to those used in the service providers network.

The Switch checks incoming traffic from the non-management ports against the VLAN mapping
table first, the MAC learning table and then the VLAN table before forwarding them through the
Gigabit uplink port. When VLAN mapping is enabled, the Switch discards the tagged packets that do
not match an entry in the VLAN mapping table. If the incoming packets are untagged, the Switch
adds a PVID based on the VLAN setting.

Note: You can not enable VLAN mapping and VLAN stacking at the same time.

29.1.1 VLAN Mapping Example


In the following example figure, packets that carry VLAN ID 12 and are received on port 3 match a
pre-configured VLAN mapping rule. The Switch translates the VLAN ID from 12 into 123 before
forwarding the packets. Any incoming packets carrying a VLAN tag other than 12 (such as 10) and
received on port 3 will be dropped if you select to drop the packets that do not match the mapping
rule (Drop Miss).

Figure 170 VLAN mapping example

123
Service Provider
Network

12 Port 3

10 10

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29.2 Enabling VLAN Mapping


Click Advanced Application and then VLAN Mapping in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown.

Figure 171 VLAN Mapping

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 125 VLAN Mapping

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this option to enable VLAN mapping on the Switch.
Port This field displays the port number.
* Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active Select this check box to enable the VLAN mapping feature on this port. Clear this check box to
disable the VLAN mapping feature.
Drop Miss Select this check box to discard the incoming packets that do not match any VLAN mapping rules
on this port. Otherwise, clear the check box to forward the packets without replacing the VLAN
tag.

The Switch forwards any outgoing packets even when they do not match a VLAN mapping rule.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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29.3 Configuring VLAN Mapping


Click the VLAN Mapping Configure link in the VLAN Mapping screen to display the screen as
shown. Use this screen to enable and edit the VLAN mapping rule(s).

Figure 172 VLAN Mapping Configuration

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 126 VLAN Mapping Configuration

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Check this box to activate this rule.
Name Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Port Type a port to be included in this rule.
VID Enter a VLAN ID from 1 to 4094. This is the VLAN tag carried in the packets and will be
translated into the VID you specified in the Translated VID field.
Translated VID Enter a VLAN ID (from 1 to 4094) into which the customer VID carried in the packets will be
translated.
Priority Select a priority level (from 0 to 7). This is the priority level that replaces the customer
priority level in the tagged packets or adds to the untagged packets. Select the Replace
Original check box to have the Switch change the customer priority to what you select here.
If you clear the Replace Original checkbox, the Switch keeps the original customer priority.
Add Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power,
so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile
memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index This is the number of the VLAN mapping entry in the table.
Active This shows whether this entry is activated or not.
Name This is the descriptive name for this rule.
Port This is the port number to which this rule is applied.
VID This is the customer VLAN ID in the incoming packets.
Translated VID This is the VLAN ID that replaces the customer VLAN ID in the tagged packets.
Priority This is the priority level that replaces the customer priority level in the tagged packets.

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Table 126 VLAN Mapping Configuration (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Delete Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
Paging Select Prev or Next to show the previous/next screen or select a page number from the
drop-down list box to display a specific page if all entries cannot be seen in one screen.

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C HAPTER 30
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling

This chapter shows you how to configure layer 2 protocol tunneling on the Switch.

30.1 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Overview


Layer 2 protocol tunneling (L2PT) is used on the service provider's edge devices. L2PT allows edge
switches (1 and 2 in the following figure) to tunnel layer 2 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), CDP
(Cisco Discovery Protocol) and VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) packets between customer switches
(A, B and C in the following figure) connected through the service providers network. The edge
switch encapsulates layer 2 protocol packets with a specific MAC address before sending them
across the service providers network to other edge switches.

Figure 173 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Network Scenario

A Service Provider's C
STP 1 Network 2
STP
CDP
CDP
VTP
VTP

In the following example, if you enable L2PT for STP, you can have switches A, B, C and D in the
same spanning tree, even though switch A is not directly connected to switches B, C and D.
Topology change information can be propagated throughout the service providers network.

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To emulate a point-to-point topology between two customer switches at different sites, such as A
and B, you can enable protocol tunneling on edge switches 1 and 2 for PAgP (Port Aggregation
Protocol), LACP or UDLD (UniDirectional Link Detection).

Figure 174 L2PT Network Example

B
A
STP STP
STP D

1 Service Provider's 2 C
Network

30.1.1 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Mode


Each port can have two layer 2 protocol tunneling modes, Access and Tunnel.

The Access port is an ingress port on the service provider's edge device (1 or 2 in Figure 174 on
page 283) and connected to a customer switch (A or B). Incoming layer 2 protocol packets
received on an access port are encapsulated and forwarded to the tunnel ports.
The Tunnel port is an egress port at the edge of the service provider's network and connected to
another service providers switch. Incoming encapsulated layer 2 protocol packets received on a
tunnel port are decapsulated and sent to an access port.

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30.2 Configuring Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling


Click Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown.

Figure 175 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 127 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this to enable layer 2 protocol tunneling on the Switch.
Destination MAC Specify an MAC address with which the Switch uses to encapsulate the layer 2 protocol
Address packets by replacing the destination MAC address in the packets.

Note: The MAC address can be either a unicast MAC address or multicast MAC address. If
you use a unicast MAC address, make sure the MAC address does not exist in the
address table of a switch on the service providers network.

Note: All the edge switches in the service providers network should be set to use the same
MAC address for encapsulation.
Port This field displays the port number.
* Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
CDP Select this option to have the Switch tunnel CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) packets so that
other Cisco devices can be discovered through the service providers network.

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Table 127 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
STP Select this option to have the Switch tunnel STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) packets so that
STP can run properly across the service providers network and spanning trees can be set up
based on bridge information from all (local and remote) networks.
VTP Select this option to have the Switch tunnel VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) packets so that all
customer switches can use consistent VLAN configuration through the service providers
network.
Point to Point The Switch supports PAgP (Port Aggregation Protocol), LACP (Link Aggregation Control
Protocol) and UDLD (UniDirectional Link Detection) tunneling for a point-to-point topology.

Both PAgP and UDLD are Ciscos proprietary data link layer protocols. PAgP is similar to LACP
and used to set up a logical aggregation of Ethernet ports automatically. UDLD is to
determine the links physical status and detect a unidirectional link.
PAGP Select this option to have the Switch send PAgP packets to a peer to automatically negotiate
and build a logical port aggregation.
LACP Select this option to have the Switch send LACP packets to a peer to dynamically creates and
manages trunk groups.
UDLD Select this option to have the Switch send UDLD packets to a peers port it connected to
monitor the physical status of a link.
Mode Select Access to have the Switch encapsulate the incoming layer 2 protocol packets and
forward them to the tunnel port(s). Select Access for ingress ports at the edge of the
service provider's network.

You can enable L2PT services for STP, LACP, VTP, CDP, UDLD, and PAGP on the access port(s)
only.

Select Tunnel for egress ports at the edge of the service provider's network. The Switch
decapsulates the encapsulated layer 2 protocol packets received on a tunnel port by
changing the destination MAC address to the original one, and then forward them to an
access port. If the service(s) is not enabled on an access port, the protocol packets are
dropped.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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C HAPTER 31
DoS Prevention

This chapter explains the DoS Prevention screens.

31.1 DoS Prevention Overview


To protect against DoS (Denial of Service) attacks such as SYN flooding and Ping of Death, the
Switch can use filtering actions to determine when to start dropping packets that may potentially be
associated with a DoS attack.

31.2 Configuring DoS Prevention


Click Advanced Application > DoS Prevention in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.

Figure 176 DoS Prevention

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 128 DoS Prevention

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select the check box to enable DoS prevention.
Action Specify the action(s) and filtering criteria the Switch takes on all incoming packets.
Mac Select the If packets with source Mac address equals destination Mac address, drop
them. check box to discard any packets whose source MAC address and destination MAC
address are the same.
IP Select the If packets with source IP address equals destination IP address, drop
them. check box to discard any IP packets whose source IP address and destination IP
address are the same.
ICMP select the If the packets are fragmented ICMP packets, drop them. check box to have
the Switch discard any fragmented ICMP packets.
TCP Select the Check TCP SYN packet with source port values are always 0, drop them.
check box to have the Switch discard any TCP SYN packets whose source port numbers are
zero.

Select the TCP fragments with offset value of 1 are dropped. check box to have the
Switch discard any TCP fragments with a Data Offset of 1.

Select the TCP packets with control flags equals 0 and sequence number equals 0,
drop them. check box to have the Switch discard any TCP packets whose control (flag) bit
and sequence number are 0.

Select the TCP packets with source port equals destination port, drop them. check
box to have the Switch discard any TCP packets whose source port and destination port are
the same.

Select the TCP packets with SYN and FIN bits, drop them. check box to have the Switch
discard the TCP packets that contain both SYN (SYNchronize) and FIN (Finish) flags.

Select the TCP packets with FIN, URG and PSH bits and sequence number equals 0,
drop them. check box to have the Switch discard any TCP packets whose FIN (Finish), URG
(URGent) and PSH (Push) flags bits and sequence number are 0.
UDP Select the UDP packets with source port equals destination port, drop them. check
box to have the Switch discard any UDP packets whose source port and destination port are
the same.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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C HAPTER 32
PPPoE IA

This chapter describes how the Switch gives a PPPoE termination server additional information that
the server can use to identify and authenticate a PPPoE client.

32.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Overview


A PPPoE Intermediate Agent (PPPoE IA) is deployed between a PPPoE server and PPPoE clients. It
helps the PPPoE server identify and authenticate clients by adding subscriber line specific
information to PPPoE discovery packets from clients before forwarding them to the PPPoE server.

PPPoE Client PPPoE IA PPPoE Server

32.1.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Tag Format


If the PPPoE Intermediate Agent is enabled, the Switch adds a vendor-specific tag to PADI (PPPoE
Active Discovery Initialization) and PADR (PPPoE Active Discovery Request) packets from PPPoE
clients. This tag is defined in RFC 2516 and has the following format for this feature.

Table 129 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Vendor-specific Tag Format

Tag_Type Tag_Len Value i1 i2

(0x0105)

The Tag_Type is 0x0105 for vendor-specific tags, as defined in RFC 2516. The Tag_Len indicates the
length of Value, i1 and i2. The Value is the 32-bit number 0x00000DE9, which stands for the ADSL
Forum IANA entry. i1 and i2 are PPPoE intermediate agent sub-options, which contain additional
information about the PPPoE client.

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32.1.2 Sub-Option Format


There are two types of sub-option: Agent Circuit ID Sub-option and Agent Remote ID Sub-
option. They have the following formats.

Table 130 PPPoE IA Circuit ID Sub-option Format: User-defined String

SubOpt Length Value


0x01 N String

(1 byte) (1 byte) (63 bytes)

Table 131 PPPoE IA Remote ID Sub-option Format

SubOpt Length Value


0x02 N MAC Address or String

(1 byte) (1 byte) (63 bytes)

The 1 in the first field identifies this as an Agent Circuit ID sub-option and 2 identifies this as an
Agent Remote ID sub-option. The next field specifies the length of the field. The Switch puts the
PPPoE clients MAC address into the Agent Remote ID Sub-option if you do not specify any user-
defined string.

32.1.2.1 WT-101 Default Circuit ID Syntax


If you do not configure a Circuit ID string, the Switch automatically generates a Circuit ID string
according to the default Circuit ID syntax which is defined in the DSL Forum Working Text (WT)-
101. The default access node identifier is the host name of the PPPoE intermediate agent and the
eth indicates Ethernet.

Table 132 PPPoE IA Circuit ID Sub-option Format: Defined in WT-101

SubOpt Length Value


0x01 N Access Space eth Space Slot / Port No : VLAN ID
Node ID
(1 byte) (1 byte) Identifier (1 (3 (1 (1 (2 (1 (4
byte) byte) byte) (1 byte) byte) byte) bytes)
(20 byte) byte)

32.1.3 PPPoE IA Configuration Options


The PPPoE IA configuration on the Switch is divided into Global and VLAN screens. The screen you
should use for configuration depends on the PPPoE discovery packets to which you want to add
subscriber line specific information on your network. Choose the configuration screen based on the
following criteria:

Global: The Switch adds the same subscriber line specific information to all PPPoE discovery
packets it receives.
VLAN: The Switch is configured on a per-VLAN basis. The Switch can be configured to add
different subscriber line specific information to PPPoE discovery packets in different VLANs.

