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5.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Technical Specification

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sr.# Description Page #

5.1.1 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT.......................................................................................


5.1.1.1 Location.................................................................................................................
5.1.1.2 General Description................................................................................................
5.1.1.3 Climate 2
5.1.1.4 Hydrology...............................................................................................................
5.1.1.5 Seismicity...............................................................................................................
5.1.1.6 Rainfall Record.......................................................................................................
5.1.1.7 Topography.............................................................................................................
5.1.1.8 Geology 4
5.1.1.9 Access to Construction Sites..................................................................................
5.1.1.9.1 Access to Powerhouse Site in Reshun....................................................................
5.1.1.9.2 Access to Intake Structures Latshal Gol.................................................................
5.1.1.9.3 Structures for Access..............................................................................................
5.1.1.9.3.1 Reshun Gol............................................................................................................
5.1.1.9.3.2 Shakoh Gol............................................................................................................
5.1.1.9.3.3 Latshal Gol.............................................................................................................
5.1.1.9.3.4 Road between Latshal - and Shakoh - River Crossing............................................
5.1.1.9.3.5 Responsibility.........................................................................................................
5.1.1.9.3.6 Measurements........................................................................................................
5.1.1.9.3.7 Payment.................................................................................................................
5.1.1.10 Availability of Labour..............................................................................................
5.1.1.11 Availability of Construction Equipment...................................................................
5.1.1.12 Embassies..............................................................................................................
5.1.1.13 Annexures..............................................................................................................

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sr.# Description Page #

5.2 GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS...................................................................


5.2.1 Description of Materials..........................................................................................
5.2.1.1 Nature of the Materials...........................................................................................
5.2.1.2 Welding 1
5.2.1.3 Electrodes..............................................................................................................
5.2.2 Execution...............................................................................................................
5.2.2.1 Method of Construction..........................................................................................
5.2.2.2 Adjustment of Distortions........................................................................................
5.2.2.3 Special Parts..........................................................................................................
5.2.2.4 Paint 3
5.2.2.4.1 Painting 3
5.2.2.5 Controls and Tests in Factory - Tolerances .............................................................
5.2.2.5.1 Metallurgical Control and Welding Control..............................................................
5.2.2.5.2 Welding Control......................................................................................................
5.2.2.5.3 Control of Exterior Appearance...............................................................................
5.2.2.5.4 Tolerance................................................................................................................
5.2.2.5.5 Hydraulic Test.........................................................................................................
5.2.2.6 Transportation to Construction Site and Building....................................................
5.2.2.6.1 Storage and Maintenance.......................................................................................
5.2.2.6.2 Erecting Program...................................................................................................
5.2.2.6.3 Interior Stress.........................................................................................................
5.2.2.6.4 Joining 7
5.2.2.6.5 Paint Mending........................................................................................................
5.2.2.6.6 Concrete.................................................................................................................
5.2.2.6.7 Cleaning.................................................................................................................
5.2.2.6.8 Electrical and Plumbing Installations for the Erection.............................................
5.2.2.7 Control and tests in the working site.......................................................................
5.2.2.7.1 Welding mechanical test........................................................................................
5.2.2.7.2 Verifying the Exactness of the Erection..................................................................
5.2.2.7.3 Hydraulic Test.........................................................................................................
5.2.2.7.4 Control Conditions..................................................................................................
5.2.3Completion of the Works and Maintenance Period.......................................................................
5.2.3.1 Commissioning.......................................................................................................
5.2.3.2 Definite Reception..................................................................................................
5.2.3.3 Rejection...............................................................................................................
5.2.3.4 Special Case of Paints Guaranty...........................................................................

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sr.# Description Page #

5.3 PARTICULAR TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION................................................................


5.3.1 Supply of Material..................................................................................................
5.3.1.1 Physical Requirements...........................................................................................
5.3.1.2 Chemical Composition...........................................................................................
5.3.1.3 Required Tests and Quality Certificates..................................................................
5.3.2 Manufacture of the Penstock..................................................................................
5.3.2.1 Production in Factory.............................................................................................
5.3.2.1.1 Pipes 2
5.3.2.1.2 Distribution Pipe.....................................................................................................
5.3.2.2 Testing in Factory...................................................................................................
5.3.2.3 Welding On Site.....................................................................................................
5.3.2.3.1 Welds which can be made on Site..........................................................................
5.3.2.3.2 Welding Equipment................................................................................................
5.3.2.3.3 Qualification of Welders.........................................................................................
5.3.2.3.4 Welding Procedure.................................................................................................
5.3.2.3.5 Testing and Repair Welding....................................................................................
5.2.4 Technical Tables for the Penstock...........................................................................

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5 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

5.1.1 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

5.1.1.1 Location
The site is located on the right bank of Reshun Creek 2.5 km from the village of Reshun situated 52 km
on the main road from Chitral Town towards Mastuj and Shandur Pass at an altitude of
2000 m a.s.l. It is located at approx. 36o north and 72o east in Chitral District North-West
Frontier Province of Pakistan. Location maps of Reshun and Project Area and Access are
at Annexures.

Chitral is connected to Peshawar via Lowari Pass and Dir. Transportation between Peshawar and
Chitral Town is possible by buses and trucks on a mountainous road partly asphalted. Due
to the high altitude of the lowari Pass (3200 m a.s.l.) the road is closed to traffic due to
snowfall in winter and the district remains isolated for several months
(November/December to May). During this period, it is not possible to travel or transport
goods by road from Peshawar to Chitral; via Pakistan Roads, through the road from
Chitral to Project area would be open to traffic all year around. There is a possibility via
Afghanistan which may be used by the Contractor.

Buses from Peshawar reach Chitral Town (360 kms) via Dir and Lowari Pass in about 15 hours (12
hours by four wheel driven passenger car). From Chitral Town onward the only means of
transportation is by a truckable all weather road.

As regards communication services, Chitral has Postal services, Telephone and a receiving TV Booster
for Chitral Town. It is possible to communicate from several places within Chitral District
but they are not as good as to be desired. Chitral Town (which is about 52 kms from the
site) is provided with direct dialing telephone to the rest of Pakistan.

Chitral Town has a small airport allowing smaller planes to fly from Peshawar. There is a regular Fokker
service by the Pakistan International Airlines between Peshawar and Saidu Sharif and
Chitral subject to unpredictable weather conditions. This happens quite frequently when
flights are delayed or cancelled.

Peshawar which is the capital of N.W.P.F. is connected to Karachi by all weather broad gage Railway
and Highway. The distance from Karachi to Peshawar is 1400 kms by road. Following are
the limitation for oversize consignments by Railway from Karachi to Peshawar.

1. Overall length of consignment 823 cm


2. Approx. weight 20 tons

There is no electricity at the project site. Chitral Town has domestic supply of 220 v, 50Hz, but it is not
dependable. The standard domestic supply of electricity in Pakistan is 220v 50Hz.

