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Riser VIV and its numerical simulation Kevin Huang (DMAR Engineering Inc. , Houston , Texas

Riser VIV and its numerical simulation

Kevin Huang

(DMAR Engineering Inc.Houston Texas 77094 USA)

AbstractThis paper summarizes some of the typical riser vortex-induced vibration (VIV) problems in subsea oil and gas developmentsand presents the corresponding computational fluid dynamics (CFD) time domain simula- tion results to address these problems. Firstthe CFD time domain simulation approach was applied to analyze the wake field behind a stationary cylinder and a vibrating cylinder. Then a vertical riser VIV response under uniform current was studied. The VIV response time histories revealed some valuable clues that could lead to explanation of the higher harmonics. After thata vertical riser VIV response under shear current was investigated. A 3 000 ft ( 1 ft=0 . 304 8 m) water depth top tensioned riser was sizedand its VIV responses under uniform and shear current were studied. Then this paper continues to discuss one catenary flexible riser VIV response during normal lay. Lastthe time domain simulation approach was applied to a partially submerged flexible jumperto study the jumper VIV behaviorand dynamic motion envelopes. It was demonstrated that the time domain simulation ap- proach is able to disclose details of the flow fieldvortex shedding patternand riser dynamic behaviorand han- dle different types of risers under different type of currents. Key wordsriserpipelineflexiblecylinderVIV numerical simulationCFD

; cylinder ; VIV ; numerical simulation ; CFD 1 Introduction Deepwater oil and gas exploration

1 Introduction

Deepwater oil and gas exploration and develop- ments have been moving fast toward increasingly deeper water depthi.e. 3 000 m in Gulf of Mexico. Majority of the subsea wells are tied back to a surface platform through long risersincluding steel catenary risers flexible risersflexible jumpersfree standing risers bundled risersor top tensioned risers [ 1- 3] . For riser system fatigue designone of the challenging ar- eas is vortex-induced vibration (VIV) induced fatigue excited by ocean current flow. Usually riser VIV is in high frequency range (~1 Hz) comparing to the wave induced dynamics (~0 . 1 Hz). And it is one of the main sources of fatigue damage for the marine riser design. Although VIV could be suppressed by strakes or fairingsthe cost associated with the hardware and installation is high. Thereforeit is imperative to un- derstand VIV phenomenon better to avoid overly pre- dicting VIV responseand reduce the unnecessary cost associated with VIV suppression. In addition to the fatigueVIV could also amplify the effective drag coefficient on the riserincrease the riser motion en- velopeand impose design challenges on riser inter-

Received 25 May 2013

ference. Water basin VIV experiments could be used to disclose the VIV details. During the last several years many VIV experiments have been carried out on deep- water risers with large L /D . There are many related publications [ 4 5] . However experiment has its own limitationssuch as facility availability and capacity limitsmodel scale limitdifficulty of current profile generationcost concernsetc. Under such condi- tionsoftware and computer models have been deve- loped to meet this need. Some software tools were de- veloped based on experimental data and empirical for- mula. These tools used model superposition ap- proach and the modal responses were partially or fully based on the test data. Other tools were based on computional fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation ap- proach. Some of the popular tools for riser VIV pre- diction were discussed by Chaplin et al [ 6] . Much effort has been spent in this area recently [ 7- 16 ] and its role in riser system engineering becomes more and more im- portant. This paper is to summarize some of the au- thors previous publicationswhich are focused on individual area or targeted at individual problem [17 - 26 ] . In this papera systemic overview of the issues and

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[ 1 7 - 2 6 ] . In this paper , a systemic overview of
[ 1 7 - 2 6 ] . In this paper , a systemic overview of
solutions was provided. At the same time , the capa- bility of three- dimension (3D)
solutions was provided. At the same time , the capa- bility of three- dimension (3D)

solutions was provided. At the same timethe capa- bility of three- dimension (3D) time domain simula- tion approach was demonstrated.