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32.2 The PPPoE IA Status Screen


Click Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown. Use this screen to view the PPPoE Intermediate Agent status on the Switch.

Figure 177 Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Status

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 133 Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Status

LABEL DESCRIPTION
PPPoE IA Mode This field displays:

None: if the PPPoE intermediate agent is disabled on the Switch.


Global: if the Switch is configured to add the same subscriber line specific information to
all PPPoE discovery packets it receives.
VLAN: followed by a VLAN ID or multiple VLAN IDs if the Switch is configured to add
subscriber line specific information to PPPoE discovery packets in specific VLAN(s).

32.3 PPPoE IA Port Tel Configuration


Click Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration in the navigation panel, and then click
the Port Tel link to display the screen as shown.

Use this screen to configure telephone numbers for each port, if you want to add them into PPPoE
IA option 82 tags. See more information in the Advanced Application > PPPoE IA
Configuration > Global (see Section 32.4 on page 291) or Advanced Application > PPPoE IA
Configuration > VLAN screen (see Section 32.5 on page 293).

Figure 178 Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration > Port Tel

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 134 Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration > Port Tel

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port This field shows the number of a DSL port and the VDSL port bonding group ID if the port
has joined one.
Telephone Enter a string or digits to represent the ports telephone number. Spaces are not allowed.
number
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

32.4 PPPoE IA Global Configuration


Click Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration in the navigation panel, and then click
the Global link to display the screen as shown. Use this screen to configure the global PPPoE IA
settings the Switch applies to all PPPoE clients.

You can additionally configure whether to add/replace PPPoE IA option 82 tags on a per-port basis
in the Basic Setting > Port Setup screen (see Section 8.9 on page 82).

Figure 179 Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration > Global

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 135 Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration > Global

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this option to enable the PPPoE intermediate agent globally on the Switch.

Note: You cannot enable this function globally if you have configured a rule for a specific VLAN
on the port in the Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration > VLAN screen.
Append Circuit Select this option to have the Switch add the user-defined identifier string (specified in the
ID Circuit ID Information field) to PADI or PADR packets from PPPoE clients.

If you leave this option unselected and do not configure any Circuit ID string (using CLI
commands) on the Switch, the Switch will use its host name.
Circuit ID Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Circuit ID
Information sub-option for any PPPoE discovery packets it forwards. Spaces are allowed.

Otherwise, select the second option to have the Switch use its host name.
Tag Option Select the variables that you want the Switch to generate and add in the Agent Circuit ID
sub-option. The variable options include SP, SV, PV and SPV which indicate combinations of
slot-port, slot-VLAN, port-VLAN and slot-port-VLAN respectively in ASCII code. Alternatively,
select private to have the Switch use the Agent Circuit ID old format (slot-port-VLAN) in
binary. The Switch uses a zero for the slot value in the PADI and PADR packets. An example
of the port number is 1 if you select private while it is 31 in ASCII code if you select SP, SV
or SPV.
Delimiter Select a delimiter to separate the Circuit ID information, slot ID, port number and/or VLAN
ID from each other. You can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,),
forward slash (/) or space. Select none to not use any delimiter.
Append Remote Select Remote ID to have the Switch add the string (specified in the Remote ID
ID Information field) to PADI or PADR packets from PPPoE clients.
Remote ID Select one of the following options:
Information
Append Remote ID by user identifier: to have the Switch add the specified Remote ID
user identifier into the Agent Remote ID sub-option for any PPPoE discovery packets it
forwards..

Append Remote ID by port name: to have the Switch use the name of the port on which
the PPPoE discovery packets are received and add it to the PPPoE discovery packets.

Append Remote ID by user identifier + port name + port TEL: to have the Switch add
the specified Remote ID user identifier, the ports name, and the ports telephone number
into the Agent Remote ID sub-option for any PPPoE discovery packets it forwards. You can
configure a telephone number for each port in the Advanced Application > PPPoE IA
Configuration > Port Tel screen (see Section 32.3 on page 290).
Remote ID user Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Remote ID
identifier sub-option for PPPoE discovery packets received on this port. Spaces are allowed.
Remote ID Select a delimiter to separate the Remote ID information, slot ID, port number and/or VLAN
Delimiter
ID from each other. You can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,),
forward slash (/) or space. Select none to not use any delimiter.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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32.5 PPPoE IA VLAN Configuration


Click Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration in the navigation panel, and then click
the VLAN link to display the screen as shown. Use this screen to have the Switch add extra
information to PPPoE discovery packets from PPPoE clients on a per-VLAN basis.

Note: This screen is not available if you have enabled PPPoE IA globally in the Advanced
Application > PPPoE IA Configuration screen.

You can additionally configure whether to add/replace PPPoE IA option 82 tags on a per-port basis
in the Basic Setting > Port Setup screen (see Section 8.9 on page 82).

Figure 180 Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration > VLAN

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 136 Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration > VLAN

LABEL DESCRIPTION
VID Enter the ID number of the VLAN to which PPPoE IA settings you configure here apply.
Append Circuit Select this option to have the Switch add the user-defined identifier string (specified in the
ID Circuit ID Information field) to PADI or PADR packets from PPPoE clients.

If you leave this option unselected and do not configure any Circuit ID string (using CLI
commands) on the Switch, the Switch will use its host name.
Circuit ID Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Circuit ID
Information sub-option for PPPoE discovery packets with the specified VLAN tag. Spaces are allowed.

Otherwise, select the second option to have the Switch use its host name.

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Table 136 Advanced Application > PPPoE IA Configuration > VLAN (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Tag Option Select the variables that you want the Switch to generate and add into the Agent Circuit ID
sub-option for PPPoE discovery packets with the specified VLAN tag. The variable options
include SP, SV, PV and SPV which indicate combinations of slot-port, slot-VLAN, port-VLAN
and slot-port-VLAN respectively in ASCII code. Alternatively, select private to have the
Switch use the Agent Circuit ID old format (slot-port-VLAN) in binary. An example of the port
number is 1 if you select private while it is 31 in ASCII code if you select SP, SV or SPV.
Delimiter Select a delimiter to separate the Circuit ID information, slot ID, port number and/or VLAN
ID from each other. You can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,),
forward slash (/) or space. Select none to not use any delimiter.
Append Remote Select this option to have the Switch add the user-defined identifier string (specified in the
ID Remote ID Information field) to PADI or PADR packets from PPPoE clients.
Remote ID Select one of the following options:
Information
Append Remote ID by user identifier: to have the Switch add the specified Remote ID
user identifier into the Agent Remote ID sub-option for PPPoE discovery packets with the
specified VLAN tag it forwards.

Append Remote ID by port name: to have the Switch use the name of the port on which
the PPPoE discovery packets with the specified VLAN tag are received and add it to the
PPPoE discovery packets.

Append Remote ID by user identifier + port name + port TEL: to have the Switch add
the specified Remote ID user identifier, the ports name, and the ports telephone number
into the Agent Remote ID sub-option for PPPoE discovery packets it forwards with the
specified VLAN tag.
Remote ID user Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Remote ID
identifier sub-option for PPPoE discovery packets with the specified VLAN tag received on this port.
Spaces are allowed.
Remote ID Select a delimiter to separate the Remote ID information, slot ID, port number and/or VLAN
Delimiter
ID from each other. You can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,),
forward slash (/) or space. Select none to not use any delimiter.
Add Click Add to insert a new VLAN-specific PPPoE IA entry to the Switchs run-time memory.
The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the above fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
VID This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group to which the PPPoE IA settings apply.
Tag Option This field displays what information should be included in the Agent Circuit ID sub-option.
SP, SV, PV and SPV indicate combinations of slot-port, slot-VLAN, port-VLAN and slot-port-
VLAN respectively in ASCII code. Alternatively, select private to have the Switch use the
DHCP relay option 82 old format (slot-port-VLAN) in binary. The Switch uses a zero for the
slot value in the PADI and PADR packets. An example of the port number is 1 if you select
private while it is 31 in ASCII code if you select SP, SV or SPV.
Delimiter This field displays the delimiter used to separate the Circuit ID information, slot ID, port
number and/or VLAN ID from each other. none displays if no delimiter is used.
Circuit ID This field displays whether the Switch adds a string to the Agent Circuit ID sub-option
(Enable) or not (Disable).
Remote ID This field displays whether the Switch adds a string to the Agent Remote ID sub-option
(Enable) or not (Disable).
Delete Select the configuration entries you want to remove and click Delete to remove them.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.

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32.6 ADSL Fallback


The Switch can connect to both VDSL and ADSL CPEs and/or CPEs that have both VDSL and ADSL
support. When a port is connected to an ADSL CPE and a VDSL connection cannot be established,
the Switch tries using the ADSL standard(s) you specified in the VDSL Profile > LineProfile
screen and the PVCs you configured in the ADSL Fallback screens for that port to make an ADSL
connection.

Note: Subnet-based VLAN, protocol-based VLAN and MAC-based VLAN settings cannot
apply to the port(s) on which the Switch falls back to use ADSL.

32.6.1 PVC Configuration


Click Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown. Use this screen to view and configure PVCs for Ethernet over ATM (EoA) packets on
individual ports.

Figure 181 Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback > PVC

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 137 Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback > PVC


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select the check box to enable this PVC channel.
Port Enter the number of the DSL port for which to configure a channel.
VPI Enter the VPI (Virtual Path Indicator) from 0 to 255 for a channel on a port. The VPI and VCI
identify a channel.
VCI Enter the VCI (Virtual Channel Indicator) from 32 to 65535 for a channel on a port.

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Table 137 Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback > PVC (continued)
LABEL DESCRIPTION
PVID Enter the PVID (Port VLAN ID) that the Switch assigns to untagged frames received on this
channel.

This must be the VLAN ID of a VLAN that is already configured. The port that you are
configuring and the uplink port must also be set to the fixed status in the VLAN.

You should also select Tx Tagging for the VLAN to have the Switch tag all the outgoing
frames on the DSL port with this VLAN ID.
Encapsulation Specify the encapsulation type (llc or vc) for this channel.
Priority Assign a default IEEE 802.1p default priority (0 to 7). This is the priority value to add to
incoming frames without a (IEEE 802.1p) priority tag.
FCS Select fcs to have the Switch include the original FCS (Frame Check Sequence) in the
bridged frames. Otherwise, select no fcs.
MVLAN Select this option to turn on multicast VLAN for this channel.

Multicast VLAN allows one single multicast VLAN to be shared among different subscriber
VLANs on the network. This improves bandwidth utilization by reducing multicast traffic in
the subscriber VLANs and simplifies multicast group management.
Add Click Add to insert a new PVC entry to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the above fields to your previous configuration.
Index This is the index number of the channel on this port. Click a number to edit that channel.
Active This field displays whether the channel is enabled (Yes) or not (No).
Port This field displays the DSL port for which this channel is configured.
VPI This field displays the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) for this channel.
VCI This field displays the Virtual Circuit Identifier (VCI) for this channel.
PVID This field displays the PVID (Port VLAN ID) to assign to untagged frames received on this
channel.
Encap. This field displays the encapsulation type (llc or vc) for this channel.
Priority This field displays the priority value (0 to 7) that the Switch adds to frames that come in on
this channel without a (IEEE 802.1p) priority tag.
FCS This field displays whether the original FCS is included in the frames.
MVLAN This field displays whether the multicast VLAN is active for this channel.
Delete Select the entries you want to remove and click Delete to remove them.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
Paging Select Prev or Next to show the previous/next screen or select a page number from the
drop-down list box to display a specific page if all entries cannot be seen in one screen.

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32.6.2 IPPVC Configuration


Click Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback in the navigation panel, and then click the IPPVC
link to display the screen as shown. Use this screen to view and configure IPPVCs for IPoA packets
on individual ports.

Figure 182 Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback > IPPVC

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 138 Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback > IPPVC


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select the check box to enable this IP PVC channel.
Port Enter the number of DSL port for which to configure a channel.
VPI Enter the VPI (Virtual Path Indicator) from 0 to 255 for a channel on a port. The VPI and VCI
identify a channel.
VCI Enter the VCI (Virtual Channel Indicator) from 32 to 65535 for a channel on a port.
PVID Enter the PVID (Port VLAN ID) that the Switch assigns to untagged frames received on this
channel.

This must be the VLAN ID of a VLAN that is already configured. The port that you are
configuring and the uplink port must also be set to the fixed status in the VLAN.