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5.1.1.2 General Description


The Reshun Hydropower Project has been planned using the waters of the Reshun Creek (Reshun
Gol). The intake will be at an altitude of approx. 2340 m a.s.l. at the junction of Latshal
Gol and Shakoh Gol. The water will be taken through a short conversion pipe, gravel spill
and sand-trap to a storage tank for peaking-operation to an inclined tunnel of approx.
1800 m length with an inclination of approx. 12 o housing the penstock of 820 mm inner
diameter to the power house.

The powerhouse will accommodate ultimately 3 turbo-generating units of approx. 1400 kW each, out of
which in the first stage 2 units will be installed.

The generators will be connected through block step-up-transformers feeding on a 33 kV single busbar
system inside the power house. From the busbar in the first stage of development three
feeders of 33 kV transmission system will be fed, one to connect to Chitral Power House
near Chitral Town in a distance of approx. 52 km taking approx. 60% of the initial load,
one into the valley of Turkho River feeding rural centers to a distance upto 74 km and one
into the valley of Mastuj River feeding rural centers to a distance of upto 89 km. These
two feeders take in the first instance approx. 20% load each. The system is to run in
parallel with the Chitral Hydro Power Station having 2 x 275 + 2 x 470 kVA installed
capacity.

The overall Reshun Project is intended to be executed by separate Contracts as follows:

1.E&M 1 (Turbines and Generators etc., - 2 sets at present with provision for a 3rd set in future.)

2. Tunnel for penstock (Civil Works-1)

3. Power Station and Intake Structures etc. (Civil Works-2)

4.Penstock and Distribution Pipe (Steel-1)

5. Steel Works (Steel-2)

6. Switchgear and Transformers (E&M-2)

7. Transmission and Distribution system (33/0.4 kV) (T1)

8. Distribution system (0.4 kV) (D1)

The present Contract is for construction of Steel-1

5.1.1.3 Climate
Temperature conditions near the water intake and power house site can be estimated from the tables in
the Annex, which are computed from temperature models derived from high altitude
climatic stations upto Afghanistan and Kashmir. Despite the low temperatures from
November to March, the area will be accessible in general for most of the year, except a
few days after heavy snowfall. But snowfall normally is weak at altitudes below 2500 m in
this region. Snowfall, however, is very important in the mountains of the southern part of
the Chitral region. So, avalanche danger is serious in the Lowari pass region and there is
no chance to keep open this only access road to Chitral valley during winter even with
modern road cleaning equipment. Due to the climatic conditions, the project area will

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have limited access during winter, at least for three months during December, January,
and February, and the Contractor should inspect the site and satisfy himself about the
climate and access conditions before tendering and preparing his construction schedule.

Temperature records are shown at Annexures.

5.1.1.4 Hydrology
Reshun Gol at the intake area has a total catchment area of about 102 sq. km. The intake area is
located at the confluence of Latshal Gol and Shakoh Gol.

Minimum run-off estimation for Reshun Gol was done in the Preliminary Report on Climatology and
Hydrology. The computation was one mainly on the dates from the hydrograph Chitral and
flow duration curve of Chitral-River.

Out of the available data a mean hydrograph and flow duration curve was computerized for Reshun
Gol. See Annexures.

Additional discharge measurements with a current meter were done during low discharge in Reshun
Gol during winter seasons 1987-91. Due to these measurements, it was found that the
specific mean minimum discharge values of mean hydrograph are too much on the safe
side. The morphometric conditions in the catchment area of Reshun Gol are much better
than expected before. So it was decided to fix the mean minimum discharge at 780 l/s.
For a peak load operated plant the design discharge can be fixed upto 1.350 l/s. Due to
other reasons the design discharge is finally fixed at 1.620 l/s.

To determine high flood, two types of floods have been considered.

1. The hundred year flood as DIMENSIONING FLOOD = 150 m 3/s


for each intake, Shakoh Gol and Latshal Gol.

2. The annual flood discharge during construction is estimated as 20 m 3/s


for each intake, Shakoh Gol and Latshal Gol.

5.1.1.5 Seismicity
According to the "Preliminary Seismotectonic Map of Pakistan" (1979) the area from the Mastuj and
Chitral Rivers to Panjshir River in Afghanistan is one of the major earthquake zones of
Pakistan where earthquakes upto a magnitude of m-7 were observed. Chitral District is
called an "epicentral tract of major earthquakes, serious damages to buildings". The
"Khyber Fault Zone" in the southern at moderate to high level part of the project area as
well as the "Pamir - Karakorum Region" are said to have "seismic activity at moderate to
high level. "See Zone map of Seismicity at Annexures".

As the Reshun Fault also belongs to the active faults it is recommended to calculate all design loads
with a horizontal earthquake acceleration:

of 0.2 g for; - penstock


- distribution pipe
- power house
- conversion pipe

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of 0.1 g for: - Intake Structure Shakoh Gol


- Intake Structure Latshal Gol
- Reservoir

5.1.1.6 Rainfall Record


The preliminary report of climatology and hydrology prepared for Small Hydropower Development in
NWFP shows a mean annual regional precipitation in Chitral valley of about 1000 mm.
See Annexures.

5.1.1.7 Topography
The topography is of high mountain ranges upto 7700 m a.s.l. with deep river valleys and side streams
in steep and narrow gorges.

5.1.1.8 Geology
The region is situated in a sequence of metamorphic rocks consisting of shales, slates, schists, green
stones, phyllites, marbles, dolomites, sandstone and quartzites dominated by intrusion of
Tirich Mir Granite. See Annexures.

The general geology of the project area is quite complicated as according to CALKINS two regional
thrust faults pushed younger rocks on top of older ones. The Reshun Fault thrusts Reshun
Formation (Cretaceous) onto undifferentiated Devonian, while the Reshun conglomerates
themselves have been thrust onto - thought to be - younger Chitral slates.
BUCHROITHNER 1984 proved that the Reshun Formation is younger than the Chitral
Slates; in so far the southern fault in the Shakoh Gol area is just a normal fault instead of
a thrust faulting leaving the younger Chitral Slates on top of the older Reshun Formation.

The project area proper is situated in the lower Reshun formation only, consisting of hard calcareous
conglomerates. Due to their relative great resistivity against weathering they form high
mountain ridges and steep to vertical rock walls. The hanging wall of the Reshun
formation consists of red phyllites which can be recognized immediately not only by their
reddish colour but particularly by medium steep to flat slopes which show many sliding
areas and deep gullies. On the foot of the slopes huge masses of scree and talus deposits
indicate that this fine-grained material is very sensitive to water (swelling, erosion), the
town of Reshun and the village of Hogram are situated on top of very thick laharic
material consisting of red phyllites. Heavy erosion by rainwater and mud flows have
transported the reddish material from the exposed flanks of the mountains down to the
valley floor.

The main intake with the sand trap and the reservoir forebay will be constructed on the right Latshal Gol
while the water from the Shakoh Gol is caught by a separate intake and diverted into the
Latshal Gol through a pipe.