2 Wake field and riser interference

Riser interference is a very important design areaespecially for top tensioned risers and riser bun- dles for free standing riser towerwhere many risers are closely arranged together in a confined spaceand clashing between risers are not allowed. When subject to strong currentsthe risers could have very large lateral deflections. In a riser arrayif upstream riser and its downstream neighboring riser are close to each otherthen the downstream riser will be influ- enced by the wake field of upstream riserand has less riser deflection due to reduced drag force. There- foreit is important to understand the wake field and predict the effective drag coefficient. By using CFD time domain simulation ap- proachthe velocity vectors in the whole wake field could be predicted. Fig.1 shows the vortex shedding behind a stationary cylinder (with OD =6.35 cm) un- der uniform current 0.6 m/sand the wake field fluid particle velocity is plotted at x/D =6or six diameter downstream. It clearly demonstrates that the wake field fluid velocity is time dependent and the ve- locity variation is periodic (same as the vortex shed- ding frequency). Fig.2 shows the vortex shedding be- hind a vibrating cylinderand the wake field fluid particle velocity at x/D =6. Comparing to Fig.1 it is obvious that the wake field width is increasedhow - everthe wake field velocity deficit (w.r.t. far field in- coming velocity) is reduced. Normal industrial prac- tice is to use Huse s formula [ 27- 29] to estimate the wake field for a stationary cylinderand extrapolate the formula to vibrating cylinders by increasing the cylinder outer diameter through a VIV induced drag amplification factor. From CFD simulation resultsit is indicated that the wake field width behind a vibra- ting cylinder does not stretch as much as it is predict- ed through Huse s formulaand it is also indicated that there is actually a high- speed zone outside the wake field (this is easy to understand from mass con- servatism point of viewsince the same amount of fluid mass has to pass through the cross sectionand if the fluid velocity behind the cylinder has deficitor is slower than the far field incoming velocitythen there has to be areas along the cross section that will have fluid velocity faster than the far field incoming velocity). Both findings benefit the riser interference

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design. More details are presented by Huang et al [17] .

More details are presented by Huang et al [ 1 7 ] . Fig.1 Velocity vector

Fig.1 Velocity vector at x/D=6 (stationary cylinder)

. Fig.1 Velocity vector at x / D =6 (stationary cylinder) Fig.2 Velocity vector at x

Fig.2 Velocity vector at x/D=6 (vibrating cylinder)

3 Higher harmonics

Higher harmonics refer to VIV high frequency

Fig.2 Velocity vector at x / D =6 (vibrating cylinder) 3 Higher harmonics Higher harmonics refer
components having integer multiple numbers of the cross flow or the in-line VIV frequency. It
components having integer multiple numbers of the cross flow or the in-line VIV frequency. It

components having integer multiple numbers of the cross flow or the in-line VIV frequency. It has been observed and measured during actual drilling opera- tions [4 ] . However it remains unknown what is the root cause of this phenomenon. CFD time domain simulation provided a possible option to investigate this higher harmonics. In this studya 10 m long toptensioned riser (L / D =482) was used [ 19 ] . It was modeled as a beam with top tension of 817 N. Its two ends are pinned to the ground with zero rotational stiffness. Its unit mass is

0 .7 kg/mand bending stiffness is 135 N m. The

Reynolds numbers are 7. 5 × 10 3 for U =0 . 42 m/s and

1 .5 × 10 4 for U =0 .84 m/s respectively. An example of

the lift coefficient time histories was plotted as shown in Fig.3 . In the figure we noticed the lift coefficient

time histories show the third high frequency compo- nent (3 ×). This indicates that the 3 × harmonics could be related to the vortex shedding patterns and lift force. Howeverthe observed high harmonics are not as strong as the high frequency component in the lift coefficient. One possible reason is that the lift forces are acting on the riser segments locally while the ris er cross flow VIV response depends on the integrat- ed effect of all the segments. Thereforeif high fre- quency lift forces are out- of- phase with each otherthen they would cancel each other and the higher har- monics would be weak. If the lift forces were synchro- nized along the riserthen we would expect very strong higher harmonics. More details are presented by Huang et al [ 19] .