You should also select Tx Tagging for the VLAN to have the Switch tag all the outgoing
frames on the DSL port with this VLAN ID.
Encapsulation Specify the encapsulation type (llc or vc) for this channel.
Priority Assign a default IEEE 802.1p default priority (0 to 7). This is the priority value to add to
incoming frames without a (IEEE 802.1p) priority tag.
Subnet IP Enter the subscribers IP address to which the Switch forwards the downstream traffic on
this channel.

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Table 138 Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback > IPPVC (continued)
LABEL DESCRIPTION
Subnet Mask Enter the subscribers subnet mask to which the Switch forwards the downstream traffic on
this channel.
Default Route Enter the IPv4 address of the default gateway to which the Switch forwards frames received
on this channel.
Add Click Add to insert a new IPPVC entry to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the above fields to your previous configuration.
Index This is the index number of the channel on this port. Click a number to edit that channel.
Active This field displays whether the channel is enabled (Yes) or not (No).
Port This field displays the DSL port for which this channel is configured.
VPI This field displays the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) for this channel.
VCI This field displays the Virtual Circuit Identifier (VCI) for this channel.
PVID This field displays the PVID (Port VLAN ID) to assign to untagged frames received on this
channel.
Encap. This field displays the encapsulation type (llc or vc) for this channel.
Priority This field displays the priority value (0 to 7) that the Switch adds to frames that come in on
this channel without a (IEEE 802.1p) priority tag.
Subnet IP This field displays the IP address for downstream traffic on this channel.
Subnet Mask This field displays the subnet mask for downstream traffic on this channel.
Default Route This field displays the default gateway for this channel.
Delete Select the entries you want to remove and click Delete to remove them.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
Paging Select Prev or Next to show the previous/next screen or select a page number from the
drop-down list box to display a specific page if all entries cannot be seen in one screen.

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32.6.3 PAEPVC Configuration


Click Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback in the navigation panel, and then click the
PAEPVC link to display the screen as shown. Use this screen to view and configure PPPoA-to-PPPoE
(PAE) PVCs for PAE translation on individual ports.

Figure 183 Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback > PAEPVC

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 139 Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback > PAEPVC


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select the check box to enable this channel.
Port Enter the number of DSL port for which to configure a channel.
VPI Enter the VPI (Virtual Path Indicator) from 0 to 255 for a channel on a port. The VPI and VCI
identify a channel.
VCI Enter the VCI (Virtual Channel Indicator) from 32 to 65535 for a channel on a port.
PVID Enter the PVID (Port VLAN ID) that the Switch assigns to untagged frames received on this
channel.

This must be the VLAN ID of a VLAN that is already configured. The port that you are
configuring and the uplink port must also be set to the fixed status in the VLAN.

You should also select Tx Tagging for the VLAN to have the Switch tag all the outgoing
frames on the DSL port with this VLAN ID.
Encapsulation Specify the encapsulation type (llc or vc) for this channel.
Priority Assign a default IEEE 802.1p default priority (0 to 7). This is the priority value to add to
incoming frames without a (IEEE 802.1p) priority tag.
Add Click Add to insert a new PAEPVC entry to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the above fields to your previous configuration.
Index This is the index number of the channel on this port. Click a number to edit that channel.

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Table 139 Advanced Application > ADSL Fallback > PAEPVC (continued)
LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active This field displays whether the channel is enabled (Yes) or not (No).
Port This field displays the DSL port for which this channel is configured.
VPI This field displays the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) for this channel.
VCI This field displays the Virtual Circuit Identifier (VCI) for this channel.
PVID This field displays the PVID (Port VLAN ID) to assign to untagged frames received on this
channel.
Encap. This field displays the encapsulation type (llc or vc) for this channel.
Priority This field displays the priority value (0 to 7) that the Switch adds to frames that come in on
this channel without a (IEEE 802.1p) priority tag.
Delete Select the entries you want to remove and click Delete to remove them.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
Paging Select Prev or Next to show the previous/next screen or select a page number from the
drop-down list box to display a specific page if all entries cannot be seen in one screen.

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C HAPTER 33
Static Route

This chapter shows you how to configure static routes.

33.1 Static Routing Overview


The Switch uses IP for communication with management computers, for example using HTTP,
Telnet, SSH, or SNMP. Use IP static routes to have the Switch respond to remote management
stations that are not reachable through the default gateway. The Switch can also use static routes
to send data to a server or device that is not reachable through the default gateway, for example
when sending SNMP traps or using ping to test IP connectivity.

This figure shows a Telnet session coming in from network N1. The Switch sends reply traffic to
default gateway R1 which routes it back to the managers computer. The Switch needs a static
route to tell it to use router R2 to send traffic to an SNMP trap server on network N2.

Figure 184 Static Routing Overview


N1 N2

Telnet SNMP

R1 R2

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33.2 Configuring Static Routing


Click IP Application > Static Routing in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.

Figure 185 IP Application > Static Routing

The following table describes the related labels you use to create a static route.

Table 140 IP Application > Static Routing


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Name Enter a descriptive name (up to 10 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Destination IP This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
Address
IP Subnet Enter the subnet mask for this destination. Routing is always based on network number. If
Mask you need to specify a route to a single host, use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the
subnet mask field to force the network number to be identical to the host ID.
Gateway IP Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your Switch
Address that will forward the packet to the destination. The gateway must be a router on the same
segment as your Switch.
Metric The metric represents the cost of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses hop
count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected networks.
Enter a number that approximates the cost for this link. The number need not be precise,
but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good number.
Add Click Add to insert a new static route to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to reset the above fields to your previous configuration.
Clear Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
Index This field displays the index number of the route. Click a number to edit the static route
entry.
Active This field displays Yes when the static route is activated and NO when it is deactivated.
Name This field displays the descriptive name for this route. This is for identification purposes only.
Destination This field displays the IP network address of the final destination.
Address
Subnet Mask This field displays the subnet mask for this destination.

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Table 140 IP Application > Static Routing (continued)


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Gateway This field displays the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of
Address your Switch that will forward the packet to the destination.
Metric This field displays the cost of transmission for routing purposes.
Delete Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.

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C HAPTER 34
Differentiated Services

This chapter shows you how to configure Differentiated Services (DiffServ) on the Switch.

34.1 DiffServ Overview


Quality of Service (QoS) is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in the
flow are given the same priority. You can use CoS (class of service) to give different priorities to
different packet types.

DiffServ is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they receive specific per-hop
treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on the application types
and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the level of
service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices to handle the
packets differently depending on the code points without the need to negotiate paths or remember
state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have to request a particular service
or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.

34.1.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior


DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (ToS) field in
the IP header. The DS field contains a 6-bit DSCP field which can define up to 64 service levels and
the remaining 2 bits are defined as currently unused (CU). The following figure illustrates the DS
field.

Figure 186 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field

DSCP (6 bits) CU (2 bits)

DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that non-DiffServ
compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.

The DSCP value determines the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each packet gets as it is forwarded
across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule different kinds of traffic can be marked for
different priorities of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated according to the DSCP values and
the configured policies.

34.1.2 DiffServ Network Example


The following figure depicts a DiffServ network consisting of a group of directly connected DiffServ-
compliant network devices. The boundary node (A in Figure 187) in a DiffServ network classifies
(marks with a DSCP value) the incoming packets into different traffic flows (Platinum, Gold,
Silver, Bronze) based on the configured marking rules. A network administrator can then apply

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various traffic policies to the traffic flows. An example traffic policy, is to give higher drop
precedence to one traffic flow over others. In our example, packets in the Bronze traffic flow are
more likely to be dropped when congestion occurs than the packets in the Platinum traffic flow as
they move across the DiffServ network.

Figure 187 DiffServ Network

A
S G P P

P G S B S G P P
P - Platinum S
G - Gold B
S - Silver B
B - Bronze

34.2 Two Rate Three Color Marker Traffic Policing


Traffic policing is the limiting of the input or output transmission rate of a class of traffic on the
basis of user-defined criteria. Traffic policing methods measure traffic flows against user-defined
criteria and identify it as either conforming, exceeding or violating the criteria.

Two Rate Three Color Marker (TRTCM, defined in RFC 2698) is a type of traffic policing that
identifies packets by comparing them to two user-defined rates: the Committed Information Rate
(CIR) and the Peak Information Rate (PIR). The CIR specifies the average rate at which packets are
admitted to the network. The PIR is greater than or equal to the CIR. CIR and PIR values are based
on the guaranteed and maximum bandwidth respectively as negotiated between a service provider
and client.

Two Rate Three Color Marker evaluates incoming packets and marks them with one of three colors
which refer to packet loss priority levels. High packet loss priority level is referred to as red,
medium is referred to as yellow and low is referred to as green. After TRTCM is configured and
DiffServ is enabled the following actions are performed on the colored packets:

Red (high loss priority level) packets are dropped.


Yellow (medium loss priority level) packets are dropped if there is congestion on the network.
Green (low loss priority level) packets are forwarded.

TRTCM operates in one of two modes: color-blind or color-aware. In color-blind mode, packets are
marked based on evaluating against the PIR and CIR regardless of if they have previously been
marked or not. In the color-aware mode, packets are marked based on both existing color and
evaluation against the PIR and CIR. If the packets do not match any of colors, then the packets
proceed unchanged.

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34.2.1 TRTCM-Color-blind Mode


All packets are evaluated against the PIR. If a packet exceeds the PIR it is marked red. Otherwise it
is evaluated against the CIR. If it exceeds the CIR then it is marked yellow. Finally, if it is below the
CIR then it is marked green.

Figure 188 TRTCM-Color-blind Mode

Exceed NO Exceed NO Low Packet


PIR? CIR? Loss

YES YES

High Packet Medium Packet


Loss Loss

34.2.2 TRTCM-Color-aware Mode


In color-aware mode the evaluation of the packets uses the existing packet loss priority. TRTCM can
increase a packet loss priority of a packet but it cannot decrease it. Packets that have been
previously marked red or yellow can only be marked with an equal or higher packet loss priority.

Packets marked red (high packet loss priority) continue to be red without evaluation against the PIR
or CIR. Packets marked yellow can only be marked red or remain yellow so they are only evaluated
against the PIR. Only the packets marked green are first evaluated against the PIR and then if they
dont exceed the PIR level are they evaluated against the CIR.

Figure 189 TRTCM-Color-aware Mode

NO
Exceed NO NO Exceed NO Low Packet
Red? Yellow? Loss
PIR? CIR?

YES YES YES YES

High Packet High Packet Medium Packet Medium Packet


Loss Loss Loss Loss

34.3 Activating DiffServ


Activate DiffServ to apply marking rules or IEEE 802.1p priority mapping on the selected port(s).

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Click IP Application > DiffServ in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.

Figure 190 IP Application > DiffServ

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 141 IP Application > DiffServ


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this option to enable DiffServ on the Switch.
Port This field displays the index number of a port on the Switch.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active Select Active to enable DiffServ on the port.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

34.3.1 Configuring 2-Rate 3 Color Marker Settings


Use this screen to configure TRTCM settings. Click the 2-rate 3 Color Marker link in the DiffServ
screen to display the screen as shown next.

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Note: You cannot enable both TRTCM and Bandwidth Control at the same time.

Figure 191 IP Application > DiffServ > 2-rate 3 Color Marker

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 142 IP Application > DiffServ > 2-rate 3 Color Marker


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this to activate TRTCM (Two Rate Three Color Marker) on the Switch. The Switch evaluates
and marks the packets based on the TRTCM settings.

Note: You must also activate DiffServ on the Switch and the individual ports for the Switch to drop
red (high loss priority) colored packets.
Mode Select color-blind to have the Switch treat all incoming packets as uncolored. All incoming
packets are evaluated against the CIR and PIR.

Select color-aware to treat the packets as marked by some preceding entity. Incoming packets
are evaluated based on their existing color. Incoming packets that are not marked proceed through
the Switch.
Port This field displays the index number of a port on the Switch.
* Settings in this row apply to all ports.

Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.

Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active Select this to activate TRTCM on the port.
Commit Specify the Commit Information Rate (CIR) for this port.
Rate
Peak Specify the Peak Information Rate (PIR) for this port.
Rate
DSCP Use this section to specify the DSCP values that you want to assign to packets based on the color
they are marked via TRTCM.