1.The location of the left intake Shakoh Gol is defined by a small rock bar appr. 50 m upstream the
upper end of the thick alluvial deposits; the left abutment consists of river deposits.

2.It is anticipated that foundation of the structure will be carried out on both banks to a depth of 7 m.
Excavation in the loose material is simple, but boulders can be expected.

3.It is anticipated that leakage can be reduced by using a foil with pavement.

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4.The conversion pipe to the Latshal Gol has to be routed through thick alluvial deposits between the
rivers, consisting of gravel, pebbles, sand, and silt. It is anticipated that excavation
(loosening by pressure water) will create no difficulties. Single boulders may reach 5
m (!) in diameter and have to be by-passed. The pipe crosses Latshal Gol by a
syphon and ends in the storage basin (forebay).

5.The right intake in the Latshal Gol is located appr. 80 m upstream of the tunnel portal on a bedrock at
least on the right abutment; the rock can be followed by excavation in striking
direction.

6.If foundation will become necessary on alluvial deposits the pores of the loose material will have to
be filled with cement to reduce seepage of water. Additionally a foil and pavement is
used upstream of the weir structure.

7.Downstream of the intake both the sand trap and the forebay can be placed along the right bank;
excavation and foundation can be foreseen according to average conditions.

It is anticipated that no insurmountable problems will occur as far as excavation and foundation works
are concerned. In case of higher storage, leakage problems will have to be solved by
minor sealing measures. High floods have to be drained in such a way that lethal
damages to the structures can be avoided.

5.1.1.9 Access to Construction Sites

5.1.1.9.1 Access to Powerhouse Site in Reshun


From the Chitral-Booni Road a truckable road was constructed by C&W Dept. This Road crosses
Reshun Gol three times by bridges with a pay load of 10 tons. This road is new and can
be used over the whole year. Neither land slides nor avalanches can block this road. Only
unexpected high floods can interrupt the smooth approach for a short while.

5.1.1.9.2 Access to Intake Structures Latshal Gol


It is planned to provide access for transport of materials like cement, equipment (mixer generator,
pumps, etc.) through the tunnel. Due to unexpected delay of completion of tunnel other
possibilities to reach the site of the intakes must be considered. The following options are
suggested.

(a) Transport by Mules, Donkeys or Men


There is a foot path from the power house site (left river bank) leading up to the area of confluence of
Latshal and Shakoh Gol. Then crossing Shakoh Gol by a foot bridge and going upstream
Latshal Gol on its left bank.

There is one critical (steep) portion between BM2 and BM3 which needs improvement. With some
blasting a new alignment of this path will be possible so that the length will be increased
but the inclination reduced.

On such an improved path the transport of cement and equipment in parts will be possible, but limited
to one cement bag (50 kg) per trip. May be the transport capacity can be increased by
using very strong mules upto 100 kg/trip.

(b)Transport by Cable Way

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To avoid the steep portions of the footpath the Contractor can install a cable way over the whole length
from the power house area upto the confluence of both rivers. The total length of such a
cable way will be approx. 1.600 m.

The transport to the starting point at the powerhouse area can be done by truck. From the end point of
the cable way the distribution of material can be done by mules, donkeys, wheel barrows
or men. If the capacity of the cable way is high, dumpers disasmantled can be brought up
the intake area, which will speed up the progress.

(c) Combination Cable Way/Mules, Donkeys or Men


To reduce the length of the cable way it is possible to install only over the steep portions of the path a
cable way.

The length of such a cable way is estimated between BM2 and BM4 to be approx. 320 m.

To make a more comfortable transport connection it is recommended to start with the cable way from
the power house area so that the length will be approx. 700 m.

If the capacity of the cable way, starting from the power house area, is high, dismantled dumpers can
be brought to the area of BM4. If the path between BM4 and BM7 is improved (widening)
and the inclination is reduced in some portions, the operation of dumpers is possible.

(d) Helicopter
This is a solution in combination with (a) only. To make bigger equipment available at the intake area
some helicopter flights may be considered.

If everything is well organized the helicopter can do it in 3-5 hours stationed in Reshun. There is enough
space for landing at starting at the power house area and an ideal area at the intake near
BM7 or BM8.

(e) Bridge or Cable Way from Adit A2


As the Adit 2 of the tunnel for penstock is opened, the Contractor will have two options:

-Construction of a jeepable bridge from the Adit 2 crossing Reshun Gol (approx. 22 m above water
level) from right bank to the left bank. Length of bridge is estimated at 35 - 40 m
depending on the level on the left river bank to be reached. With small investment
the existing foot path from the left bridge abutment to the intake area can be
changed to a jeepable road.

-Construction of a cable way from the mouth of Adit 2 to such a place on the left bank from where the
foot path can easily be changed to a jeepable road. The capacity of the cable way
must be such that a complete dumper/jeep or partly dismantled vehicle can be
lifted.

5.1.1.9.3 Structures for Access

5.1.1.9.3.1 Reshun Gol


For the smooth transport accomplished by the methods suggested above, it is necessary to have a
river crossing of Reshun Gol in the area of the power house.

This can be done by a light temporary bridge carrying a load of approx. 300 kg.

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Or a temporary cause way with proper ramps on each river bank should be constructed, taking higher
water levels during spring and summer time under consideration.

5.1.1.9.3.2 Shakoh Gol


The existing footbridge over Shakoh Gol is normally washed away once or twice a year during high
flood level. For the operation of the hydropower plant in particular a river crossing is not
necessary at the intake structure of Shakoh Gol. However, there will be some influence by
the construction of the sand trap and SHYDO will be interested in a permanent bridge
crossing the Shakoh Gol at the end of the sand trap. This bridge can be constructed only
after completion of the intake structures Shakoh Gol.

The Contractor has to construct his own temporary river crossing at this place. This river crossing
includes a proper ramp at the right river bank of Shakoh Gol. The ramp at the left river
bank needs extension only due to the comfortable slope.

5.1.1.9.3.3 Latshal Gol


The crossing of Latshal Gol is part of this Contract. Since it is not decided which portion of access the
Contractor will select, the mode of river crossing is open. There are two possibilities:

(a) Bridge
Such a bridge must bear a load of 3 tons to the transportation of conversion pipes. For the operation of
the hydropower plant, only a foot bridge is required.

(b) Foot bridge and Causeway


If a footbridge is constructed only a causeway for heavy equipment must be foreseen. The causeway
can be built as a temporary construction.

The location of the river crossing at Latshal Gol shall be upstream of the crossing of the conversion
pipe.

5.1.1.9.3.4 Road between Latshal - and Shakoh - River Crossing


The connection between both river crossings has to follow the alignment of the conversion pipe. The
excavation of the route of the future conversion pipe is part of this Contract. The route of
the conversion pipe can be used as a temporary road, connecting both river crossings.