More details are presented by Huang et al [ 1 9 ] . Fig.3 Lift coefficient

Fig.3 Lift coefficient (U=0.84 m/sx/L=0.3)

4 Shear current profile

The design current profiles for riser system are not uniform for most of the time. For complex current profilessuch as shear currentsubmerged currentbottom currentor combinations of themthe riser VIV responses are complex as well. Furthermoreit is very difficult to verify the riser VIV responses in water basin since physically it is challenging to gene-

rate these current profiles for experiments. Howeverthis is straight forward for CFD time domain simula- tion approach. As an examplethe results of the riser VIV re- sponse in shear current is presented in this section to demonstrate the capability of CFD time domain simu- lation. The same riser as in Section 3 was used. The shear current speed has a linear profile with U 1 at top and U 2 at bottomwhere U 1 /U 2 =0.14 . The two cases we selected for comparison are U 2 =0.42 m/s (test case

# 1205) and U 2 =0. 84 m/s (test case #1210). The cross

flow (CF) VIV induced fatigue damage index along the riser was calculated and compared to experimen- tal results (from stain gages) in Fig.4 for U 2 =0. 42 m/s. The comparison shows that the fatigue damages are comparable between CFD simulation and experi- ments. In general CFD code predicts slightly higher fatigue damage than the experiment. It is worthwhile to note that both CFD simulations and experiments show that the fatigue damage distributions on the ris er are not symmetric along the axial direction. More details are presented by Huang et al [ 20 ] .

details are presented by Huang et al [ 2 0 ] . Fig.4 CF fatigue damage

Fig.4 CF fatigue damage index comparison (U 2 =0.42 m/s)

5 Deepwater riser VIV

For deepwater risersthe riser aspect ratio (L /D ) is quite large. This kind of large aspect ratio riser VIV can be handled by CFD time domain simulation ap- proach as well. This section presents the VIV of a hy- pothetical 10 ¾ s in g le cas ing to p tens ion ed r is er s ized for 3 000 ft ( 1 ft=0. 304 8 m) water depth (L /D = 3 350). The riser dynamic response under different cur- rents is simulated in 3 D. The riser-fluid interaction ef- fect is included through instantaneous drag and lift forces. The riser has a nominal top tension of

400

kips (1 kips=4 .448 kN) submerged weight

121

lb/ft ( 1 lb ≈ 4.448 N ) and mass ratio of 4 . 0. It

has a fundamental frequency of 38 s in seawater. Fig.5 shows the vorticity contour snapshot where the vortex pattern could be clearly identified. Over- allthe riser exhibits strong flexibility. The stress rms for the uniform and shear currents are presented and

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strong flexibility. The stress rms for the uniform and shear currents are presented and Vol. 11
compared to Shear 7 in Fig.6 . The comparison shows good agreement. It shows that

compared to Shear 7 in Fig.6 . The comparison shows good agreement. It shows that the worst stress is near the riser lower end. This is due to the lower effective tension at the riser bottom portion. This is interesting since in shear currentthe current has high speed at the topwhile the VIV-induced fatigue damage at this location is the lowest. In contrastthere is no current near the bottomwhile the fatigue damage at this re- gion is the worst. More details are presented by Huang et al [ 18] .

More details are presented by Huang et al [ 1 8 ] . Fig.5 Riser VIV
Fig.5 Riser VIV snapshot,shear current
Fig.5 Riser VIV snapshot,shear current

Fig.6 Riser cross flow VIV induced stres s - shear current U=0.4 m/s

6 Catenary riser VIV

As more and more oil and gas field developments are in deepwater regions and harsh environmentshow to install the subsea equipment and flowlines safely and efficiently becomes a challenging subject that might require the further advanced technoligies. During the installation the flexible flowline effective drag coefficient is of main interest. For stationary cyl- inderdesign code [29 ] provides drag coefficient selec- tion criteriawhich depend on Reynolds number. When the cylinder undergoes VIV in currentthe ef- fective drag coefficient could be higher because the riser lateral movement increases the equivalent drag area. In the CFD simulationthe drag coefficient was

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calculated at each time step and each location along the riser. The instantaneous drag coefficient depends on the riser movement and flow field conditionand may vary dramatically in a wide range. Its impact on the riser deflection is mainly determined by the time- averaged value. The simulation results show that the drag coefficient of the riser upper portion is between

1 .0 and 1 . 5 . At the riser bottomthe drag coefficient varies in a larger rangefrom 0.5 to 2 .5 . The average

C d along the riser is approximately 1.3which is 10 %

~ 20 % higher than the C d for the fixed riser condition.