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Table 142 IP Application > DiffServ > 2-rate 3 Color Marker (continued)
LABEL DESCRIPTION
green Specify the DSCP value to use for packets with low packet loss priority.
yellow Specify the DSCP value to use for packets with medium packet loss priority.
red Specify the DSCP value to use for packets with high packet loss priority.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

34.4 DSCP-to-IEEE 802.1p Priority Settings


You can configure the DSCP to IEEE 802.1p mapping to allow the Switch to prioritize all traffic
based on the incoming DSCP value according to the DiffServ to IEEE 802.1p mapping table.

The following table shows the default DSCP-to-IEEE802.1p mapping.

Table 143 Default DSCP-IEEE 802.1p Mapping


DSCP VALUE 07 8 15 16 23 24 31 32 39 40 47 48 55 56 63
IEEE 802.1p 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

34.4.1 Configuring DSCP Settings


To change the DSCP-IEEE 802.1p mapping click the DSCP Setting link in the DiffServ screen to
display the screen as shown next.

Figure 192 IP Application > DiffServ > DSCP Setting

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 144 IP Application > DiffServ > DSCP Setting


LABEL DESCRIPTION
0 63 This is the DSCP classification identification number.

To set the IEEE 802.1p priority mapping, select the priority level from the drop-down list box.

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Table 144 IP Application > DiffServ > DSCP Setting (continued)


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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DHCP

This chapter shows you how to configure the DHCP feature.

35.1 DHCP Overview


DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual computers
to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the Switch as a DHCP
relay agent. If you configure the Switch as a relay agent, then the Switch forwards DHCP requests
to DHCP server on your network. If you dont configure the Switch as a DHCP relay agent then you
must have a DHCP server in the broadcast domain of the client computers or else the client
computers must be configured manually.

35.1.1 DHCP Modes


If there is already a DHCP server on your network, then you can configure the Switch as a DHCP
relay agent. When the Switch receives a request from a computer on your network, it contacts the
DHCP server for the necessary IP information, and then relays the assigned information back to the
computer.

35.1.2 DHCP Configuration Options


The DHCP configuration on the Switch is divided into Global and VLAN screens. The screen you
should use for configuration depends on the DHCP services you want to offer the DHCP clients on
your network. Choose the configuration screen based on the following criteria:

Global: The Switch forwards all DHCP requests to the same DHCP server.
VLAN: The Switch is configured on a VLAN by VLAN basis. The Switch can be configured to relay
DHCP requests to different DHCP servers for clients in different VLAN.

35.2 DHCP Status


Click IP Application > DHCP in the navigation panel. The DHCP Status screen displays.

Figure 193 IP Application > DHCP > DHCP Status

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 145 IP Application > DHCP > DHCP Status


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Relay Mode This field displays:

None: if the Switch is not configured as a DHCP relay agent.


Global: if the Switch is configured as a DHCP relay agent only.
VLAN: followed by a VLAN ID or multiple VLAN IDs if it is configured as a relay agent for
specific VLAN(s).

35.3 DHCP Port Tel


Click the Port Tel link in the IP Application > DHCP screen to open the following screen.

Use this screen to configure telephone numbers for each port, if you want to add them into DHCP
option 82 tags. See more information in the IP Application > DHCP > Global (see Section 35.4
on page 313) or IP Application > DHCP > VLAN screen (see Section 35.5 on page 318).

Figure 194 IP Application > DHCP > Port Tel

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 146 IP Application > DHCP > Port Tel


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port This field shows the number of a DSL port. This field also shows the VDSL port bonding group
ID if the port has joined any.
Telephone Enter a string or digits to represent the ports telephone number. Spaces are not allowed.
number
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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35.4 DHCP Relay


Configure DHCP relay on the Switch if the DHCP clients and the DHCP server are not in the same
broadcast domain. During the initial IP address leasing, the Switch helps to relay network
information (such as the IP address and subnet mask) between a DHCP client and a DHCP server.
Once the DHCP client obtains an IP address and can connect to the network, network information
renewal is done between the DHCP client and the DHCP server without the help of the Switch.

The Switch can be configured as a global DHCP relay. This means that the Switch forwards all DHCP
requests from all domains to the same DHCP server. You can also configure the Switch to relay
DHCP information based on the VLAN membership of the DHCP clients.

35.4.1 DHCP Relay Agent Information


The Switch can add information about the source of client DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP
server by adding Relay Agent Information. This helps provide authentication about the source of
the requests. The DHCP server can then provide an IP address based on this information. Please
refer to RFC 3046 for more details.

The DHCP Relay Agent Information feature adds an Agent Information field (also known as the
Option 82 field) to DHCP requests. The Option 82 field is in the DHCP headers of client DHCP
request frames that the Switch relays to a DHCP server.

35.4.2 DHCP Relay Agent Information Format


A DHCP Relay Agent Information option has the following format.

Figure 195 DHCP Relay Agent Information Option Format


Code Length i1 i2 iN

(82) (N) ...

i1, i2 and iN are DHCP relay agent sub-options, which contain additional information about the
DHCP client. You need to define at least one sub-option.

35.4.3 Sub-Option Format


There are two types of sub-option: Agent Circuit ID Sub-option and Agent Remote ID Sub-
option. They have the following formats.

Figure 196 DHCP Relay Agent Circuit ID Sub-option Format

SubOpt Length Value


1 N String or System Name

(1 byte) (1 byte)

Figure 197 DHCP Relay Agent Remote ID Sub-option Format

SubOpt Length Value


2 N String or Port Name

(1 byte) (1 byte)

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The 1 in the first field identifies this as an Agent Circuit ID sub-option and 2 identifies this as an
Agent Remote ID sub-option. The next field specifies the length of the field.

The following describes the default DHCP relay information that the Switch sends to the DHCP
server when you enable DHCP Option 82:

Table 147 DHCP Relay Agent Information


FIELD LABELS DESCRIPTION
Slot ID (1 byte) This value is always 0 for stand-alone switches.
Port ID (1 byte) This is the port that the DHCP client is connected to.
VLAN ID (2 bytes) This is the VLAN that the port belongs to.
Information (Circuit ID) (up to 15 bytes) This is the information you want the Switch to add in the DHCP
requests that it relays to a DHCP server.

You can configure the Switch to also append the remote ID to the option 82 field of DHCP requests.

35.4.4 Configuring DHCP Global Relay


Configure global DHCP relay in the DHCP Relay screen. Click IP Application > DHCP in the
navigation panel and click the Global link to display the screen as shown.

Note: The port to which the DHCP server connects and the port(s) from which the DHCP
requests come should be in the same VLAN.

You can additionally configure whether to add/replace DHCP relay option 82 tags on a per-port
basis in the Basic Setting > Port Setup screen (see Section 8.9 on page 82).

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Figure 198 IP Application > DHCP > Global > DHCP Relay

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 148 IP Application > DHCP > Global > DHCP Relay
LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this check box to enable DHCP relay.

Note: You cannot enable this function globally if you have configured a rule for a specific VLAN
on the port in the IP Application > DHCP > VLAN screen.
Remote DHCP Enter the IP address of a DHCP server in dotted decimal notation.
Server 1 .. 3
Relay Agent Select Option 82 to have the Switch add information (slot number, port number and VLAN
Information ID) and the Circuit ID and Remote ID sub-options to client DHCP requests that it relays to a
DHCP server.

Select Swap position of Circuit ID and Remote ID to have the Switch add information
(slot number, port number and VLAN ID) and the Circuit ID and Remote ID sub-option but
switch their positions in client DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Tag Option Select which information to have the Switch generate and add into the DHCP relay option 82
Circuit ID sub-option for DHCP requests. The variable options include SP, SV, PV and SPV
which indicate combinations of slot-port, slot-VLAN, port-VLAN and slot-port-VLAN
respectively in ASCII code. Alternatively, select private to have the Switch use the DHCP
relay option 82 old format (slot-port-VLAN) in binary. The Switch uses a zero for the slot value
in the DHCP requests. An example of the port number is 1 if you select private while it is 31
in ASCII code if you select SP, SV or SPV.

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Table 148 IP Application > DHCP > Global > DHCP Relay
LABEL DESCRIPTION
Delimiter Select a delimiter to separate the slot ID, port number and/or VLAN ID from each other. You
can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,), forward slash (/) or space.
Select none to not use any delimiter.
Information Select the first option and enter a string of up to 32 ASCII or binary characters that the
Switch adds into the client DHCP requests. Spaces are allowed.

Otherwise, select the second option to have the Switch use the system name you configure in
the General Setup screen.
Relay Remote Select the Remote ID check box to have the Switch add information configured in the
ID Remote ID Information field to client DHCP requests before the Switch relays them to a
DHCP server.
Remote ID Append Remote ID by user identifier: Select this to have the Switch add the specified
Information Remote ID user identifier into client DHCP requests received by the Switch. Spaces are
allowed.

Append Remote ID by port name: to have the Switch use the name of the port on which
the client DHCP requests are received and add it to client DHCP requests received by the
Switch.

Append Remote ID by user identifier + port name + port TEL: to have the Switch add
the specified Remote ID user identifier, the ports name, and the ports telephone number into
client DHCP requests received by the Switch.
Remote ID Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into client DHCP requests
user identifier received on this port. Spaces are allowed.
Remote ID Select a delimiter to separate the slot ID, port number and/or VLAN ID from each other. You
Delimiter
can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,), forward slash (/) or space.
Select none to not use any delimiter.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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35.4.5 Global DHCP Relay Configuration Example


The follow figure shows a network example where the Switch is used to relay DHCP requests for the
VLAN1 and VLAN2 domains. There is only one DHCP server that services the DHCP clients in both
domains.

Figure 199 Global DHCP Relay Network Example

DHCP Server
192.168.1.100

Internet

VLAN1 VLAN2

Configure the DHCP Relay screen as shown. Make sure you select the Option 82 check box to set
the Switch to send additional information (such as the VLAN ID) together with the DHCP requests to
the DHCP server. This allows the DHCP server to assign the appropriate IP address according to the
VLAN ID.

Figure 200 DHCP Relay Configuration Example

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35.5 Configuring DHCP VLAN Settings


Use this screen to configure your DHCP settings based on the VLAN domain of the DHCP clients.
Click IP Application > DHCP in the navigation panel, then click the VLAN link In the DHCP
Status screen that displays.

Note: You must set up a management IP address for each VLAN that you want to
configure DHCP settings for on the Switch.

See Section 8.7 on page 79 for information on how to set up management IP addresses for VLANs.

Note: This screen is not available if you have enabled DHCP Relay globally in the IP
Application > DHCP > Global > DHCP Relay screen.

You can additionally configure whether to add/replace DHCP relay option 82 tags on a per-port
basis in the Basic Setting > Port Setup screen (see Section 8.9 on page 82).

Figure 201 IP Application > DHCP > VLAN

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 149 IP Application > DHCP > VLAN


LABEL DESCRIPTION
VID Enter the ID number of the VLAN to which these DHCP settings apply.
Remote DHCP Enter the IP address of a DHCP server in dotted decimal notation.
Server 1 .. 3
Relay Agent Select the Option 82 check box to have the Switch add information (slot number, port
Information number and VLAN ID) and the Circuit ID and Remote ID sub-options to client DHCP requests
that it relays to a DHCP server.
Tag Option Select which information to have the Switch add information and the Circuit ID sub-option to
client DHCP requests the Switch receives with the specified VLAN tag. The variable options
include SP, SV, PV and SPV which indicate combinations of slot-port, slot-VLAN, port-VLAN
and slot-port-VLAN respectively in ASCII code. Alternatively, select private to have the
Switch use the DHCP relay option 82 old format (slot-port-VLAN) in binary. The Switch uses
a zero for the slot value in the DHCP requests. An example of the port number is 1 if you
select private while it is 31 in ASCII code if you select SP, SV or SPV.
Delimiter Select a delimiter to separate the Circuit ID information, slot ID, port number and/or VLAN
ID from each other. You can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,),
forward slash (/) or space. Select none to not use any delimiter.
Information Select the first option and enter a string of up to 32 ASCII or binary characters that the
Switch adds into the client DHCP requests. Spaces are allowed.

Otherwise, select the second option to have the Switch use the system name you configure
in the General Setup screen.
Relay Remote Select the Remote ID check box to have the Switch add information configured in the
ID Remote ID Information field to client DHCP requests before the Switch relays them to a
DHCP server.
Remote ID Append Remote ID by user identifier: Select this to have the Switch add the specified
Information Remote ID user identifier into client DHCP requests with the specified VLAN tag the Switch
relays. Spaces are allowed.