5.1.1.9.3.5 Responsibility
The Contractor shall be responsible for maintaining all access measures in good condition and for
keeping all work sites in good repair at all times.

5.1.1.9.3.6 Measurements
No measurements will be made for access facilities provided by the Contractor. Item 5.1.1.9.3.4 (Road
Latshal - Shakoh) will be measured as described in Technical Specifications.

5.1.1.9.3.7 Payment
Payment will be made only for item 5.1.1.9.3.3 (Latshal Gol) as a lump sum according to BOQ. Item
5.1.1.9.3.4 (Road Latshal - Shakoh) will be paid as described in Excavation of TS.

For all other items under this 5.1.1.9 the Contractor shall provide adequate installations of access
facilities to this work sites, the cost of which shall be deemed to be included in the rates
for various items of work.

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5.1.1.10 Availability of Labour


Unskilled labour is locally available. Some skilled labour has to be hired from other parts of Pakistan
with Peshawar at the nearest. Pakistan has a large potential of all categories of skilled
and highly skilled artisans in various trades and disciplines and supervisory personnel for
various fields of construction.

5.1.1.11 Availability of Construction Equipment


No construction equipment is available locally but some equipment can be acquired from other parts of
Pakistan.

5.1.1.12 Embassies
The Embassies are located in Islamabad, the capital of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which is about
550 km from the project area (160 km from Peshawar).

5.1.1.13 Annexures

(General Information about the site)

Annex. 1 Location Map Reshun

Annex. 2Project Area and Access

Annex. 3Overall View of Reshun Hydro Power Scheme

Annex. 4General Geological Conditions of the Project Area

Annex. 5Flow Duration Curve, Mean Daily Run Off Reshun Gol below Shakoh Gol

Annex. 6Mean Daily min/max Temperature at Different Altitudes

Annex. 7Mean Annual Precipitation in Chitral Valley

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5.2 GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Technical Specification

5.2 GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

STANDARDS AND TECHNICAL REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO THE MANUFACTURE AND


INSTALLATION OF PENSTOCK

- Introduction

The purpose of the present documents is to define the principal technical characteristics and
requirements which must be met by the elements of the penstock and the metal
structures for hydraulic works requested by the Employer.

- Scope of supply

The supply covers all the elements necessary for a normal and correct function of the penstock and
metal structures to be used in the construction of hydroelectric generating plants.

Any deficiency or non-compatibility of the present specifications, conditions and description should be
formulated in written form as specified in Instructions to Tenderers (Clause 2.1.8 and
2.2.4).

5.2.1 Description of Materials

5.2.1.1 Nature of the Materials


The materials used should be new and must satisfy the specifications of the American Institute of Steel
Construction or the National specifications corresponding in the case of materials of
National origin. All steel should come from a reputable steel mill. If necessary, an
ultrasonic area test may be ordered. Tests must in all cases be carried out by independent
laboratories as stipulated in DIN 50049, Part 3, not by the steel mill.

In case the materials used are not made of steel, the bidder will verify the properties of the material to
be used such that good performance of the penstock will be guaranteed.

Eventual exceptions to these specifications can be accepted with the proviso that the type of materials
will be of a quality at least equivalent and that the Engineer will be in agreement with their
use.

5.2.1.2 Welding
Pipes are constructed normally from hot or cold rolled plates according to their gauge; the bent plates
may have one or more longitudinal welds according to their diameter.

The type of welding will depend on the manufacturer's facilities, ie automatic, semi -automatic, or
manual.

The Contractor will adopt his usual standards for the size of bevels, the plate separation at the
beginning of the welding, the gauge of the beads and their form, the flow intensity, etc. as
well as the way the weld are made, manually or machine-made, continuous method or
multiple beads.

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These standards should be presented for approval of the Engineer, though their acceptance does not in
any way relieve the manufacturer of his responsibilities regarding quality and guarantee.
The weldings will be made in accordance with the technical rules of welding taking all
accustomed precautions, especially for the PG-E21 or A21E steels. Welding shell be
done only by experienced, qualified and certified personnel. The type of each weld is
shown on the workshop drawings. If the diameter permits, welding will be done from both
inside and outside of the pipe.

For welding of the penstock, no stress relieving procedure is required. However, welds will be verified
by X-ray and/or ultrasonic testing. Consumable electrodes as specified or their equivalent
must be used.

The welding of bifurcation pipes is more critical due to the complex stress conditions the pipe will have
to resist. Therefore, stress relieving precautions with a suitable oven (no heating mats)
are required for the bifurcation sections of the distribution pipe. In accordance with DIN
17014, part 1 and the SEW 083 the temperature must be in the range of 530 to 580 oC for
a maximum period of 90 minutes. If the period lasts 150 minutes which is the absolute
maximum, the temperature must be kept at 530oC.

Welding on site should be minimized as far as possible. Only standard welds (circumferential or on
straight sections) will be done there; all special parts such as manholes, expansion joints,
bends, etc. should be completed and fixed on a penstock section in the factory. Particular
care must be taken at expansion joints so that the gap between male and female is
constant and that the parts move 100% parallel.

Depending on the assembly procedure the shear ribs can be either welded on at the factory or on site.

5.2.1.3 Electrodes
The Contractor will be responsible for selection of the electrodes; provided of course that the
characteristics of the material of the penstock are matched. Consumable electrodes have
to be kept dry and warm in special containers before use if they could get humid on site.

5.2.2 Execution

5.2.2.1 Method of Construction


In general, execution of all the parts of the supply should be carried out with extreme care, not only
regarding the fine quality and good adjustment of the parts, but also the finishing and
external appearance.

5.2.2.2 Adjustment of Distortions


The adjustment of distortions should be made in the cold, ie with jacks; the use of blowtorch is not
permitted.

5.2.2.3 Special Parts


As a matter of principle the special parts such as bends, distribution pipes, and manholes, etc. will be
made, constructed and checked to insure they withstand all hydraulic tests in the
workshop.

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Technical Specification

They will be designed and manufactured such that no air pockets are produced and the head losses are
reduced to a minimum. The bends particularly should have an average radius greater
than two and half times their diameter.

The flanges, should be rolled without welding; they will be treated as welded pipe of the same kind. The
elements that can be replaced or revised, such as removable bent plates, manholes, etc.
should be easily accessible and easy to dismantle without disturbing the adjacent
elements.

5.2.2.4 Paint
The metal parts provided by the manufacturer should be totally protected against corrosion.

All steel parts should be cleaned from rust until a metal shine is obtained in accordance with the purity
grade of Sa3 Standard, according to DIN 55858 achieved by sandblasting in according
with DIN 55928 Part 4.

At the ends (final sections) of the erection elements a 10 to 15 cm band will be left without priming.
After the erection elements are welded, any rust from the welding seams will be removed
with rotary brushes and, immediately after cleaning them, they will be covered with the
corresponding priming coats.