The increased drag coefficient explains the large flexi- ble deflection and high bottom tension observed dur- ing offshore installation. More details are presented by Huang et al [ 25 ] .

7 Flexible jumper VIV

Flexible jumpers are widely used in oil and gas industry to transport liquid or gas content between two facility unitsusually located close to each other and have relative movement. In this hypothetical case the jumpers first end is attached to a submerged faci- lity at 50 m below the mean surface leveland its se- cond end is attached to a hang- off porch at 30 m above the mean surface level. The nominal horizontal span is 200 m. The jumper has a diameter of 0 . 33 mand total length is 265 m ( L /D =800). Its air weight is 100 kg/mand submerged weight 20 kg/m (mass

ratio=1 .0 ). A uniform current of 0 . 5 m/s ( 1 knot) is ap- plied in the direction perpendicular to the jumper cate- nary plane. It corresponds to a Reynolds number of

1 .5 × 10 5 . The flexible jumper started with a static cate- nary shape. When it was exposed to the uniform cur- rentit deflected in the current direction due to the drag forces. At the same timeit also started cross flow vibrations due to the lift forces. The top portion of the jumper is above the mean surface lineand the vortex shedding occurs only on the submerged por- tion of the jumper. The jumper motion trajectories confirmed that the jumper VIV behavior in 3 D is much more com- plex than in two- dimension (2 D) (rigid cylinder mo- tions)where the trajectories usually follow figure 8or deformed figure8pattern. The jumper mo- tion does not exhibit regularity. Insteadit shows cer- tain degree of random behavior. The main reason is the lateral offset fluctuations. The mean lateral offset could vary in a range of one-dimension (1D) near the two endsand up to 8 D at the central portion of the jumper. More details are presented by Huang et al [ 26] .

ends , and up to 8 D at the central portion of the jumper. More details
ends , and up to 8 D at the central portion of the jumper. More details
8 Conclusions In this paper we summarized some practical is- sues related to riser VIV
8 Conclusions In this paper we summarized some practical is- sues related to riser VIV

8 Conclusions

In this paper we summarized some practical is- sues related to riser VIV and discussed the CFD si- mulation results that could help to address these is- sues. The CFD simulation detailsincluding flow field vorticities rms a/Driser motion trajectoriespower spectral densitiesmodal componentsVIV in- duced stress characteristicsand VIV induced fatigue damagesdisclosed interesting phenomena associated with riser VIV and provided insights to the raised questions. As a note CFD simulation of the long ris er VIV is a relatively new research area. And there are too many unknowns and interesting areas to be further investigatedincluding riser high mode VIV under strong current and high Reynolds numberVIV suppression devices including fairings and strakesdeepwater riser non- linear damping effect on VIV etc.

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Author Kevin Huangmaleborn in 1971 graduated from Tsinghua University. He is currently an engineering manager at DMAR Engineering Inc. in Houston. Dr. Huang has published more than 20 technical papers in the in- ternational journals and proceedings. He has more than 18 years experience in the offshore oil and gas industriesand is expertized in floating production system designriser system engineeringflowline and umbilical engi- neeringand subsea installation. He has employment experience with the major offshore oil and gas service com- panies and installation contractorsincluding ABB DeepwaterAker KvaernerAcergyand Technip. He can be reached by E-mailkhuang@dmar-engr.com

Aker Kvaerner , Acergy , and Technip. He can be reached by E-mail : khuang@dmar-engr.com 60

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Aker Kvaerner , Acergy , and Technip. He can be reached by E-mail : khuang@dmar-engr.com 60