Append Remote ID by port name: to have the Switch use the name of the port on which
the client DHCP requests are received and add it to client DHCP requests with the specified
VLAN tag the Switch relays.

Append Remote ID by user identifier + port name + port TEL: to have the Switch add
the specified Remote ID user identifier, the ports name, and the ports telephone number
into client DHCP requests the Switch relays with the specified VLAN tag.
Remote ID Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into client DHCP requests
user identifier with the specified VLAN tag the Switch relays. Spaces are allowed.
Remote ID Select a delimiter to separate the slot ID, port number and/or VLAN ID from each other. You
Delimiter
can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,), forward slash (/) or space.
Select none to not use any delimiter.
Add Click Add to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear Click this to clear the fields above.
VID This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group to which this DHCP settings apply.
Type This field displays the DHCP mode (Relay).
DHCP Status For DHCP relay configuration, this field displays the first remote DHCP server IP address.
Delete Select the configuration entries you want to remove and click Delete to remove them.
Cancel Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.

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35.5.1 Example: DHCP Relay for Two VLANs


The following example displays two VLANs (VIDs 2 and 3) for a campus network. Two DHCP servers
are installed to serve each VLAN. The system is set up to forward DHCP requests from the
dormitory rooms (VLAN 2) to DHCP server X with an IP address of 192.168.2.100. Requests from
the academic buildings (VLAN 3) are sent to DHCP server Y with an IP address of 172.16.1.100.

Note: The port to which the DHCP server connects and the port(s) from which the DHCP
requests come should be in the same VLAN.

Note: To let the Switch discover DHCP servers X and Y using ARP, you must create an IP
domain and management IP address for VLANs 2 and 3.

Figure 202 DHCP Relay for Two VLANs

DHCP Server X
192.168.2.100

192.168.2.1
VID 2

172.16.1.1
VLAN 2 VID 3

DHCP Server Y
VLAN 3 172.16.1.100

For the example network, configure the VLAN Setting screen as shown.

Figure 203 DHCP Relay for Two VLANs Configuration Example

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35.6 DHCPv6 LDRA


Click IP Application > DHCPv6 LDRA in the navigation panel to display the screen shown next.
Use this screen to add information to client DHCPv6 requests from different VLANs before
forwarding the requests to the DHCPv6 server. This information helps in authenticating the source
of the requests. You can also specify additional information for the system to add to the DHCPv6
requests that it relays to the DHCPv6 server.

Figure 204 DHCPv6 LDRA

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The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 150 DHCPv6 LDRA


LABEL DESCRIPTION
VLAN ID Enter a VLAN ID (between 1 and 4094) to be served with DHCPv6 LDRA. Make sure the
VLAN ID exists before you configure a DHCPv6 LDRA entry.
LDRA Lightweight DHCPv6 Relay Agent (LDRA) adds information to client DHCPv6 requests
before forwarding them to the DHCPv6 server. Select Enable to add information such as
this systems host name and subscriber port from which the request was received. Clear
Enable to have the system forward DHCPv6 requests for this VLAN without adding
information.
Option18 Option 18 is required for LDRA. Select Enable and specify the Interface ID information to
(Interface ID) add to the client DHCPv6 requests forwarded for this VLAN to identify the interface which
received the client message. For example, use %hname%%pid%svlan to add this
systems host name, subscriber port ID, and SVLAN ID from which the request was
received.
Option37 The required option 18 can only add up to 127 characters of information about the
(Remote ID) DHCPv6 requests forwarded for this VLAN. Use option 37 if you need to add extra
information beyond what you configure for option 18.

Option 37 (Remote ID Info) is the DHCPv6 equivalent for the Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol for IPv4 (DHCPv4) Relay Agent Option's Remote-ID suboption.

Select Enable and specify additional information to add to the client DHCPv6 requests
forwarded for this VLAN. For example, use %hname%mac to add this systems host
name and the MAC address of the client that sent the request.
Port This field displays the index number of a port on the Switch. This field also displays the
port bonding group ID if the port has joined a group, for example, 22-B01 where B01 is
port 22s group ID. A star (*) displays next to the group ID if the port is the main port in
that group.

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Table 150 DHCPv6 LDRA (continued)


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Control Select the role for each port on the Switch.

Client-facing: this is an interface on a DHCPv6 relay agent that forwards traffic towards
the DHCPv6 client. A client-facing interface on this Switch can be a DSL port or an
Ethernet port which connects another LDRA-enabled Switch or DSLAM.

Network-facing: this is an interface on a DHCPv6 relay agent that forwards traffic


towards the DHCPv6 server. A network-facing interface on this Switch should be an
Ethernet port.

Forbidden: select this to have the Switch not add any information to DHCPv6 requests it
receives. The Switch drops all DHCPv6 requests for a VLAN if this is set and DHCPv6 LDRA
is enabled on the VLAN.

A client-facing port only accepts the following types of DHCPv6 messages and drops the
others.

SOLICIT(1), REQUEST(3), CONFIRM(4), RENEW(5), REBIND(6), RELEASE(8),


DECLINE(9), INFORMATION-REQUEST(11), RELAY-FORW(12)

A network-facing port only accepts the following types of DHCPv6 messages and drops
the others.

RELAY-REPLY(13), ADVERTISE(2), REPLY(7), RECONFIGURE(10)

Note: You must configure at least one network-facing port on the Switch.

Note: Use the network-facing role for the Ethernet port you use as the uplink port to connect
towards the DHCPv6 server. Use the client-facing role for an Ethernet port on the
Switch that you use to connect a subtended (daisy-chained) LDRA-enabled Switch or
DSLAM. Use the network-facing role for the uplink port on the subtended Switch or
DSLAM. If an Ethernet port (ex. port 26) on the Switch is the uplink port that connects
to the DHCPv6 server and you connect port 25 to another LDRA-enabled Switch or
DSLAM, you must set port 26s role to network-facing and port 25s to client-facing.
The port role on the other end of port 25 must be set to network-facing.
Untrust Select Untrust Client to have the Switch drop all RELAY-FORW(12) type DHCPv6
messages.
Add Click Add to create a new DHCPv6 LDRA entry.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VID This is the ID number of the VLAN group. Click the link to modify the LDRA entrys
settings.
LDRA This field displays whether LDRA is enabled or not on this VLAN.
Option18 This field displays whether or not the system adds option 18 (Interface ID Info) to the
client DHCPv6 requests forwarded for this VLAN.
Option37 This field displays whether or not the system adds option 37 (Remote ID Info) to the
client DHCPv6 requests forwarded for this VLAN.
Option18 This field displays the option 18 (Interface ID) information to add to the client DHCPv6
(Interface ID) requests forwarded for this VLAN to identify the interface which received the client
Info message.
Option37 This field displays the option 37 (Remote ID) information to add to the client DHCPv6
(Remote ID) Info requests forwarded for this VLAN.
Select Select an entrys Delete check box and click the Delete button to remove the entry or
click Modify to edit the entry.
Delete Click Delete to remove the selected entries.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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35.6.1 DHCPv6 Counter


Click DHCPv6 Counter link in the IP Application > DHCPv6 LDRA screen to display the screen
shown next. Use this screen to view DHCPv6 packet statistics.

Figure 205 DHCPv6 Counter

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 151 DHCPv6 Counter


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Reload Select a port from the drop-down list box and click Reload to display the counters for the
port.

Note: For ports in a bonding group, the counter information on this screen is only available
for the main port. A star (*) displays next to the bonding group ID if the port is the
main port in that group.
Port No. This field displays the index number of the selected port.
Message Type This field displays all possible types of DHCPv6 messages.
Counter This field displays the number of each message type the went through the port.

35.6.2 Snooping Configure


Click the Snooping Configure link in the IP Application > DHCPv6 LDRA screen to display the
screen shown next. Use this screen to configure an acceptable rate for receiving DHCPv6 packets
on each port. A port dropped additional DHCP packets after the receiving rate reaches the

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configured number.
Figure 206 Snooping Configure

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 152 Snooping Configure


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Port This field displays the index number of a port on the Switch. This field also displays the
port bonding group ID if the port has joined any, for example, 22-B01 where B01 is port
22s group ID.
Rate (pps) Enter the maximum number of DHCPv6 packets the port can receive in a second.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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C HAPTER 36
Maintenance

This chapter explains how to configure the screens that let you maintain the firmware and
configuration files.

36.1 The Maintenance Screen


Use this screen to manage firmware and your configuration files. Click Management >
Maintenance in the navigation panel to open the following screen.

Figure 207 Management > Maintenance

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 153 Management > Maintenance


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Current This field displays which configuration (Configuration 1 or Configuration 2) is currently
operating on the Switch.
Firmware Click Click Here to go to the Firmware Upgrade screen.
Upgrade
Restore Click Click Here to go to the Restore Configuration screen.
Configuration
Backup Click Click Here to go to the Backup Configuration screen.
Configuration
Load Factory Click Click Here to reset the configuration to the factory default settings. If you want to reset
Default all settings to factory defaults but keep current IP settings, click Without Management IP
instead.
Save Click Config 1 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 1 on the Switch.
Configuration
Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Reboot Click Config 1 to reboot the system and load Configuration 1 on the Switch.
System
Click Config 2 to reboot the system and load Configuration 2 on the Switch.

Note: Make sure to click the Save button in any screen to save your settings to the current
configuration on the Switch.

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36.2 Firmware Upgrade


Make sure you have downloaded (and unzipped) the correct model firmware and version to your
computer before uploading to the device.

Firmware is uploaded to the current image. See Section 36.8 on page 331 for more information
about images and uploading firmware to a different image.

Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong


model firmware may damage your device.

36.2.1 Dual Firmware Image


You can store up to two firmware files (of the same device model) on the switch. Only one firmware
is used at a time. This allows immediate rollback on system bootup in case the current firmware is
corrupt. By default, the switch uses firmware ras-0 while the second firmware file is named ras-1.

You can select which firmware to use during system startup using the boot image <1|2>
command (where 1 is ras-0 and 2 is ras-1).
To specify whether to save a new firmware to ras-0 or ras-1 on the switch, perform firmware
upgrade using the FTP commands (refer to Section 36.8 on page 331).
If the switch fails to start from the exiting firmware, access the device console port and use the
ATGI command to set the switch to use the second firmware to start up.

Click Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade to view the screen as shown next.

Note: Firmware upgrade using the web configurator saves the new firmware to ras-0.

Figure 208 Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade

Type the path and file name of the firmware file you wish to upload to the Switch in the File Path
text box or click Browse to locate it. Select the Rebooting check box if you want to reboot the
Switch and apply the new firmware immediately. (Firmware upgrades are only applied after a
reboot.) Click Upgrade to load the new firmware.

After the firmware upgrade process is complete, see the System Info screen to verify your current
firmware version number.

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36.2.1.1 Checking Firmware Version via the Console Port


You can check which firmware version the device uses during system startup through the console
port.

Bootbase Version: V56Fanless | 10/23/2012 11:00:25


RAM: Size = 131072 Kbytes
DRAM POST: Testing: 23488K
OK
FLASH: AMD 128M *1

ZyNOS Version: V56_Fanless130626 | 06/26/2013 10:21:50

Press any key to enter debug mode within 3 seconds.


............................................................

After the system successfully boots up, use the show system-information command to check
which firmware image file the Switch currently uses (in the Current Boot Image field). The
following figure shows an example in which the Switch is set to use the second firmware image
(ras-1).

VES1724-56# show system-information

Product Model : VES1724-56


System Name : VES1724-56
System Contact :
System Location :
System up Time : 0:01:52 (2bde ticks)
Ethernet Address : cc:5d:4e:00:00:02
Bootbase Version : V56Fanless | 10/23/2012
ZyNOS F/W Version : V56_Fanless130626 | 06/26/2013
Config Boot Image : 1
Current Boot Image : 2
Power Module : AC
1st F/W Version : V56_Fanless130626 | 06/26/2013
2nd F/W Version : V1015GPIO3 | 10/15/2012
sysname#

36.3 Restore a Configuration File


Restore a previously saved configuration from your computer to the Switch using the Restore
Configuration screen.

Figure 209 Management > Maintenance > Restore Configuration

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Type the path and file name of the configuration file you wish to restore in the File Path text box or
click Browse to locate it. After you have specified the file, click Restore. "config" is the name of
the configuration file on the Switch, so your backup configuration file is automatically renamed
when you restore using this screen.

36.4 Backup a Configuration File


Backing up your Switch configurations allows you to create various snap shots of your device from
which you may restore at a later date.