Once the erection is completed, the supplier will apply three finishing coats of paint at the ends of the
pipes and eliminate from the welding beads not yet emery polished, welding drops, and
burrs etc.

The Engineer reserves the right to test the materials that are to be used. He is likewise authorized to
participate, himself or though a delegate of his, in the testing of the work performed, such
as pore density, thickness of paint coats, etc.

The minimum thickness of the dry will be:

For each priming coat (corresponding to 0.3 kg/m 2) 40 m

For each finishing coat (corresponding to 0.45 kg/m 2) 120 m

5.2.2.4.1 Painting

I. Priming Coats
2 priming coats based on artificial resin compounds (epoxy-zinc bicombination as per "Universal",
"Passivol" or similar priming).

II. Finishing Coats


3 finishing coats based on epoxy resin and tar (bi-component tar-epoxy combination as per "Intertol" -
"Poxitar" or similar).

5.2.2.5 Controls and Tests in Factory - Tolerances

5.2.2.5.1 Metallurgical Control and Welding Control


The metallurgical controls and those of welding, both at the workshops and the construction site, will be
to the Contractor's account, according to the National regulations or, alternatively,
according to the American Institute of Steel Construction AISC specifications.

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Technical Specification

5.2.2.5.2 Welding Control

a) Mechanical tests of welding


From a surplus section of pipe, the following test pieces will be cut:

-A test piece of traction with welding approximately in the center part of the length. The resistance to
traction of the welding should be at least the same as the resistance of the plate.

-Two test pieces of bending with welding in the center of the length. These test pieces must resist the
bending in cold on a similar diameter equal to three times the thickness of the plate
without breaking.

-Two test pieces of resilience cut in the welding. The average resilience of these two test
pieces should be at least 90% of the resilience of the plate.

These five tests will be made three times; the first, prior to starting with construction of the pipe for
control of the electrode quality and the approval of the welders; and later on in the course
of manufacture in the workshop with two different offcuts of pipe.

An addition set of five tests will be required each time the Contractor changes the welder or the quality
of the electrodes.

b) Control of the welding


In penstocks for a gross head of more than 500 m, welding should be subjected to a non destructive
test of the materials by X-rays or Ultrasound.

The control procedures will be conducted by a well-known institution for this type of tests.

5.2.2.5.3 Control of Exterior Appearance


The pipe should be sound, ie, it should not present grooves, folds in the materials, unfolding or other
defects which harm the solidity, the employment and good maintenance in particular of
the areas welded should be of uniform thickness with neither porosity nor burns, slag nor
scale, fissure nor any other defect.

All eventual superficial defects in the plates as in the welding will be suppressed or lessened after
agreeing with the Engineer on the best way for the defects to be repaired. The use of a
blowtorch is expressly prohibited for these rectifications.

5.2.2.5.4 Tolerance

Pipe:
-Plate thickness = -2% + 5%
-Average diameters, verified by measurement of the periphery = 0.3%
-The difference between the greatest and least interior diameter of one section with respect to the
average diameter for that section = 0.5%
-The interior or external deflection of the finished pipe = 0 to 2%
-Skews of the faces with mechanical finishes and angle of the elbow element = 20 mm
-The ellipticity of the ends of bent plates or pipes = 0.001 D
-The difference between the circumferential development of two ends to be coupled =
0.002 D

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Technical Specification

Flanges:
- Perforation diameter = 0....1 mm
- Thickness of perforation = 0....2 mm

Joints:
- Pipe cap diameter = 0....1 mm
- Spigot end diameter = 1....0 mm
- Dimensions of the seat of the rubber joints = 0....0,5 mm

5.2.2.5.5 Hydraulic Test


Only the coupling and the branches will be tested by the Contractor according to his usual methods
under a test pressure equal to at least 1.6 times the maximum pressure in normal service.

The test will be done as follows:


-Pressure will be increased progressively up to the test pressure and afterwards returned to the
maximum normal service pressure to permit the hammering of the welded lines.

Then the test pressure will be increased again and maintained for 5 minutes for the plate
pieces and 30 minutes for the cast steel pieces.

During this test, the pipes should exhibit no impermeability defects.

If noises are heard during the test such as cracklings or muffled detonations, the section
concerned should be subjected immediately afterwards to a careful interior
inspection to make the necessary adjustments.

If the tests reveal defects such as holes, grooves, unwelded parts, porosity, leakage, lack
of resistance, etc. the pipes can be repaired with electric welding and should then be
subjected to a new hydraulic test.

Any pipes which, on compresion have not been able to withstand satisfactorily the
hydraulic test will be rejected.

This test can be made eventually after the installation.

5.2.2.6 Transportation to Construction Site and Building

5.2.2.6.1 Storage and Maintenance


The arrangement of the land and the necessary materials for discharge and warehousing of supplies
will be entirely the responsibility of the constructor.

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Technical Specification

The constructor will provide and install all material and equipment necessary for maintenance between
places of storage and installation at site, that is, hauling machines, leverage machines,
wagons, anchorage accessories, as well as access roads and various requirements.

These installations will be according to drawings which will be submitted for approval by the Engineer.

All the previously stated materials are the property of the Employer with the exception of the elements
encased in concrete.

When the work is completed, the Contractor will ensure the total collection of his material and
equipment and make good any disturbed installations.

Pipes must be handled with care, they must not be dropped off the vehicle from any height, they must
be lifted or rolled. In the event the corrosion protection becomes damaged it must be
immediately repaired.

Pipes of smaller wall thickness must be stored or transported above those of thicker wall thickness.

5.2.2.6.2 Erecting Program


The Contractor will present for approval of the Engineer, at the latest three months before erection
starts at the works, all documents, drawings, diagrams and notes regarding the
installations and erection material.

After approval, and two months before starting erection he will send to the Engineer a detailed schedule
for the erection which will fix for each numbered pipe the dates foreseen for:

- arrival at site
- setting in place and
- welding of the pipes one to the other
- the work with concrete and grouting.

The schedule will be established in agreement with the Engineer, and also with:

- the Civil Engineer Contractor;


-the suppliers of materials to which coupling shave to be made at the limits of supply;
- the person or company who will apply the protection lining,

enabling the maximum speed in the advance of the installation.

5.2.2.6.3 Interior Stress


The pipes shall be conveniently layed during all operations of transportation, storage, maintenance and
placing by means of appropriate tie rods to prevent deformations.

All piping will be, when necessary, reinforced by means of internal non-moveable internal bracing
during concreting and grouting. After placement, the pipe will be checked for ellipticity.

5.2.2.6.4 Joining
The piping will be joined on site, and such as to insure the impermeability and safety by means of
welding from end to end with electric arc or fixed or movable flanges.

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Technical Specification

All welding carried out, whether in the shop or on site, should be carefully polished with emery both
inside and out, so that there is no roughness which might impair the good maintenance of
the lining or increase energy losses.

5.2.2.6.5 Paint Mending


When installation has been completed the unpainted parts should be cleaned down to the bare metal
(welded joints). Touching up and overlapping will be then made to restore the continuity
of the paint coats both inside and out.