Back up your current Switch configuration to a computer using the Backup Configuration screen.

Figure 210 Management > Maintenance > Backup Configuration

Follow the steps below to back up the current Switch configuration to your computer in this screen.

1 Click Backup to display the current Switch configurations in a text file.

2 Click File > Save As... and choose a location to save the configuration file to your computer.

36.5 Load Factory Default


Follow the steps below to reset the Switch back to the factory defaults.

1 In the Maintenance screen, click the Click Here button next to Load Factory Default to clear all
Switch configuration information you configured and return to the factory defaults. If you want to
reset all settings to factory defaults but keep current IP settings, click Without Management IP
instead.
Figure 211 Load Factory Default: Confirmation

2 Click OK to confirm the action.

3 In the Web Configurator, click the Save button in the top of the screen to make the changes take
effect. If you click the Click Here button and want to access the Switch Web Configurator again,
you may need to change the IP address of your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the
default Switch IP address (192.168.1.1).

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36.6 Save Configuration


In the Management > Maintenance screen, click Config 1 to save the current configuration
settings permanently to Configuration 1 on the Switch.

Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 2 on the Switch.

Alternatively, click Save on the top right-hand corner in any screen to save the configuration
changes to the current configuration.

Note: Clicking the Apply or Add button does NOT save the changes permanently. All
unsaved changes are erased after you reboot the Switch.

36.7 Reboot System


Reboot System allows you to restart the Switch without physically turning the power off. It also
allows you to load configuration one (Config 1) or configuration two (Config 2) when you reboot.
Follow the steps below to reboot the Switch.

1 In the Maintenance screen, click the Config 1 button next to Reboot System to reboot and load
configuration one. The following screen displays.
Figure 212 Reboot System: Confirmation

2 Click OK again and then wait for the Switch to restart. This takes up to two minutes. This does not
affect the Switchs configuration.

Click Config 2 and follow steps 1 to 2 to reboot and load configuration two on the Switch.

36.8 FTP Command Line


This section shows some examples of uploading to or downloading files from the Switch using FTP
commands. First, understand the filename conventions.

36.8.1 Filename Conventions


The configuration file (also known as the romfile or ROM) contains the factory default settings in the
screens such as password, Switch setup, IP Setup, and so on. Once you have customized the
Switchs settings, they can be saved back to your computer under a filename of your choosing.

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ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the ras file) is the system
firmware and has a bin filename extension.

Table 154 Filename Conventions


INTERNAL EXTERNAL
FILE TYPE DESCRIPTION
NAME NAME
Configuration File config *.cfg This is the configuration filename on the Switch.
Uploading the config file replaces the specified
configuration file system, including your Switch
configurations, system-related data (including the
default password), the error log and the trace log.
Firmware ras-0 *.bin This is the generic name for the ZyNOS firmware on
the Switch. ras-0 is image 1; ras-1 is image 2.
ras-1

You can store up to two images, or firmware files of the same device model, on the Switch. Only
one image is used at a time.

Run the boot image <1|2> command to specify which image is updated when firmware is loaded
using the Web Configurator and to specify which image is loaded when the Switch starts up.
You can also use FTP commands to upload firmware to any image.

The Switch supports dual firmware images, ras-0 and ras-1. You can switch from one to the other
by using the boot image <index> command, where <index> is 1 (ras-0) or 2 (ras-1). See the CLI
Reference Guide for more information about using commands. The system does not reboot after it
switches from one image to the other.

36.8.1.1 Example FTP Commands


ftp> put firmware.bin ras-0

This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file "firmware.bin" to the Switch.

ftp> get config config.cfg

This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to a file called config.cfg on your
computer.

If your (T)FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the source,
you will need to rename them as the Switch only recognizes config, ras-0, and ras-1. Be sure
you keep unaltered copies of all files for later use.

Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong


model firmware may damage your device.

36.8.2 FTP Command Line Procedure

1 Launch the FTP client on your computer.

2 Enter open, followed by a space and the IP address of your Switch.

3 Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.

4 Enter your password as requested (the default is 1234).

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5 Enter bin to set transfer mode to binary.

6 Use put to transfer files from the computer to the Switch, for example, put firmware.bin ras-0
transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the Switch and renames it to ras-0.
Similarly, put config.cfg config transfers the configuration file on your computer (config.cfg) to
the Switch and renames it to config. Likewise get config config.cfg transfers the configuration
file on the Switch to your computer and renames it to config.cfg. See Table 154 on page 332 for
more information on filename conventions.

7 Enter quit to exit the ftp prompt.

36.8.3 GUI-based FTP Clients


The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in GUI-based FTP clients.

General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients


COMMAND DESCRIPTION
Host Address Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type Anonymous.

This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the server for
anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your ISP or service
administrator has enabled this option.

Normal.

The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.


Transfer Type Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode. Configuration and
firmware files should be transferred in binary mode.
Initial Remote Specify the default remote directory (path).
Directory
Initial Local Directory Specify the default local directory (path).

36.8.4 FTP Restrictions


FTP will not work when:

FTP service is disabled in the Service Access Control screen.


The IP address(es) in the Remote Management screen does not match the client IP address. If
it does not match, the Switch will disconnect the FTP session immediately.

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C HAPTER 37
Access Control

This chapter describes how to control access to the Switch.

37.1 Access Control Overview


A console port and FTP are allowed one session each, Telnet and SSH share nine sessions, up to five
Web sessions (five different user names and passwords) and/or limitless SNMP access control
sessions are allowed.

Table 155 Access Control Overview


Console Port SSH Telnet FTP Web SNMP
One session Share up to nine One session Up to five accounts No limit
sessions

A console port access control session and Telnet access control session cannot coexist when multi-
login is disabled. See the CLI Reference Guide for more information on disabling multi-login.

37.2 The Access Control Main Screen


Click Management > Access Control in the navigation panel to display the main screen as
shown.

Figure 213 Management > Access Control

37.3 About SNMP


Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol used to manage and
monitor TCP/IP-based devices. SNMP is used to exchange management information between the
network management system (NMS) and a network element (NE). A manager station can manage
and monitor the Switch through the network via SNMP version one (SNMPv1), SNMP version 2c or

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SNMP version 3. The next figure illustrates an SNMP management operation. SNMP is only available
if TCP/IP is configured.

Figure 214 SNMP Management Model

An SNMP managed network consists of two main components: agents and a manager.

An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed switch (the Switch). An
agent translates the local management information from the managed switch into a form
compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators perform
network management functions. It executes applications that control and monitor managed
devices.

The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a switch. Examples of variables include number of packets
received, node port status and so on. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection of
managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of accessing
these objects.

SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol operations:

Table 156 SNMP Commands


COMMAND DESCRIPTION
Get Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
GetNext Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list within an agent. In
SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table from an agent, it initiates
a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
Set Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
Trap Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.

37.3.1 SNMP v3 and Security


SNMP v3 enhances security for SNMP management. SNMP managers can be required to
authenticate with agents before conducting SNMP management sessions.

Security can be further enhanced by encrypting the SNMP messages sent from the managers.
Encryption protects the contents of the SNMP messages. When the contents of the SNMP messages
are encrypted, only the intended recipients can read them.

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37.3.2 Supported MIBs


MIBs let administrators collect statistics and monitor status and performance.

The Switch supports the following MIBs:

SNMP MIB II (RFC 1213)


RFC 1493 Bridge MIBs
RFC 2674 SNMPv2, SNMPv2c
RFC 1757 RMON
RFC3728 VDSL line MIB
RFC5650 VDSL2 line MIB
RFC2662 ADSL line MIB
RFC3440 ADSL extension line MIB
SNMPv2, SNMPv2c or later version, compliant with RFC 2011 SNMPv2 MIB for IP, RFC 2012
SNMPv2 MIB for TCP, RFC 2013 SNMPv2 MIB for UDP
xDSL2 MIB draft version 6.
CFM 802.1ag draft version 8.0
ZyXEL private MIBs
IPv6 standard MIB:
IP-FORWARD-MIB (RFC 4292)
IP-MIB (RFC 4293)
IPv6-TCP-MIB (RFC 2452)
TCP-MIB (RFC 4022)
UDP-MIB (RFC 4113)
INET-ADDRESS-MIB (RFC 2851)

37.3.3 SNMP Traps


The Switch sends traps to an SNMP manager when an event occurs. The following tables outline the
SNMP traps by category.

An OID (Object ID) that begins with 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46 is defined in private MIBs.
Otherwise, it is a standard MIB OID.

Table 157 SNMP System Traps


OPTION OBJECT LABEL OBJECT ID DESCRIPTION
coldstart coldStart 1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1 This trap is sent when the Switch is
turned on.
warmstart warmStart 1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2 This trap is sent when the Switch restarts.

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Table 157 SNMP System Traps (continued)


OPTION OBJECT LABEL OBJECT ID DESCRIPTION
fanspeed FanSpeedEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the fan speed goes
1 above or below the normal operating
range.
FanSpeedEventClear 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the fan speed
2 returns to the normal operating range.
temperature TemperatureEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the temperature
1 goes above or below the normal operating
range.
TemperatureEventClear 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the temperature
2 returns to the normal operating range.
voltage VoltageEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the voltage goes
1 above or below the normal operating
range.
VoltageEventClear 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the voltage returns
2 to the normal operating range.
rxCRC rxCRCEventON 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.27.2. This trap is sent when the downlink port
1 receives more than 10000 rxCRC
messages within 10 seconds.
rxCRCEventClear 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.27.2. This trap is sent when the amount of
2 rxCRC messages the downlink port
receives within 10 seconds returns to the
normal number (less than 10000).
reset UncontrolledResetEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the Switch
1 automatically resets.
ControlledResetEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the Switch resets
1 by an administrator through a
management interface.
RebootEvent 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.0.1 This trap is sent when the Switch reboots
by an administrator through a
management interface.
loopguard LoopguardEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when loopguard shuts
2 down a port.
externalarm ExternalAlarmEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the external alarm
1 is received.
ExternalAlarmEventClear 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the external alarm
2 stops sending an alert.
LPR LPREventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.27.2. This trap is sent when the system loses
1 power.

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Table 157 SNMP System Traps (continued)


OPTION OBJECT LABEL OBJECT ID DESCRIPTION
HRinformati cpualarmEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.27.2. This trap is sent when the amount of CPU
on 1 usage goes over the CPU utilization
threshold.
cpualarmEventClear 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.27.2. This trap is sent when the amount of CPU
2 usage goes below the CPU utilization
threshold.
packetalarmEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.27.2. This trap is sent when the amount of
1 packet buffer usage goes over the packet
utilization threshold.
packetalarmEventClear 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.27.2. This trap is sent when the amount of
2 packet buffer usage goes below the
packet utilization threshold.
memoryalarmEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.27.2. This trap is sent when the amount of
1 memory usage goes over the memory
utilization threshold.
memoryalarmEventClear 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.27.2. This trap is sent when the amount of
2 memory usage goes below the memory
utilization threshold.

Table 158 SNMP Interface Traps


OPTION OBJECT LABEL OBJECT ID DESCRIPTION
linkup linkUp 1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4 This trap is sent when the Ethernet link
is up.
LinkDownEventClear 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the Ethernet link
2 is up.
linkdown linkDown 1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3 This trap is sent when the Ethernet link
is down.
LinkDownEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when the Ethernet link
1 is down.
autonegotiatio AutonegotiationFailedEvent 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when an Ethernet
n On 1 interface fails to auto-negotiate with the
peer Ethernet interface.
AutonegotiationFailedEvent 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2. This trap is sent when an Ethernet
Clear 2 interface auto-negotiates with the peer
Ethernet interface.
SFP DdmiTemperatureAlarmEve 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
ntOn 7.2.1 temperature goes over the high alarm
threshold.
DdmiTxPowerAlarmEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
7.2.1 transmitted optical power goes over the
high alarm threshold.

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Table 158 SNMP Interface Traps (continued)


OPTION OBJECT LABEL OBJECT ID DESCRIPTION
DdmiRxPowerAlarmEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
7.2.1 received optical power goes over the
high alarm threshold.
DdmiVoltageAlarmEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
7.2.1 voltage goes over the high alarm
threshold.
DdmiTxBiasAlarmEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
7.2.1 laser bias current goes over the high
alarm threshold.
DdmiTemperatureWarnEven 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
tOn 7.2.1 temperature goes over the high
warning threshold.
DdmiTxPowerWarnEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
7.2.1 transmitted optical power goes over the
high warning threshold.
DdmiRxPowerWarnEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
7.2.1 received optical power goes over the
high warning threshold.
DdmiVoltageWarnEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
7.2.1 voltage goes over the high warning
threshold.
DdmiTxBiasWarnEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
7.2.1 laser bias current goes over the high
warning threshold.
DdmiTemperatureAlarmEve 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
ntCleared 7.2.2 temperature falls down below the high
alarm threshold and is back to the
normal range.
DdmiTxPowerAlarmEventCle 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
ared 7.2.2 transmitted optical power falls down
below the high alarm threshold and is
back to the normal range.
DdmiRxPowerAlarmEventCl 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
eared 7.2.2 received optical power falls down below
the high alarm threshold and is back to
the normal range.
DdmiVoltageAlarmEventCle 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
ared 7.2.2 voltage falls down below the high alarm
threshold and is back to the normal
range.
DdmiTxBiasAlarmEventClea 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
red 7.2.2 laser bias current falls down below the
high alarm threshold and is back to the
normal range.
DdmiTemperatureWarnEven 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
tCleared 7.2.2 temperature falls down below the high
warning threshold and is back to the
normal range.
DdmiTxPowerWarnEventCle 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
ared 7.2.2 transmitted optical power falls down
below the high warning threshold and is
back to the normal range.

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Table 158 SNMP Interface Traps (continued)


OPTION OBJECT LABEL OBJECT ID DESCRIPTION
DdmiRxPowerWarnEventCle 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
ared 7.2.2 received optical power falls down below
the high warning threshold and is back
to the normal range.
DdmiVoltageWarnEventClea 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
red 7.2.2 voltage falls down below the high
warning threshold and is back to the
normal range.
DdmiTxBiasWarnEventClear 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when a transceivers
ed 7.2.2 laser bias current falls down below the
high warning threshold and is back to
the normal range.

Table 159 AAA Traps


OPTION OBJECT LABEL OBJECT ID DESCRIPTION
authentication authenticationFailure 1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5 This trap is sent when authentication fails
due to incorrect user name and/or
password.
AuthenticationFailureEventO 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when authentication fails
n .1 due to incorrect user name and/or
password.
RADIUSNotReachableEventO 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when there is no
n .1 response message from the RADIUS
server.
RADIUSNotReachableEventCl 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2 This trap is sent when the RADIUS server
ear .2 can be reached.
accounting accountingEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.27.2 This trap is sent when a user fails to log
.1 into the Web Configurator or the CLI
command mode.

Table 160 SNMP Switch Traps


OPTION OBJECT LABEL OBJECT ID DESCRIPTION
stp STPNewRoot 1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1 This trap is sent when the STP root switch
changes.
MRSTPNewRoot 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.36.2. This trap is sent when the MRSTP root
1 switch changes.
MSTPNewRoot 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.107.7 This trap is sent when the MSTP root
0.1 switch changes.
STPTopologyChange 1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2 This trap is sent when the STP topology
changes.
MRSTPTopologyChange 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.36.2. This trap is sent when the MRSTP topology
2 changes.
MSTPTopologyChange 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.107.7 This trap is sent when the MSTP root
0.2 switch changes.

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Table 160 SNMP Switch Traps (continued)


OPTION OBJECT LABEL OBJECT ID DESCRIPTION
mactable MacTableFullEventOn 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2.1 This trap is sent when more than 99% of
the MAC table is used.
MacTableFullEventClear or 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.12.46.45.2.2 This trap is sent when less than 95% of the
MAC table is used.
rmon RmonRisingAlarm 1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1 This trap is sent when a variable goes over
the RMON "rising" threshold.
RmonFallingAlarm 1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2 This trap is sent when the variable falls
below the RMON "falling" threshold.

Table 161 SNMP VDSL Traps


OPTION OBJECT LABEL OBJECT ID DESCRIPTION
alarmprofile xdsl2LinePerfFECSThresh 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.1 This trap is sent when the Switch detects
Xtuc that the number of FEC seconds exceeds
the threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfFECSThresh 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.2 This trap is sent when the number of FEC
Xtur seconds in CPE side exceeds the threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfESThreshXt 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.3 This trap is sent when the Switch detects
uc that the number of errored seconds
exceeds the threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfESThreshXt 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.4 This trap is sent when the number of
ur errored seconds in CPE side exceeds the
threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfSESThresh 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.5 This trap is sent when the Switch detects
Xtuc that the number of severely errored
seconds exceeds the threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfSESThresh 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.6 This trap is sent when the number of
Xtur severely errored seconds in CPE side
exceeds the threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfLOSSThres 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.7 This trap is sent when the Switch detects
hXtuc that the number of LOS seconds exceeds
the threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfLOSSThres 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.8 This trap is sent when the number of LOS
hXtur seconds in CPE side exceeds the threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfUASThresh 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.9 This trap is sent when the Switch detects
Xtuc that the number of unavailable seconds
exceeds the threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfUASThresh 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.10 This trap is sent when the number of
Xtur unavailable seconds in CPE side exceeds
the threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfCodingViola 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.11 This trap is sent when the Switch detects
tionsThreshXtuc that the number of coding violations
exceeds the threshold..
xdsl2LinePerfCodingViola 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.12 This trap is sent when the number of
tionsThreshXtur coding violations in CPE side exceeds the
threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfCorrectedT 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.13 This trap is sent when the Switch detects
hreshXtuc that the number of corrected blocks (FEC
events) exceeds the threshold.

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Table 161 SNMP VDSL Traps (continued)


OPTION OBJECT LABEL OBJECT ID DESCRIPTION
xdsl2LinePerfCorrectedT 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.14 This trap is sent when the number of
hreshXtur corrected blocks (FEC events) in CPE side
exceeds the threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfFailedFullIni 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.15 This trap is sent when the number of full
tThresh initialization failure times for an ADSL/
ADSL2/ADSL2+ line exceeds the threshold.
xdsl2LinePerfFailedShortI 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.16 This trap is sent when the number of short
nitThresh initialization failure times for an ADSL/
ADSL2/ADSL2+ line exceeds the threshold.
others xdsl2LineStatusChangeX 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.17 This trap is sent when the Switch detects
tuc that a DSL lines status changes.
xdsl2LineStatusChangeX 1.3.6.1.2.1.10.251.0.18 This trap is sent when a DSL lines status
tur changes at the CPE end.

37.3.4 Configuring SNMP


Click Management > Access Control > SNMP to view the screen as shown. Use this screen to
configure your SNMP settings.

Figure 215 Management > Access Control > SNMP

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 162 Management > Access Control > SNMP


LABEL DESCRIPTION
General Setting Use this section to specify the SNMP version and community (password) values.
Version Select the SNMP version for the Switch. The SNMP version on the Switch must match the
version on the SNMP manager. Choose SNMP version 2c (v2c), SNMP version 3 (v3) or
both (v3v2c).

Note: SNMP version 2c is backwards compatible with SNMP version 1.

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Table 162 Management > Access Control > SNMP (continued)


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Get Community Enter the Get Community string, which is the password for the incoming Get- and
GetNext- requests from the management station.

The Get Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or
lower.
Set Community Enter the Set Community, which is the password for incoming Set- requests from the
management station.

The Set Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or
lower.
Trap Community Enter the Trap Community string, which is the password sent with each trap to the
SNMP manager.

The Trap Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or
lower.
Trap Destination Use this section to configure where to send SNMP traps from the Switch.
Version Specify the version of the SNMP trap messages.
IP Enter the IPv4 or IPv6 addresses of up to four managers to send your SNMP traps to.
Port Enter the port number upon which the manager listens for SNMP traps.
Username Enter the username to be sent to the SNMP manager along with the SNMP v3 trap.

Note: This username must match an existing account on the Switch (configured in the
Management > Access Control > Logins screen).
User Information Use this section to configure users for authentication with managers using SNMP v3.

Note: Use the username and password of the login accounts you specify in this section to
create accounts on the SNMP v3 manager.
Index This is a read-only number identifying a login account on the Switch.
Username This field displays the username of a login account on the Switch.
Security Level Select whether you want to implement authentication and/or encryption for SNMP
communication from this user. Choose:

noauth: to use the username as the password string to send to the SNMP manager.
This is equivalent to the Get, Set and Trap Community in SNMP v2c. This is the lowest
security level.
auth: to implement an authentication algorithm for SNMP messages sent by this user.
priv: to implement authentication and encryption for SNMP messages sent by this
user. This is the highest security level.

Note: The settings on the SNMP manager must be set at the same security level or higher
than the security level settings on the Switch.
Authentication Select an authentication algorithm. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA (Secure Hash
Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate SNMP data. SHA authentication is
generally considered stronger than MD5, but is slower.
Privacy Specify the encryption method for SNMP communication from this user. You can choose
one of the following:

DES - Data Encryption Standard is a widely used (but breakable) method of data
encryption. It applies a 56-bit key to each 64-bit block of data.
AES - Advanced Encryption Standard is another method for data encryption that also
uses a secret key. AES applies a 128-bit key to 128-bit blocks of data.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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37.3.5 Configuring SNMP Trap Group


Click Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group to view the screen as shown. Use
the Trap Group screen to specify the types of SNMP traps that should be sent to each SNMP
manager.

Figure 216 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 163 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group
LABEL DESCRIPTION
Trap Destination Select one of your configured trap destination IP addresses. These are the IP addresses of
IP the SNMP managers. You must first configure a trap destination IP address in the SNMP
Setting screen.

Use the rest of the screen to select which traps the Switch sends to that SNMP manager.
Type Select the categories of SNMP traps that the Switch is to send to the SNMP manager.
Options Select the individual SNMP traps that the Switch is to send to the SNMP station. See
Section 37.3.3 on page 336 for individual trap descriptions.

The traps are grouped by category. Selecting a category automatically selects all of the
categorys traps. Clear the check boxes for individual traps that you do not want the Switch
to send to the SNMP station. Clearing a categorys check box automatically clears all of the
categorys trap check boxes (the Switch only sends traps from selected categories).
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

37.3.6 Setting Up Login Accounts


Up to five people (one administrator and four non-administrators) may access the Switch via Web
Configurator at any one time.

An administrator is someone who can both view and configure Switch changes. The username for
the Administrator is always admin. The default administrator password is 1234.

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Note: It is highly recommended that you change the default administrator password
(1234).

A non-administrator (username is something other than admin) is someone who can view but
not configure Switch settings.

Click Management > Access Control > Logins to view the screen as shown next.

Figure 217 Management > Access Control > Logins

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 164 Management > Access Control > Logins


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Administrator

This is the default administrator account with the admin user name. You cannot change the default
administrator user name. Only the administrator has read/write access.
Old Password Type the existing system password (1234 is the default password when shipped).
New Password Enter your new system password.
Retype to Retype your new system password for confirmation
confirm
Edit Logins

You may configure passwords for up to four users. These users have read-only access. You can give users
higher privileges via the CLI. For more information on assigning privileges see the CLI Reference Guide.
User Name Set a user name (up to 32 ASCII characters long).
Password Enter your new system password.
Retype to Retype your new system password for confirmation
confirm
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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37.4 SSH Overview


Unlike Telnet or FTP, which transmit data in clear text, SSH (Secure Shell) is a secure
communication protocol that combines authentication and data encryption to provide secure
encrypted communication between two hosts over an unsecured network.

Figure 218 SSH Communication Example

37.5 How SSH works


The following table summarizes how a secure connection is established between two remote hosts.

Figure 219 How SSH Works

1 Host Identification
The SSH client sends a connection request to the SSH server. The server identifies itself with a host
key. The client encrypts a randomly generated session key with the host key and server key and
sends the result back to the server.
The client automatically saves any new server public keys. In subsequent connections, the server
public key is checked against the saved version on the client computer.

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2 Encryption Method
Once the identification is verified, both the client and server must agree on the type of encryption
method to use.

3 Authentication and Data Transmission


After the identification is verified and data encryption activated, a secure tunnel is established
between the client and the server. The client then sends its authentication information (user name
and password) to the server to log in to the server.

37.6 SSH Implementation on the Switch


Your Switch supports SSH version 2 using RSA authentication and three encryption methods (DES,
3DES and Blowfish). The SSH server is implemented on the Switch for remote management and file
transfer on port 22. Only one SSH connection is allowed at a time.