5.2.2.6.6 Concrete
After grouting between concrete and rock, concrete and plate, the Contractor will place blanking plugs
in the grouting holes and, after ensuring their impermeability, place a welding bead
between the pipe couplings and plugs.

The Contractor must likewise make and seal the holes of supplementary outlet for eventual provisional
drainage pipes, which might be deemed necessary.

5.2.2.6.7 Cleaning
The Contractor should generally ensure that thorough cleanness is observed throughout, both during
and after installation.

5.2.2.6.8 Electrical and Plumbing Installations for the Erection


The Contractor will be responsible for all electrical and plumbing installations required on site; as well
as the dwellings for personnel employed for installation.

5.2.2.7 Control and Tests in the Working Site

5.2.2.7.1 Welding Mechanical Test


Each of the welders employed for field welding will be required to prepare from scraps of plates used
for manufacture of the pipe, two (2) test pieces for traction, two (2) for bending and two
(2) for resilience, according to the indications of the Engineer and in the presence of his
representative.

The pieces of plate for these test pieces will be placed such that the welding difficulty will be equivalent
to the most difficult execution at site.

5.2.2.7.2 Verifying the Exactness of the Erection


A symmetrical and precise control will be made of alignment and joints in the following conditions:

The true position of the center of gravity of each end of pipe should present, relative to the longitudinal
theoretical axis, a deviation no greater than 10 mm. At the same time the tolerance of
the clearance of welding bevel should not exceed 5 mm.

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Technical Specification

5.2.2.7.3 Hydraulic Test


Once installation is completed and finishes made the Contractor will proceed with the hydraulic tests.

These tests will include the pressure testing of the pipe with maximum working pressure as indicted in
the Particular Technical Specifications. Impermeability will be assured at the base of the
pipe through turbine protection valves, pumps if globe valves are involved, or through
spherical plugs (which will be furnished by the Contractor) if another valve type is used.
The sealing of the upstream part will be made by a plug with holes for filling, venting and
pressure gauge intake, furnished by the Contractor, or by means of the closed head gate,
if such has been foreseen for this purpose.

Once the pipe is completed filled, the pressure will be built up comprising:

1. The supplementary pressure to reach the maximum static load;

2. The excess pressure foreseen additional to this static load.

Then the maximum working pressure is reached in the lower part of the pipe.

If the overpressure uniformly applied leads, for the upper part, to exceed the maximum permissible
tension, the pipe will be divided in lengths and each length tested at a pressure similar to
the excess pressure calculated for the adjacent upper element.

The Contractor should foreseen from the beginning the supply and dismantling of spherical plugs
necessary for the partial tests.

The test will be conducted as follows:

The test pressure is maintained for 30 minutes and at least for the time necessary to proceed if possible
to verify the impermeability of the welding as well as a complete check of the pipe.

If any defects are found in the course of these tests, the Engineer will request, according to the nature
of the defect, either the repair at site or substitution of the defective elements. The
Contractor will cover the expenditure incurred as well as that of the new test after repair.

If the pipe is shown to be impermeable and nothing abnormal found, a memorandum will be drawn up
indicating corresponding tests, stating the date of filling with water.

The test devices with their necessary installation designs must be submitted to the Engineer for
approval at the same time as the installation schedule.

5.2.2.7.4 Control Conditions


The cost of all controls and tests defined herein will be borne the Contractor who will be deemed to
have included them in his rates for installation. He must supply all the personnel and
material necessary, the test material remaining his properly.

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Technical Specification

The tests executed in the place of installation will be sent by the Contractor (at his cost) to his own
laboratory, or to an official laboratory approved by the Engineer.

Notwithstanding this, the Engineer can proceed to make counter tests and X-ray, ultrasonic or other
supplementary controls. The expenditure corresponding to these tests and controls will be
covered by the Engineer except where they reveal a major or harmful defect, in which
case the cost will be for account of the Contractor.

5.2.3Completion of the Works and Maintenance Period

5.2.3.1 Commissioning
As soon as the tests are completed and the conduits in condition to function, the Engineer will proceed
together with the Contractor to make an inspection of the works, in order to verify that all
material foreseen in the Particular Technical Specifications have been supplied and
installed and that they are ready to function.

When the hydroelectric generating sets are ready to function, the Contractor will proceed with the
cleaning and interior revision of the conduits.

Refilling with water will then take place for a test period and setting of 15 days.

If during this period an accident occurs, due to the material supplied or work carried out by the
Contractor, causing partial or complete service interruptions, the duration of the period will
be prolonged for the number of days equal to that of the interruptions.

During this period all revisions, repairs or modifications which affect the material supplied by the
Contractor, will be carried out by him and at his own expense. Once this period has
elapsed, the commissioning will be made by the Engineer and recorded in a memoradum.

The Certificate of Completion of works according to clause 4.1.4.8.1 (Conditions of Contract) will be
issued only offer successful completion of the commissioning tests.

5.2.3.2 Handover of the Works


On expiry of the maintenance Period, and, after the Contractor has remedied all errors and defects
eventually found before this period was due, the Contractor may request in writing to
proceed with the hand over.

A general examination of the material will be made over the following 2 months and of its functioning
conditions since the date of Completion, and a consensus memorandum be drawn up.

The hand over will be immediately effected and have the date of the request of the Contractor when the
above mentioned examination, assuming no defect is revealed and the material satisfies
the conditions fixed by the Particular Technical Specifications, is verified during the
Maintenance Period.

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Technical Specification

5.2.3.3 Rejection
The Engineer reserves the right to reject the material in the following cases:

-Inability of the Contractor to put the material in condition for the Final Completion.

-If major defects appear during the Maintenance Period and which could not be corrected by the
Contractor in a reasonable period of time.

The rejection could be total or partial. In case of rejection:

The Engineer will accept that the rejected material will be replaced to the account of the Contractor in a
period of time fixed by the Engineer.

5.2.3.4 Special Case of Paints Guaranty


The paint will be guaranteed for a period of five years, which means to say that is, at the end of this
period, the appearance of the paint will not, in any part of the conduit, show signs of
rusting or deterioration.

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5.3 PARTICULAR TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
Technical Specification

5.3 PARTICULAR TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

5.3.1 Supply of Material

5.3.1.1 Physical Requirements


All steel plates are to be of grade BStE 355 TM (eqiv. X 52) for penstock and distribution pipe and BStE
2551 x 42 for the conversion pipe and accordance with the SEW (Stahl-Eisen-
Werkstoffblatt 083 "Schweigeeignete Feinkornbausthle, thermomechanisch
umgeformt). The plates should be cut according to the dimensions specified in the Bill of
Quantities with tolerances specified in DIN 1542 and DIN 1543. The general technical
supply specifications of DIN 17010 should also be complied with.

The steel will have the following mechanical characteristics:

Tensile strength 450 to 600 N/mm"


Upper yield point 355 N/mm"
Elongation at rupture min 22%
Inside diameter for bending test at 180 is 2 x t (where t = plate thickness)

5.3.1.2 Chemical Composition


The chemical composition of the steel for the melt analysis will be as follows ( % by volume):

Carbon (C) 0.12 Aluminum (Al) total 0.015


Silicon (Si) 0.50 Molybdenum (Mo) 0.15
Manganese (Mn) 1.60 Nickel (Ni) 0.30
Phosphorous (P) 0.030 Niobium (Nb) 0.05
Sulfur (S) 0.025 Titanium (Ti) 0.05
Nitrogene (N) 0.020 Vanadium (V) 0.10
88 Nb + Ti + V 0.12

The total sum of Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), and Molybdenum (Mo) should not exceed 0.50%. The
following figures indicate the maximum deviation allowed from the figures of the melt
analysis for a sample taken.
Element Limit acceptable Permissible tolerance values
% by volume of the melt analysis in % by
volume

C 0.16 0.02
Si 0.50 0.05
Mn 1.80 0.10
P 0.030 0.005
S 0.025 0.005
N 0.020 0.002
AI 0.015 0.005
Mo 0.15 0.03
Ni 0.30 0.05
Nb 0.05 0.01
Ti 0.05 0.02
V 0.14 0.02

5.3.1.3 Required Tests and Quality Certificates

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Technical Specification

The following tests should be carried out by an independent institute or the Engineer, the results
presented in a test certificate in accordance with DIN 50049, Part 3.

Tensile test according to DIN 50145


Charpy notched bar impact test according to DIN 50115
Technological bending test according to DIN 50111
Chemical composition test as sample analysis

All materials required for holding the penstock down on the support blocks such as metal strip,
mounting plates including stiffenings must be of the same steel grade. Anchor bolts,
washers and nuts should be of a steel grade BStE 255 TM (approx. x 42) or higher.

5.3.2 Manufacture of the Penstock

5.3.2.1 Production in Factory

5.3.2.1.1 Pipes
The pipes ad special parts will be cut, rolled and welded according to the tolerances given below. The
edges of the pipe ends must be prepared as shown in drawings, detail A. Welding of pipes
will be done by machines or automates. The welding equipment and welding procedure
the manufacture intends to use must be described and explained to the Engineer who
should give his approval. No special stress relieving precautions are necessary for pipe
welding.

Welding of all special parts such as manholes, expansion joints, bends, etc. must be done by
professional welders. All welders working on this project must be qualified and be
approved by the Engineer. They should comply with the conditions as described for
welding on site as indicate below.

All welding must be of a quality to comply with Class 1 according to DIN M 7830 and DIN M 7812. In
addition all welds must comply with DIN 8563, Part 3.

Corrosion protection will be executed according to Clause 5.2.2.4.

5.3.2.1.2 Distribution Pipe


All parts will be cut, rolled and welded according to the tolerances given. The edges of the pipes and
other parts will be prepared in the same way as for the penstock. Welding will only be
done by professional welders holding a valid certificate according to DIN 8560 R II. All
welding must be of a quality to comply with Class 1 according to DIN M 7839, DIN M
7812 and DIN 8563, Part 3. The bifurcation section will undergo a stress relieving
treatment as specified in Clause 5.2.1.2.

5.3.2.2 Testing in Factory


Both the Employer and Engineer reserve the right to visit to the factory at any time and carry out
inspections and tests whenever they wish. The also reserve the right to carry out any
additional tests at the cost of the supplier.

Both the Employer and Engineer will send Engineers and technicians from time to time to the factory to
supervise production and to carry out tests and inspections. A counterpart must be
available to them in the factory who is qualified and fully conversant with the tests and
inspections to be carried out.

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Technical Specification

All inspection personnel of the Engineer must have access to the required information to verify that the
production complies with the standards specified.

The following tests have to be carried out by the Engineer, the records made and kept available to the
inspection personnel of the Engineer:

-Visual inspection of each pipe and measurement of the internal diameter and the wall thickness at
each end of the pipe. The internal diameter tolerance is fixed by the machine
tolerances.

-Visual inspection of the inner and outer surfaces and, in particular, of the welding seam. The pipe must
be free from dents and delves.

-The maximum divergence of the pipe from a straight line must not be more than 1.5 mm per metre
length.

-Pipe ends will be bevelled by machines according to the specifications and must be of plain surface
area, exactly normal to the pipe axis.

-The roundness of the pipe will be tested with a combined inner and outer roundness scale. It will be
inserted 10 cm inside the pipe end and the deviation from the circular shape so
measured should be not be more than + 0.8%.

-Measurement of the exact length of each pipe and other dimensions from special parts such as bends,
expansion joints etc.

-Each pipe must be marked by consecutive numbers, the same number also to be indicated on the test
certificate. It must be of sufficient quality so that it will not be washed off or fade. It
should be indicated whether the pipe has been checked by X-ray or ultrasonic
testing.

-Whenever a new pipe type is produced (a change of wall thickness stands for a new pipe type) the
weld seams of the first 15% of the total production of this type will be X-rayed and
ultrasonic tested to 100%. If the failure rate reduces to zero, the X-ray tests can be
limited with the approval of the Engineer to 20% of the weld seam length. All special
parts such as manholes, expansion joints, bends, bellmouths, etc. will however be
tested to 100%.

X-ray tests must be carried out according to ASME Code, Sections 5 and 8. the method proposed for
ultrasonic testing will be to the approval of the Engineer. An ultrasonic test should be
made first on a test piece of the same thickness as that used in the project.

-A pressure test will be carried out for each pipe and special part at a test pressure of 1.3 x the nominal
pressure. This pressure will be maintained for at least 15 seconds. The nominal
pressures for the different pipes are as follows:

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Technical Specification

Wall thickness mm Nominal pressure kN/mm

6 17.0
8 26.5
10 37.5

-The elements of the conversion pipe are exempted from the pressure test in factory.

5.3.2.3 Welding On Site

5.3.2.3.1 Welds which can be made on Site


-On-site welding will only be permitted at straight pipe sections. Only circular welds can be made on site
and no welds in the longitudinal direction of the pipe.

-Welding will not be permitted on special parts such as manholes, expansion joints, bellmouths, and
bends.

5.3.2.3.2 Welding Equipment


-The complete welding equipment must be in good condition.

-Prior to welding starting, the equipment will be inspected and approved by the Engineer.

-The equipment will subsequently be inspected periodically by the Engineer. If the equipment is in an
unsatisfactory condition the Engineer will stop the Contractor from welding on site
until the problem is rectified, all costs arising from this being borne by the
Contractor.

-No welding shall be carried out if the ambiant temperature drops below - 5C except with the prior
approval of the Engineer. In case of bad weather conditions the Contractor will make
appropriate alternative arrangements or re-programme his work.