37.6.1 Requirements for Using SSH


You must install an SSH client program on a client computer (Windows or Linux operating system)
that is used to connect to the Switch over SSH.

37.7 Introduction to HTTPS


HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL) is a web protocol
that encrypts and decrypts web pages. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is an application-level protocol
that enables secure transactions of data by ensuring confidentiality (an unauthorized party cannot
read the transferred data), authentication (one party can identify the other party) and data
integrity (you know if data has been changed).

It relies upon certificates, public keys, and private keys.

HTTPS on the Switch is used so that you may securely access the Switch using the Web
Configurator. The SSL protocol specifies that the SSL server (the Switch) must always authenticate
itself to the SSL client (the computer which requests the HTTPS connection with the Switch),
whereas the SSL client only should authenticate itself when the SSL server requires it to do so.
Authenticating client certificates is optional and if selected means the SSL-client must send the
Switch a certificate. You must apply for a certificate for the browser from a CA that is a trusted CA
on the Switch.

Please refer to the following figure.

1 HTTPS connection requests from an SSL-aware web browser go to port 443 (by default) on the
Switchs WS (web server).

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2 HTTP connection requests from a web browser go to port 80 (by default) on the Switchs WS (web
server).
Figure 220 HTTPS Implementation

Note: If you disable HTTP in the Service Access Control screen, then the Switch blocks
all HTTP connection attempts.

37.8 HTTPS Example


If you havent changed the default HTTPS port on the Switch, then in your browser enter https://
Switch IP Address/ as the web site address where Switch IP Address is the IP address or domain
name of the Switch you wish to access.

37.8.1 Internet Explorer Warning Messages


37.8.1.1 Internet Explorer 6
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a Windows dialog box pops up asking if you
trust the server certificate.

You see the following Security Alert screen in Internet Explorer. Select Yes to proceed to the web
configurator login screen; if you select No, then web configurator access is blocked.

Figure 221 Security Alert Dialog Box (Internet Explorer 6)

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37.8.1.2 Internet Explorer 7 or 8


When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a screen with the message "There is a
problem with this website's security certificate." may display. If that is the case, click Continue to
this website (not recommended) to proceed to the web configurator login screen.

Figure 222 Security Certificate Warning (Internet Explorer 7 or 8)

After you log in, you will see the red address bar with the message Certificate Error. Click on
Certificate Error next to the address bar and click View certificates.

Figure 223 Certificate Error (Internet Explorer 7 or 8)

EXAMPLE

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Click Install Certificate... and follow the on-screen instructions to install the certificate in your
browser.

Figure 224 Certificate (Internet Explorer 7 or 8)

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37.8.2 Mozilla Firefox Warning Messages


When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a This Connection is Unstructed screen
may display. If that is the case, click I Understand the Risks and then the Add Exception...
button.

Figure 225 Security Alert (Mozilla Firefox)

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Confirm the HTTPS server URL matches. Click Confirm Security Exception to proceed to the web
configurator login screen.

Figure 226 Security Alert (Mozilla Firefox)

EXAMPLE

37.8.3 The Main Screen


After you accept the certificate and enter the login username and password, the Switch main screen
appears. The lock displayed in the bottom right of the browser status bar (in Internet Explorer 6 or

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Mozilla Firefox) or next to the address bar (in Internet Explorer 7 or 8) denotes a secure
connection.

Figure 227 Example: Lock Denoting a Secure Connection

EXAMPLE

37.9 Service Port Access Control


Service Access Control allows you to decide what services you may use to access the Switch. You
may also change the default service port and configure trusted computer(s) for each service in

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the Remote Management screen (discussed later). Click Management > Access Control >
Service Access Control to view the screen as shown.

Figure 228 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control

The following table describes the fields in this screen.

Table 165 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control
LABEL DESCRIPTION
Services Services you may use to access the Switch are listed here.
Active Select this option for the corresponding services that you want to allow to access the Switch.
Service Port For Telnet, SSH, FTP, HTTP or HTTPS services, you may change the default service port by
typing the new port number in the Server Port field. If you change the default port number
then you will have to let people (who wish to use the service) know the new port number for
that service.
Timeout Type how many minutes a management session (via the Web Configurator) can be left idle
before the session times out. After it times out you have to log in with your password again.
Very long idle timeouts may have security risks.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

37.10 Remote Management


Click Management > Access Control > Remote Management to view the screen as shown
next.

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You can specify a group of one or more trusted computers from which an administrator may use a
service to manage the Switch. Click Access Control to return to the Access Control screen.

Figure 229 Management > Access Control > Remote Management

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 166 Management > Access Control > Remote Management


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Entry This is the client set index number. A client set is a group of one or more trusted
computers from which an administrator may use a service to manage the Switch.
Active Select this check box to activate this secured client set. Clear the check box if you wish to
temporarily disable the set without deleting it.
Start Address Configure the IPv4 or IPv6 address range of trusted computers from which you can manage
this Switch.
End Address
The Switch checks if the client IP address of a computer requesting a service or protocol
matches the range set here. The Switch immediately disconnects the session if it does not
match.
Telnet/FTP/ Select services that may be used for managing the Switch from the specified trusted
HTTP/ICMP/ computers.
SNMP/SSH/
HTTPS
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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C HAPTER 38
Diagnostic

This chapter explains the Diagnostic screen.

38.1 Diagnostic
Click Management > Diagnostic in the navigation panel to open this screen. Use this screen to
check system logs, ping IP addresses or perform port tests.

Figure 230 Management > Diagnostic

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 167 Management > Diagnostic


LABEL DESCRIPTION
System Log Click Display to display a log of events in the multi-line text box.

Click Clear to empty the text box and reset the syslog entry.
IP Ping Select to ping an IPv4 or IPv6 address, and the interface to send IP ping packets (default-
management, inband-vlan, inband-default, out-of-band).

When you select inband-vlan in the Outgoing interface field, you have to also specify a
VLAN ID for the ping conditions.

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Table 167 Management > Diagnostic (continued)


LABEL DESCRIPTION
IP address Type the IPv4 or IPv6 address of a device and then click Ping to have the Switch ping the IP
address.
Port Test From the Port drop-down list box, select a port number and click Internal Test to perform
an internal loopback test or click External Test (on a VDSL port) to perform a loopback test
to the a remote CPE device. A successful or fail test result displays then.

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C HAPTER 39
Syslog

This chapter explains the syslog screens.

39.1 Syslog Overview


The syslog protocol allows devices to send event notification messages across an IP network to
syslog servers that collect the event messages. A syslog-enabled device can generate a syslog
message and send it to a syslog server.

Syslog is defined in RFC 3164. The RFC defines the packet format, content and system log related
information of syslog messages. Each syslog message has a facility and severity level. The syslog
facility identifies a file in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation of your syslog program for
details. The following table describes the syslog severity levels.

Table 168 Syslog Severity Levels


CODE SEVERITY
0 Emergency: The system is unusable.
1 Alert: Action must be taken immediately.
2 Critical: The system condition is critical.
3 Error: There is an error condition on the system.
4 Warning: There is a warning condition on the system.
5 Notice: There is a normal but significant condition on the system.
6 Informational: The syslog contains an informational message.
7 Debug: The message is intended for debug-level purposes.

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39.2 Syslog Setup


Click Management > Syslog in the navigation panel to display this screen. The syslog feature
sends logs to an external syslog server. Use this screen to configure the devices system logging
settings.

Figure 231 Management > Syslog

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 169 Management > Syslog


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Syslog Select Active to turn on syslog (system logging) and then configure the syslog setting
Logging Type This column displays the names of the categories of logs that the device can generate.
Active Select this option to set the device to generate logs for the corresponding category.
Facility The log facility allows you to send logs to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the
documentation of your syslog program for more details.
Apply Click Apply to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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39.3 Syslog Server Setup


Click Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup to view the screen as shown next. Use this
screen to configure a list of external syslog servers.

Figure 232 Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 170 Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup


LABEL DESCRIPTION
Active Select this check box to have the device send logs to this syslog server. Clear the check
box if you want to create a syslog server entry but not have the device send logs to it (you
can edit the entry later).
Server Address Enter the IPv4 or IPv6 address of the syslog server.
Log Level Select the severity level(s) of the logs that you want the device to send to this syslog
server. The lower the number, the more critical the logs are.
Add Click Add to save your changes to the Switchs run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear Click Clear to return the fields to the factory defaults.
Index This is the index number of a syslog server entry. Click this number to edit the entry.
Active This field displays Yes if the device is to send logs to the syslog server. No displays if the
device is not to send logs to the syslog server.
IP Address This field displays the IP address of the syslog server.
Log Level This field displays the severity level of the logs that the device is to send to this syslog
server.
Delete Select an entrys Delete check box and click Delete to remove the entry.
Cancel Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.

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C HAPTER 40
Loop Diagnostic

This chapter explains the Loop Diagnostic screen.

40.1 Dual-End Loop Test


Click Management and Loop Diagnostic in the navigation panel to open this screen. Use this
screen to perform dual-end loop test for a port. Refer to Section 7.2.1 on page 54 for the port
status relationship.

Figure 233 Loop Diagnostic

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 171 Loop Diagnostic

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Dual-End Loop This field displays a ports current status. The status changes to LD_Testing when you
Test perform a DELT test and it also displays the time you started the test task and how long the
test has been proceeded.
Show Status Select a port number from the drop-down list box and click Show Status to display the test
result in the table below.
DELT Start This button appears when a ports status is Showtime. Click DELT Start to start the dual-
end loop test between the Switch and the remote devices.

Note: It takes several minutes to complete whole test. Before its completed, the status stays at
LD_Testing.

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After the DELT test completes, a summary report displays at the bottom of this screen. This is an
example.

Figure 234 Dual-End Loop Test Report

The following table describes the test report labels in this screen.

Table 172 Dual-End Loop Test Report

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Attainable net The is the maximum upstream/downstream data rate for this line.
data rate
Actual This is the total amount of upstream/downstream output power for this line.
Aggregate Tx
Power
Band Status The fields in this section display the status for upstream bands 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 (U0, U1, U2,
U3, U4) and downstream bands 1, 2, 3, 4 (D1, D2, D3, D4).
LATN This field displays the line attenuation situation in each band. NA displays when the band is
not used.
SATN This field displays the signal attenuation situation in each band. NA displays when the band
is not used.
SNRM This field displays signal-to-noise ratio margin in each band. NA displays when the band is
not used.
Sub-Carrier This section allows you to select the criteria and display you the statistics in a raw data list or
Status in a graph.
Items Select Hlog-ps (Channel Transfer Function per sub-carrier) to see the lines capability
against attenuation.

Select QLN-ps (Quiet Line Noise per sub-carrier) to see the lines noise level.

Select SNR-ps (Signal-to-Noise-Ratio per sub-carrier) to see the lines signal strength level
by calculating the ratio between the received signal power and the received noise power for
that sub-carrier.

Select Hlin-ps to see the lines capability against attenuation.


Direction Select Downstream or Upstream for the direction.

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Table 172 Dual-End Loop Test Report (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Display Select Graph or Text to display the VDSL sub-carrier status. The Text is available when you
select Downstream or Upstream in the Direction field.
show Select the criteria above and click show to display statistics in a raw data list or in a graph at
the bottom of this screen.

40.2 Single-End Loop Test (SELT)


Click the SELT link at the top-right corner of the Dual-End Loop Test screen to open this screen.
Use this screen to check the distance to the subscribers location where the selected port is
connected.

Figure 235 Single Ended Line Test

The following table describes the labels in this screen.

Table 173 Single Ended Line Test

LABEL DESCRIPTION
Single Ended This field displays a ports current SELT and calibration status. The status changes to In
Line Test Progress when you perform a SELT or calibration. It also displays the time you started the
test task and how long the test has been processed.
Show Status Select a port number from the drop-down list box and click Show Status to display the test
result in the table below.

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Table 173 Single Ended Line Test (continued)

LABEL DESCRIPTION
SELT Start Click SELT Start to start a single-end loop test.

Note: Connect the Telco-50 connector to the VDSL Line port, but the selected DSL port must
have an open loop. There cannot be a DSL device, phone, fax machine or other device
connected to the subscribers end of the VDSL line.

The SELT takes at least fifteen seconds. To check the status of a SELT or look at the last SELT
result of a port, select the port number from the Port drop-down list box and click Show
Status. The results tell you what gauge of telephone wire is connected to the port and the
approximate length of the line.
Calibrate Click Calibrate to r