-All consumable electrodes utilized must be in accordance with the specified standard and will be
inspected and tested at any time by the Engineer. They must be kept in special
heated containers in case of high humidity or low temperatures.

-Suitable consumable electrodes are BHLER EV 47 in accordance with DIN 1913 E43 43 B 10 or
equivalent. The characteristics of these electrodes are:

Carbon 0.05%
Silicon 0.5%
Manganese 0.7%
Yield strength 430 - 450 N/mm 2, min. 355 N/mm 2
Tensile strength 480 - 500 N/mm 2, min. 450 - 570 N/mm 2
Elongation 30 %, min. 27 %
Notch impact value
according to ISO-V-test 200 J, min. 118 Joule

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Technical Specification

5.3.2.3.3 Qualification of Welders

-The Engineer may instruct the Contractor to remove any weld at no cost to the Engineer, which has
been made by personnel without an authorized certificate.

-Every proposed welder will carry out a test weld in the presence of the Engineer. Every welder must
complete at least one circular weld over the entire diameter when the pipes are in
horizontal position. This test shall be carried out on pipes of 6 mm wall thickness.

-The weld will be tested according to DIN 8560 R II. Only welders approved by the Engineer will be
permitted to do welding on this project.

-All test welds will be at the cost of the contractor.

5.3.2.3.4 Welding Procedure

-Welding can be done without special stress relief precautions, however, only with the utmost care.

-The weld quality must be up to Class 1 as specified in DIN M7812 and M7830 and done in accordance
with DIN 8563, Part 3.

-Before pipes are welded together, the pipe edges will be checked for the correct beveling and must be
cleaned. The pipe ends must be dry. If necessary, a tent or fly sheet will be provided
to facilitate this.

-If deformations at the pipe edges cannot be corrected, a section of the pipe will be cut off and the
edges newly prepared for welding.

-Before pipes are welded together they must first be aligned and fixed by a self-centering clamp. The
longitudinal welds of the pipes must be offset by at least 20.

-The offset of the clamped pipe edges must not be more than 1.6 mm in each direction.

-The gap between the pipes must be 2 mm.

-The root run will be carried out by two welders at the same time, starting simultaneously at
diametrically opposite positions to avoid any deformation of the pipe.

-The self-centering clamp can only be removed after completion of the root run.

-The welding seam will then be carefully cleaned of slag and other obstacles.

-The second run shall be carried out immediately after the root run has been cleaned. The time elapsed
between the two runs should be as short as possible and must not exceed 10
minutes.

-The second run shall again be carried out by two welders at the same time, starting at diametrically
opposite positions.

-The remaining runs shall be carried out after cleaning the second run of slag and any other obstacles.

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Technical Specification

-On run shall be made at the inner side of the pipe.

-Each run must be completed before a new one can be commenced.

-Ignition of the consumable electrodes at the surface of the pipe will not be permitted.

-Each welder should sign the welding seam with his initials by a permanent maker. The welder who
carried out the root run must be the first one, the others put their mark below. Each
welder should use the same initials from the beginning to the end of the project.

5.3.2.3.5 Testing and Repair Welding


All welds made on site shall be tested by X-ray and ultrasonic testing to 100%. A reduction of the tested
percentage may be allowed by the Engineer if the failure rate is very low. Welds on the
conversion pipe are exempted from this routine. X-ray and ultrasonic test.

The following criteria will be fulfilled.

-Porosity: Maximum diameter of single gas bubbles must not exceed 1.6 mm. Groups of more than 6
bubbles per 4 cm will not be accepted and must not have a diameter of more than
1 mm. Groups should not be less than 100 mm apart.

-Slag: Slag intrusions on the root run must not be larger than 10 mm, and in the other runs 20 mm, and
not wider nor deeper than 1.6 mm. The total length of slag intrusions should not
exceed 40 mm in a 300 mm section. The minimum distance between single
intrusions must not be less than 150 mm.

-Burnt through spots: These must not be longer than 6 mm and , in a welding seam of 300 mm in total,
no longer than 12 mm. The minimum distance between two spots is 150 mm the
total burnt through length on any one total weld must not exceed 30 mm.

-Insufficient welding depth: This happens if the gap to be welded is not closed fully with welding
material. Single sections must not be longer than 15 mm and on a 300 mm distance
not more than 25 mm in total. The solid section in between must be a minimum of
150 mm.

-Cracks and lack of fusion: Welding seams with cracks or lack of fusion are not accepted.

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Technical Specification

-Undercuts: Undercuts next to cover runs must not be longer than 40 mm and not deeper than 0.5 mm,
and at the root run, or the inner run, no longer than 30 mm.

-Occurrence frequency of welding defects: An accumulation of any of the above described welding
defects must not exceed 50 mm in a 300 mm section. In total not more than 8%
defects over the total welding length are accepted.

A pressure test with water will be carried out in the presence of the Engineer after fixing the penstock in
position. Critical sections of the penstock should still be accessible. The test pressure
shall be 1.3 times for penstock and distribution pipe the nominal pressure, i.e, equivalent
to a 488 m high water column at the lower end of the penstock and 1.5 times for the
conversion pipe, i.e, 30 m water column at the deepest point.

Prior to the pipe being filled with water, the penstock will be cleaned thoroughly. When filling the pipe,
care must be taken to ensure that no water hammer occurs and that all air can be
released. The water temperature should be constant throughout the test and the
temperature must be measured (can be done at the penstock outside wall). The test
pressure will be recorded every hour. Due to measurement tolerances a change of
volume by + 41/h is allowed. The Engineer will confirm the successful test.

All sections where repair welding is carried out must be 100% X-ray and ultrasonic tested. The Engineer
reserves the right to insist that no repair welding may be carried out unless he is present.

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Technical Specification

5.2.4 Technical Tables for the Penstock

General Data of the Penstock

Project: Reshun - HPP


Location: Reshun
District: Chitral
Utilization:
Water from River:
ITEM SPECIFICATIONS UNIT SPECIFIED REMARKS

PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS

1. Design volume of flow m 3/s


2. Gross head m
3. Number of penstocks No 1
4. Water pressure maximum pressure bar
5. Permitted surcharge % of max. pres.
6. Interior diameter of penstock mm 820 mm
7. Thickness: min mm 6, 8, 10
8. Length of main penstock m 1860
9. Material of penstock Steel X 52
10. Total weight to 326
11. Installation: on the surface Yes-No Yes
12. Installation: buried No No
13. Number of fix points No 7
14. Number of supports No. 207
15. Distance between supports m 9
16. Number of manholes No 7
17. Number of elbows No 2
18. Number of expansion joints No 6
19. Slope max % 20
20. Slope min % 1
21. Ambient temperature - maximum C +35
22. Ambient temperature - minimum C -10
23. Water temperature - maximum C 15
24. Water temperature - minimum C 0
25. Relative humidity %
26. Elevation of surge tank m.a.s.l
27. Elevation of power house m.a.s.l
28. Water Analysis Annex

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